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Home School vs. Public School
Home schooling was once reserved for homebound students due to a number of reasons, such as rural locations, or physical conditions. Religion has also been a major reason for home schooling. Today, however, many parents are choosing home schooling over public schools for variety of reasons and statistics show that for the majority it has proven to be the right choice.
The National Center for Education Statistics, NCES, collects and analyzes data related to education in the United States and other nations as well. In 1999, the NCES reported that approximately 850,000 students in the U.S. are being home schooled (McDermott Pp). This is 1.7% of all U.S. students, ranging from five to seventeen years old and a grade equivalent of kindergarten to high school senior level (McDermott Pp).
During the last two decades there has been a steady increase of parents choosing home schooling…
Houston, Robert G; Toma, Eugenia F. "Home schooling: an alternative school choice." Southern Economic Journal. April 01, 2003; Pp.
nnerst, Carol. "Home schooling's success shakes 'extremist' image." The Washington Times. December 11, 1996; Pp.
McDermott, Irene E. "Web resources for home-schooling." Searcher. September 01, 2003; Pp.
Mondlock, Helen. "Education hits home." World and I. June 01, 2000; Pp.
Secondly, the student must meet the requirements for a home education program, which include the same curriculum as listed in Florida Statutes, 232.246(1) (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). During the time of participation, the student must show evidence of academic progress, as determined by an evaluation which may include a review of the student's work by a certified instructor, grades obtained through correspondence courses or community colleges, or standardized test scores (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). The student must register with the school at the beginning of the term in which they wish to participate (Florida Statute 232.425, 2003).
These requirements are difficult enough to enforce, but as noted, with proper testing and evaluation by qualified instructors, the curriculum and grading of home educated students appears to be very manageable. In the State of Florida, then, the academic requirements for sport participation are equal for both public and home educated students. Although…
Colb, S. (2005). Should home-schooled have access to public school programs? Retrieved from FindLaw database through CNN.com. Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2005/LAW/06/30/colb.home.school/ .
Craig Dickson Act, Florida State Statute, 2003, 232.425.
Exceptional Student Support Services (ESSS). (2002). Home School Brochure. Sanford, FL: Exceptional Student Support Services.
Florida State Statute, 1993, 232.0201.
Homeschooling Quality of Education
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Definitions and Abbreviations of Terms
Methodology for investigating problems identified as subproblems
Note on the Anti-Homeschooling Debate
Specific data by subproblem
Conclusion by subproblem
Growth in Homeschooling, 1978-1999
NCES Reasons for Homeschooling
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Homeschooling is providing a child's main educational program at home. (ebster) Homeschooling takes the place of full-time school attendance, whether at public or private schools, and should meet all the state requirements for each grade and for graduation from high school and the interim graduations, such as middle-school and so on.
Homeschooling is not a new idea, but rather one that has returned to the forefront of educational discussion in the past generation.
Until public education became widely available in the United States during the…
Fact Sheet IC." 2001. National Home Education Research Institute. 14 July 2003. http://www.nheri.org/ content.php?menu=1002&page_id=24.
Fact Sheet II b. 2000. National Home Education Research Institute. 13 July 2003.
Public, Private and Parochial Education, and Character Education
The consensus that exists among educators and parents concerning the form that moral education should take in our schools is one that presently needs to be developed, according to Dr. Thomas Lickona (1993). As Lickona (1993) states, "In the 20th century, the consensus supporting character education began to crumble under the blows of several powerful forces" such as Social Darwinism, positivism and increasing subjectivity with regard to morality and values. In other words, in the 20th century, what was good for one was not necessarily good for another or for all, as modern philosophers put it. Lickona asserts that educators and parents need to work together to arrive at a new consensus regarding character education: they need to identify goals and values that they agree on as being important and vital for children's formation.
Educators can help students become caring, morally responsible…
Knight, G. (2008). Issues and alternatives in educational philosophy (4th ed.). Berrien
Springs, MI: Andrews University Press.
Kohlberg, L. (1963). The development of children's orientations toward a moral order.
Vita Humana, 6: 11-33.
Academic Profile of Home Schooling - a Case Study
Home Schooling vs. Traditional Educational Methods
Home Schooling Methodology
Focus of the Practicum
Area of Inquiry
Home Schooling as an Alternative
Curricula and Materials Used for Home Schooling
The Success of Home Schooling
Conditions for Change
Maryland: A Legal Analysis
State Laws and Regulations - Maryland
Goulart and Travers vs. Calvert County
Home-schooled Kids Find Social Growth"
Home Schoolers in the Trenches"
Home School Academic Advantage Increases Over Time"
Home Schooling." ERIC Digest, Number 95.
The Academic Profile of Home Schoolers
The focus of this applied dissertation proposal is to examine and analyze home school families' academic environment, the institutional materials they use, and to gain an understanding of their academic success.
Prince George's County Public School System is the nineteenth largest school system in the nation with a…
Buchanan, Jim (1984). Home Instruction: A Growing Alternative to Public Schools. Monticello, IL.
Lande, Nancy (2000). Home school Open House: Interviews with 55 Home schooling Families. Bozeman, MT
Waring, Bill and Diane (1999). Emerald Books: A look back on what they learned along the way by veteran home schooling parents of varying approaches.
Most importantly, I want to return to my father at least a fraction of what he has given to me in education and encouragement. If it were not for his decision to home school me, I would not have been where I am today, and most likely I would have set less ambitious longer-term goals.
A graduated my home schooling career with honors, earned extra credits, and achieved all the goals I set for myself. I did this entirely by self-directed scholarship, and on the basis of what I received from my parents. This in turn enabled me to enter college at the unusually early age of sixteen years old. At seventeen, I have no completed almost two years of college. This, in my view, gives me an advantage over many other people at my age. Through home schooling I have matured to a level where can pursue my studies…
Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.
Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…
"Asperger's Syndrome." WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/tc/aspergers-syndrome-symptoms
"Cleft Lip and Palate," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002046/
For instance, online students are generally older and their life experiences make them autonomous, self-directed, and goal- and relevancy-oriented (ortch, 2003; iaz, 2002; ubois, 1996). Thus, these are the types of continuing education students that traditional educational institutions have always served.
