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Sexual orientation is the endurance of a personal quality which inclines people into having sexual or romantic attractions to people of; same sex, opposite sex or both sexes or even more than one gender. These attractions are categorized as heterosexuality, homosexuality and bisexuality respectively. These categories form the aspects of the nature of an individual's sexual identity. In short, sexual orientation is an individual's sense of identity which is on the basis of the attractions they have, membership in a community and related behaviors of others who have similar attractions (McDermott, 2012).
Homosexuality is not a mental disorder; homosexual behaviors are in fact very normal aspects existing in human sexuality.
People, and in particular the young experience some disadvantages due to their sexual orientation. This includes mental health issues, homophobic bullying, being rejected friends and family. This discrimination and prejudice mainly targets sexual orientations termed as unacceptable by society…
American Psychological Association. (2013). Sexual orientation and homosexuality. Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sexual-orientation.aspx
American Jewish Committee, (2000). What Is Wrong with Gay Marriage. Commentary, vol. 110: p. 35.
David Blankenhorn, (2008). Protecting Marriage to Protect Children. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://articles.latimes.com/2008/sep/19/opinion/oe-blankenhorn19
The support for gay marriage is new, and no longitudinal sociological studies even exist that would prove the effects of having same-sex parents.
Even religion is used to support gay marriage and homosexuality. The Quaker religion has spoken out in favor of homosexuality and gay marriage: "Love has many shapes and colors and is not finite. It can not be measured or defined in terms of sexual orientation," (cited by Religious Tolerance). However, Christians believe that the word of the Bible is supreme. The Bible clearly advises against homosexuality in passages such as Leviticus 18:22. Furthermore, love between two people of the same sex is not the same as sexual intercourse between two people of the same sex. e can love our best friends but not want to have sex with them. Religions that encourage universal love draw the line at fornication.
Therefore, religion is a reason to oppose homosexuality…
"Gay Marriage." PEW Forum. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://pewforum.org/gay-marriage/
Herek, Gregory M. "Hating Gays: An Overview of Scientific Studies." PBS Frontline. Retrieved Apr 2, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/assault/roots/overview.html
Religious Tolerance. "Homosexual (Same-Sex) Marriages." Retrieved Apr 2, 2009 from http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_marr.htm
Gay Serial Killers
Serial killers continue to hold a fascination on the American public. The crimes of this subset of murderers are frequently sexualized in nature, which perhaps adds to the titillation in media coverage. It is worth observing that many of the most widely-publicized serial murder cases of the past fifty years or so have involved gay or lesbian serial killers: Jeffrey Dahmer remains a household name even in 2014, but other cases such as Aileen Wuornos, John Wayne Gacy, Bob Berdella, Dean Corll, and (in the U.K.) Dennis Nilsen have received substantial publicity. (Wuornos and Gacy have each been the subject of Hollywood films.) It is worth investigating whether the issue of sexual orientation -- as a possible source of social stigma or generalized antisocial deviance -- has been linked to the pathology of serial murder. In an era of rapidly-changing social attitudes toward homosexuality, it is worth…
Ball, R.A. (1989). Serial murder. Contemporary sociology 18(4): 594.
Basilio, M. (1996). Corporal evidence: Representations of Aileen Wuornos. Art Journal 55(4): 56-61.
Broomfield, N. (1992). Aileen Wuornos: The selling of a serial killer. Columbia-TriStar. DVD.
Broomfield, N. (2002). Aileen: Life and death of a serial killer. Columbia-TriStar. DVD.
Seo, who teaches at Yonsei University of Korea, created a homosexual student organization in 1995 called "Come Together." He states that "it would not be an overstatement to say that this was the first social movement through which homosesxuals could effect changes in their lives. The movement went beyond the ghettoized and marginalized locales, such as bars, theaters and saunas, where homosexual cultural and sexual activities were performed."
After the creation of Come Together, Seoul National University established another activist group called "Maum001" meaning "Heart 1% (1% of homosexual rights achieved). A loosely organized homosexual group Ch'odonghoe which was created a year before in 1994, was split into a gay group and a lesbian group, into stronger, more cohesive forces on their own.
As evident, the organizational forces of gays in Korea were bursting out just around 1995. There are two factors, one of the past and one of the…
However, biologists have discredited the natural law theory since researchers discovered that "homosexual behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large number of human societies," (Herek 2009). In fact, anthropologists found that homosexuality is not uncommon among the world's diverse societies (Herek 2009).
In most cultures, homosexuality has been condemned, sometimes severely so. Some American colonies passed shockingly cruel laws that were overt extensions of religious points-of-view: "male and female homosexual acts were punishable by death," (Herek 2009). State sanctioned persecution of homosexuality continues even in societies that guarantee equal protection of the law and which prohibit state-sanctioned religious doctrine such as the United States. Homosexual persons are prohibited from entering into a marriage contract in the United States: which by definition constitutes discrimination. Several states in America have lifted their restrictions on gay marriage, but the federal government has yet to take a stance that expressly…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2006). Homosexuality: Facts for teens. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/children/teens/sexuality/739.html
Herek, G.M. (2009).Facts about homosexuality and mental health. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/HTML/facts_mental_health.htmL
Irvine, C. (2009). Tony Blair says Pope's views on homosexuals is wrong. Telegraph.co.uk. 8 April 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/religion/5122525/Tony-Blair-says-Popes-views-on-homosexuals-is-wrong.html
Kouki, G. (1997). Homosexuality: Giving your point-of-view. Stand to Reason. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5302
Homosexuality as Seen From Three eligious Perspectives
One of the most controversial issues today is the notion of homosexuality. To many, it is an individual right to love who one wants to love. Yet, often with various religious perspectives, homosexuality becomes one of the most condemned moral concerns. The religions of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity are all very closely related. They share basic, fundamental elements which makes their monotheistic religions similar in a lot of ways. One way they are similar is in their views of homosexuality. Most of the more conservative members of these religions tend to condemn it.
Islam, like the other religions, has various degrees of condemnation of homosexuality. More liberal Muslims often do not have any concern about homosexuality. Still, there are many who would consider themselves liberal and acceptant of others being homosexuality, but generally concerned with members of their own religion being homosexual. Out…
Goodstein, Laurie. (2013). Pope says Church is obsessed with gays, abortion and birth control. New York Times. Web. http://www.nytimes.com /2013/09/20/world/europe/pope-bluntly-faults-churchs-focus-on-gays-and-abortion.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Pew Research Center. (2013). In gay marriage debate, both supporters and opponents see legal recognition as inevitable. Section 3: Religious Belief and Views of Homosexuality. Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. Web. http://www.people-press.org/2013/06/06/section-3-religious-belief-and-views-of-homosexuality/
Religion Facts. Religious views on homosexuality: Comparison chart. Homosexuality. Web. http://www.religionfacts.com/homosexuality/comparison_chart.htm
Homosexuality in Shakespeare's Tragedies
Elements of sexuality and lust are very openly present in the works of Shakespeare's tragedies. No matter if one is reading Othello, Hamlet or Romeo and Juliet, one can't deny the frequent allusions to concepts such as love and lust, hatred and desire, want and self-absorption, even violence as they relate to relationships and sexuality. This common theme pervaded much of the work that was written during the time of Shakespeare, and is evident even of great works today. Has the work of Shakespeare, especially as written and revealed in the tragedies however, been adequately explored? Has society achieved ultimate understanding of all the deep seated desires of Shakespeare's work, or are there hidden themes related to sexuality that have yet to be uncovered?
