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homeless population can be described as a social grouping that is susceptible for the reason that the homeless experience greater risk for poor health-related results. Considering the situation of homelessness and the connection involving availability of resources, health status and relative risks, it becomes critical for the nurses to come up with diagnosis and treatments for health-associated problems in this kind of vulnerable population. The description of this article touches on the homeless as a vulnerable population applying health-associated problems of model of vulnerable population as a theoretical framework. A repeated matter, in the Springfield Massachusetts shelters, is about the setting free of prisoners exclusive of discharge planning that gives opportunity for going ahead with care for mental illness. In 1970's deinstitutionalization decided to do away with mentally ill warehousing in facilities that do not recognizes the rights of human. Sufficient community supports fail to be present to this vulnerable…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons (2nd ed.).
Washington, DC: Author.
Aroskar, M. (1994). Ethics in nursing and health care reform: back to the future. Hastings Center Report, 24 (3) 11-12
Lovell, D. & Jemelka, R... (1998). Coping with Mental Illness in Prisons. Family & Community
homeless population may have their share of difficulties with certain areas of life, there are also certain benefits. Although the "job" may not be glamorous, panhandling can be an easy, work-free way to gain financial income. In addition, panhandling income is tax free, and sometimes more lucrative than a regular full time position.
Panhandling can be a lucrative "business," depending on the area of the country a person is living. For example, in Philadelphia, eginald Tull, a 36-year-old, gentle, smooth talking panhandler made a health income from panhandling. Tull himself brought in $250.00 to $300.00 a week, just through panhandling. According to city statistics, the average working person, earning minimum wage and working 40 hours a week, earns only $206.00 (Hinkelman, 2002). According to the Santa Cruz County Homeless 2000 Census and Needs Assessment eport, over 11% of respondents got their daily living money through panhandling, and earned more than…
Hinkelman, Michael. "Panhandling $250 to $300 a Week." Philadelphia Daily News. 24 June, 2002. Philadelphia Daily News. RealCities. 4 March, 2004. http://www.philly.com/mld/dailynews/news/local/3532299.htm
Applied Survey Research. "Executive Summary." Santa Cruz County Homeless 2000
Census and Needs Assessment. Santa Cruz, CA: United Way.
Homeless.org. "Homelessness." Homelessness, Make Change. 13 Feb, 2004. Homeless.org. Grassroots.org. 4 March, 2004. http://www.homeless.org/do/Home
The most important step in the plan, prevention will target the root causes of homelessness, providing resources for those who are at-risk for becoming homeless. Some of the prevention measures will include family counseling centers, shelters, and divorce support groups where families in transition can find financial, legal, and emotional help while receiving tips and assistance on keeping their houses. Funds and counseling for disaster survivors should be established, and treatment centers for the mentally ill should be put into place.
This part of the plan will seek to benefit those who are already homeless. This will take volunteers to reach out to the homeless, find out what has brought them to this state, and offer them support, as well as temporary and long-term housing.
D. Shortening Homeless Time
Because many people are tossed into homelessness due to circumstances that cannot be foreseen, prevention of homelessness…
Almanac of Policy Issues. (n.d.). "Homelessness." Retrieved April 11, 2009, from the Almanac of Policy Issues Web Site. Web Site:
Donohoe, M. (2004, July 7). Homelessness in the United States: History, Epidemiology,
Health Issues, Women, and Public Policy." Retrieved April 11, 2009, from Medscape Today. Web Site: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/481800 .
Program for the Mentally Ill Homeless Population
This research project is an attempt to determine if a community-based program serving the mentally ill homeless population has met its goal of reducing hospitalizations for acute psychiatric episodes. An attempt to identify the elements that define the difference in this program will be identified and evaluated. The literature shows that treating the mentally ill homeless population is especially difficult in terms of building lasting relationships based on trust. The population tends to move from one area to another within the city and become elusive when they are looked for. This program will be evaluated for its effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations for acute psychiatric episodes, the usefulness of case managing, including ensuring clients have and are taking their medications and whether this program has been more successful than traditional programs in finding permanent housing for it's clients.
Problem and Purpose
Homelessness is on…
Aday, L. (1993), At risk in America: the health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the Unites States. San Francisco, California.
Alter, C., Hage, J. (1993), Organizations working together. Newbury Park, California, Sage.
American Journal of Psychiatry. (1993), Treatment of homeless men who are mentally ill.
Bolland, J., Wilson, J. (1994), Three faces of integrative coordination: a model of in interorganizational relations in community-based health and human services. Health Services Res.
substance abuse, PTSD, domestic violence, family functioning, juvenile delinquency or adult criminality, parenting skills, self-esteem, depression, OCD, child well-being, mental status, adoption stability, anxiety, and wellness. f there is a variable of interest to you that is not included on this list, please check with your instructor to determine if it is an appropriate substitution.
Description: Provide the name and a brief description of the instrument including how it is administered, the length (number of items), general scoring information and other relevant information. Be sure to cite the sources for the information you use.
The instrument am exploring is the Family Assessment Measure , which can be completed by family members from age 10 to adult. There are six scales in the FAM-, each of which takes approximately 20 minutes to complete. The self-report instrument has three forms: 1) a General Scale for assessing overall family well-being (50 items); 2)…
In Jacob (1995), families with at least one adolescent aged 12 to 18 were recruited through newspaper advertisements. The race and ethnicity reported that 90% of the participants were white. The participating families completed two rounds of the Family Environment Scale (FES), the FAM, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-II). The time frames addressed by the rounds were varied, such that the participants might be asked to respond with regard to their family in general, or according to some time certain, say, two weeks ago. All three assessments showed good test-retest reliability for both parents and children. High positive correlations were found between the different time-frame instructional conditions. One exception was found in that the FAM did not show significant time-frame instruction effects. The authors believe this is due to the emphasis on general characteristics in the FAM compared to the other two instruments.
4. Validity: Discuss the validity of measurement of the variable. Make sure to cite all validity information you get from other sources. It is not appropriate to just state, "this measure has been found to be valid." You need details and citations. Your description should indicate that you have a clear understanding of the meaning of the concept of validity by providing a relevant discussion about the approaches to establishing validity reported in the material you cite. If you have a difficult time finding information that pertains to the validity of a measure, be sure to discuss ways in which information about the validity of the measure could be obtained.
Construct validity was the primary focus when the FAM-III was developed, but predictive validity and concurrent validity measures were also employed. The construct validation paradigm has been applied to many different sample types (the authors cite Jackson, 1971; Skinner, 1981, 1987). Considerable research was conducted with special populations, and the mean raw scores and standard deviations are reported. The authors suggest that further validation can be accomplished by comparing results with the MHS Quikscore TM Forms, and relative to the specific
With the increase in families, and thus children and teens on the street, there has been a subsequent increase in youth drug use, pregnancy and crime, especially violent and sexual crimes. This disturbing trend has created a new challenge to how to deal with the homeless epidemic as new resources are needed. Further, many of the traditional charitable organizations are unequipped to deal with this new need, meaning that few services are now available to the homeless.
In conclusion, if anything is clear, it is that the homeless problem is becoming worse instead of better. Instead of homeless individuals, there are now homeless families. With this, the cycle of homelessness continues, giving society few, if any, options on stopping the vicious and continuing downward spiral of poverty, homelessness, and the multitude of problems associated with it.
Aday, Lu Ann. (1994): "Health Status of Vulnerable Populations." Annual Review of PUblic…
Aday, Lu Ann. (1994): "Health Status of Vulnerable Populations." Annual Review of PUblic Health. 15:487-509.
DePastino, Todd. (2003): Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America. New York: Random House.
United States Code, Title 42, Chapter 119, Subchapter I, section 11302. "General definition of homeless individual." United States Code. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government.