In summary, Saba's analysis is flawed. Traditional educational institutions have and will continue to respond to changes in market needs. Currently, the demand for distance education is fueled by many factors, with student autonomy representing one of these benefits that plays best to students who continuing their education.
iaz, .P. (2002, May/June). Online rop Rates Revisited. The Technology Source. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
ortch, K.. (2003, April 13-15) "How to get learners to learn." istance Education and Training Council: Report on the ETC 77th Annual Conference. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
ubois, J.R. (1996) Going the distance: A national distance learning initiative. Adult Learning. 8(1): 19-21. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
Phillips, V. (1998, November 23). Re: Some online…
Dubois, J.R. (1996) Going the distance: A national distance learning initiative. Adult Learning. 8(1): 19-21. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
Phillips, V. (1998, November 23). Re: Some online learning trends-stats? E-mail to Distance Education Online Symposium. http://technologysource.org/article/role_of_the_traditional_research_university_in_the_face_of_the_distance_education_onslaught/
What's behind the Explosive Growth in Distance Learning Education? Distance Learning College Guide. http://www.distance-learning-college-guide.com/distance-learning-education.html
2. I agree wholeheartedly with the author. Random acts of kindness do make the world and our society a better place. We need to become more aware of the connections between people. We do need to smile more, treat others with deep respect, and recognize the impact our actions have on other people. Instead of walking around angry all day, we need to develop a positive frame of mind and speak and act with kindness.
Universal health care would reflect a deep change in our culture. We have become so focused on our independence that we forgot the value of sharing and caring. Our selfishness and greed has led to a situation in which most Americans cannot afford adequate healthcare. Yet Americans are afraid of making small sacrifices that could benefit our society such as paying slightly more taxes to fund a truly universal system…
Discuss the relevant information about the student's behaviors. What factors early on contribute to how she is today?
Liz, a 15-year-old high school Freshman, has been exhibiting certain behaviors lately and in the past that have been affecting her today. Liz has been functioning below grade level academically. She cannot work independently, "hates" school, and rebels against all authority. She is defensive and uses abusive language. She tends to blame others for her carelessness and seldom takes responsibility. According to Liz's parents, Liz seldom slept enough when she was younger, so as to give them a break from her behaviors. As Liz grew older, she began to react impulsively. She has been caught distributing drugs and refuses to get tested, psychologically.
There are certain factors, from the past, that may have contributed to how Liz is today. First of all, Liz seemed to be deprived of sleep, early on,…
Historical Issues In Modern Education
There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.
Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…
Reference and Research Book News, August 2005, Kids and Violence, the invisible school experience.
Gender bias in education means treating boys and girls differently at school. (Woodward, 1998)
Students with ADHD
Education 518, Section B13
Dr. Carolyn McCreight
Qualitative article review: Students with ADHD
Homeschooling is one of the controversial approaches to educate children with 'special needs'. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are preferred to be taught at home by their parents. Instructors for homeschooling are also arranged for this purpose. However, there has been widespread criticism on this method of teaching attention-deficit students. The main purpose of this paper is to review a qualitative study conducted on the topic of providing homeschooling to attention-deficit students. Duvall, Delquadri and Ward (2004) conducted a study to investigate the appropriateness of homeschooling environment for instructing basic skills to children with special needs. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to ascertain whether or not parents of children having attention-deficit as well as hyperactivity disorder could provide their children with instructional environmental that was conducive for facilitating acquisition of…
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Home-school Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 140-158.
As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.
Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…
Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dobbs, M. (2005, April 21). NEA, States Challenge 'No Child' Program. Washington Post.
Ehrich, R. (2007). The Impact of School Size. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from Virginia Tech: http://delta.cs.vt.edu/edu/size.html
ADHD (what it is this disease) and what are the symptoms and result of this disease. The paper also discusses the affects of ADHD on patients. In this paper the treatment of ADHD is also discussed and explained.
All the details relating to this condition and its symptoms and treatments are explained and supported by the use of literature review.
ADHD in Children
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome) is a chronic condition that affects the children and continues till their adulthood in many cases. This disease results in the combination of a number of problems such as difficulty in focusing on something and paying attention, 'hyperactivity and impulsive behavior'. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)
In the children, the children suffering from ADHD also experience lack of confidence and self-esteem, trouble in relationships and bad performance in school. The disease is usually preceded by behavioral and learning problems and lack of attention in…
Australian Psychological Society (APS). (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. APS Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.au/community/adhd/
DuPaul, G.J., Jitendra, A.K., Volpe, R.J., Tresco, K.E., Lutz, J.G., Junod, R.E., Cleary, K.S., Flammer, L.M., & Mannella, M.C. (2006). Consultation-based Academic Interventions for Children with ADHD: Effects on Reading and Mathematics Achievement. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 34 (2006), 635-648.
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Homeschool Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review. 33(1). 140-158
Frazier, T.W., Youngstrom, E.A., Glutting, J.J., & Watkins, M.W. (2007). ADHD and Achievement: Meta-Analysis of the Child, Adolescent, and Adult Literature and a Concomitant Study with College Students. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 40(1), 49-65.
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
Although further education courses can be at traditional universities, they are generally taught through colleges that are exclusively venues for further education courses. These institutions are sometimes called "community colleges" after the American institutions that are similar. (Although American community colleges offer both post-secondary education as well as further or continuing education classes.) Other institutions that offer further education courses may offer a variety of work-based learning classes while campuses that offer adult and community learning coursework also frequently offer further education coursework.
As is appropriate -- and indeed perhaps necessary -- for further education programs designed to ameliorate the skills of a profession as important as teaching (as well as other professions such as social work, medicine, or law), there is an agency tasked with ensuring that teacher further education aligns with national goals for the profession's standards. The Learning and Skills Improvement Service (the LSIS was formerly titled…
Barbezat, D.A. (1987). 'Salary differentials by sex in the academic labour market', Journal of Human Resources, 22(3), pp. 422-28.