Shakespeare's tragedies undoubtedly reveal the emotions involved when portraying characters filled with love and lust, desire and feeling toward one another in…
Bewley, Marius. Masks & Mirrors. New York: Anthem, 1970
Bevington, David, Ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company,
Brown, Carolyn E. The Wooing of Duke Vincentio and Isabella of Measure for Measure: The Image of it
Gives Them Content. Shakespeare Studies, 1994, Vol. 22.
Homosexuality and Religion
Homosexuality & Religion
Homosexuality and Religion
Teachings of Roman Catholic Church
Pastoral care of Homosexuals
Views of Protestants
Episcopal Church on Homosexuality
Religion and Discrimination against Homosexuals
Harm Caused by Discrimination and the Religious Correlation
Homosexuality and Religion
In this research paper the author discusses Homosexuality within religious context. This research paper examines the functioning of policies of discrimination towards non-heterosexuals in Christian churches and determines if these policies are harmful to non-heterosexuals in the church and in the broader social context. The author has discussed in detail history of homosexuality and gay rights movement. The author discussed views of Catholic and Protestants toward homosexuality.
The author starts by defining homosexuality followed by problem statement. The term homosexual is applied to sexual relations between individuals of the same sex. There are increasing numbers of people who are homosexual in the society and so…
While society may decide how a person may sexually express him or herself, certain bodies of institutionalized thought, like churches, have a large effect on how society makes such decisions. As the Christian church is particularly prominent in the United States, many individuals take guidance from the religious directives of its many sects. Christianity provides an environment in which people can be supported and comforted through faith and forgiveness. Religion is, therefore, an important part of the lives of many, because it offers an outlet through which to accept occurrences that are beyond a person's control. Unfortunately, problems arise when certain fundamentalist Christian congregations teach their disciples to negatively target anyone who strays from their accepted norms. The religious support systems that once guided lesbians, gay men, and bisexual men and women appear to turn against them after they proclaim their sexuality.
Churches have also changed from the fundamental beliefs of some Christian faiths, which ban homosexual behaviour, into what are known as gay positive churches. Homosexuals are now offered the choice of changing their type of church, staying in the same one, or stopping church attendance altogether. Religion is only part of the homosexual's life, however. The process of sexual identity awareness is a milestone for the homosexual in and of itself.
Beckstead and Morrow (2004) claimed that people becoming aware of their homosexuality are aware from a young age that they are somehow different from the majority of people around them. This realization
The data showed that homosexuality as a clinical entity does not exist and that it is not inherently associated with psychopathology. Finally, during the 1970s, most psychologist and psychiatrists began working to eliminate the stigma against homosexuals.
Homosexuality, however, presents a number of problems in social relationships, according to studies. In a working paper by Andersson based on data from legally registered same-sex partnerships in Sweden, homosexual male couples were 1.5 times as likely (50% more likely) to "divorce" as married opposite-sex couples. Lesbian couples were 2.67 times as likely (167% more likely) to "divorce" as heterosexual married couples. Similarly Kurdek found that compared with heterosexual cohabiting or married couples, male homosexual couples and lesbian couples were more likely to experience the dissolution of a cohabiting relationship. Homosexuals are also much more prone to suicide (Qin), especially when they are in their teens because they are concerned about not being…
Andersson, Gunnar. "Divorce-Risk Patterns in Same-Sex Marriages in Norway and Sweden" Working Paper Vol. Presented at Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. April 1-3, 2004, 1-28.
APA Online. "Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality." American Psychology Association. Retrieved 09 June 2005. http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/answers.html
Boswell, J. Christianity, social tolerance and homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Ellis, H. Studies in the psychology of sex: Volume 2: Sexual inversion. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 1901.
Homosexuality, Parenthood, And Social Deviance
The article "Lesbian and gay parenting: babes in arms or babes in the woods?" (Mccann, & Delmonte, 2005) examines the nature of parenting in connection with openly homosexual couples and the manner in which the sexual preference of parents affects their children. According to the authors, most of the objections to parenting by gay couples are entirely unfounded. Specifically, males within same-sex couples are actually more likely to be fully involved in their roles as parents than their heterosexual counterparts. Likewise the division of labor and parenting responsibilities in lesbian couples tends to be more equitable than within traditional marriages. Certainly, there is a range of parenting quality within same-sex relationships just as there is within traditional families; however, by comparison, same-sex couples are no less likely to provide stable and healthy environments for children than are opposite-sex parents within the traditional family system.
Mccann, Damian and Delmonte, Howard. "Lesbian and gay parenting: babes in arms or babes in the woods?" Sexual and Relationship Therapy, Vol. 20, No. 3
(August 2005): 333-347.
Schmalleger, Frank. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
The control of persons perceived as dangerous is accomplished partly through public psychosocial discourse on AIDS. The reactions evoked by AIDS are determined not only by its biological nature as a disease but also by historically produced meanings attached to sex, health, and disease (Kaplan, 1990, pp. 337-351).
Purpose of the Study
The assumption is that the position of gays in American society has changed over the last three decades or so and that much of the militancy in the gay community has been successful enough to achieve greater acceptance, a reduction in discrimination (at least in most communities), and that the concerns that come to the fore today are different from those that were given most emphasis in the same community in the past. The purpose of this study is to compare points-of-view of the current generation of homosexuals and lesbians with those of the older generation to see…
Barak, G., Flavin, J., & Leighton, P. (2001). Class, Race, Gender and Crime: Social Realities of Justice in America. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing.
Blendon, R.J. & Donelan, K. (1988, October). Discrimination against people with AIDS: The Public's Perspective. New England Journal of Medicine, 1022-1026.
Escobar, J.M. (1988). Anti-sodomy laws violate the right to privacy. In D.L. Bender and B. Leone. Civil liberties: opposing viewpoints. St. Pau. Minnesota: Greenhaven Press.
Henry, S. (1991, November 11).
d., para. 8). hile homosexuality is not the primary focus of a person's identity that counselors fixate on during these sessions, it is important that counselors take the fact that their client is a homosexual into consideration. By doing this, the counselor can determine whether or not there may be issues associated with their sexual orientation or coming out process that may be affecting other areas of their lives.
Thus, the association between psychology and homosexuality began tumultuous, but has progressed to an era where psychology helps homosexuals understand their position in society and the feelings that they are having regarding their sexual orientation. hat many psychologists once considered a disease is now considered to be normal, and psychologists are even at the forefront of normalizing the behavior. Today, psychologists play an important role in helping homosexuals, a role that each person undergoing the "coming out" process should take advantage…
"Gay brothers may hold genetic clues." (2007, October 15). Retrieved May 22, 2009,
from MSNBC. Web Site: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21309724/
Herek, G.M. (2009). Facts About Homosexuality and Mental Health. Retrieved May 22,
2009, from University of California at Davis. Web Site: http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/Rainbow/html/facts_mental_health.html
Homosexuality: An Analysis of James Baldwin's Giovanni's oom
Introduction to James Baldwin
Ask any "PK"; they'll tell you that, on top of the four odds that were stacked against him as a child, James Baldwin had one additional card piled up against him. As for the first four: 1) he was born a black child in Harlem, New York, in 1924, not a time nor a place renowned for an abundance of opportunities for a bright young man; 2) he was the illegitimate child of a dirt poor domestic worker; 3) he was the oldest of 9 children; 4) when he was three, his mom married a hard, cruel, and brutally strict father who fancied himself a storefront preacher. And the "PK" card - the preacher kid role - getting out of the way of his dad's fists was one thing, but living up to expectations of the congregation, and…
Baldwin, James. Giovanni's Room. New York: The Dial Press, 1956.
Hicks, Granville. "Tormented Triangle: Giovanni's Room." New York Times
Review of Books (1956).
Howe, Irving. Celebrations and attacks: Thirty Years of Literary and Cultural
Homosexuality iologically ased?
