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HPV is the number one sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. The disease which used to be thought of as innocuous but annoying, which causes the growth of genital warts and other anomalies, has since been linked to abnormal tissue growth in the cervical area causing dysplasia and potentially cervical cancer among millions of women. The viral infection and more specifically HPV viral infection with one of only a few of more than forty forms of HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer among women. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2010) Since the early days of the discovery of this link researchers have been working toward creating an effective immunization that would protect women from contracting at least a few of the most serious forms of the disease. The catch is, like any other immunization, really the only viable protection from viral infections which the medical…… [Read More]
No medical treatment exists for treating HPV infection other than prevention through education about the dangers of multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex, because HPV infection is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected individual.
A vaccine is available, but both its high cost and several elements associated with its rushed approval by the FDA in 2006 suggest that further study is warranted before its wide-scale use, particularly on a mandatory basis in the manner of other inoculations.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures, 2008. Atlanta: American Cancer Society: 2008.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006; 55
Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, McQuillan G, Swan DC, Patel SS, Markowitz LE. Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States. JAMA. 2007;297(8):813-9.
Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM, Perez G, Harper DM, Leodolter S. Quadrivalent…… [Read More]
One nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in articles from the literature review is that increasing HPV health literacy among students will help to promote HPV vaccination and thus reduce the risk of the spread of HPV infection (Perkins, Chigurupati, Apte, 2016; Lamb, Herweijer, Ploner et al., 2018). By increasing health literacy and the advancement of knowledge and information among the target population (high school students), the target population is more likely to be informed of the risks of not getting vaccinated for HPV, how the vaccinations work, and why the spread of HPV should be a concern to them in the first place (Perkins et al., 2016; Lamb et al., 2018). Possible consequences of failing to adopt the strategy of increasing health literacy regarding the evidence-based practice of HPV vaccination, which is an effective strategy for mitigating the risk of the spread of HPV (Lamb…… [Read More]
As it has been used, it has been shown to be particularly successful in preventing cervical cancer in young women patients. Three authors write, "In clinical trials, the vaccine has been 100% effective in preventing the 2 types of HPV (types 16 and 18) responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and the 2 types of HPV (types 6 and 11) responsible for 90% of genital warts" (Vamos, McDermott & Daley, 2008). If the patient suffers from genital warts, they can be removed by a doctor using podophyllin solution, which is then washed off. In rare cases, they have to be removed by freezing, surgery, or with laser treatment (Editors). In the case of cervical cancer, it is usually treated with surgery to remove the cervix and any other affected organs, and then radiation or chemotherapy.
In some cases, people have had reactions to the vaccine, but they were mostly minor,…… [Read More]
Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum
As the patient is sexually active, the bumps on the genitalia could be caused by genital warts or genital herpes, due to the herpes simplex virus. Other differential diagnoses could include contact dermatitis, folliculitis, acne inversa, and Molluscum contagiosum, which is “a viral infection characterized by lesions that can occur anywhere on the body, including the vaginal area” (Leonard, 2017).
Additional information that should be obtained from the exam would include more data about the patient’s personal medical history and whether the patient is undergoing a regular menstrual cycle. The patient’s age is listed as 21 but she is married with three children, plus sexually active with more than one partner in the past year, so there may be more information that is required about this particular set of data regarding personal history. It is important to make sure all information is up to date…… [Read More]
HPV Case Study
The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should be mandated or at least widely encouraged on a wide-spread or targeted basis. Unlike other vaccines such as those for polio, the measles, mumps, rubella and pneumonia, HPV cannot be contracted through casual contact. Indeed, sexual contact is really the only way to get it. At the same time, not being protected against HPV can cause cervical cancer in women. While there are certainly detractors when it comes to vaccines, the efficacy and importance of those vaccines cannot be understated or under sold.