Wood, David. (1992): Delivering Health Care to Homeless Persons: The Diagnosis and Management of Medical and Mental Health Conditions. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Homelessness: A still-Important issue
Homelessness is not just a housing problem. As noted by PLoS Medicine "there is a substantial prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people in Western countries. Among prior studies meeting criteria for consideration, the prevalence of alcohol dependency ranged from 8.1% -- 58.5%, and drug dependence ranged from 4.5% -- 54.2%. For psychotic illnesses, the prevalence ranged from 2.8% -- 42.3%, with similar findings for major depression." Homelessness is an issue which is dealt with on federal, state, and local levels. Federal policies such as healthcare reform can impact the ability of people to receive treatment for substance abuse, for example. State and local ordinances can impact access to affordable housing, how drug crimes are prosecuted, and whether it is legal to panhandle or even to offer assistance to the homeless.
The plight of the homeless was thrown into sharp relief recently when the city of…
Florida Department of Children and Families. (2014). Official Website. Retrieved from:
Goldberg, E. (2014). 90-year-old Florida man faces jail Time, $500 fine for feeding homeless.
The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/04/man-90-arrested-feeding-homeless_n_6100738.html
Homelessness Among Veterans
Among the social problems that have continuously bothered successive governments over the years. The problem is further compounded bearing that the veterans offered their best duty to the country when the need was most dire. As the years pass, as the US engages in one more war, veterans keep increasing and prospect for having more veterans will keep going up. The increase is astronomical for the homeless veterans. Currently at least 15% of the homeless population is consisted of the veterans. By 2008 there were approximately 135,000 homeless veterans tough this number is said to have reduced by 47% by 2016 (U.S. Department of Homeless Veterans, 2017).
Veterans are said to the prone to being homeless than other Americans by 50% due to poverty, poor support network and squalid living environments within overcrowded housing units. It is estimated that 1.5 million veterans are considered as at risk…
"The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2011" Census.gov (2012): 32, internet, 26 Jun. 2013. Available: http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p60-244.pdf.]
With so many residents facing homelessness, it seems imperative to understand the cost of not implementing the hygiene centers through the local public health departments. When researchers examined the hospitalization rates of homeless persons in Honolulu, Hawaii, they found that hospitalizations in acute-care hospitals occurred at a rate 5.6-fold above the average for state residents.[footnoteRef:6] for psychiatric hospitals, it was 131-fold higher. The estimated cost of the excess hospitalization for the 1,751 homeless persons studied was close to $3.5 million in 1992 dollars. In 2010 dollars,[footnoteRef:7] this would amount to about $4.9 million. Based on a homeless population of 136,000 to 750,000 for the State of California, the excess medical costs associated with homelessness could be somewhere between $381 million and $2.1 billion dollars per year. [6: Jon V. Martell et al., "Hospitalization in an…
Otherwise, they would not have been taken into the military (they were volunteers), supporting the theory that the military had an impact upon their being homeless (ibid., 377).
Among all of these populations, IQ dropped and mental illnesses such as schizophrenia increased as the study predicted. There is not enough information though to determine whether or not the populations of the homeless were predisposed (just that there was higher population of them) toward an IQ drop or mental illness or whether other events were responsible and the authors called for more research. However, one should expect that if one discharges a homeless person (veteran or not) that has a cognitive problem, then we should not be surprised when they join the homeless population.
The candor and reservation about the results would indicate to this author the accuracy of the study's results. In terms of veterans' affairs, this then…
Resnick, R.G., & Rosenheck, R.A. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder and employment in veterans participating in veterans health administration compensated work therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 45(3), 427 -- 436.
Spence, S., Stevens, R., & Parks, R. (2004). Cognitive dysfunction in homeless adults: a systematic review. Journal of the royal society of medicine, 97, 375-379.
homelessness and mental illness are inextricably intertwined. One way that mental illness impacts people's lives is that it oftentimes renders them unable to carry out the functions of daily life, such as keeping a job, paying their bills, and managing a household. In addition to disrupting the events of daily life, mental illness "may also prevent people from forming and maintaining stable relationships or cause people to misinterpret others' guidance and react irrationally" (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009). What this means is that a population that is already vulnerable because of an inability to consistently manage self-care lacks the same safety net as much of the rest of society.
People with mental illnesses are at greater risk of homelessness. This is particularly true for people with serious mental illnesses, particularly those that might impact their reality testing, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression (National Coalition for the…
Folsom, D.P., Hawthorne, W., Lindamer, L., Gilmer, T., Bailey, A., Golshan, S., Garcia, P.,
Unutzer, J., Hough, R., and Jeste, D.V. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for homelessness and utilization of mental health services among 10,340 patients with serious mental illness in a large public mental health system." American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 370-376.
National Coalition for the Homeless. (2009, July). Mental illness and homelessness.
Retrieved April 13, 2013 from National Coalition for the Homeless website: http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/Mental_Illness.pdf
Data also indicates that almost one-fifth of the homeless population is female, many of whom are on the streets due to domestic abuse and/or substance abuse, and most of whom find themselves in the same abusive relationships as sent them to the streets in the first place. Moreover, for the street homeless, shelters are often seen as a last resort, as many surveyed found them too violent and dangerous, too restrictive and constraining, with many feeling more at ease sleeping in the park.
Permanent housing for homeless families and individuals actually costs less than shelter and other emergency care. The cost of sheltering a homeless family in the New York City Shelter system is $36,000 per year and for a homeless individual is $23,000 per year, compared to a supportive housing apartment with services which costs as little as $12,000 per year, and the cost of rental assistance with support…
Andrews, William. The New York Police Department. "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public Order:1845 to1870; an Era of Corruption and Reform: 1870 to 1900." http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/html/3100/retro.html
Change in Total Population, 1990 and 2000: New York City and Boroughs."
New York City Department of City Planning. June 20, 2003. http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/dcp/html/census/pop2000.html
Basic Facts about Homelessness and Housing." Coalition for the Homeless. http://www.coalitionforthehomeless.org/top/CFTH/events/advocacy/basic_facts.html
homelessness in America, especially looking at children and families who are homeless. Homelessness has always been an issue in America, but today, there are even more homeless people in the country because of the economic crisis. People have lost their jobs and their homes, and have nowhere to go but the streets. Homelessness used to be viewed as an often solitary issue, but today, many families with children are homeless, and that leads to a dim view of the future for these families.
First, it is important to define homelessness. Two authors write, "It is usually accepted that those who sleep in public places or squat in derelict buildings are homeless" (Chamberlain, and Johnson 35). However, there are many other ways to define homelessness. Families living temporarily in shelters are homeless, and so are people who are hospitalized or institutionalized that have nowhere to go on their release. So are…
Chamberlain, Chris, and Guy Johnson. "The Debate about Homelessness." Australian Journal of Social Issues 36.1 (2001): 35.
Latham, Buffalo. "The Art of Homelessness." The Humanist Jan.-Feb. 2002: 20+.
Nunez, Ralph Da Costa, and Laura M. Caruso. "Are Shelters the Answer to Family Homelessness?" USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Jan. 2003: 46+.
homelessness an issue that involves the general public of the United States instead of the (relatively) few victims who suffer from this condition. Nearly all of these factors have to do with the notion of the sociological imagination, a concept that was innovated by Charles right Mills and which essentially enables people to look beyond their a particular person's fault to understand how the larger society may have contributed to that person's circumstances (Carl, p.6). From the angle of sociological imagination, then, homelessness is a public issue and not a private one for all of the homeless people because there are several systematic factors that are responsible for people being too poor and for housing being not affordable or not in great enough demand to account for the number of people who need it.
One of the major structural issues that is responsible for these factors and for homelessness is…
Carl, John. Think Sociology 2011. Pearson: New Jersey. 2011. Print.