Becher, T. Academic tribes and territories: intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines, Milton Keynes: Open University Press/SRHE. (1989).
Blackaby, D., Booth, A. And Frank, J. (2005). 'Outside offers and the gender pay gap: empirical evidence from the UK academic labour market', The Economic Journal, 115, F81-F107.
Tim Brighouse. "Comprehensive Schools Then, Now and in the Future: is it time to draw a line in the sand and create a new ideal?," Forum 45:1 (2003).
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…
Corrales, J. (1999) the politics of education reform: bolstering the supply and demand; overcoming institutional blocks. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World Bank
Web site: http://www1.worldbank.org/education/globaleducationreform/pdf/corrales.pdf
Catalano, J. (1996) Review: Richard Dawkins: books: the selfish gene. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World of Richard Dawkins
Web site: http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/selfish.shtml
" (2002) This is still possible for children who gain their education through independent study programs in that they are still able to participate in extra-curricular activities and are not so exhausted while doing so when they are being educated through independent study programs instead of being forced to endure very long school days that drains them and bars them from physically being able to participate in extracurricular activities with other children.
It is not only children who have learning disabilities who benefit from Independent Study Programs as evidenced in the work of Simpson (2007) entitled: "Educational Options for Gifted Learners" who relates that inclusive in the wide range of options for the gifted student is 'Independent Learning' through a differentiated curriculum. The independent learning program for gifted students serves to foster independence and nurture self-regulation, self-reliance, resourcefulness while allowing students to formulate their own learning and as well serves…
Lennstrom, Henry Walter (1973) an Analysis of Independent Study Programs in the Junior Community Colleges. ERIC ED087516 Digest. Online available at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED087516&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED087516
Kassof, Annie (2004) Independent Study Program Offers Model for State. Berkeley Daily Planet. 17 Dec 2004. Online available at http://www.berkeleydailyplanet.com/article1.cfm?archiveDate=12-17-04&storyID=20315
Rafoth, Mary Ann (2007) Independent Study - Purposes and Goals of Independent Study, Independent Study and Extensiveness in Grades K-12. Education Encyclopedia - State University. Online available at http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2080/Independent-Study.html
Stroman, Bonne (2006) Independent Study - Texas Performance Standards Project. Online available at http://www.texaspsp.org/exit/deliveryISM.php?p=2
Classroom -- with an additional 600 words
The Multi-Age Classroom
A personal interview was conducted between me, the interviewer, and Mary Sullivan, a teacher with multi-age classroom experience. The questions were prewritten, asked, and answered during the interview. The interviewee's answers are as follows:
How long have you been a teacher?
"Well, more than 20 years. I started teaching in 1987 just after I graduated from college. I worked full time for a few years then, when we started our family, I was a substitute teacher and did some homeschool consulting. When the kids were in grade school, I went back to full time."
What grades level and subjects do you teach?
"I've always worked with the primary grades, and have taught every grade from 2rd on up. For most of my career I taught 2th-4th grade, with language arts being my special love. I've had my hand in…
Synthesis of the Literature
Involvement of parents in the education of their children both in the classroom and at home has the potential or greatly enhancing the education of a child. It is important for schools to tap into the potential of the parents to support their child's education can help in better and effective teaching. Conversely, when the parents work in close collaboration with the teachers at school and follow the suggestions and directions prescribed for the students while dealing with their education at home can also help children do better in studies (Hendricks, 2013).
esearcher Susan Graham-Clay, in her article titled "Communicating with Parents: Strategies for Teachers," claims that often teachers try to develop a partnership with the parents to create a support system for student learning (Dubis & Bernadowski, 2014). esearchers claim that one of the major factors in the development of this partnership is…
Cook, B., Shepherd, K., Cook, S., & Cook, L. (2012). Facilitating the Effective Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices through Teacher-Parent Collaboration. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(3), 22-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004005991204400303
Dubis, S. & Bernadowski, C. (2014). Communicating with parents of children with special needs in Saudi Arabia: parents' and teachers' perceptions of using email for regular and ongoing communication. British Journal Of Special Education, 42(2), 166-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12061
Griffin, S. (2009). Communicating with parents. Practical Pre-School, 2009(106), 15-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/prps.2009.1.106.44936
Hendricks, C. (2013). Improving schools Through action research: A reflective practice approach (3rd ed.). Boston: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Choice of Schooling
I think it is important to have a choice of schooling especially, as Bill Moyers points out, the nation lurches towards an oligarchy in which the country’s wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few, while decisions are shaped and made by a small handful of powerful elites. If these people control everything, their agenda will very likely inform the type of schooling that is provided to young people. If parents do not want their children to be educated according to the agenda of the oligarchy, they should have the option of providing alternative schooling, such as homeschooling, charter schools, and so on.
I would personally favor homeschooling because I like to be in control of education myself, but having time for it can be difficult if you are already working full time, so charter schools would be another option. Finding a school that is safe…
In extreme cases this could afford a method of imparting knowledge where formerly there were none. (Mac Arthur, 248)
Thus it is evident that the modern teacher cannot be away from the influence of technology and it is time that teachers are technically trained, and they are also made aware of the use of modern data processing methods which will enable them in assessing students and understanding their own potential and role. As with all industries these problems are also the foundations for unions to call in the status quo. Because the modern technologies.
(c) Teachers Unionization
The unions for the teachers have unfortunately blocked their own progress. Unions though a great means of collective bargaining interfere in the progressive measures which include programs to enhance the teacher's proficiency and effectiveness. Thus there is a problem of the 'parent collective' and the teachers unions and the educational institutions. Though there…
Apple, Michael W. Who Needs Teacher Education? Gender, Technology and the Work of Home Schooling. Teacher Education Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 2, 2007, p. 111-114.
Berlau, John. Teachers Discard the Union Label; as the National Education Association
Pursues a Liberal Agenda, Many of Its Rank and File Refuse to Toe the Line and Have Formed Their Own Teacher-Advocacy Groups, Insight on the News, September 30, 2003, p. 23.