The main dilemma cited is that HPV is not transmittable through anything other than sexual contact. While this may lessen the chances of it being passed from person to person, most everyone will engage in sexual contact at…… [Read More]
Perhaps the latter sentiment may be regarded as baseless speculation, but as we shall see after this section, there are a number of researchers whose view supports such a sentiment. Nonetheless, here is the report made available by the mainstream media in 2009:
CDC and FDA researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association that problems such as fainting and nausea remained rare among females who received Gardasil and the vaccine did not appear to be causing unusual side effects. The researchers said 32 deaths were listed in a government database that collects reports of health problems seen in people after vaccination. The reports show only that a patient became ill or died after receiving a vaccine, not that a vaccine was the cause. The FDA and CDC statement said 'concerns have been raised about' the reports of deaths of people who received Gardasil. 'There was not a…… [Read More]
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]
Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all four HPV types that are targeted by the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more HPV types would still get protection from the vaccine types they have not yet been exposed to. At the present time there is no test available for clinical use to determine whether a female has had any or all of the four HPV types targeted by the vaccine (HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians, 2008).
The only way to prevent the spread of HPV and reduce the amount of cervical cancer cases that exist is to make the HPV vaccination mandatory. Those who argue against making the vaccination mandatory often claim that providing the vaccine will encourage promiscuity. This was the same argument…… [Read More]
Assuming all those issues are addressed, mandatory HPV vaccination may be a good idea for all children and the option should be made available to adults and funded, at least in part, by government funds and profit limitations on vaccine sales. EFEENCES
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). etrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. etrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net…… [Read More]
The importance of this study is threefold: 1) it allows a new series of assays to be used in the clinical setting to detect the more common HPVs that cause genital and anal warts; 2) the assays are both robust and yet inexpensive enough to use globally, and, 3) the tests are designed to use real-time PC technology, which allows for the rapid identification and quantification of these pathogenic types of HPV. The technology and protocols used in this development will also likely have an effect on the ability to roll out testing for other HPV-like viruses, ostensibly even the HIV virus in a real-time, inexpensive manner. The lab results also suggest that as the at risk population for HPV increases, early testing and intervention might reduce the number of symptomatic individuals since they will have been tested and potentially treated much earlier.
The developing world notwithstanding, HPV…… [Read More]
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]
exually Transmitted Diseases in Developing Countries
exually transmitted diseases (TD's) have been a problem for doctors worldwide and governments around the globe for many years.
Pre-screening, diagnosis, and treatment programs are required to stop the spread of TDs.
A host of sexually transmitted diseases have, unfortunately, exploded in large numbers in the continent of Africa. These TD's include the HIV virus and the HPV virus, or human papillomavirus. HPV causes cervical cancer, and the HIV virus causes AID (auto-immune deficiency syndrome).
It is estimated that there are 100 million cases of AID worldwide, and that AID is now claiming more lives than all wars and natural disasters around the world.
In Africa, the problem is quite tremendous.
In outh Africa alone, there are 4.7 million people infected with the AID virus. outh Africa is the world's country with the largest infected population.
adly, it is estimated that worldwide, less than…… [Read More]
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…… [Read More]
Hispanics and 40,375,000 African-Americans live in the United States and the respective percentages of these population groups are projected to continue to increase well into the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptions of these two cultures and why they are of interest as well as a comparison of similarities and differences related to time orientation, communication, physical and mental health, group relationships, and perceptions and measures of intelligence between these two population groups. The study also presents a description of the theoretical framework that guided the analysis of both of these cultures as well as an explanation concerning how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it. An examination concerning how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and marital fidelity and an explanation concerning potential biases that may influence the analysis of these cultures…… [Read More]
Woman Exam With Pap Smear
The patient is a 28-year-old white Caucasian woman who is married with no children. She is a professional insurance adjustor and travels frequently throughout the year to settle claims, as she works for the disaster division of the insurance company that is her employer.
The patient is presenting for her annual Well Woman Exam with Pap smear. The patient is a healthy female with no issues. She discusses exercise, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sexual practices and menstrual cycles with her health care provider as is the custom with a Well Woman visit. A Pap smear is performed upon request.