Another issue is prison release, because newly released inmates often have nowhere to live, they cannot get a job because they are convicted felons, and so they end up homeless. A frightening statistic is that there are so many young people that are homeless. Another group of researchers note, "A reliable determination of the prevalence of homelessness among adolescents is difficult to obtain, but the most recent and vigorous attempt estimates that there are more than one million youth nationwide who are homeless during any given 12-month period" (Johnson, ew & Kouzekanani, 2006). Often, these young people are on the streets because of dysfunctional families. Many are runaways, who have left home because of anger and violence in the families, or sexual abuse. The researchers continue, "High rates of sexual abuse have been found among homeless and runaway adolescents" (Johnson, ew & Kouzekanani, 2006). Yet another reason for homelessness is…
Baggerly, J., & Zalaquett, C.P. (2006). A descriptive study of single adults in homeless shelters: Increasing counselors' knowledge and social action. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34(3), 155+.
Johnson, R.J., Rew, L., & Kouzekanani, K. (2006). Gender differences in victimized homeless adolescents. Adolescence, 41(161), 39+.
Koch, W. (2008). Homeless numbers 'alarming'. USA Today. 22. Oct.
Tompsett, C.J., Toro, P.A., Guzicki, M., Manrique, M., & Zatakia, J. (2006). Homelessness in the United States: Assessing changes in prevalence and public opinion, 1993-2001. American Journal of Community Psychology, 37(1-2), 47+.
Social Issue: Burgeoning Homelessness
A prevalent and ever-growing social issue in my community is the problem of homelessness. According to the federal government’s annual report on homelessness, the number of homeless people in America has recently increased for the first time in eight years. The West Coast, with its warmer climates, tends to have greater homeless populations than elsewhere in America. Even though the economy in the nation is booming more acutely, the cost of housing continues to rise, and more and more people simply can’t afford a place to live (McEvers, 2017). In southern California, there isn’t a city where this is more vividly represented than in Los Angeles, on skid row. While skid row isn’t my community, southern California is, and skid row reflects the core of this social issue. The homeless tend to congregate there, and in greater downtown Los Angeles, and for good reason: this is…
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to drug addiction.
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to mental illness.
There is a clear reciprocal relationship between homelessness, drug addiction and mental illness.
Mental illness plays a significant role in preventing homeless individuals from f inding suitable long-term housing. .
Singleton identifies the systematic procedure as a form of data gathering in which a survey or interview will be utilized in order to gather information for further analysis. His text points to the large-scale probability study as a form in which substantial populations can be measured according to representative sample sets. The "scientific sampling…
The National Institutional Health (NIH). (1979). Regulations and Ethical Guidelines. The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Singleton, R.A. & Straits, B.C. (1999). Approaches to Social Research. Oxford
VA & Homeless Vets
There is not a shortage of public issues that tend to pull at the heartstrings of many people. Whether it be poverty, abuse or neglect of children or people being homeless or otherwise desperate, it would seem that there is no shortage of people in dire need of assistance. A prominent subset of the homeless population just mentioned are the homeless people that are veterans of the United States Armed Forces. As one might expect, the Veterans Affairs (VA) Administration has a program that is specifically meant to address the issue of many veterans being homeless. While it may not be popular to say, the solution to this social problem is not as easy as one might expect as there is only so much money, resources and options that exist.
The challenges that faces the VA or anyone else will tend to have when it…
The number of homeless students in America is staggering, and sadly growing. These children are faced with unique challenges that their peers with homes are not typically plagued with. Homeless students academic efforts are often decimated due to fatigue and poor nutrition. Anxiety and depression affects their ability to concentrate. And, they often have gaps in their knowledge due to the inability to complete their homework as a result of not having the necessary supplies on hand (Noll & Watkins, 2004). Emotional, behavioral, academic, social, and familial problems occur more frequently in this category of students. For this reason, educators and school counselors should be positioned to provide the services and support these children will probably not receive elsewhere.
As Swick (2004) notes,
Educators can positively affect the lives of children and families who are homeless or in other high-risk situations. By understanding the dynamics of what homeless…
Baggerly, J. & Borkowski, T. (Dec. 2004) Applying the ASCA National Model to elementary school students who are homeless: A case study. Professional School Counseling, 8(2). Retrieved February 10, 2005, from InfoTrac Database.
Noll, E. & Watkins, R. "The impact of homelessness on children's literacy experiences." The Reading Teacher, 57(4). Retrieved February 10, 2005, from ProQuest database.
Swick, K. (2000). Building effective awareness programs for homeless students among staff, peers, and community members. In J. Stronge & E. Reed-Victor (Eds.), Educating homeless students: Promising practices. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Swick, K. (Spring 2004). The dynamics of families who are homeless: Implications for early childhood educators. Childhood Education, 80(3). Retrieved February 10, 2005, from ProQuest database.
Hearing the story about the 90-year-old being arrested in Fort Lauderdale for feeding the homeless had me thinking that South Florida, with its warm weather, probably has a significant homeless issue. So I decided to look at the homelessness situation in Miami. As it turns out, Miami-Dade County and the City of Miami have an interesting situation with respect to homelessness. In some ways, they seem to have similar views to Fort Lauderdale with respect to criminalizing the homeless, but they are also working to eliminate homelessness in their community. For me, this makes for an interesting social and public policy case study.
Causes of Homelessness
There is a reasonably good supply of affordable housing in Miami, but as the video about Toronto shows, the availability of housing is not usually the cause of homelessness. Many homeless in the Toronto video originally had homes that they owned, but either…
Book, R. (2014). End of homelessness in Miami-Dade in sight. Miami Herald. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.miamiherald.com/opinion/op-ed/article3564875.html
Camillus House (2014). What causes homelessness? Camillus House. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.camillus.org/about-us/what-causes-homelessness/
Gregerson, A. (2014). Homeless presents numerous problems for South Florida. University of Miami. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://students.com.miami.edu/netreporting/?page_id=1632
Henry, M., Cortes, A., Morrs, S. (2013). The 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. U.S. Dept. Of Housing and Urban Development.
Homeless Mental Health
Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…
Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.
Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,
S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women
With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-
The mentally ill: Mentally ill individuals often have trouble putting across their condition and fail to let others know that they actually have a mental problem. As a consequence, human services professionals need to collaborate with police officers with the purpose of making it possible for them to differentiate between individuals who are normal and individuals who are mentally ill. Similarly, professionals have the task of providing as many drugs as possible to people on the streets in order to prevent them from experiencing an unfortunate episode and actually hurt themselves or someone else.
xcitement addicts: These people fail to understand the full complexity of being homeless and think about this condition as if it were an adventure. Human services professionals thus need to intervene and instruct these people in regard to the risks that they are facing. Also, this group is vulnerable to abuse because its members are…
Excitement addicts are typically naive and can easily become attracted by joining gangs in their neighborhood. As a consequence, human services professionals need to instruct them concerning the risks that they are taking. Also, by cooperating with the authorities, human services professionals can also effectively combat problems that excitement addicts are predisposed to.
3. The Help the Homeless program is directed at assisting individuals in a series of places, including the Washington D.C. area. "Since 1988, Help the Homeless (HTH) has raised more than $90 million for nonprofit beneficiaries in the Washington metropolitan area that serve the homeless and those at risk of being homeless" (WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA). Taking this into account, it would only be safe to assume that the institution has played an active role in assisting homeless individuals. In addition to assisting homeless people, the community also focuses on encouraging the masses to get involved in helping homeless people by adopting a series of attitudes.
4. Although human services professionals play an important role in solving social problems, they are often ignored and the masses know very little with regard to the actions that they perform with the purpose of helping homeless people and the social order as a whole. Through getting homeless people off the streets, providing them with the opportunity to eat a hot meal, or by simply helping the masses understand the desperate condition of homeless people, human services professionals practically make the world a better place. Society as a whole should look into their actions and try to reproduce them with the purpose of eventually eradicating homelessness.