NATURE OR NURTURE
Is Homosexuality iologically-ased?
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that approximately 50,000
new HIV infections occur in the United States every year (Yin, 2013). This number is in addition to an estimated 1.2 million already infection, 1 out of 5 of whom is unaware of his or her condition and, thus, cannot be treated. Gay and bisexual men account for a large share of the infected population. The lack of access to adequate healthcare by this population may be explained by the stigma of homosexuality, in addition to the illness, as among the structural factors (Yin). This brings to focus the chronic and much-debated issue on homosexuality and its basis: whether it is genetic or environmental and thus, a matter of choice.
Summary of Positions
Certain studies conducted have suggested that homosexuality is genetic. One is the LeVay Study, conducted by Simon…
Adamcyzk, A. And Pitt, C. (2009). Shaping attitudes about homosexuality; the role of religion and cultural context. Vol. 38 Issue 2, Social Science Research: Elsevier.
Retrieved on February 24, 2013 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089x09000039
APA (2013). Sexual orientation and homosexuality. Help Center: American
Psychological Association. Retrieved on February 24, 2013 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter.sexual-orientation.aspx
Moreover, my view is entirely democratic. e must understand inherently what democracy is. Each person within the democracy is entitled to his or her views. One does not need to base those views on anything. One can take a liberal stance, a conservative stance, or fall at any point along the continuum of views and opinions. You can take your views from subjective interpretation of ancient texts, or from observations you have made about the nature of society and the relative benefits of a particular matter of public policy. I have my opinion that gay marriage is bad, immoral and destructive. I need not support that opinion with anything. I receive a singular vote in each election for elected office and for referendum matters. I vote with my feeling, my conscious and my personal beliefs. That is democracy. That is the most democratic thing one can do, to hold a…
Macedo, S. (n.d.) Homosexuality and the Conservative Mind.
George, R. (n.d.) Neutrality, Equality and "Same-sex marriage"
Adverse esponses to Homosexuality
While adverse responses to behavior viewed as deviant is a common and sometimes essential element of social order, too frequently this tendency goes overboard, such that these adverse responses actually end up disturbing social harmony far more than the perceived deviance. This is nowhere more true than in the case of homosexuality, because not only do homosexuals continue to face adverse responses to their sexual orientation, recent research has demonstrated that homosexual behavior is not actually deviant in terms of frequency or distribution; instead, when homosexuality is criticized as being deviant, in reality it is the acknowledgment of homosexuality as a common and "natural" state of being that deviates from relatively long-standing social conventions. Examining a few specific adverse responses faced by homosexuals alongside recent social and biological research into the phenomenon reveals not only the extent of these adverse responses, but also the way in…
Beeler, J., & DiProva, V. (1999). Family adjustment following disclosure of homosexuality by a member: Themes discerned in narrative accounts. Journal of Marital and Family
Therapy, 25(4), 443-59.
Gomme, I. (2007). The shadow line. (4th ed.). Scarborough: Nelson Education Ltd.
Miller, E. (2000). Homosexuality, birth order, and evolution: Toward an equilibrium reproductive economics of homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29(1), 1-34.
The Hebrew bible also view sexual relations as highly divine (Isaak, 1998). Some suggest that Paul preferred that "Christians remain unmarried" and that sexuality and sexual activity may be akin to human weakness, even though Jesus accepted the "institution of marriage" (Isaak, 1998). The predominant theme in these texts suggest that intercourse outside of marriage is wrong, and as such homosexuality is wrong because it is not conducive to sex in marriage (Isaak, 1998).
Paul basis his distaste of homosexuality on statements in the bible suggesting that the act of men committing sexual relations with men is vile, filthy, dirty and unnatural. The bible clearly states that God gave mankind an instinctual ability to have relations with women and that any other relations were inherently wrong.
Inherent in the bible is a link to marriage and family as "the embodiment of the divine purpose of human sexuality," particularly in the…
Hanigan, J.P. "The centrality of marriage: Homosexuality and the Roman Catholic
Argument." The Ecumenical Review, 50(1): 1998, p. 54.
Hays, R.B. "Relations natural and unnatural: A response to John Boswell's exegensis of Romans 1." Journal of Religious Ethics, 14(1): 1986, pp. 184-215.
Isaak, P.J. "Homosexuality: Dimensions of the issue in church and society in Namibia."
Homosexuality and what rights should be afforded to same-sex couples have been in the forefront of politics for the last few years. Before this, gay people had to fight to get recognized and for their relationships to even be legal. Right now, two very important issues have been about whether gay people should be allowed to get married and whether or not they should be allowed to adopt children (Colombo 79). At the heart of the debate is the definition of a marriage and what it means to really be a family. Those who do not believe in gay marriage feel that this term should only be applied to a union between a man and a woman and this is absolutely true. Gay people should be allowed to live together and be together, but they should not be allowed to get married, nor should they be allowed to…
Colombo, Gary, et.a. Rereading America. Bedford. 2010. 79-105. Print.
Denniston, Lyle. "Same-Sex Marriage III: The Arguments Against." Bloomsberg Law. 2012.
Dobson, James. "Eleven Arguments Against Same-Sex Marriage." Print.
Bisexuality, eroticism, homosexuality, all these concepts have been explored time and time again by the like of Sigmund Freud and seen in movies like the Naked Civil Servant, Maurice, and the Crying Game. These movies helped show not just the lives of homosexuals and transsexuals, but also stigma and conflict often felt by people in a society that does not accept their sexuality. Whether it is by nature or a combination of nature or nurture, sexuality is what defines people. Sexuality is something that should always be regarded as a significant part of a person's identity and life.
It was Sigmund who stated bisexuality was rooted in inversion in 1962. Inversion was a term he used to refer to homosexuality. Freud believed bisexuality stemmed from unsettled struggles happening within one of his distinct psychosexual age-related stages triggering an unconventionality of the "normal" or average sexual instinct. Continuing with his theory,…
Freud, S. (1962). Three essays of the theory of sexuality. Basic Books: A Member of the Perseus Books Group.
Waugh, T. (2000). The fruit machine: twenty years of writings on queer cinema. Durham: Duke University Press.
The suggestion that these cultures developed a role of alternate genders demonstrates a weakness of modern society. The connection of the modern two spirited persons to the past identities could have been clearer. I view this position as a revisionist position rather than a deliberate and purposeful connection to ancestral postures.
In modern western society, the influence religion has shaped the understanding of sexual orientation and same sex behavior. The author shows how religion aided in undermining and eventually destroying centuries of tradition and harmony. The role of religion in the modern debate over homosexuality needs revisiting. Spirituality supersedes religion, and it is possible for persons of all sexual orientations to find and connect to a spiritual base. Religion is required to facilitate this spiritual connection rather than prohibit it.
The fluidity of some of the lesbian individuals in the article was a unique and important portrayal. It suggests that…
But what makes up a positive portrayal of homosexuality in the media? Ellen and Will are both examples from prime-time television, the kind described by Calzo as "laughable, one dimensional figures." Are such one dimensional representations of homosexuals capable of altering a public's perception of homosexuality in a positive way? If so, what is to be said of the erotically-charged representations shown by cable and premium networks, such as Showtime, which airs the L Word?
Sara Netzley (2010) conducted content analysis of 98 episodes of prime time television from 2005-2006. Her quantitative study found that "gay characters on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men." The point is clear and has been understood and acknowledged by Hollywood since 1998's Wild Things and 1999's Cruel Intentions: sex sells, and same-sex sells…
Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father in Funeral
Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html
Bonds-Raacke, J.M., et al. (2007). Remembering gay/lesbian media characters: can
Ellen and Will improve attitudes toward homosexuals? Journal of Homosexuality 53(3), p. 19-34. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18032285
Gay Couples and Child Adoption
Adoption by couples of the same sex has recently been legalized in almost 14 countries, however it has been remained illegal in most of countries as debate spins on in several countries as to whether it should be legalized or not. The concern of the opposing side is whether gay couples are able to adequately provide parenthood.