Hashemzadeh, Nozar; Wilson, Loretta. Teaching with the Lights Out: What Do We Really
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
Administrative Strategies for Effective Communication
Education contains multiple responsibilities. One starts the learning process in the world from within the family nurture, before continuing to pursue formal education in schools and academy. However, human does not stop learning from their family. Getting exposed to higher education, they also learn things from hands-on experiences and from what are happening in their surroundings.
This reveals the fact that family and environment are two contributing factors, in addition to formal education process in official institution in a community. The three factors determine how education makes one person in the society a distinct, honorable man.
With the great potentials, now education has been a regional issue. Fully conventional learning processes have been attempted within the education system. However, with the growing needs to perform effective schooling and to gain the best academic result, educators realize the need to incorporate the three factors: school, parents,…
Chalkboard Tips and Resources. 1996. The Family Resource Coalition's Report "Parents Leading the Way" Vol. 15 No. 2. Web site: http://www.handinhand.org/parentinvolve.html.
ERIC Document. Communities Connecting Family and Schools. Strong Families, Strong Schools. Web site: http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/families/strong/community.html
ERIC Document. School-Family Web site: http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/families/strong/sfp.html.
ERIC Documents. Family Involvement. Strong Families, Strong Schools. http://eric-web.tc.columbia.eu/families/strong/involve.html.
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
Parents think school is the best place for a child to learn and to grow. People often believe traditional schooling is an effective way for a child to learn and grow. However, in recent times people have discovered traditional schooling may not be as effective as one believed. Colombo, Cullen and Lisle discuss in their book the pitfalls of formal classroom instruction. Formal classroom instruction may be useful for some students, but may be detrimental to others, especially in today's technology driven society.
Chapter one of Rereading America discusses formal classroom instruction and how it may stifle natural intelligence and creativity.
…on one level, Americans tend to see schooling as a valuable experience that unites us in a common culture and helps us bring out the best in ourselves; yet at the same time, we suspect that formal classroom instruction stifles creativity and chokes off natural intelligence and enthusiasm. (Colombo,…
Colombo, Gary, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle. Rereading America. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 2013. Print.
Dean, Ceri B, and Robert J. Marzano. Classroom Instruction That Works. Alexandria, Va.: ASCD, 2012. Print.
Enfield, Jacob. 'Looking At the Impact of the Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction on Undergraduate Multimedia Students at CSUN'. TechTrends57.6 (2013): 14-27. Web.
Heacox, Diane. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Pub., 2002. Print.
Interview With a Child
Bill is a 12-year-old child, Caucasian, ethnicity unknown. He is the only son of Sandra and Dave, who are divorced. They separated when Bill was 9. He currently lives with Sandra in their home. Dave moved to a different city and is rarely seen by Bill.
Sandra is very protective of Bill. She homeschooled him for two years after she and Dave separated, but now she feels that Bill may need some sort of outside stimulation. He is often withdrawn and uncommunicative and she fears he may be depressed or suffering from autism.
Bill has always been sensitive to sounds and to touch. He did not begin speaking until he was almost 3 years old and then he had to take speech lessons. When he was 10, he told his psychiatrist that he hated his parents because they fought all the time and that they hated…
Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.
McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 225(3): 236-246.
Rogers, C. (2012). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Most of the research has focused on ADHD with a hyperactive component, because this poses more behavioral problems in the classroom. Also, ADHD-I tends to show less of a positive response to medication (Pfiffner, 2007). Focusing on social skills training for disruptive youths that is the usual curricula of behavioral modification programs ignored "the profound differences in attentional problems and impairments between the two major types of ADHD... those with ADHD-I have more severe alertness/orientation problems, including more symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo" or daydreaming (Pfiffner 2007). The success of the approach tailored to a specific subpopulation's need, with "less focus on disciplinary strategies and greater focus on improving homework routines, independence, and organizational and time-management skills to improve academic problems" was not only highly successful, but highlights the need for greater specificity in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD students. The randomized control study of 69 children involved using social…
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel. K. And Farmer, David Alan. "Inner-City African-American Parental
Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy." (NEED to PROVIDE REST of CITATION. WAS NOT PROVIDED to RESEARCHER.)
Boehnke, Klaus and Bergs-Winkles, Dagmar. "Juvenile Delinquency Under the Conditions of Rapid Social Change." Sociological Forum. 17.1 (2002): 57-79.
Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore. DVD. a-Film. 2002.
However, in the film directed by Tina Fey that depicts the cruelty of an exclusive group of "Mean Girls," ordinary things for which there is already descriptive language is rendered into slang so adults do not understand the full cruelty of what is being said. Some adults may know that Regina and company are 'mean' but not to the extent which they rule the school and use exclusion as a way of enforcing their own mini-regime of terror. One of the strengths of the teacher played by Fey, Ms. Norbury, is that she is 'hip' to the language used by the mean girls, like when she tells them to stop using slang like "sluts" and "skanks."
The exclusive nature of the language of adolescents is underlined by the fact that the main character, named Cady Heron, in "Mean Girls" has grown up in South Africa, so she is initially uninitiated…
Mean Girls." Directed by Tina Fey. 2004.
Extrinsic rewards should only be used when other efforts to actively engage students in learning has failed; (3) In the event extrinsic rewards must be utilized, they should be "just powerful enough to control behavior" and should be eliminated in phases before all intrinsic motivation is lost.
Jones, Vermette, and Jones posit in their article, "An Integration of "Backwards Planning' Unit Design with the "Two Step" Lesson Planning Framework," planning and engaging students in effective lessons is a fundamental component of successful teaching and therefore, motivating students (Skowron, 2001). The authors created the concept of backwards planning which requires educators to start with a nominal list of essential questions all students must answer by the end of the lesson plan. With the end goal in mind, teachers then design assessments based on those understandings and strategically crafted lessons to achieve the desired objectives. Once the goals and assessments have been…
Alvermann, L. (1999). Classroom goal orientation, school belonging, and social goals as predictors of students' positive and negative affect following the transition to middle school. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 32(2), 89-103.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2005). Directly controlling teacher behaviors as predictors of poor motivation and engagement in girls and boys: The role of anger and anxiety. Learning and Instruction, 15, 397-413.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, g. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy enhancing and suppressing teaching behaviors predicting students' engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 27, 261-278.
Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. (2004). The emotional costs of parents' conditional regard: A self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-88.
After she got cleaned up and put down her bag, they went out to eat at a diner. Lexi wanted to order the beef that tasted of home, but Grandma and Pop-Pop said that would be too much for a little girl and ordered her chicken fingers instead. "Every kid likes chicken fingers," they said. Lexi hated chicken, and she also hated the Jell-O that came with her kid's meal. Her grandparents ordered from a menu called 'Early Bird Special.'
Lexi found riding around in the car after the long plane ride from Texas really boring, but she didn't say anything. That was Lexi's usual technique, to say nothing. Her dad called her the strong and silent type.
"What do you do all day in the middle of nowhere?" said her grandmother. Lexi imagined herself on a map labeled 'nowhere.' She knew what her grandmother meant, and kind of felt…
ablechild.org),child abuse allegations appear to be infrequent, perhaps because states are moving to pass laws that to some degree limit what schools can say or do regarding ADHD and other behavioral disorders.
To date, according to activists who track the issue, seven states have laws prohibiting school personnel from recommending psychotropic drugs for children. Over the past few years, 46 bills in 28 states have either passed or are awaiting action (Hearn, 2004)." recent study in Australia produced even more shocking results. According to this study on ADHD children and misdiagnosed there were a full 75% of the children in the study misdiagnosed. According to the published report following the study the children being medicated with stimulant medications were at risk for side affects and addiction for a medication they did not even need to take (Clarke, 2004).
In our experience, many of the children misdiagnosed with ADHD in fact…
Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Copyright © 1996-2005
Kids on drugs? (News Shorts).(an investigation into treatment of attention deficit disorder is launched in the U.S.)(Brief Article)
Mann v. Gatto
The early public school reformer Horace Mann celebrated the institution of the public school as a profoundly democratizing force in American life. Mann believed that without public schooling, America could not become a true democracy. Public schooling enabled even the children of paupers to work hard and to gain a foothold in the middle class (Badolato 2011). Schools could provide students with technical expertise which would also make for a more productive society and also a more equitable society. Mann's philosophy is still seen today in the discourse about education, when it is bemoaned that so many students graduating college with liberal arts degrees are not 'marketable' despite their high levels of college debt. Instead of teaching learning for learning's sake, Mann believed that education had a social mission to empower people economically.
In contrast, the contemporary conservative educational theorist John Taylor Gatto views the public educational…
Gatto, John Taylor. (2003). Against school. Harper's. Retrieved:
Badolato, Robert. (2011). Educational theory of Horace Mann. New Foundations. Retrieved:
Thon Legal Memo
Unde cuent Michigan law, Joseph Thon will most likely be ganted custodial ights to his son Ryan.
The family cout evaluates a paent's ight fo custody of a child using Mich. Comp. Law Section 722. In paticula, the cout detemines the oveall "best inteest" of the child. Unde this statute, best inteest is defined using 11 factos which include:
(a) The love, affection, and othe emotional ties existing between the paties involved and the child.
(b) The capacity and disposition of the paties involved to give the child love, affection, and guidance and to continue the education and aising of the child in his o he eligion o ceed, if any.
(c) The capacity and disposition of the paties involved to povide the child with food, clothing medical cae o any emedial cae ecognized and pemitted unde the laws of this state in efeence to medical cae…
references." Is also a moot point as Ryan is not old enough to communicate his preference.
The next factor considered by the court is, "The willingness and ability of each of the parties to facilitate and encourage a close and continuing parent-child relationship between the child and the other parent or the child and the parents." See factors A and B. For this argument. It should also be emphasized to the court that Ms. Thorn has been unwilling to facilitate any close relationship for Mr. Thorn with Ryan. In fact, upon leaving the hospital, Ms. Thorn specifically instructed Mr. Thorn not to visit her at her mother's house and failed to give Mr. Thorn any information as to his son's location when she moved out of state.
Factor K. evaluates, "Domestic violence, regardless of whether the violence was directed against or witnessed by the child." See factor F. For argument.
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
Israeli and U.S. Educational Systems
Comparison of the Educational Systems in the United States and Israel Today
Schools are unique in any society since they educate and mold the next generation who will then be in charge of how the world will shape up and how these schools will be run in the future. Educators in every country help shape the character and the morality of their students beyond the intellectual and physical instruction provided. An education today must prepare a person for the realities of life, including how to balance a checkbook, answer an employment ad, and how to comport oneself at a job interview. These fundamental skills are just part of a huge body of knowledge which includes everything about a given society and the world in which people live. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the respective educational systems employed by the United States…
Devitis, J. And P.A. Sola. Building Bridges for Educational Reform: New Approaches to Teacher Education. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1989.
Israel. 2003. CIA World Factbook. 28 March 2004. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/is.html .
Kaminsky, John S. A New History of Educational Philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools. New York: Crown Publisher, Inc., 1991.
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.
What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…
Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm
eluctance of Parents to Visit the School
ole of Parents in Children's Education
Education has always been a very important part of human existence and has been an inseparable part of human civilization. There has been a lot of development on the education portal and mankind has learned great deal from the education function (Jeynes, 2005). Every milestone which is achieved and every development which is made in any direction is due to the knowledge provided through education. This function has been researched and is very much detailed in terms of style and method. Several researchers and experts have proposed and devised methods which can make education and knowledge imparting more effective and efficient (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Talking about a student at elementary level, it is all the more important to understand the needs of such young individuals and analyze the education function accordingly (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2007). This…
Jeynes, W.H. (2005).A metaanalysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education. 40(3), 237-269.
Stewart, E.B. (2008). School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school and individual level factors on academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 40(2), 179-204.