A list of resources for further study is also provided." (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2002)
The report would include a setting, validity of the problem and a timeline that would describe the historical concerns faced by the homeless. For example, cities like Toronto, Canada have been systematically monitoring the aboriginal homeless situation for years. "The City of Toronto released the first eport Card on Homelessness in February 2000, based on a recommendation by the Mayor's Task Force. The purpose of the report card is to monitor the issue of homelessness over time to determine if the problem is getting better or worse and to help the city and its partners develop effective and responsive strategies." (Members & Staff Working Group, 2001)
The proposed approach for the topic would be to focus on gathering any and all pertinent information regarding the problem of aboriginal homelessness. Therefore, the full…
Government of Canada. (2003, July 3). Urban Aboriginal Homelessness. Retrieved on June 16, 2005, from Canada Web Site at http://www21.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca/initiative/uah_e.asp
HRDC-based Components. (2003, March). Evaluation of the National Homelessness Initiative: Implementation and Early Outcomes of the HRDC-based Components. Retrieved on June 13, 2005, from AHRDA/SCPI Authorities Web Site at http://www11.sdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/edd/reports/2003-002435/page11.shtml
Members, Staff Working Group (2001). The Toronto Report Card on Homelessness 2001. Toronto: Toronto Advisory Committee on Homeless & Socially. Retrieved on June 13, 2005, from City of Toronto Web Site at http://www.city.toronto.on.ca/homelessness/homelessnessreport2001.pdf
Ministry of Social Development and Economic Security (2000). The Relationship between Homelessness and the Health, Social Services and Criminal Justice Systems. Homelessness - Causes & Effects. Retrieved on June 13, 2005, from British Columbia Web Site at http://www.mcaws.gov.bc.ca/housing/homeless/vol1.htm
Housing and Homelessness in Canada
In Canada, there is a problem with homelessness. While that is certainly not unique to the country, it is a significant issue which has to be addressed in order to facilitate changes that can lower the number of homeless people in the country. The majority of these people live in the larger cities and do have some access to resources, but the problems with homelessness have still kept growing in complexity and size over recent years. The demographics of the people who are most often seen as homeless are changing, as well, putting younger and more vulnerable people on the streets. There are estimates that 0.5% of the population does not have a home at all, and some believe that those estimates only represent about 1/2 of the actual population of homeless people throughout Canada (Fortin, 2008). Part of the problem with not being certain…
Fortin, V. (2008). "Keep Your Coins, I Want Change! The Homeless and the Shrinking Public Space in Montreal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Law and Society Association, Hilton Bonaventure, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Frankish, C., Hwang, S., & Quantz, D. (2005). Homelessness and health in Canada: Research lessons and priorities. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2).
Gaetz, S., Tarasuk, V., Dackner, N., Kirkpatrick, S. (2006). "Managing" Homeless Youth in Toronto: Mismanaging Food Access & Nutritional Well-being. Canadian Review of Social Policy, 58(43), 1-19.
Hulchanski, J.D. (2009). Conference keynote address, Growing Home: Housing and Homelessness in Canada. University of Calgary, February 18, 2009, Canadian Policy Research Networks. Retrieved from http://www.cprn.org/documents/51110_EN.pdf .
This can include families who are breaking up, adult children forced to leave home, and any number of other situations (Editors, 2006). New York City has made it a priority to prevent homelessness as part of its comprehensive Action Plan for the Homeless, which is mandated through 2009. This plan includes ideas on how to prevent homelessness, redirect more homeless to shelters, create "viable alternatives" for the homeless, coordinate services so people are not "dumped" between them, and provide more housing options. As of 2005, the Action Plan was at least indirectly responsible for reducing homelessness by 10% in the city. It seems the plan is working, and other cities would do well to implement an appropriate plan for their own areas.
Traditionally, most people have looked at homelessness as a problem of demographics and personal attributes. However, more researchers now understand homelessness is more than demographics; it is a…
Baumohl, J. (Ed.). (1996). Homelessness in America. Phoenix: Oryx Press.
Editors, (2006). Action plan. Retrieved from the NYC.gov Website: http://nyc.gov/html/endinghomelessness/html/action_plan/action_plan.shtml21 Nov. 2006.
Family homelessness has emerged as a serious global problem and over the last twenty-five years the make-up of the homeless population has changed significantly in the United States (Swick Pp). The majority of the homeless were men in the early 1980's, however, today, families make up thirty percent of the homeless population, and some scholars suggest that families may constitute up to forty to fifty percent of the homeless (Swick Pp).
The United States federal government defines homeless individuals as those lacking a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, or those who have a primary nighttime residence that is:
*a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations
(including welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and transitional housing for the mentally ill);
*an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or *a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as,…
Swick, Kevin J. "The dynamics of families who are homeless: implications for early childhood educators." Childhood Education. 3/22/2004; Pp.
This article focuses on articulating the various dynamics of families who are homeless and what strategies can be employed to effectively support homeless families with young children.
Washington, Thomas Alex. "The homeless need more than just a pillow, they need a pillar: an evaluation of a transitional housing program."
Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services. 3/1/2002; Pp.
causes of homelessness among women. hile there are many factors, structural and individual, which contribute to homelessness, poverty more than any other, single risk factor is responsible for women being homeless.
Homelessness has become a social problem of huge proportions. According to Caton, there are estimates that some 1% of Americans, or some two to three million people per year, seek shelter with a homeless assistance provider. Study data show that the majority of people who use homeless shelters do so on a temporary or short-term basis. Unlike the chronically homeless, not much is known about people who use homeless shelters for only a short time because of the scarcity of longitudinal long-term studies. Caton et al. argue that while cross-sectional studies on the occurrence of homelessness have provided identifying data that distinguish homeless people from the housed, it is unknown whether the same factors are also responsible for the…
Casavant, Lyne. "Composition of the Homeless Population." Government of Canada, Parliamentary Research Branch. (1999). Web. 31 Oct. 2010.
Caton, Carol L.M., et al. "Risk Factors for Long-Term Homelessness: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of First-Time Homeless Single Adults."American Journal of Public Health 95.10 (2005): 1753-9. Web. 31 Oct. 2010.
Metraux, Stephen and Dennis P. Culhane. "Family Dynamics, Housing, and Recurring Homelessness among Women in New York City Homeless Shelters." Journal of Family Issues 20.3 (1999): 370-96. Web. 31 Oct. 2010. .
Novac, Sylvia, Joyce Brown, and Carmen Bourbonnais. No Room of Her Own: A Literature Review on Women and Homelessness. Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1996. Print.
Cause of Homelessness in America
has numerous social problems. Homelessness seems to be one of the most important ones. There are several causes that determine homelessness. However, the primary cause of homelessness can be considered the reduced affordable housing level and the national increase in poverty. Other causes of homelessness refer to high unemployment rates, low salary levels in certain urban and rural areas, the inability of certain individuals to pay health care bills, the inability qualify for public assistance, domestic violence, mental illness, addiction disorders, and others. It is important to understand that there are specific factors that influence homelessness in the U.S., but these factors are allowed to develop because of the state's authorities. In other words, these authorities seem to not be able to manage the social situation of individuals in a homeless situation. If their situation is analyzed, it can be established that homeless people's actions…
1. Top Causes of Homelessness in America (2012). HomeAid. Retrieved April 1, 2013 from http://www.homeaid.org/HomeAid-Stories/69/top-causes-of-homelessness .
2. Causes of Homelessness (2011). Homeless Coalition of Hillsborough County. Retrieved April 3, 2013 from http://www.homelessofhc.org/index.php/get-educated-information-homelessness/causes-of-homelessness.
3. Crane, M. et al. (2005). The Causes of Homeless in Later Life: Findings from a Three Nations Study. Journal of Gerontology. Retrieved April 3.