According to a consensus which was arrived at by psychological, medical as well as social communities, children who have been raised by gay parents are also able to adjust well just like children who are raised by heterosexual parents. This conclusion has also been highly accepted within the developmental psychology field, (Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, 2006). As derived from the available evidence in the field, the Florida's Third Court of Appeal in 2010 was satisfied that this issue was far beyond dispute that it will…
Kathy Belge, (2012). Lesbian and Gay Adoption Rights.About.com Lesbian Life. Retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://lesbianlife.about.com/cs/families/a/adoption.htm
Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner (eds) (2006). Gender issues and sexuality: essential primary sources. Thomson Gale. ISBN 1414403259. Primary resource collection and readings. Library of Congress. Jefferson or Adams Bldg General or Area Studies Reading Rms. Retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/74720998/52/LGBT-adoption
Paige, R.U., (2004). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2004. Minutes of the meeting of the Council of Representatives July 28 & 30, 2004, Honolulu, HI.Retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/governance/.
Stacey, J. & Davenport, E. Queer Families Quack Back, in: D. Richardson & S. Seidman (Eds) Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies. (London, SAGE Publications), 355-374. (2002) http://web.me.com/ecortez1/lgbtfamilies/Adoption/Entries/2009/7/1_LGBT_Adoption.html
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…
Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentaries/171613511.html?refer=y
Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: http://www.nytimes.com /2012/06/12/health/study-examines-effect-of-having-a-gay-parent.html?_r=0
Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from Cnn.com: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-24/opinion/chrisler.gay.parents_1_adoptions-by-gay-people-anti-gay-gay-pride?_s=PM:OPINION
Narth.com. (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from Narth.com: http://www.narth.com/docs/does.html
e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'
No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…
Anitel, S. (2007). Gays' Discrimination at the Workplace Decreases Productivity.
Softpedia. Online at http://news.softpedia.com/news/Gays-039-Work-Discrimination-Decreases-Productivity-70002.shtml
Head, T. (2006). Workplace Discrimination. About: Civil Liberties.
Masci, D. (2008). An overview of the same-sex marriage debate. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Online at http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=288
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that homosexuals should have the right to be legally married. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the historical context, political impact, sociological impact and the psychological and philosophical perspectives of this issue.
Gay Marriage in a historical context
According to Coolidge et al. (2003) marriage provides a legal gateway to many protections and benefits in American society. In fact many of these protections and benefits do not exist outside of becoming legally married (Mcwhirter 2004). These include access to health care and medical decision making for your partner and your children; parenting and immigration rights; inheritance, taxation, Social Security, and other government benefits (Mcwhirter 2004). It is because of these protections and benefits that same sex marriage has become such…
Conger, J.J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
Duncan, D.G. (2004). The Federal Marriage Amendment and Rule by Judges. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 27(2), 543+.
Coolidge, D.O. Wardle, L.D., Strasser, M., Duncan, W.C., (Eds.). (2003). Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate / . Westport, CT: Praeger.
DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G.M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Further arguments that gay marriages do not contribute to the greater good are debatable, based largely on faith-based belief rather than empirical research.
In the 1930s, sociologist Edwin Schur wrote extensively about the idea of victimless crimes. For Schur, victimless crimes involve an exchange of commodities or services that are socially-disapproved. These exchanges are voluntary and do not cause anyone harm (Schur, 3).
Schur himself cited consensual homosexual unions as an example of victimless crimes. Schur writes that society has enacted laws against such deviant behavior based not on any harm these crimes cause, but because these crimes violate prevailing standards of socially acceptable behavior. These standards, however, are fluid and subject to change. Given this, Schur argues that laws against homosexuality, for example, penalize people who should not be labeled as criminals in the first place. Their actions meet the criteria of non-coercion and no harm. Therefore, no one…
Battles, Kathleen and Wendy Hilton-Morrow. "Gay characters in conventional spaces: Will and Grace and the situation comedy genre." Critical Studies in Media Communications, 19, March 2001: 87-105.
Clinton, Bill. "Congress Should Ban Antigay Job Discrimination." In Discrimination. Mary E. Williams, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "Gay Marriage Should Not Be Legal." In Gay Marriage. Kate Burns, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press, 2005.
Gallagher, John. "Homosexuals Seek Equal Rights, Not Special Rights." In Homosexuality Helen Cothran, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
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Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:
Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. Web. 7 Apr 2010. .
"ith such a Biblical event casting its shadow over the theological landscape, how could "gay" advocates sidestep the obvious implication that God considered homosexuality a despicable sin?" (Vitagliano, 2003)
In the eyes of the Church then, homosexuality is an unnatural and sinful behavior simply because it disobeys the heterosexual human relations, as they were initially intended by the Divinity. "It is a sin grievous to God and repulsive to Christians because it rejects God's design for mankind as heterosexual beings" (ildmon, 2007). And its currently increasing acceptance in the contemporaneous community is only based on the desire to be perceived as modern and open-minded, when we should in fact be focusing on how to convince the gays to renounce their habits.
The risks of accepting and allowing gay rights revolve around the emergence of future negative effects. It is like opening Pandora's Box, from which numerous problems will come out,…
Bidstrup, S., Gay Marriages: The Arguments and the Motives, 2004, http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm last accessed on March 31, 2009
Doherty, E., the Hidden Agenda of Homosexual Politics, the Forerunner, November 1993
Herek, G.M., Facts about Homosexuality and Child Molestation, University of California, 2009, http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/facts_molestation.html last accessed on March 31, 2009
Eskridge, W.N., Spedale, D.R., Gay Marriage: For Better or for Worse?: What We've Learned from the Evidence, Oxford University Press, 2006
Gays in the Military
For a long time, the issue of gays serving in the military has largely been contentious though approaches regarding the enlistment of gays in the armed forces differ from country to country. This text concerns itself with gays in the military and the issues, opportunities as well as challenges they face. Further, it highlights the society's contribution to the construction of this group's identity.
Gays in the Military: The Issues, Opportunities and Challenges They Face
It is important to note from the onset that though some countries still have laws prohibiting the enlistment of gays into the military, most developed countries have in the recent past gotten rid of policies seen to exclude gays from enlistment. Currently, gays in the United States can serve openly given the September 2011 lift on the ban prohibiting openly gay individuals from serving in the military (Kevin and Harris, 2011).…
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Edlin, G & Golanty, E. (2011). Human Sexuality: The Basics. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
McVeigh, K. & Harris, P. (2011, September 20). U.S. Military Lifts Ban on Openly Gay Troops. Retrieved February 25, 2012, from The Guardian website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/sep/20/us-military-lifts-ban-gay-troops
Nardi, P.M. & Schneider, B.E. (1998). Social Perspectives in Lesbian and gay Studies: A Reader. Routledge.
Queer Theory and Oscar Wilde
Analysis of "Queer Theory" by Annamarie Jagose in relation to Dorian Gray's character in "The picture of Dorian Gray" by Oscar Wilde
In her discussion of "Queer theory," author Annamarie Jagose provides a distinction between the concepts 'queer' and the dichotomous relationship between 'lesbian' and 'gay.' Jagose argued in her discussion of this theory that queer was a concept that had politically evolved through the years in relation to the proliferation of gay and lesbian studies.