The patient has no precipitating/alleviating factors, as there are no issues pertaining to health wellness that the patient describes. She does not smoke, abuse alcohol, or eat an improper diet. She exercises regularly in spite of her frequent travels and her sexual activity is healthy;…… [Read More]
The general exception to that rule is that women are likely to see gynecologists/obstetricians. The fact that certain strains of HPV may be linked to stroke makes this connection an even more critical one, since ob/gyns are the doctors most likely to provide HPV screening and treatment. Moreover, women are likely to visit pediatricians for child healthcare. Therefore, the health initiative that should be instituted is that ob/gyns should be involved in stroke symptom screening and education with every patient at every visit. Furthermore, pediatricians should engage in screening and education for parents, because maternal health is a critical component of child health.
The desired sponsor for this advocacy program would be the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Offices on Women's Health. It could partner with national organizations such as the National Stroke Association, the American Heart Association, the Women's Heart Association, and even Planned Parenthood, since Planned…… [Read More]
According to the St. John Providence Health System (2012), a cervical biopsy is "a procedure performed to remove tissue from the cervix to test for abnormal or precancerous conditions, or cervical cancer." Cervical biopsies are administered during a procedure known as a colposcopy, which uses a magnifying instrument to help the physician visualize the cervix to observe for any abnormalities. For the biopsy itself, a tool like forceps or a needle may be used to extract small bits of tissue for laboratory examination. There are a few different types of cervical biopsies, including a punch biopsy, a cone biopsy, and endocervical curettage (ECC). The punch biopsy is the most basic of cervical biopsy, involving the removal of small pieces of tissue from one or more parts of the cervix. When a laser or scalpel is used to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue, it is called a cone…… [Read More]
Diagnosis and Assessment in a Clinical Setting
Given the information provided in the subjective portion of the note, the clinician would want to find out if the patient has ever engaged in anal intercourse. If the patient has engaged in such intercourse, the clinician would want to know how many partners she’s had in this regard and when was the last incidence of anal intercourse. The clinician would also want to find out if the patient used protection when engaging this form of intercourse. Getting the total number of partners that this woman has had over the past year might shed some light on the situation as well. Additionally, it might be worth asking if the patient has made an obvious changes in personal hygiene or underwear. For example, the sudden usage of baby wipes in the vaginal or anal area has been found to cause irritation in some cases.…… [Read More]
Cancer and Women’s and Men’s Health
Cervical cancer is a kind of cancer that takes place in the cells of the cervix, which is basically situated in the lower part of the uterus that links to the vagina. It is imperative to note that different strains or forms of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, have a role to play in giving rise to a great deal of cervical cancer.
Available Preventative Services
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) gives the recommendation of screening for cervical cancer in women between the ages of 21 years to 65 years with pap smear for every three-year period. It is also recommended for women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who wish to prolong the screening period, and therefore screening with a mixture of cytology and human papillomavirus testing for every five-year period. In the same manner,…… [Read More]
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…… [Read More]
When most people are asked 'what do nurses do," there is a strong likelihood that the word 'caring' will arise in the conversation. Many nurses, particularly new nurses, identify caring as one of the personal qualities that attracted them to the profession. However, caring can be a very nebulous concept, as even non-nurses give 'care' to others and non-nurses can be 'caring' people. Nursing, in an effort to create an empirical and academic basis for itself as a discipline has fought against the idea that nursing is just about caring. However, it cannot 'ignore' the idea of caring, given that one of the concepts that distinguishes nursing from other forms of medical care is its patient-centric and individualistic perspective.
I have chosen caring as the concept I will focus on in this paper, with a specific focus on Jean Watson's Theory of Caring, given that it is one of…… [Read More]
38 per share on the company's common stock for the first quarter of 2005. The dividend is payable January 3, 2005 to stockholders of records at the close of business on December 3, 2004. Growth in the ZETIA and VYTORIN franchises are expected to continue. T
There are currently several candidates in Phase III that Merck plans to file in 2005 as well as Type 2 diabetes treatment and three vaccines. The fourth-quarter 2004 EPS anticipation is stated to be $0.48 to $0.53, which includes the impact of approximately "$700 to $750 million foregone sales of VIOXX. The result is anticipation by Merck for EPS guidance (2004 full-year) of $2.59 to $2.64. These amounts include withdrawal impact and next years negative affects of the DPS by $0.50 to $0.55."