4. Fischer, P. (1992). Victimization and Homelessness: Cause and Effect. New England Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Public Health Policy Analysis: AB , as amended -- Homeless Shelters: Safety egulations.Today, there are more than 5.5 million homeless people in the United States (The state of homelessness in America, 2021), and tens of thousands of these homeless people are living on the streets in California despite increasingly aggressive attempts by the state government to provide effective solutions to this chronic problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a current health problem affecting the State of California that is being addressed by a proposed law, AB 362 and how this new law would address the problem of homelessness in the state today and in the future. In addition, an assessment concerning the severity of the health problems that are associated with Californias homeless problem is followed by an overview of AB 363, as amended (hereinafter alternatively the bill) and the respective stakeholders that will…
ReferencesAB-362 Homeless shelters: safety regulations, 2021-2022.Alarcon, J. & Tipu, V. (2021, January). Adapting backpack medicine in COVID-19 response for people experiencing homelessness in Southern California. American Journal of Public Health, 111(1), 37-44.California homeless shelters. (2021). Cause IQ. Retrieved from https://www.causeiq. com/directory/homeless-shelters-list/california-state/#:~:text=Locations-,California%20homeless%20shelters,have%20assets%20of%20%242%20billion.Elias, T. D. (2021, May 6). California focus: Is permanent housing a viable homeless solution? Sonoma Index-Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.sonomanews.com/article/opinion/ california-focus-is-permanent-housing-a-viable-homeless-solution/.Homelessness and health care. (2021). California Health Care Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.chcf.org/topic/homelessness-health-care/.Pitofsky, M. (2021, May 6). Caitlyn Jenner tells Hannity friends are fleeing California because of homeless people. The Hill. Retrieved from https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/552077-caitlyn-jenner-tells-hannity-friends-are-fleeing-california-because-of.Roberts, J. J. (2019, December 20). California needs to treat homelessness like the disaster it is. Business Journal, 22.The state of homelessness in America. (2021). National Alliance to End Homelessness. Retrieved from https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/homelessness-statistics/state-of-homelessness-report-legacy/#:~:text=There%20are%20an%20estimated %20553%2C742,people%20in%20the%20general%20population.Walters, D. (2021, February 26). Legislature, Newsom have another chance to act on housing. Business Journal, 22.
Mayor Schell's Zero Homeless Family Pledge
Program Solving in Public Administration
Charles Amankwaa, Kimberlie Mosley, Luby Harvey
Mission, Strategic Goals, and Objectives
Proposed Budget, Budget Narrative, and Work Plan
The number of homeless families in the City of Seattle has become a major issue that needs to be addressed. Currently, single males in the streets account for 63% of homeless people while 17% are women and the other 20% are families and youth. In Seattle alone, there are more 700 homeless single women and homeless families with children.
In June of 1998, Mayor Paul Schell made a pledge that there would be no homeless families with children or homeless single women on the streets of Seattle by Christmas of 1998." (Norton, 2006). The pledge by Mayor Schell can be accomplished within six months as he indicated though there are several potential challenges that need to be…
The strongest points in Tiffany’s script, “Homeless in Seattle,” are: clarity, purpose, and the suggested solution. Tiffany clearly identifies the problem in her script and states how the city of Seattle is concerned about the homeless population. This shows that there is a need to address this issue. In other words, the need is not just imagined or fabricated for the sake of the script: the need is real and apparent and his been made known publicly by the city’s authorities. This lends the script a clear focus and foundation for proceeding.
The script’s purpose is also evident in that the script, after providing some background information, shows how the purpose is to explain why permanent housing structures for the homeless would help the people to address the city’s homeless problem. Tiffany isolates the issue of cost and shows how the cost for providing shelter for the homeless would actually…
Often children must withhold information from people who could help them as public awareness of their homelessness would likely end in separation from loved ones as for children a greater number of programs exist to help them independently than collectively with their parents. Homeless youth are also a significant social issue and their numbers are hard to even estimate, though there are clear indications that the numbers are growing. "Novac, Serge, Eberle, and Brown (2002) identified four important trends among homeless youth: 1) the incidence is increasing; 2) an increasing number are chronically homeless; 3) the age at which youth become homeless is decreasing, especially for females; and 4) more identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered." (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005, p. 54) the issue, like with that of other homeless populations is developing systems that build transitions to more stable and permanent housing. (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005,…
Calhoun, J. (2006). Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(1), 19.
Canada, G. (2001). The Best Way We Know How. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(1), 54.
Conderman, G., Heimerl, a.M., & Ketterhagen, B.L. (2001). Longing for a Father. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(3), 140.
Craig, T.K.J. Hodson, S. (1998) Homeless youth in London: I. Childhood antecedents and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine. 28:1379-1388.
Nurse managed care has many potential benefits in a largely taxed healthcare system such as found in the United States. One specific area of improvement could come from the reliance on the crowded emergency department. Many homeless and low-income individuals often rely on the emergency department (ED) as their primary health care source because they are not able to access alternative healthcare sources. One proposed solution to such overcrowding in the ED, is to promote nurse managed lower cost clinics that can assist a majority of this populations non-emergency needs as well as help them to access additional community resources that they may need to treat their specific conditions (Savage, Lindsell, Gillespie, Lee, & Corbin, 2008).
There are many different perspectives that have been applied to such a proposal. One is that it can help train and provide experience for young nurses. Another is that it could help to…
Savage, C., Lindsell, C., Gillespie, G., Lee, R., & Corbin, A. (2008). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Improving health status of homeless patients at a nurse-managed clinic in the Midwest USA. Health and Social Care in the Community, 469-475.
Art Education Service-Learning Project in Charlotte
Pamela Harris Lawton (2010) was encouraged by a colleague at the University of North Carolina in Charlotte to create a community art service-learning project that would bring art students and the homeless together through a hands-on creative activity. This activity was the creation of individual quilt squares that were eventually sewn together to make a large community quilt. In order to make this project possible, Lawton collaborated with the Urban Ministry Center (UMC) in Charlotte, an interfaith organization providing meals, showers, and counseling services to the disenfranchised living within the community. Most of the people served by the UMC are homeless and low-income residents of the community. The collaboration between Lawton, the art education department where she taught, and the UMC provided a way to bring art students, UMC staff and volunteers, and the homeless together for the service-learning project. The service-learning project was…
Lawton, Pamela Harris. "Hand-in Hand, Building Community on Common Ground." Art Education, 63.6 (2010), 6-12. Print.
Simon Communities in Ireland has been a fundamental supporting organization for homeless people ever since Anton allich-Clifford set its foundations in the 1960s. As a probation officer in London, Anton was in charge with some of the situations around people who, sleeping rough, were caught for minor infringements of the law. It was his decision for a different approach that ultimately led to Simon Communities developing into a multi-based organization that is nowadays able to provide accommodation and settlement to many people in Ireland who have lost their home due to various different reasons. Anton set up the first hospitality home for people he had seen sleeping in doorways and derelict buildings after he previously visited the places to bring people food and to know their stories. A visit to Ireland served for a group of volunteers to organize the first soup -- run in Dublin in 1969 and the…
Blau, Joel. The Visible Poor: Homelessness in the United States. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Madrid, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press, 1992. Print.
Davis, Murphy. Five years at 910. A Work of Hospitality: The Open Door Reader 1982-2002. Ed. Peter R. Gathje. Atlanta: The Open Door Community, 2002. 9-12. Print.
Hombs, Mary Ellen. American Homelessness: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2001. Print.
Jencks, Christopher. The Homeless. Harvard University Press, 1995. Print.
The stories are as varied as the people, but certainly one cannot lump every homeless person into a bundle and say they "want to be" in this condition (Conference of Mayors, 2009).
My assignement for Thanksgiving Day was filling coffee and Kool-Aid. This was perfect because it forced me to interact and get to know some of the clients in a different way. This was a real paradigm shift, and something that took me out of my comfort zone and provided a new personal achievement for me. I found the clients, for the most part to be engaging, interesting, and polite. They were so genuinely grateful that I was taken aback by the sheer emotionality of the situation.