What makes the queer concept vital to the study of gays and lesbians, as well as issues of homosexuality and heterosexuality is that it provides a 'gray area' in which no distinctions between male and female and gay and lesbian are found. Queer appeals to the 20th century philosophers and social scientists simply because it offers an avenue through which gender and sex can be discussed without the political…
Jagose, A. (1996). "Queer Theory." Australian Humanities Review web site. Available at: http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AHR/archive/Issue-Dec-1996/jagose.html.
Wilde, O. (1994). The Picture of Dorian Gray. NY: Penguin Books.
Gay Donor or Gay Dad?
Challenges Faced by Same-Sex Parented Families
The prototypical U.S. family has historically been defined as a heterosexual arrangement that divided responsibilities by gender (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). Men were responsible for earning enough money to keep the family economically viable, while women were responsible primarily for childrearing and household chores.
In the decades since II, the prevalence of the traditional U.S. family has decreased as nontraditional arrangements have increased (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). omen now make up almost 50% of the workforce, in part because a single wage earner is often insufficient to meet the economic needs of many families. The pervasive use of contraception has increased the age at which marriage and pregnancy occurs, and cohabitation, single parents, and same-sex parents are becoming more common.
Based on the 2010 U.S. Census data, heterosexual married parents represent 67.4% of all U.S. families, while…
Bowe, John. "Gay Donor or Gay Dad?" New York Times Magazine 19 Nov. 2006. Web. 29 May 2012.
Farrell, Betty, VandeVusse, Alicia, and Ocobock, Abigail. "Family Change and the State of Family Sociology." Current Sociology 60.3 (2012): 283-301.
Lofquist, Daphne, Lugaila, Terry, O'Connell, Martin, and Feliz, Sarah. "Households and Families: 2010." U.S. Census Bureau Apr. 2010: 1-21. Web. 29 May 2012.
If he is opposed to the law, why speak of upholding it? Obama consistently pursues a cautious, bipartisan policy regarding most major social issues -- despite the substantial lack of bipartisanship on the part of conservatives in the U.S. Congress. He has been willing to sacrifice the once-sacrosanct public option for health care, and does not seem to wish to raise divisive topics such as gay marriage before a legislature whom he is desperately trying to placate.
This is also true regarding the 'don't ask, don't tell policy' regarding gays in the military. Obama's language has been slightly stronger on this issue, perhaps because gay men and women have come out who have served with distinction in Iraq: He has said: "I believe 'don't ask, don't tell' doesn't contribute to our national security. In fact, I believe preventing patriotic Americans from serving their country weakens our national security" (Obcamb 2009).…
"Gay bishop invited to prayer at Obama inauguration event." On Top magazine. January 12,
2009. October 22, 2009
Linkins, Jay. "Obama once supported gay marriage." Huffington Post. February 12, 2009.
Subsequent to his homosexual life, McClurkin had chosen to follow the path of the church, which, he claims, had cleansed him of his "unnatural" behavior. During a recent speech, McClurkin had declared that he does not agree with homosexuality and that the act is a very perverted. (Keith Boykin)
Apart from hiring anti-gay people to run his campaigns, Obama has stated during an interview that he did not directly agree to a marriage between two persons of the same sex. Despite that, he also stated that he does not wish to interfere with people's preferences, as that would mean that he would also interfere with the concept of an American life.
1. Boykin, Keith. (2007). Barack Obama and the Gay Issue. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from Keith Boykin eb site: http://www.keithboykin.com/arch/2007/10/23/barack_obama_an
2. (2008). Obama Says He Is Against Same-Sex Marriage but Also Against Ending Its Practice in Calif.…
1. Boykin, Keith. (2007). Barack Obama and the Gay Issue. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from Keith Boykin Web site: http://www.keithboykin.com/arch/2007/10/23/barack_obama_an
2. (2008). Obama Says He Is Against Same-Sex Marriage but Also Against Ending Its Practice in Calif. Retrieved January 21, 2008 from ABC news Web site: http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/11/obama-on-mtv-i.html
Moral issues should not come to play. Individuals who are against the adoptions do not care about equality or that research does not support their fears. Nor do these individuals care that the American Academy of Pediatrics, among an entire list of other human services and medical organizations for the betterment of children and families has taken a stand that adoption by gay parents and gay parenting in general does not offer real or significant emotional dangers to children. ather, the emotional danger comes when parents -- be they heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual -- abuse their children.
It is how children are raised that is of concern, not who raises them, argues the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children of gay, lesbian and bisexual and transgender parents are similar to children with heterosexual parents with respect to their emotional and personal development. it's the quality of the parent-child…
Dennet, Harley. May 30, 2008. Gay adoption report overdue. Sydney Star Observer
June, 2008. http://www.ssonet.com.au/display.asp?ArticleID=8339
Petre, Jonathan. May 24, 2008. Church pulls out of Catholic agencies over 'gay equality' adoption law. Daily Mail. 5 June, 2008. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1021721/Church-pulls-Catholic-agencies-gay-equality-adoption-law.html
Muskera, Dave. May 14, 2008. A Gay Adoption Head Scratcher American Chronicle
They also offer the word of warning, however, that in being culturally loaded, this position may also be subject to future change. That is, where cultural perceptions of sexual and gender-orientation differences may actually regress, the risk of remedicalization of these conditions remains present. The article does point out that there remain a number of ideologically entrenched groups dedicated to the therapeutic treatment of homosexuality and gender-orientation differences as medical conditions. However, this cautionary note does not overshadow the more generally positive findings of this discussion, which indicate that changes in the therapeutic and medical communities reflect a broader cultural thrust toward equal perception and treatment of those with gender and sexuality orientation differences.
Beredjick, C. (2012). DSM-V to Rename Gender Identity Disorder 'Gender Dysphoria.' Advocate.com.
Bryant, K. (2006). Making Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood: Historical Lessons for Contemporary Debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(3).
Beredjick, C. (2012). DSM-V to Rename Gender Identity Disorder 'Gender Dysphoria.' Advocate.com.
Bryant, K. (2006). Making Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood: Historical Lessons for Contemporary Debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(3).
Conrad, P. & Angell, a. (2004). Homosexuality and Remdicalization. Society, July/August 2004.
Grush, L. (2013). The DSM-5 is here: What the controversial new changes mean for mental health care. Fox News.
Its historical design is founded in the marriage relationship and thus depends wholly thereupon" (85). Advocates of same-sex marriages maintain that gay and lesbian partners need the legal framework of marriage to provide them with the same protections that are enjoyed by their heterosexual counterparts; however, these individuals already enjoy the same constitutional protections afforded all American citizens. According to Coolidge, Duncan, Strasser and ardle (2003), any laws that discriminate on the basis of sex are unconstitutional: "All laws that discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation thereby discriminate on the basis of sex and thus are subject to heightened scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since these laws are not substantially related to any important state interest, they are unconstitutional" (209). It would therefore seem that advocates of same-sex marriages are seeking additional legal protections above and beyond those typically provided.
This warped view of…
Alderson, Kevin G. (2004). "A Phenomenological Investigation of Same-Sex Marriage." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 13(2):107.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Coolidge, David Orgon, William C. Duncan, Mark Strasser and Lynn D. Wardle. Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Wardle, Lynn D. (2001). "Multiply and Replenish': Considering Same-Sex Marriage in Light of State Interests in Marital Procreation." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 24(3):771.