Merck & Co., Inc. announced in a recent report that they had made submission to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration…… [Read More]
Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…… [Read More]
Little is known about abnormal cervical cancer screening results of women who are behind bars. he test was conducted by using data from two cross-sectional surveys of women in jails and community corrections about their history of abnormal pap tests. Univariate analyses (analysis of variance [ANOVA] and chi-square) and a binary logistic regression analysis were conducted to test associations between histories of abnormal Pap testing and factors known to be associated with cervical cancer.
Women in jails and prisons are at high risk for cervical cancer, and cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer among female prisoners,"(Binswanger et al., 2011, p.2). Women behind bars have greater odds than the general population of having cervical cancer. Pap testing (cervical cytology) is a way to detect precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions by identifying women who need further diagnosis and treatment. Few studies of cervical cancer or screening have included women…… [Read More]
Professional Nursing Organization Comparison
Choose two professional organizations. These can be organizations you are a member of or that are known in the nursing profession.
Create a table comparing the two organizations.
American Nurses Association
The organization has roughly 490 chapters throughout 85 countries.
American Nurses Association was established in 1896 as the Nurses Associated Alumnae and was renamed the American Nurses Association in 1911.
Support of Nursing Leadership
STTI provides opportunities for nurses to participate in leadership programs and mentoring opportunities, and take advantage of career development resources.
The ANA provide programs and offerings for nurses, nursing leaders, and all stages of the nursing career trajectory.
Members can ask career-related questions and get responses from STTI volunteer Career Advisors.
More than 900 nurse researchers, students, clinicians and leaders attend the International Nursing esearch Congress to learn from evidence-based research presentations. The theme of the 26th…… [Read More]
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing
MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?
While it is definitely not a good thing that…… [Read More]
neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).
Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:
Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors
Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…… [Read More]
history of Hempstead Village in Nassau County, New York, along with the demographics, the poverty statistics, and information pertaining to the problem of STDs (Chlamydia) in the community.
Brief History of Hempstead Village
The Reverend Robert Fordham and John Carman rowed across Long Island Sound in 1643 to negotiate with several Native American tribes (Massapequak, Mericoke, Rockaway and Matinecock) about buying land for a village. Subsequently, in the 1800s, Hempstead Village became a trading center and by 1853 it became incorporated as a village. Such notables from the American Revolution as George ashington enjoyed staying in Hempstead Village. The population of Hempstead Village skyrocketed after orld ar I, because many people in the City of New York preferred the suburban lifestyle (villageofhempstead.org).
Hempstead Village Facts -- Demographics & Poverty Rate
Today, according to the U.S. Census, the there are approximately 55,527 (as of 2014) residents in this town of 3.7…… [Read More]
Patient’s chief complaint, reason for visit
Ms. Richards arrived complaining that she was experiencing severe anal pain, so much so that using a tissue was also proving impossible. She claimed the pain began a couple of days earlier and has aggravated considerably since.
History of Present Illness
Ms. Richards arrived complaining of anal pain which commenced a couple of days earlier and has aggravated since. With regard to her intimate relationships, Ms. Richards states that though she has a boyfriend, their relationship isn’t serious as the two are also seeing other people. According to internal assessment reports, patient has normal hair distribution, an intact perineum, and intact urethral meatus without any discharge or inflammation. However, patient experiences unbearable pain on vaginal opening palpation, redness, and edema. Further, a mass has been identified on the right, with spontaneous, dark-yellow, smelly secretion with palpation over the Bartholin's glands.
Physical examination…… [Read More]
Patient AB has a history of sexually transmitted infection (STI). She has also had more than one partner in the last twelve months. The last known STI was chlamydia over two years ago. She also has an ulcer on external labia. While the bumps on her genitals are painless, they are a recent event, and says the bumps feel rough. While there several potential diagnoses available, not enough information has been given. A current blood test to screen for STDs/STIs would be beneficial along with hygiene habits like does she shave regularly. This essay is a thought process of what she could have from the collected information.
Subjective Portion of the Note Analysis
Patient stated her bumps are rough feeling and painless. She did not say how many sexual partners she has had. All she said was she had more than one in the last twelve months. She also…… [Read More]
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…… [Read More]