Because of this Holiday experience, I continued on with the shelter a minimum of two days per week. I quickly found that one of the issues that seemed to be holding many…
Housing and Urban Development, Dept. (2010). "Chronic Homelessness." HUD.GOV.
Cited in: http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/homeless/chronic.cfm
U.S. Conference of Mayors. (December 2009). "Hunger and Homelessness."
USMAYORS.ORG. Cited in:
Homelessness and the Effect it Has on Social Health
Few people acknowledged that there was anything like homelessness in the rural areas in Canada. Indeed, it is possible that it was never even thought of Assessment of the needs of homeless people in rural areas in Canada is almost nonexistent. There is clearly biased focus on the urban areas. Issues affecting non-urban and rural homeless communities are overlooked. Therefore, there has been little research directed to such locations. eports of the existence of homelessness emerged in the last decade after reliable reports cast light on the phenomenon and its uniqueness (Christensen, 2011). Homeless people in rural areas face such challenges as lack of social services, harsh climate and sparsely populated places. There are reports to the effect that people are living in dilapidated conditions and overpopulated spaces (Christensen, 2012; Schiff, Schiff, Turner & Bernard, 2015).
It is reported that there…
Christensen, J. (2012). 'They want a different life': Rural northern settlement dynamics and pathways to homelessness in Yellowknife and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. The Canadian Geographer/Le Geographe Canadien, 56(4), 419-438.
Christensen, J. B. (2011). Homeless in a homeland: Housing (in) security and homelessness in Inuvik and Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: McGill University.
Echenberg, H. & Jensen, H. (2008). Defining and enumerating homelessness in Canada. Ottawa: Library of Parliament (PRB 08-30E).
Gaetz, S., Donaldson, J., Richter, T. & Gulliver, T. (2013). The state of homelessness in Canada. Retrieved from http://homelesshub.ca/resource/state-homelessness-canada-2013 on 11 May 2016
Care for Populations
When it comes to the well-being of the overall population, community and public health are both vital areas to consider. However, how the community rallies around its members and how it bands together in times of crisis are not the only kinds of issues that have to be looked at. Those are important, but it is the day-to-day workings of a community that provide more indication as to how it treats the population and whether an overall sense of well-being can be expected. How that same community responds to public health issues is also worthy of consideration. If a community does not take public health seriously, that could be very disastrous for the overall population. Sickness can spread quickly when people are not taking care of themselves and one another.
It also spreads when the people in a community are not focused on the severity of the…
Barzilai, G. (2003). Communities and law: Politics and cultures of legal identities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Chipuer, H.M., & Pretty, G.M.H. (1999). A review of the sense of community index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6): 643-658.
Cohen, A.P. (1985). The symbolic construction of community. Routledge: New York.
Garrett, L. (2000). Betrayal of trust: the collapse of global public health. New York: Hyperion.
He is made at himself for not coming to terms with himself earlier in life and he is mad at himself for spending so much time "giving his love" to people - men -- who didn't deserve it. He says that if he could go back, he would go to school, he would embrace who he is, he would be honest with family about his sexuality, and he would have found a spiritual life sooner. Bruce is quite spiritual now. He is no longer Baptist, but rather he has taken up belief in the tenets of Buddhism, which he claims has brought him much peace inside as well as has made him more tolerant of others -- including whites.
One interesting fact about Bruce is that he says that he has never had a very strong identity to gay men either -- whether they are white or black. He seems…
Gay Men of African Descent (GMAD). (2010). Gay men of African Descent. Accessed on October 28, 2010: http://www.gmad.org/index.html
Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice
(3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Evidence-based nursing interventions that will provide quality care to vulnerable populations
There is evidence in innovative health programs whose outcomes are Hospice care with increased patient and caregiver satisfaction costs lower than the conventional care; programs with community-based care reduces the severity of symptoms and results in a rapid functioning; for the frail elderly, it results in improved satisfaction; Patient empowerment, especially with the frail elderly and disabled adults, brings satisfaction and knowledge about their care; for the mentally ill, it lowers the rate of homelessness and for patients with diabetes or congestive heart failure, it decreases the morbidity. Usually, the beneficial effects were limited to the duration of the intervention (Aday, 2001).
There is evidence for enhanced patient satisfaction in the health care that emphasize continual care, multidisciplinary approaches, patient empowerment, and innovative approaches. Health care providers should also practice evidence-based care as it demonstrates the effectiveness. Patients with…
The Obama Administration had pledged to end veteran homelessness, an interesting pledge given the myriad of complex reasons why people become homeless. But they were able to make progress towards that objective. The White House announced in 2016 that it had be able to cut veteran homelessness by 47% as of 2016 (Zoroya, 2016). The number living on the street was reduced 56% during the 2010-2016 time period. This was the result of a number of different approaches, which highlight the way that policy is addressed in this area.
The project to end veteran homelessness was the result of a coordinated effort by two departments, the Bureau of Veteran Affairs (VA) and Housing & Urban Development. The VA cites three components of its plan: conducting outreach to seek out veterans in need; connecting homeless and at-risk veterans with housing solutions; and collaborating with various government agencies, employers, housing…
Homelessness is a pervasive problem worldwide, and a clear reflection of imbalances in social and political power. In Tampa the situation is no different. About 10,000 individuals are currently homeless in the Tampa Bay area, according to the University of Tampa's The Minaret newspaper. hat is remarkable about the problem of homelessness in Tampa and elsewhere is the lack of knowledge and understanding about the phenomenon. The media misrepresents and underrepresents the population of homeless people. Homelessness is highly stigmatized, causing the large populations of homeless people to be traumatized even more than they already are by the nature of their situation. This essay intends to educate the public about the issue of homelessness in Tampa, showing how the problem is systemic and requires a genuine shift in consciousness on the part of Hillsborough County residents.
The prevailing misconception about homelessness is that it is somehow a choice. hile…
Homeless Coalition of Hillsborough County. Retrieved online: http://www.homelessofhc.org/
Kick Starter. Retrieved online: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/wave/tampa-co-working-only-you-can-end-high-tech-homele
Metropolitan Ministries. Retrieved online: http://www.metromin.org/
The Minaret. "Retort to the Article on the Homeless in Tampa." The Minaret. Retrieved online: http://theminaretonline.com/2011/03/31/article17563
Rising Poverty and Homelessness
NOT TO E IGNORED
Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families, Children and Homelessness
Census ureau (2010) reported that, for the three consecutive years, the number of people living in poverty has been increasing and reached 46.2 million or 15% of the total population. Overall poverty rate for all U.S. families went up from 9.8% in 2007 to 11.7% in 2010. Recession in the late 2007 has strongly cut through all ages, both genders and all race-ethnic groups. ut the most severely affected are young families, headed by adults under 30, with one or more children. This condition is seen to assert long-lasting negative effects of children's cognitive achievement, education, nutrition and physical and mental health as well as social behavior. These developments are likely to have long-term consequences on the nation's economy and social future U.S. Census ureau). ut professionals and parents can buffer these…
Aratani, Y. (2009). Homeless children and youth. National Center for Children and Poverty: Columbia University. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_888.html
Ascend (2012). Two generation, one future. The Aspen Institute: Family Economic
Security Program. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs.ascend-Report-022012.pdf
Conrad N. Hilton Foundation (2012). Supporting homeless young children and their parents. The National Center on Family Homelessness: familyhomelessness.org.