Of this group. 50% were male, 50% were female, 38% were White, 35% were Black, and 16% were Hispanic. Adoption statistics are difficult to find because reporting is not as complete as it should be. The government spent $2.6 billion dollars to conduct the 1990 Census, but still it under-represented minorities and categorized children as "natural or by adoption" without differentiating, while special laws were implemented to "protect" and separate adoption affected families. In 1995, a "continuous" census (instead of every ten years) was proposed but has not been implemented. Even the government cannot rely on its most often cited broad official "guesstimate" of "5 to 10 million adoptees in the U.S." Private agency or independent adoptions account for more than 80% of adoptions in a state like California, but these are difficult to track, particularly when they cross state and country borders. In addition, no one knows how many…
Altstein, H., M. Coster, L. First-Hartling, C. Ford, B. Glasoe, S. Hairston, J. Kasoff, and a.W. Grier (1994, May-June). Child Welfare League of America, 261-269.
Bachrach, C.A., London, K.A. And Maza, P. (1991). On the path to adoption: adoption seeking in the U.S., 1998. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53(3), 705-718.
Barth, R. (1994, September 1). "Adoption research: Building blocks for the next decade." Child Welfare.
Belge, K. (2007). Lesbian and gay adoption rights. Lesbian Life. Retrieved September 28, 2007 at http://lesbianlife.about.com/cs/families/a/adoption_2.htm .
When a child has already been abandoned by his or her biological parents, why would the state not allow for that child to have a brighter future in the care of a couple who would truly care for him or her? In this view, gender plays a miniscule role in the overall well being of the child. ather, "The best interests of the child would certainly be advanced in situations lie those presented here by allowing two adults who actually function as a child's parents to become the child's legal parents," (Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil ights 2004:72). With the concept of legality in terms of a parent-child relationship comes support like no foster parent or orphanage could ever offer. Adoption policies are strict and require parents to meet specific requirements, therefore offering the child the most potential possible. Gay and lesbian couples are no exception…
Avery, Alison; Chase, Justin; Johansson, Linda; Litvak, Samantha; Montero, Darrel & Wydra, Michael. (2007). America's changing attitudes toward homosexuality, civil unions, and same-gender marriage: 1977-2004. Social Work. 52(1):71-83.
Clinton, Kate. (2006). Reading between the Holy lines. The Progressive. 70(5):39.
Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil Rights. (2004). Report on marriage rights for same-sex couples in New York: The Association of the Bar of the City of New York Committee on Lesbian and Gay Rights, Committee on Sex and Law and Committee on Civil Rights. Colombia Journal of Gender and Law. 13(1):70-85.
Severino, Roger. (2007). Or for poorer? How same-sex marriage threatens religious liberty. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy. 30(3):939-945.
This option would, however, allow the opportunity to eliminate the issues that stem from the existing policy and incorporate all of our objectives into our new policy.
The third alternative would also require approval from Congress, but would represent a less radical change. Such changes to the law could include bulking up the protections for homosexuals against harassment (in light of the lack of enforcement on the Don't Harass side of the policy); raising the threshold for discharge; the implementation of due process into the discharge process; or changing the discharge status to protect pension and benefit rights in light of a good service record. This alternative may be easier to implement than an entirely new policy because it would leave the homosexual ban nominally intact. This compromise could potentially be more palatable to both Republicans and military leadership.
The fourth alternative would provide a means to gather more information…
Rodgers, Sam. (2006). Opinions of Military Personnel on Sexual Minorities in the Military. Zogby International. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.palmcenter.org/files/active/1/ZogbyReport.pdf
Lusero, Indra. (2008). Chief Congressional Architect of Military's Gay Ban Ends Opposition to Openly Gay Service. The Michael D. Palm Center. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.palmcenter.org/press/dadt/releases/chief_congressional_architect_of_militarys_gay_ban_ends_opposition_to_openly_gay_service
Shanker, Thom & Healy, Frank. (2007). A New Push to Roll Back Don't Ask Don't Tell. New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com /2007/11/30/us/30military.html?_r=3&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1214709917-GiujWI/uyDJJ85DmeFbEBA
Thompson, Mark. (2008). Don't Ask, Don't Tell Turns 15. Time. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1707545,00.html
The moment when the two fiends fight is essential in having audiences undestand what is actually going on between the two.
The film appeas to follow a typical omance movie stoyline in paallel to the one that involves dugs, as this is like couple getting togethe, beaking up, and eventually getting back togethe as a esult of seveal events that ae vey impotant in making each of them ealize that the othe is special. The moment when they eunite is impessive, as Saul escues Dale fom thei pusues and influences him in saying "You saved me," only to espond with "You came back fo me." Even the individuals sent to follow Dale and Saul, Matheson (Caig Robinson) and Budlofsky (Kevin Coigan) put acoss quee concepts as the fome is jealous egading the latte's inteest in spending the night with his wife at home.
Pineapple Expess is in geneal a unique…
references by involving several drug-related elements in the film and making it particularly funny, in spite of the queer concepts that it put across.
Doty, Alexander. Making things perfectly queer: interpreting mass culture. (U of Minnesota Press, 1993).
Turim, Maureen. "Gentlemen Consume Blondes."
Wilonsky, Robert. "Pineapple Express's True Bromance."
Dir. David Gordon Green. Pineapple Express. Columbia Pictures, 2008.
Homosexuality in the Workplace
There is likely a combination of factors that is causing Nichole to have difficulty communicating with her co-worker that is homosexual. The most prominent of these pertains to the fact that it is obvious that Nichole does not view this coworker as just that, a simple coworker. Instead, she views this coworker in terms of his or sexuality. The reality of this perception of Nichole's is that it is likely rooted in some fundamental, long-term causes. For instance, it is possible that she is a practicing member of a religious denomination that ascribes to the notion that there is some general incorrectness of even perversion in homosexual tendencies. Additionally, Nichole could have had some negative sexual experience in her own life that pertained to homosexuality that gives her an aversion to those of this persuasion. Finally, it is also possible that Nichole simply believes that homosexuality…
Kateri Hernandez, T. (2010). Employment discrimination in the ethnically diverse workplace. Judges Journal. 33-47. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=faculty_scholarship
The Wall Street Journal. (2015). How to increase workplace diversity. http://guides.wsj.com Retrieved from
It delved into the historical record of integration of blacks into the military, public opinions and health risks and unit disruption. It also incorporated the findings of scientific literature on group cohesion, sexuality and relevant health and legal issues and their implementation. Only one policy would fulfill the President's directive. It would consider sexual orientation as not inherent in determining who may serve in the military. It would set a standard of professional conduct for all personnel in the pursuit of good order and discipline. And it would be enforced in every level of the chain of command so as to maintain effective unit performance (Rostker et al.).
Policy for Ending Discrimination
This policy binds all service members to the same standard of professional behavior (Rostker et al., 2000). It draws upon actual conduct, not behavior from presumed sexual orientation. It elicits tolerance and restraint for the good of the…
Burrelli, D.F. And Feder, J. (2009). Homosexuals and the U.S. military: current issues.
CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service: Federation of American
Scientists. Retrieved on March 5, 2010 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL30113.pdf
Roberts, R and Roberts C. (2010). Society ready to accept gays in the military. Topeka Capital-Journal: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on March 5, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4179/is_20100222/ai_n50180056
The problems faced by gays and lesbians are multiplied or intensified because stress cannot be reduced in the way it can be by other minority groups. In other words, while other minority groups would find support from families, the same is not true for gays or lesbians who fail to find any support especially if they have been in the "closet."
Harper et al. 2003 writes: "Minority stress has particular manifestations for LGBT people who cope with pervasive oppression, discrimination, and marginalization by remaining closeted. But unlike other marginalized groups, LGBT people often cannot find support in their family and community of origin. While the "closet" is safe it has its own problems -- the increased stress of hiding. Hiding means that ordinary daily interactions become minefields; it requires constant vigilance to avoid mentioning partners, same-gender attractions or dating experiences, as well as other activities that involve a LGBT community."…
Brooks, V.R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA D.C. Heath.