Hill, N.E. & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a met analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 740-763.
Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
This entails revising the link between local histories and the "universal." Education can play a crucial role for developing this language. (Cayir, 2009, p. 1681)
Cayir stresses that the new curriculum and textbooks of Turkey, like those of Japan mentioned earlier reflect the dogged need for global educational reforms to respond to both modern issues of globalization, i.e. global world view and other issues as well as to respond to nationalism and cultural identity. The nation of Turkey, as a whole seeks to modernize and become active players in the global economy by producing educated Turks to work in these roles while still maintaining cultural identity. (Cayir, 2009)
Cayir, K. (2009). "We Should Be Ourselves before Being a European": The New Curriculum, New Textbooks and Turkish Modernity. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9 (4), 1681-1690.
Mok, K.-H. (2003). Globalisation and Higher Education estructuring in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland…
Cayir, K. (2009). "We Should Be Ourselves before Being a European": The New Curriculum, New Textbooks and Turkish Modernity. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9 (4), 1681-1690.
Mok, K.-H. (2003). Globalisation and Higher Education Restructuring in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China. Higher Education Research & Development, 22 (2), 117-129.
Qi, J. (2009). Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform. Annual Meeting of the, (pp. 1-13). SanDiego, CA.
Striano, M. (2009). Managing Educational Transformation in the Globalized World: A Deweyan Perspective. Educational Theory, 59 (4), 379-393.
Parts of the theory are individual but coherent. The microsystem is the smallest layer in the sense that it is closest to the child and contains all the structures of which the child has regular contact. It includes the relationships and structures that the child uses to define their surroundings (family, school, and neighborhood). The interactions in this layer are primary modifiers, but are continually impacted by other layers. The mesosystem is the rather amorphous way that Microsystems morph and interact with another -- connections between events and organizations. The exosystem is the larger social system in which the child does not directly interact but has a profound effect on the Microsystems (positive and negative effects, etc.). The macrosystem, or the outermost layer in the child's environment consists of laws, customs, values, and norms -- all of which the child is expected to assimilate prior to becoming part of that…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Harvard University
Chinn, C. And a. Samarapungavan. (2001). "Distinguishing Between Understanding
And Belief." Theory into Practice. 40 (4): 235-42.
However, administration admits that they can only control what happens "in school," not the parenting habits or discipline structure of the home.
Understanding this issue is a challenging and, frankly, worrisome issue for a future teacher. Teachers are tasked with the responsibility of improving learning scores for standardized tests, schools as a whole must adhere to state standards, but there is a lack of control over what happens outside the classroom and during breaks and summer vacation. One cannot force parents to participate, and in the contemporary economy it is rare that both parents, if at home at all, are not working.
In addition, looking at a broader view of the cognitive abilities of these students, one finds that they are 12-24 months behind students of middle and upper-middle income brackets just a few blocks away -- same city, same zip code, same district, similar teacher backgrounds. The literature suggests…
Fantuzzo, J., et.al. (2004). "Multiple Dimensions of Family Involvement and Their
Relations to Behavioral and Learning Competencies for Urban, Low-Income
Children." School Psychology Review. 33 (4): 457+.
And so America continues to search subconsciously for ways back, for snorkels to lower to those buried souls. Consider the resurgence of magical literature in America over the last decade and a half. Never since Tolkien has the fantasy genre -- the Twilight books and the wealth of vampire chronicles accompanying for example -- been so widely successful. J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter novels are a recent manifestation of that search for snorkels. What could be more escapist than to imagine being a wizard estranged and insulated from his magical heritage and forced into the mundane -- muggle -- world? As Shoeless Joe was to Ray Kinsella, as writing was to W.P. Kinsella, so has Harry Potter been to a recent generation of Americans. Harry Potter is a mythological symbol of the type Campbell knows has been lost to the detriment of the people. He is the truth Americans wish they…
1. Kinsella, W.P. Shoeless Joe. New York: First Mariner Books, 1999. Print.
2. Twigg, Alan. "Kinsella, W.P." ABCBookworld, BC Bookworld. 2005. Web. 28 April 2010.
3. Besner, Neil. "Kinsella, William Patrick" the Canadian Encyclopedia. 2010. Web. 28 April 2010.
4. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. California: Joseph Campbell Foundation, 2008. Print.
This process does not just help to gain complete understanding of the tasks in hand but also to regularly serve as a reminder of all the legal processes which guide appropriate nursing documentation.
The documentation characteristics which are spread all over the nursing field properly addresses the need to efficiently communicate through written methods. One of the main property of proper documentation is that the ability of a nurse to document legibly. This might look like an easy process to carry on but the fact is that many nurses, medical doctors or any other personnel associated with the nursing field do not follow a single standard of legibility.
Documentation in nursing field should also achieve the factor of being accurate and based on facts, by giving actual data, the process of care and appropriate channel of communication is maintained as this documentation can be used by the nurses in the…
Finally, let's have an example of a current nursing research (childhood obesity) in general practice and analyze the findings, this research was conducted in 2007, Obesity in children has come to huge proportions especially in the developed world, in the U.S. It is almost tripled in 35 years from 1970 to 2005, this rate is found higher in male as compared to females, this study suggests that some twenty five million American children are obese. This study also suggests that the main causes of obesity are many such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, sleep disorders or liver related diseases. It is also because of some psychological effects like trauma, any sort of discrimination or depression which may force the child to eat more.
Those adults which were overweight in their childhood poses a bigger risk of heart disease, developing hypertension, diabetes and other diseases as compared to those individuals who were not overweight. This factor also puts a huge cost on the health care services a nation provides, in U.S. It costs some seventy five billion dollars to the government annually.
There have been many theoretical models which are used to prevent this problem from escalation such as the Transtheoretical model, the social cognitive model and others. These models give the bases for assessment which intervene on selected variables. The environmental factor also has a huge influence in a child's life (places such as home, school, and community), study suggests children's eating activity is cross-sectional to the environment which it lives in.