Depressive Symptoms Among Homeless Adolescents
The research and subsequent data analysis aims at showing the relationship that there is between the factors that the interviewees will give and the depression rates among the homeless adolescents of below 20 years of age. The data that will be collected will be predominantly qualitative since this is a social science that seeks to understand the reason why the homeless adolescents get depressed and to find out whether the depression causes the homelessness/came before being homeless or if the depression set in after being homeless. The data analysis will seek to show the statistical correlation between the variables that will be recorded. The strength of the correlation will be derived from the similarity of answers on what caused their depression and the damage or effects that it caused in their life. The data analysis will look into central tendency trends like the mean, mode…
MedicineNet, Inc. (2012). Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens: A Parent's Guide. Retrieved April 17, 2015 from http://www.medicinenet.com/bipolar_disorder_in_children_and_teens/article.htm
Human Services Intervention for the Homeless
Working with homeless people is one of the challenging tasks in the social sector. Similar to other social worker position, supporting homeless people can be very difficult and challenging because most of the homeless people are a drug addict, jobless, and suffer from mental disorders. Homelessness is a condition without having access to a regular dwelling. Thus, homeless are people who are unable to acquire safe, regular, and secure housing units. Thus, anybody cannot just work with this set of the population, social workers or other professionals ready to work with this set of people should possess interpersonal skills to work successfully with them.
The objective of this paper is to address the interpersonal skills to work homeless.
Interpersonal skills to work with Homeless
A strong communication skill is one of the interpersonal skills needed to work with homeless people. A social or health…
Finfgeld-Connett, D. Bloom, T.L. & Johnson, E.D. (2012). Perceived Competency and Resolution of Homelessness Among Women With Substance Abuse Problems. Qualitative Health Research
Finfgeld-Connett, D. (2010). Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 31, 461-469.
Federal Government in Dealing with Homelessness
Over time, the United States of America has experienced what can in some quarters be referred to as surprising levels of homelessness. This is regardless of the fact that the U.S. remains one of the most powerful countries in the world. With that in mind, the need for the government to take a larger role in providing an effective program to address the issue of homelessness cannot be overstated.
Homelessness in America: An Overview
According to a report formulated and prepared for Congress by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, although the federal government has made significant progress in reducing the number of homeless veterans and the chronically homeless, "it probably will not reach its goal of ending homelessness among these two populations by 2015" (Lowrey, 2012). This is a clear indicator that the government needs to double its efforts in an…
Lowrey, A. (2012, December 10). Homeless Rates in the U.S. Held Level Amid Recession, Study Says, but Big Gains are Elusive. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/us/homeless-rates-steady-despite-recession-hud-says.html?ref=housingandurbandevelopmentdepartment
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013, Feb 5). Affordable Housing. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Department website: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing
risk of progression when a person is exposed to the tuberculosis bacilli to the formation of active illness is a two-stage process that is directed by both endogenous and exogenous risk factors.
Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly, endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease (Narasimhan, Wood, MacIntyre, & Mathai, 2013, p. 1).
Certain risk factors that have been well-established such as HIV, young age, and malnutrition could exist alongside certain emerging variables like alcohol, indoor air pollution, tobacco smoke, and use of immunosuppressive drugs making the risk for contracting the disease that much higher. Joel is a heavy smoker, homeless, and an alcoholic. It is highly likely he is malnourished and is exposed to…
Collinson, S. (2014). Homeless with TB? Housing Should Be Part of the Treatment, not Part of the Problem. Journal of Social Inclusion, 5(2), 1. Retrieved from https://josi.journals.griffith.edu.au/index.php/inclusion/article/view/547
Kurbatova, E., Cegielski, J., Lienhardt, C., Akksilp, R., Bayona, J., & Becerra, M. et al. (2015). Sputum culture conversion as a prognostic marker for end-of-treatment outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a secondary analysis of data from two observational cohort studies. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3(3), 201-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600 (15)00036-3
Narasimhan, P., Wood, J., MacIntyre, C., & Mathai, D. (2013). Risk Factors for Tuberculosis. Pulmonary Medicine, 2013, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/828939
Onozuka, D., & Hagihara, A. (2014). The association of extreme temperatures and the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan. Int J Biometeorol, 59(8), 1107-1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0924-3
Victims of Domestic Abuse
The disadvantaged population that I chose is victims of domestic violence. I choose this population since it is a global problem whose scope is wide and, in America alone according to the Centers for Disease Control (2003), annually affects more than 25 million American women. It is also more hopeful, in a way, than other social problems in that with sufficient attention and information, and, with knowing what to do, it can be prevented.
Challenges that victims of domestic abuse violence face vary from country to country in their severity as they are also controlled by socio-economic and ethnic variables (as most problems are). In all countries, women are considered 'second-rate' individuals; some countries, however, share this perception more intensely than others. In Spain, for instance, female victims of domestic abuse would be more severely challenged than they may, for instance, be in America due to…
Abbott, P. & Williamson, E. (1999). Women, Health and Domestic Violence. Journal of Gender Studies 8 (1): 83 -- 102.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (March 2003). "Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States." Atlanta, Georgia
Jewkes, Rachel (April 20, 2002). Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention. Lancet 359 (9315): 1423 -- 9.
National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics
Homelessness in America
hen discussing the United States' current economic crisis, comparisons with the Great Depression are becoming more common. Tent cities or makeshift shelters in specified areas or just beyond city limits are becoming familiar sites across the country. Each of these 'cities' contains dozens if not hundreds of families struggling to just survive (Maide "Top Causes of Homelessness in America"). Homelessness in America should be a growing concern, yet the government's preoccupation with the problems on all Street and in the Middle East leaves little for America's poor and disadvantaged.
Homelessness can be defined as the lack of a permanent, safe and affordable night-time residence. The exact statistics on homelessness are difficult to ascertain, as the precise number of people who experience homelessness is ever changing. Recently it's been estimated that about 1.6 million are people living in emergency shelters or transitional housing. In a study conducted in…
An, Catherine. "National Alliance to End Homelessness Reponds to Increased Shelter Use Among Families, Reduction in Homelessness among Individuals." National Alliance to End Homelessness. June 16, 2010. Africana Online. 7 July 2011
"Homelessness in America." Homelessness in America. (2010). 6 December 2011. < http://homelessnessinamerica.com/ >
Lendman, Stephen. "Growing Homelessness in America." Balitimore Chronicle & Sentinel. May, 21 2010. 7 July 2011.
Maide, Jeff. "Suddenly Homeless in America." Ezine Articles. March 24, 2010. 5 July 2011.
" (Finnerty, 2008) It is reported that those who suffer from co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse problems are also likely to be homeless. According to the Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians' Network (2000) "Co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse makes it more likely that people will be chronically homeless." (cited in Finnerty, 2008) Factors that are known to contribute to homelessness in those with co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse include factors such as: (1) Financial problems; (2) Loss of family support; (3) Severity of symptoms; and (4) Time spent in institutions such as jails or hospitals. (runette, Mueser and Drake, 2004 in: Finnerty, 2008) Padgett and Struening (1991) state that substance abuse and mental disorders "…increase the health care needs of homeless persons, whose primary source of care is often the emergency room.
The work of Padgett et al. (2006) reports having interviewed a group of women…
1. Brunette, Mary F., Kim T. Mueser, and Robert E. Drake. 2004. "A Review of Research on Residential Programs for People With Severe Mental Illness and Co-occurring Substance Abuse Disorders." Drug and Alcohol Review 23:471-81.
2. Creating Homes Initiative. (2010). TN Department of Mental Health and Developmental
Disabilities. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.tennessee.gov/mental/recovery/CHIpage.html
3. Finnerty, Jacqueline (2008) Homelessness and Mental Illness Literature Review. 30 Apr 2008. Sociological Analysis. Online available at: http://www.unh.edu/sociology/media/pdfs-journal2008/Finnerty2EDITED.pdf
This was equivalent to those youth utilizing ongoing, long-term services (Pollio, Thompson, Tobias, eid and Spitznagel, 2006).