Donna Chrobot-Mason, Scott B. Button, and Jeannie D. Diclementi, (2001) "Sexual Identity Management Strategies: An Exploration of Antecedents and Consequences," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research
Gary W. Harper, Margaret Schneider; Oppression and Discrimination among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered People and Communities: A Challenge for Community Psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 31, 2003
Gonsiorek, J.C. (1991). The empirical basis for the demise of the illness model of homosexuality. In J.C. Gonsiorek & J.D. Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 115-136). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Such decisions are made by the courts based on personal values, not empirical data. In 1999, the American Psychologist published one of the first research studies on the topic of adoptive parenting. "Deconstructing the Essential Father" (Silverstein & Auerbach, 1999) concluded that successful parenting is not gender specific and children do not need fathers or mothers. ather, any gender configuration of adults could parent equally well. The implication that fathers were not necessary was extremely controversial.
Since then, numerous studies, such as one conducted last year by yan of the University of Texas School of Social Work, and Averett and Nalavany of East Carolina University (2009), show that there is no difference in emotional problems experienced by the children who are adopted by heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents. In order to determine their findings, the study's authors used survey results from parents who adopted children through Florida's public…
ACLU. Website retrieved February 21, 2010. www. http://aclu.org
Biblarz, T, & Stacey, J. (2010) How does gender of parent matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72, 3-22
Brodzinsky DM and the staff of the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute (2003) Adoption by lesbians and gays: A national survey of adoption agency policies, practices, and attitudes, Adoption Quarterly 3(5): 5-23.
Family Research Council. Website retrieved February 21, 2010. http://www.frc.org/
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…
Bandura a. "Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication." Media Psychology 3 (2001): 265 -- 99. Print.
Battles K, and Morrow-Hilton W. "Gay Characters in Conventional Spaces: Will and Grace and the Situation Comedy Genre." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 19.1 (2002): 87 -- 105. Print.
D'Augelli, a.R. "Lesbian and Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences of Harassment and Fear on Campus." Journal of International Violence 7.383-395 (1992). Print.
David P. Pierson. "Hey, They're Just Like Us!" Representations of the Animal World in the Discovery Channel's Nature Programming." J. Pop Cult (2005): 698-712. Print.
Like many other positions that have been presented in opposition to gay marriages, this argument is also largely defective. In the past, several studies have clearly demonstrated that children of heterosexual couples are no different from children raised in a same-sex marriage setting. In one such study, "no differences were found between children raised by heterosexual or same-sex parents in the following four areas: Cognitive development, psychological adjustment, gender identity, or sexual preference partners" (Fiona 36). For this reason therefore, same-sex couples can also "bear" children via adoption and proceed to raise them in a familial environment that is no different from that of a heterosexual couple. As ardle, Strasser, Duncan, and Coolidge note, in some ways, i.e. when it comes to appreciating the diverse world in which we live in, children of same-sex parents could be better off than those from heterosexual households (37).
Approximately 4 decades ago,…
Fiona, Tasker. "Same-Sex Parenting and Child Development: Reviewing the Contribution of Parental Gender." Journal of Marriage and Family 72.1 (2010); 35-40. Print.
Hallowell, Billy. "Be Legal? Supreme Court Tackles This Key Question Today." The Blaze. N.p., 27th March 2013. Web. 14th April 2013 < http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/03/27/does-the-constitution-require-that-gay-marriage-be-legal-supreme-court-tackles-this-key-question-today/ >.
Knox, David, and Caroline Schacht. Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Starr, V. Hale, and Mark McCormick. Jury Selection. 4th ed. New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2012. Print.
Homosexual marriage does not pose a threat to me or my manhood therefore I am for it." Although I am heterosexual, I know what it means to long for union with another human being. I will choose a woman for my partner, but if another man desires to choose one of his own sex, there is no harm for me in his choice. In fact, since we are both part of humanity, his legal union, as does mine, brings positive reinforcement to the institution of marriage.
As early as 400 BC Plato in his Symposium discussed the mystery of sexual desire, concluding that humans are always searching for their other half, having been cut in two as punishment by Zeus. The whole humans that existed before this action, according to Aristophanes, Plato's debating companion, all had two heads, four legs and four arms. They were of three types: some with…
Eskridge Jr., William N. "Equality Practice: Liberal Reflections on the Jurisprudence of Civil Unions." Albany Law Review, 2001, Vol. 64, Issue 3, p 853, 29p. (EBSCO Host version unpaged.)
Eskridge Jr., William N. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage: From Sexual Liberty to Civilized Commitment. New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Ettelbrick, Paula L. "Domestic Partnership, Civil Unions, or Marriage: One Size Does Not Fit All." Albany Law Review, 2001, Vol. 64, Issue 3. ((EBSCO Host version unpaged.)
Halpern, Jake. "Out for a Buck." The New Republic. 8 May 2000, Issue 4451:23.
ame sex marriages' has been a ubiquitous argument for critics, activists, and political commentators for quite some time now. While some critics choose to reflect on the religious and ethical stance of gay and lesbian marriages, Andrew Sullivan chooses to explore the political reasoning behind the prohibition of same sex marriages. The excerpt chosen for critiquing belongs to Sullivan's book Virtually Normal: An Argument about Homosexuality (1995), which highlights the author's personal opinion about gay's and lesbian's right to marriage, political opinions on same sex marriages, and the differences between liberal and conservative party's modes of thoughts and actions regarding same sex marriages.
Introduction of the Author
Andrew Sullivan, himself being of homosexual orientation and married, with HIV positive status, is a devout catholic and a 'conservative' political commentator. Andrew Michael Sullivan rapidly rose to popularity in the first half of the 21st century based on few of…
Barry, P.B. (2011). Social theory and practice, 37(2): 333-356.
Fish, E. (2005). The road to recognition: A global perspective on gay marriage. Harvard International Review, Summer 2005, 32-35.
Harris, A. & Cole, G.W. (2008). Conversation on Marriage for lesbian and gay people: introduction to lesbian and gay marriage roundtable. Studies in gender and sexuality, 9, 140-145.
Sullivan, A.M. (1995). Virtually Normal: An argument about homosexuality. Knopf.
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…
1. Alic, Margaret. Alfred Charles Kinsey. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, second edition. Gale Group, 2001
2. Boeree, George. Personality Theory: Sigmund Freud. 1997
3. Cameron, Paul. The Psychology of Homosexuality. Family Research Report.
Family Research Institute, 1999
If they repent and mend their ways, then let them be, and there is no mention of the punishment and the negativity is not so strong and in other cases of deviant behavior from the religion which result in death."
To understand the propensities of the people therefore it is also necessary to observe the orientation of the population and it is claimed that generally Turkish men, as observed by Lynn a. Levine (2010) express more public affection with men rather than with women and today gayness is becoming open. There are local resources in Turkey today for same sex couples. There is also a magazine run exclusively for gays called the Kaos GL.
This shows that the community has finally accepted the gay culture though not on equal terms. Tolerance seems to have crept in for the larger part of Turkey which is now modernized with European contact. There…
Ayliffe, Rosie. The rough guide to Turkey.
Rough Guides, 2003.
Birch, Nicholas. Was Ahmet Yildiz the victim of Turkey's first gay honor killing? the
Independent, July 19, 2008.
advertising geared to the gay and lesbian communities. Specifically, it will discuss advertising in the context of gay and lesbian culture, and how particular ad campaigns are significant to the gay and lesbian communities. While society has become more accepting of the gay and lesbian lifestyle, there are still many aspects of culture and society that disapprove of the gay/lesbian experience. Traditionally, mainstream advertising has not courted gays and lesbians, but some advertisers have recognized the size and dimensions of the market, and are beginning to break down the barriers in advertising to gays and lesbians in mainstream markets. In the last decade, advertising has become more open, and the gay lifestyle has become more accepted. Advertisers will continue to create new markets to create new opportunities for business and industry, and the gay/lesbian market is still waiting to be fully tapped.