Thus "we become accustomed to demanding rather than requesting, and we unlearn the skill of making someone feel good about doing what we need" (Coffee, 2002, p. 302). The experience of continuous demands from the computer runs counter to what is required for interaction with people. The inanimate object is there to satisfy all the cyber desires at the press of a key. A person will not function in the same manner. Interacting with flesh and blood requires a different attitude, which is not engaged when the computer is interfaced with regularly. The net result of that practice is diminished civility and a boorishness that impresses demands on others. To get services from people requires politeness and at times social grace; these are not involved in the digital interaction with the computer.
Perhaps the most damning element of excessive computer usage occurs when the virtual confuses the real, and this…
Staples, B. (2004). What adolescents miss when we let them grow up in cyber space. New York
Coffee, P. (2002). There's a bad example on every desk. eWeek
Goldsborough, R. For the love of the P.C.
With this access, students can independently use the computer to read, write, send and receive e-mail and do research.
Another type of low-tech devices for blind children is the note taker. Note takers are moveable Braille tools that include refreshable Braille display. They can be attached to the computer to display information on the screen in Braille. Examples include Braille lite, the Braille note and the Braille window. efreshable Braille allows the blind and the deaf-blind to read information that appears on the computer monitor. Examples include power Braille and Braille window. There are several math aids available to assist blind students in partaking in math activities. They include abacus, clock rulers, math drill cards Nemeth Code eference Sheet and Braille and/or print protractor (School of Public Health Profession, University of Buffalo, 2005).
Types of Assistive Technology Tools
Portable Word Processing Devices
The portable word processors are more durable and…
Centre for Disability Resources, University of South Carolina.(2010, April). Assistive
Technology Program. Retrieved May 23, 2010 from http://www.sc.edu/scatp/ld.htm
School of Public Health Profession, University of Buffalo.(2005). Assistive
Technology Training Online Project. Retrieved May 23, 2010 from http://www.atto.buffalo.edu/
However, their measurable test gains may be less than students who do not have such challenges. Quality of instruction is also an issue: perhaps good instructors and smaller class size is best, but what is 'better' -- an average teacher with a small class or a good teacher with a large class? Baker suggests the former scenario is superior, given that smaller class sizes can increase the need for teachers -- good or bad -- leaving many students in the hands of less competent teachers. However, at some threshold class management becomes impossible, even for a good teacher, and the line is difficult to draw. Benefits may be different based upon student's gender, preparation level of the student, social class, and also the preparation level of the teacher. More experienced teachers may be better able to cope with larger classes, and also more adept at using smaller class size to…
The benefits of small class sizes may be cumulative, even if the overall, measured year-to-year effects are small. That would explain such problems as the discrepancies between different grade levels in measured effects of class sizes. But Baker sees such shifts as based on micro rather than macro concerns "the increase in test scores is offset by other test score fluctuations that occur between enrollments of 20 and 25. The positive ratio for third grade students (rather than negative as for second graders) is likely due to the fact that increases in test scores to the right of enrollment threshold are smaller for third than for second graders and, on the average, are offset by other fluctuations" (Baker 2009, p.13).
Even in light of her research hypothesis and skeptical conclusions Baker admits there are some indications that class size has a demonstrable effect upon student achievement. "Findings of school non-participation and creation of enrollment cutoffs [merely] demonstrate the unanticipated consequences that a class-size reduction program based on financial incentives can create, and should be taken into account when designing future class-size reduction policies" (Baker 2009, p. 5; 3). Baker's research highlights a number of questionable policies of California school districts, such as shuttling excess students to overcrowded districts. It is arguable that given the population and financial challenges of California at this time, mandatory class limitations may not be feasible, because the policies they spark to meet compliance are worse than higher levels of enrollment. It is also arguable, based on Baker's research that because of districts' methods of achieving such benchmarks are often underhanded that the class size limits are not serving the populations the programs were designed to help. But that does not mean that class size reduction is not a laudable aim. At very least, the fact that larger class sizes may cause problems for some students should be more fully explored on a qualitative rather than a purely quantitative level, given the generalized categories of Baker's research, which only takes into consideration socioeconomic categorizations.
Baker admits that previous literature indicates that small class size has been supported for some children: it is possible to hypothesize that for ESL learners and students with learning disabilities, large classrooms do not serve their needs, and the poor and disadvantaged may get 'lost' in large districts. The parts of Baker's research indicating that the overall effect of class reduction is not as large as one might expect on a general level often point to a failure of implementation, rather than a failure of class sizes to deliver upon their original pedagogical promises. Analysis of the benefits of class sizes for specific populations is still required, given the differentiation that exists in any school district and California in particular. The degree to which school districts can enforce smaller class sizes without busing 'overflows' of students elsewhere must also be examined, to see if class size reduction benefits students if it is done fairly.
The history of the educational system ironically has not been changed as much as one might think since the colonial era. Of course the content being studied may be completely different and they had no IPods in the early days of America, but the idea of education is still the same. According to American Education: The American evolution, it boils down to four questions: who will be educated; who controls the overall system; who pays for it; and who gets more education then others, rich and poor, have and have not so to speak. In other words, these issues have been the foundation of the American educational system since the 1700's and they still cause too many problems. So the complaints we hear today about vouchers, testing and rich school district vs. A poor one is simply a matter of history repeating itself, over and over again. This…
Education Bug. (2009). "School Vouchers." Retrieved December 10, 2009, from http://www.educationbug.org/a/school-vouchers.html .
Hooper, Don W. (2002). "Reading Success Where No Child Slips." School Administrator, Vol. 59. January.
Did not have Text information
Shelby filed a notie of appeal and asked the 5th Distrit Court to rule.
