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While there is logic in the argument that HPV could be prevented by abstinence, it is not a rationale statement. There isn't any way that people will stop having sex. While we all know that abstinence can prevent teen or unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases -- even the emergence of HIV / AIDS did not stop people from having sex.
The HPV vaccine should be available to all girls and women who want to take an extra step in protecting themselves from the risk of HPV symptoms and cervical cancer. Acceptance of the vaccine is important and must not be considered something that is justifying promiscuity -- rather, it is important to remember that nearly all people who are sexually active will get HPV at some point in their lives. If we consider this, making the HPV vaccine a normal preventative measure isn't just common sense, but it is the…
CBC. "The debate over HPV inoculations." 2009. Retrieved on June 25, 2010, from the Web site: http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2009/08/19/gardasil-hpv-vaccine-explainer263.html
Haug, Charlotte J. (2008). "Human papillomavirus -- reasons for caution." The New
England Journal of Medicine, volume 359:861-862. No. 8.
Norsigian, Judy., Priest, Alice., & Barnett, Robin. (2007). "Gardasil: What you need to know about the HPV vaccine." The Canadian women's health network. Retrieved on June 22, 2010, from the Web site:
On the other side of the issue, no one should have the right to choose what needs to be done on an issue that is so pertinent to the individual (ichardson). There are potentially too many risks involved in getting this vaccine that mandating someone to get it is far too risky (CDC). The vaccine is a relatively new development and making it a requirement to enter school is immoral because the system is forcing these young girls to get something that they might not be ready for, especially at such a young age. They are deciding what will be best for these young girls when no one truly knows the long-term implications of something like this. No one is giving these girls the moral and legal right to choose what would be best for their own bodies, and that is the moral issue in question here. If a young…
"Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine." http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/HPV/index.html . Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 7 March 2011. n.p. 29 May 2011
Richardson, Henry. "Moral Reasoning" http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/reasoning-moral/#2.7 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 August 2007. Stanford University. 29 May 2011.
Munson, Ronald. "Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Bioethics." Wadsworth Publishing. 2011. p.103
Sociology - HPV Vaccine
In 2006, Gardasil was approved for U.S. distribution as a vaccine for HPV (human papillomavirus), which causes approximately 70% of worldwide cervical cancer cases. The vaccine is given in three doses and protects against many cervical cancers along with the causes of 90% of genital warts. The controversy for some people comes in as it pertains to age, because Gardasil is recommended for girls between 11 and 12 years of age, and as young as nine. Females up to 21 years of age can get the vaccine if they have not already been vaccinated, and women older than 21 are not eligible - presumably because they are more likely to be in relationships where they are less promiscuous. However, this is not always the case. There are many medical discussions surrounding Gardasil, but there is more than medicine to be considered where the vaccine is concerned.…
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in the United States of America. It also discusses its association with different diseases. It highlights the role played by federal and state government to control this disease from preventing. In addition to that this paper also discusses whether the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination should be made mandatory for girls entering sixth grade or not.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can be defined as a group of viruses that have almost hundred types. About forty of these types are very dangerous for the genital area. They infect the areas such as skin of penis, vulva or anus. They also harm the vaginal lining, rectum and cervix. High risk is associated with some of these types and they can lead towards high abnormalities in pap tests and they may cause various cancers, including cervical cancer. Whereas, some of these types have low risk and they cause low…
(2011). Recommendations on the use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in males -- advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP), 2011.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(50), 1705-1708. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/cdc/immunization/alerts-hpv-acip-recommendations.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2012).Vaccine information statement. Retrieved from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-hpv-gardasil.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2012).HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine Cervarix® what you need to know. Retrieved from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-hpv-cervarix.pdf
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2012).The advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP). Retrieved from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-acip-color-office.pdf
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for young women. Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women, but it can be totally avoided if a young woman receives the HPV vaccine before she contracts the disease.
The HPV vaccine was approved by the FDA in 2006, which means it is safe according to their studies. They mean it primarily for young women, to prevent cervical cancer from occurring. Women between the ages of 9 and 26 are primary candidates for the vaccine, according to the FDA (Vamos, McDermott & Daley, 2008). If a woman has already contracted cervical cancer, it will not cure the disease, and it is only effective against the two most common types of cervical cancer. That being said, it is a known way to ward off cervical cancer, and states should mandate it for their young women, it will save health care costs, and more importantly, save lives.…
Daley, E.M., & McDermott, R.J. (2007). The HPV vaccine: Separating politics from science -- A commentary. American Journal of Health Education, 38(3), 177+.
Vamos, C.A., McDermott, R.J., & Daley, E.M. (2008). The HPV vaccine: Framing the arguments for and against mandatory vaccination of all middle school girls. Journal of School Health, 78(6), 302+.
Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all four HPV types that are targeted by the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more HPV types would still get protection from the vaccine types they have not yet been exposed to. At the present time there is no test available for clinical use to determine whether a female has had any or all of the four HPV types targeted by the vaccine (HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians, 2008).
The only way to prevent the spread of HPV and reduce the amount of cervical cancer cases that exist is to make the HPV vaccination mandatory. Those who argue against making the vaccination mandatory often claim that providing the vaccine will encourage promiscuity. This was the same argument…
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). Should States Be Allowed to Mandate the HPV Vaccine? Retrieved
November 2, 2009, from About.com Web site:
HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians. (2008). Retrieved November 2, 2009, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm
HPV Case Study
The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should be mandated or at least widely encouraged on a wide-spread or targeted basis. Unlike other vaccines such as those for polio, the measles, mumps, rubella and pneumonia, HPV cannot be contracted through casual contact. Indeed, sexual contact is really the only way to get it. At the same time, not being protected against HPV can cause cervical cancer in women. While there are certainly detractors when it comes to vaccines, the efficacy and importance of those vaccines cannot be understated or under sold.
The main dilemma cited is that HPV is not transmittable through anything other than sexual contact. While this may lessen the chances of it being passed from person to person, most everyone will engage in sexual contact at…
Bohlin, R. (2016). The Epidemic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Leaderu.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/epid-std.html
CDC. (2016). CDC Press Releases. CDC. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0424-immunization-program.html
Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Kassam, A., & Lewis-Holmes, E. (2008). Reducing stigma and discrimination: candidate interventions. Int J Ment Health Syst, 2(1), 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-2-3
Weissmann, J. (2014). For Millennials, Out-of-Wedlock Childbirth Is the Norm. Now What?. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2014/06/for_millennials_out_of_wedlock_childbirth_is_the_norm_now_what.html
Perhaps the latter sentiment may be regarded as baseless speculation, but as we shall see after this section, there are a number of researchers whose view supports such a sentiment. Nonetheless, here is the report made available by the mainstream media in 2009:
CDC and FDA researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association that problems such as fainting and nausea remained rare among females who received Gardasil and the vaccine did not appear to be causing unusual side effects. The researchers said 32 deaths were listed in a government database that collects reports of health problems seen in people after vaccination. The reports show only that a patient became ill or died after receiving a vaccine, not that a vaccine was the cause. The FDA and CDC statement said 'concerns have been raised about' the reports of deaths of people who received Gardasil. 'There was not a…
Amiya, N. "Va Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis." Publikationsansicht. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
Brinkman, S. "Gardasil Researcher Drops a Bombshell." The Bulletin. 2009. Web. 15
"Gardasil Vaccine Safety." FDA. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
Assuming all those issues are addressed, mandatory HPV vaccination may be a good idea for all children and the option should be made available to adults and funded, at least in part, by government funds and profit limitations on vaccine sales. EFEENCES
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). etrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. etrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net…
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net website, at http://www.news-medical.net/?id=22415 .
Hispanics and 40,375,000 African-Americans live in the United States and the respective percentages of these population groups are projected to continue to increase well into the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptions of these two cultures and why they are of interest as well as a comparison of similarities and differences related to time orientation, communication, physical and mental health, group relationships, and perceptions and measures of intelligence between these two population groups. The study also presents a description of the theoretical framework that guided the analysis of both of these cultures as well as an explanation concerning how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it. An examination concerning how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and marital fidelity and an explanation concerning potential biases that may influence the analysis of these cultures…
Brown, D. (2002, Winter). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1), 48-51.
Buzi, R. S. & Weinman, M. L. (2010, Summer). Depression and risk behaviors among males attending family planning clinics. International Journal of Men's Health, 9(2), 91-93.
Carter-Parker, K., Edwards, K. A. & McCleary-Jones, V. (2012, Summer). Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African-American women who are physically active and those who are not. The ABNF Journal, 51-58.
Choi, K-H, Paul, J., Ayala, G., Boylan, R. & Gregorich, S. E. (2013, March 14). Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African-American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 1-7.