The gay and lesbian lifestyle has existed for…
Author not Available. "Mainstream/B2B Advertising Best Practices." CommercialCloset.org. 2004. 19 July 2004. http://www.commercialcloset.org/cgi-bin/iowa/index.html?page=best
Boyce, David B. "Coded Desire in 1920's Advertising." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.1 (2000): 26-30.
Buford, Howard. "Understanding Gay Consumers." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.2 (2000): 26-28.
Burnett, John J. "Gays: Feelings about Advertising and Media Used." Journal of Advertising Research (2000): 75.
This also becomes clear if we consider other mammals and sexual behavior and orientation in the natural world.
On the other and I do not discount entirely the social and social learning theories about being gay. It would be incorrect to argue rigidly against the view that society, culture and social learning play a significant role in being gay. However, what is also very clear from this research is that being gay is predominantly and in the first instance biologically determined.
In the final analysis, while one can continue to discuss for and against arguments in this debate, for me it is just as important to listen to what gay people say about their feelings and situations. As mentioned in the introduction, many gay people state categorically that they 'have always felt different' and that their sexual preferences are internal and innate rather then learned. These are views that I…
Brookey, R.A. (2001). Bio-Rhetoric, Background Beliefs and the Biology of Homosexuality. Argumentation and Advocacy, 37(4), 171.
BEgue, L., & Apostolidis, T. (2001). Implicit Theories of Reality and Social Differentiation from Gay People. Journal of Social Psychology, 141(1), 132-134.
homosexual teenagers in America. This is because numerous research studies have revealed that both male and female homosexuals are at danger not only from the traditional cultural forces but also from their sexual and non-sexual behavior and habits. Discrimination against homosexuals has been an extensively researched topic. Many scholars have asked for better curriculums and schooling environment for children from all backgrounds so that they grow up to appreciate sexual diversity. People who oppose homosexuality ought to know that this phenomenon is an extremely old tradition and has deep cultural roots and thus should be appreciated like all other ancient cultures. As Carla Mathison (1998) writes "Gay men and lesbians are not identified by their sex, ethnicity, religion, geographic location, socioeconomic or ability level but by their orientation to their own gender that includes, but is not limited to, sexual intimacy. (Carla Mathison, 1998)."
Carla Mathison (1998) further reveals and…
Lisa Armistead and Shira Maguen. Prevalence of Unprotected Sex and HIV-Antibody Testing among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth. The Journal of Sex Research. Volume: 37. Issue: 2. 2000.
Carla Mathison. The Invisible Minority: Preparing Teachers to Meet the Needs of Gay and Lesbian Youth. Journal of Teacher Education. Volume: 49. Issue: 2. 1998.
Connie Callahan. Schools That Have Not Protected and Worked with Gay and Lesbian Students Have Been Sanctioned by the Courts. Education. Volume: 121. Issue: 2. 2000.
Joan F. Kaywell. Using Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers Cope with Family Issues. Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. 1999.
gay couple walks hand-in-hand across campus. A man driving by in a car sees them and shouts, "Fags!" A black student is working late at a local coffee shop. A professor from one of her classes comes in and tries to order a meal. She explains that the coffee shop is closing. He insists, becomes more and more upset until he calls her a "*****" and a "nigger" and stalks away.
Both the gay couple and the young woman have been subjected to extreme verbal abuse. But should the people who said these hateful things be punished? According to Thomas Grey's article, "Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties: The Case of Discriminatory Verbal Harassment," whether or not the speakers should pay a price for their words depends on whether one adopts a civil liberties point-of-view or a civil rights point-of-view.
The civil liberties point-of-view holds that the speakers, though undeniably obnoxious,…
Same-Sex Marriage: The Debate
Same-sex marriage is marriage between partners of the same gender (Wikipedia, 2004). This type of marriage is currently legal in only a few countries around the world. In the United States, the degree of legality of same-sex marriage varies between different states. In the U.S., the debate over whether or not to make same sex marriages legally binding remains one of the most controversial political debates of this century.
The moral legitimacy of marriage between same sex partners hinges on how the authoritative definition of marriage is viewed (Wikipedia, 2004). If marriage is perceived as a religious foundation, the interpretation of religious texts and traditions are key; if marriage is a social institution or an economic coupling, pragmatic arguments hold more force, though moral issues still apply. Gay rights advocates believe that marriage is a right that should not be limited to heterosexual couples. Their opponents…
Gomes, Charlene. (September, 2003). The need for full recognition of same-sex marriage. The Humanist. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage#Controversy .
Morris, David. Langer, Gary. (January 21, 2004). Same-Sex Marriage
Most Oppose It, But Balk at Amending Constitution.
Ost, Jason. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Demographics: A Research Focus of the Urban Institute. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.urban.org/content/IssuesInFocus/GayandLesbianDemographics/researchfocus/gayresearchfocus.htm .
passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.
Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…
Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address http://www.spub.ksu.edu/ISSUES/V099B/SP/n141/opn-gay-rights-lewerenz.html.. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection
Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.
Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address http://www.christianhelps.org/homoagenda.htm . Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
sexual orientation and proclivity, the times are definitely changing. Once, tolerance was something that people simply talked about and did not actually have to practice. Today, tolerance is something that people need to simply keep pace with a number of developments that have impacted various members of the gay, lesbian, and transgender community. Gay pride has become more and more common; there are specific time periods dedicated to this sort of pride. Personally, I have mixed feelings about these developments. There are some scientific and sociological aspects of this phenomenon that seem unsettling, although there are also some noteworthy advancements related to tolerance for which this movement deserves commendation.
One of the most notable aspects of the changes that have affected the lesbian, gay and transgender community pertains to the military. Once, homosexuals were not allowed in the military. It was not uncommon for those who did infiltrate the ranks…
Courting the ainbow Through Advertising and Television
In today's high tech digital virtual world understanding America's diverse cultural matrix has never been more difficult. On a daily basis individuals are continually bombarded by stimuli, real and commercial, that can and do affect their educational, moral, and cultural development goals. The diversity continuum is, therefore, an ongoing process through out life. It is the process of diversity that shapes our identity as to which we are, collectively and individually, and how we function in the world around us. The primary purpose of this paper is to take an identity voyage (Tatum, 1997) with one of American's subcultures with respect to its influence on advertising and television (stimuli), namely, homosexuality (subculture).
Not unlike any subculture that of the gay environment has its own prescribed needs, goals, and expectations. The need for acceptance is as strong for those who are gay as for…
Dryer, R. (1995). The Matter of Images: Essays on Representation. London: Routledge Press.
Tatum, Beverly Daniel (1997). The Complexity of Identity. New York: Basic Books.
EJAF or the Elton John AIDS Foundation has a mission statement centered on eradicating AIDS from the Americas and the Caribbean. They raise funds for evidence-based policies and programs and speak out openly about the harsh reality of those suffering with AIDS and HIV. Becoming the world's biggest HIV grant-makers, it holds to main offices in London and New York. EJAF has raised over $349 million for the prevention and treatment of AIDS/HIV ever since it was founded in 1992. With an estimated $7 million invested in the Americas spread across 120 organizations each year, half of this effort is focused on the Caribbean and the Southern U.S.
The agency in addition to its fundraising efforts, offers a unique perspective on issues, tackling the most difficult problems those with HIV / AIDS face. The organization focuses on sustainability and innovation, communicating regularly to allies and their grantees about any…