Disussion -- This ase fouses on the question of irumstanes that surround a shool distrit's ability to ompel and medial examination of a student, when that student's parent or guardian refuses it. To reeive proper aid under IDEA, an evaluation must meet minimum Federal requirements. The IDEA at, in fat, states that a reevaluation is neessary when the shool distrit needs materials that are essential to assessing a hild's speial eduation needs. Beause the hearing offier and IDEA program reommended a non-invasive evaluation, the Court onluded that it was in the best interests of all parties that that evaluation our. Shelby is free, however, to deline speial eduation rather than submit to an examination. Conroe is not asking for the test, the test is required by the Federal government. Instead, the distrit is telling the Court…
cited in: http://www.specialchild.com/index.html
Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency (oberts, 2005). Like Kim and Kim (2008) point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth. This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers (oberts, 2005).
Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents. In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…
Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2006). Discriminative Factor Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in South Korea. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 36(8), 1315-1323.
Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. New York: Nova.
Library of Congress (2009). A Country Study: South Korea. Retrieved August 18, 2009,
from the Library of Congress Web Site: http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods are those of:
(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.
(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.
(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…
Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.
Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.
Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.
Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
The results of this study show several things: one, the child's temperament regarding willingness to learn at home is "mediated" by his or her mother's level of self-efficacy; two, stress in the family impacts the child's home learning because of stress's effect on mother's self-efficacy; three, low income parents have economic and ethnic hurdles to overcome in order to reach a point of self-efficacy, but those parents that can overcome those challenges have been demonstrated to show "...some sense of competency or confidence" (e.g., self-efficacy) to be able to facilitate a quality home-learning environment that truly can prepare the child for learning in school. Interventions that help parenting skills are important, the authors assert, because self-efficacy may be "a critical characteristic of healthy families who provide stimulating and nurturing contexts for young children" (Machida 183)
Fantuzzo, John, McWayne, Christine, & Perry, Marlo A. (2004). Multiple Dimensions of Family Involvement and…
More recently, Miedzian (1991) has studied peer pressure, the socialization process, and military impact that has resulted in violence becoming standard behavior in males, and Thompson (1991) has demonstrated that violent acts are more often performed by males with greater masculine gender orientations.
Another slant on this topic was placed by West and Zimmerman (1987) in "Doing Gender," that looked at gender not in terms of a set of traits that are held by individuals, but rather as something people do together in their social interactions. In this case, gender is basically about social interaction and establishing relationships. It is an integral part of all daily interactions. Where a person's actions in "doing gender" simultaneously produce, reproduce, sustain and legitimate the social meanings accorded to gender. The authors state that gender is a fundamental aspect of all social relationships, in terms that no one can possibly not do gender if…
Carrigan, C., Connell, R.W., & Lee, J. (1985), Toward a new sociology of masculinity, Theory and Society, 14 (5), 551-604.
Cloward, Richard a. And Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: a theory of delinquent gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Connell, RW. 1985. Masculinities. Cambridge, Polity Press.
Connell, R.W. And Messerschmidt, J. (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity, Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
For example, to attend the temple, advance in the Priesthood, or serve a mission, individuals must adhere to the Law of Chastity (e.g., no premarital or extramarital sexual intimacy) and abstain from alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs. They are also required to promise to care for others, including both family and other church members. Similarly, all physically and emotionally capable young men between the ages of 18 and 27 are expected to serve missions and young women are invited to do so as well. While serving a mission, young people leave all individualistic pursuits (i.e., jobs, scholarships, dating relationships, etc.) behind for an extended period of time (i.e., 2 years or 18 months, for men and women, respectively). During this time they are engaged full time (all day, every day with no trips home to see family) in sharing their beliefs with others and engaging in service projects.
Barry, Carolyn Mcnamara, and Larry J. Nelson. "The Role of Religion in the Transition to Adulthood for Young Emerging Adults." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34, no. 3 (2005): 245. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009936607 .
Coates, James. In Mormon Circles: Gentiles, Jack Mormons, and Latter-Day Saints. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100261702 .
Mangum, Garth, and Bruce Blumell. The Mormons' War on Poverty: A History of LDS Welfare, 1830-1990. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3525193 .
Riley, Naomi. "God on the Quad: At Religious Colleges-Which Are Growing Fast-Student Life Is Different." The American Enterprise, March 2005, 22. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008837726 .
That means that educational theories and models need to change if we want to catch up and surpass these nations. It is also a well-known fact that Asian children often do better in school, and are more motivated than many other children. A look at the National Spelling Bee and other similar competitions tend to show a lot of Asian, homeschooled, and private school students, and perhaps this is where education should change in the future.
Schools should model themselves after private schools, which can sometimes be stricter and more geared to academics than public schools. Many people believe the quality of public education has declined, and while there are some that say this is not true, it seems at least in some areas, that education has declined, while teacher's salaries have increased and class sizes have been reduced. Clearly, something is not right, and America's children are playing for…
During the year 1972, the All Houston service was transferred to Houston's Hobby Airport from Houston Intercontinental. This move was prompted by Kelleher who said that after all why customers have to drive 45-minutes to take a 40-minute flight. With several illustrious years, the year 1977 saw SWA carrying its fifth million passengers and its shares are listed in the NYSE as "LUV." In 1978, Kelleher took the reigns from the outgoing President Lumar Muse and becomes the interim CEO and the Chairman of the Board. SWA's airline N52 is named as the "Herbert D. Kelleher" to honor the co-founder of the airline. In the later part of the year, Kelleher is given the post of permanent Chairman of the Board. ("We weren't Just Airborne Yesterday: Times flies when you're having fun," 2007)
The year 1982 saw Kelleher become the permanent President, CEO and the Chairman of the Board for…
Chuck, Lucier. (2004) "Herb Kelleher: The Thought Leader Interview" Strategy +
Business. Retrieved 23 July, 2007 at http://www.strategy-business.com/press/16635507/04212
Dubrin, Andrew J. (2007) "Leadership Research findings, Practice and Skills" Houghton
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.
The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…
Atkinson, E.N. (1995). Interactive dynamic graphics for exploratory survival analysis. The American Statistician, 49(1), 77.
Barker, C., & Groenne, P. (1996). Advertising on the World Wide Web. [online]. Available: http://www.samkurser.dk/advertising/research.htm[1998, April 6].
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Cai, X., & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with Web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 197.