There are several significant limitations that must be considered when looking at the results of this study. First, there was lack of a control group which limits the conclusions that can be drawn concerning causal assertions about the effectiveness of services. It is thought that future research on service use for this population needs to include a comparison condition of other troubled youth, perhaps runaway/homeless youth not seeking crisis services. Features of the sampling strategy limited the generalization of the findings. Since the sample included only service-using youth, it is not generalizable to the entire runaway/homeless population. The authors believed that the youth in this sample were representative of the population of service-using runaway/homeless youth from Missouri, Illinois, Nebraska, and Kansas. However, other research has suggested that this population is not representative…
Pollio, David E., Thompson, Sanna J., Tobias, Lisa, Reid, Donna and Spitznagel, Edward.
(2006). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter
Services. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 35(5), p. 852-859.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
eattle has been a leader in the United tates in trying to eradicate the homeless problems that arise in every city. ince the 1970's, the citizens of the city have agreed to tax increases (more than four times (Farestart, 2009) to address this issue. The following case analysis looks at the city's policy regarding finding shelter for all homeless families and single women.
Major Policy Concepts
Most analysts agree that the primary reason that there is a great degree of homelessness in eattle is the lack of affordable housing in the city (Kerns, 2011). The policy in the case suggests that the homeless be given greater access to affordable housing and shelters. However, there is a problem stated with this part of the policy also. Housing in eattle is not just expensive for the citizens of the city, it is expensive to build for the city government (Tong,…
Shay, S. (2011). Homeless 'One Night Count' numbers decrease. West Seattle Herald. http://www.westseattleherald.com/2011/01/30/news/homeless-one-night-count - numbers-decrease
SKCCH. (2012). Everyone counts. Retrieved from http://homelessinfo.org/one_night_count/
Tong, C. (2011). Seattle homelessness a long-standing problem with no easy solution in sight. The International Examiner. http://seattlepostglobe.org/2011/02/03/seattle - homelessness-a-long-standing-problem-with-no-easy-solution-in-sight/
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…
1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300
2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html
3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread. http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt
4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…
Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) The Evolution of American Society,
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-189824
Jacobs, Jane. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New
York, Vintage Books. ISBN:067974195X
Massey, D. and N. Denton. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the
Women and AIDS in New York City:
Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems
Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.
The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.
How widespread is the problem?
A look at recent…
Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hai
Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.batf.net/ .
Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.criany.org/treatment/treatment_edu_springupdate1998.html
Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.cdcnpin.org/topic/stats.htm .
Dropping the interest rates and doing other things to make consumers breathe a little easier when they make a purchase shows that the country is pulling together, which is something that the recession is teaching almost everyone in America - that people are all alike in many ways, and they need to help each other out as much as possible.
Is the fiscal policy maneuvering a good idea? Many people think that using fiscal policy is not a good idea to try to stimulate the economy. The reason for this is that fiscal policy has a built-in system of checks and balances. For example, when the unemployment rate rises, the amount paid out in unemployment benefits also rises. It is just the way the system works. Many think that people mess with that system at their own peril. The concern is that the whole thing will get out of balance…
Baucus, Max. (2002). Economic Stimulus Package for 2003. United States Senate. http://finance.senate.gov/press/pr121902a.pdf .
Becker, G.S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy 76:169-217.
Bertot J. (2001). Measuring Service Quality in the Networked Environment: Approaches and Considerations. Library Trends, 49(4):758-775.
Blitz B, Hamasu C, Sandstrom H. (2001). The Focus Group: A Tool for Programme Planning, Assessment, and Decision-Making -- an American View. Health Information and Libraries Journal, (1):30-37
Both interviewees and quantitative data indicators point to a criminal justice system in that has been positively impacted by a new ecological presence, the MHC. (Trupin, and Richards 52).
To sum up, while information is not completely conclusive, it is likely that the movement of deinstitutionalization has a direct relationship with the increase in the population of the mentally ill populations in jails and prisons. Many mental hospitals have been closed altogether. These hapless patients have been transferred to overworked community-based mental health clinics. This results in the dissipation of these patients over a wide variety of health care institutions. However, there is a great increase in the amount of mentally handicapped individuals amongst the jail and prison population. For this reason, there is a need for the expansion of mental-health services among the prison population. Also, mental health courts promise to provide relief.
"BJA Programs Mental…
"BJA Programs Mental Health Courts Program." Bureau of Justice Assistance. Office of Justice Programs, 2011. Web. 29 Nov 2011. .
"Deinstitutionalization: A Psychiatric Titanic." PBS.org. PBS, 2005. Web. 28 Nov 2011. .
Deas-Nesmith, D., and S. McLeod-Bryant. "Psychiatric Deinstitutionalization and Its Cultural Insensitivity." Journal of the National Medical Association. 84.12 (1992): 1036-1040. Print.
Lamb, H. Richard, Weinberger,, and Bruce H. Gross. "Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: Some Perspectives." Psychiatric Quarterly. 75.2 (2004): 107-126. Print.
Understanding and Assessing Communities
The community studied for the immersion project was based in Riverside, CA, between the University of Riversdale and the downtown area of Riverside. A community can be thought of as any location in which the people have a sense of cohesiveness. The cohesiveness can be a result of a wide variety of different factors such as proximity, shared resources, beliefs, political affiliations, needs or many other factors. The area studied is a walkable community that stretches from a ten mile area from one end of University Blvd. To the other end of University Blvd. Understanding the various aspects that influence community members within a location can be beneficial to social workers because they can relate to the individuals better. By understanding an individual's surroundings, a social worker can be more empathic to the unique challenges people face.
General Description of the Immersion Community
Alvarez, Y. (2011, May 9). Report: Riverside County's homeless population has doubled. Retrieved from Soutwest Riverside New Network: http://www.swrnn.com/2011/05/09/report-riverside-countys-homeless-population-has-doubled/
Riverside County. (N.d.). Board of Supervisors. Retrieved from Riverside County California: http://www.countyofriverside.us/government/boardofsupervisors.html
Riverside. (N.d.). City Council Ward 1 - Mike Gardner. Retrieved from City Counsil: http://www.riversideca.gov/council/ward-1.asp#goals
Rokos, B. (2012, April 12). RIVERSIDE: After warning, illegal homeless encampments flattened. Retrieved from The Press-Enterprise: http://www.pe.com/local-news/breaking-news-headlines/20120412-riverside-after-warning-bulldozers-hit-homeless-encampment.ece
Entrepreneurship: Nurse-Owned Clinics and Beyond Mobile FNP (Family Nurse Practitioners)
There are over 125,000 NPs (nurse practitioners) in the U.S., as per estimates of the AANP (American Academy of NPs). Compared to physician assistants, NPs enjoy greater autonomy and responsibility, and have been increasingly assuming roles in administrative leadership, aside from their conventional patient-care duties at clinics and hospitals. However, owing to the thorough knowledge required to succeed within private practice settings, NPs often establish independent practices after many years of experience at healthcare centers such as hospitals, in the role of salaried NPs (Furlow, 2011).
According to the Chief Executive of the NNCC (National Nursing Centers Consortium), Tine Hansen-Turton, a substantial growth has been observed in nurse-run health clinics, before as well as subsequent to the implementation of the ACA (Affordable Care Act). She claims the number of nurse-run clinics across the nation has now grown to five-hundred; this…
Aiken, L.H. & Sage, W.M. (1992). Staffing national health care reform: a role for advanced practice nurses. Akron Law Review, 26. Retrieved from https://www.uakron.edu/dotAsset/3ed241d2-f4fa-4afe-aca6-deacf419abcb.pdf
Fraino, J.A. (2015). Mobile nurse practitioner: A pilot program to address service gaps experienced by homeless individuals. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 53. Retrieved from http://repository.usfca.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=health_stu
Furlow, B. (2011, May 30). Business advice for nurse practitioners considering private practice. Clinical Advisor. Retrieved from http://www.clinicaladvisor.com/your-career/business - advice-for-nurse-practitioners-considering-private-practice/article/203953/
Helseth, C. (2010, May 7). Advanced practice nurses fill health care gaps in rural areas. Rural Health Information Hub. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/rural- monitor/advanced-practice-nurses-fill-gaps/