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…
Earl, Leslie. “How Sulfa Drugs Work.” National Institute of Health. March 12, 2012. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/how-sulfa- drugs-work
Gaynes, Robert. “The Discovery of Penicillin—New Insights After More Than 75 Years of Clinical Use.” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 23, 5 (2017): 849–853. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403050/
Palca, Joe. “The Race For A Polio Vaccine Differed From The Quest To Prevent Coronavirus.” NPR. May 22, 2020. Web. December 20, 2020. https://www.npr.org/sections/health - shots/2020/05/22/860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to- prevent-coronavirus
Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151719/pdf/pnas.201400472.pdf
Quianzon, Celeste C, and Issam Cheikh. “History of Insulin.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 2, 2 10.3402/jchimp.v2i2.18701. July 16, 2012. Web. December 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3714061/
38 per share on the company's common stock for the first quarter of 2005. The dividend is payable January 3, 2005 to stockholders of records at the close of business on December 3, 2004. Growth in the ZETIA and VYTORIN franchises are expected to continue. T
There are currently several candidates in Phase III that Merck plans to file in 2005 as well as Type 2 diabetes treatment and three vaccines. The fourth-quarter 2004 EPS anticipation is stated to be $0.48 to $0.53, which includes the impact of approximately "$700 to $750 million foregone sales of VIOXX. The result is anticipation by Merck for EPS guidance (2004 full-year) of $2.59 to $2.64. These amounts include withdrawal impact and next years negative affects of the DPS by $0.50 to $0.55."
Merck & Co., Inc. announced in a recent report that they had made submission to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration…
"Merck Board Appoints Special Committee to Review VIOXX Withdrawal" 2004 Dec 2 Whitehouse Stations, N.J. [Online] available at: http://www.merck.com/news room/press_releases/corporate/2004_1207.html
The global pharmaceutical market in 2000 - North America sets the pace (nd) [Online] available at: http://www.ims-global.com/insight/news_story/0103 / news_ story _010 314.htm
Merck Announces Voluntary Worldwide Withdrawal of Vioxx 2004 Sep 30 [Online] available at: http://www.vioxx.com/rofecoxib/vioxx/hcp/hcp_notification_physicians.jsp
Little is known about abnormal cervical cancer screening results of women who are behind bars. he test was conducted by using data from two cross-sectional surveys of women in jails and community corrections about their history of abnormal pap tests. Univariate analyses (analysis of variance [ANOVA] and chi-square) and a binary logistic regression analysis were conducted to test associations between histories of abnormal Pap testing and factors known to be associated with cervical cancer.
Women in jails and prisons are at high risk for cervical cancer, and cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer among female prisoners,"(Binswanger et al., 2011, p.2). Women behind bars have greater odds than the general population of having cervical cancer. Pap testing (cervical cytology) is a way to detect precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions by identifying women who need further diagnosis and treatment. Few studies of cervical cancer or screening have included women…
The survey found that 40% of the participants did not have a healthcare provider or health insurance to be able to have a cervical cancer screening done prior to their arrival in jail. "Women in jail and under community justice supervision reported a high prevalence of risk factors for cervical cancer. Because of their high prevalence of abnormal Pap testing, women in criminal justice settings may be appropriate targets for improved cervical cancer screening, prevention with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, risk reduction education, and treatment," (Binswanger et al., 2011, p.1).
I do not believe that the testing used actually compares women in custody or non-custodial supervision programs with women in the general population. Therefore, I find some of the statements about them being at greater risk than the general population to be conclusory; I would have liked to see comparisons with the general population in the same geographic area. I say this because I do not believe that, in some geographic areas, a lack of access to healthcare screening is that unusual. Therefore, I would have liked to see the comparisons between the people in the study and people in the same geographic area. However, even if this were true, it would not suggest that women in prisons or non-custodial settings should not be subjected to higher preventative healthcare screenings; it simply suggests that people in the general population should have greater access to healthcare.
Professional Nursing Organization Comparison
Choose two professional organizations. These can be organizations you are a member of or that are known in the nursing profession.
Create a table comparing the two organizations.
American Nurses Association
The organization has roughly 490 chapters throughout 85 countries.
American Nurses Association was established in 1896 as the Nurses Associated Alumnae and was renamed the American Nurses Association in 1911.
Support of Nursing Leadership
STTI provides opportunities for nurses to participate in leadership programs and mentoring opportunities, and take advantage of career development resources.
The ANA provide programs and offerings for nurses, nursing leaders, and all stages of the nursing career trajectory.
Members can ask career-related questions and get responses from STTI volunteer Career Advisors.
More than 900 nurse researchers, students, clinicians and leaders attend the International Nursing esearch Congress to learn from evidence-based research presentations. The theme of the 26th…
American Nurses Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.anfonline.org
American Nursing Association. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org
Sigma Theta Tau International School of Nursing. Retrieved from http://www.nursingsociety.org/Pages/default.aspx
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf .
CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/Surv2011.pdf .
Dyck, E.V., Meheus, A.Z., & Piot, P. (1999). Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Katz, A.R., Lee, M.V.C., & Wasserman, G.M. (2012). Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: A review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i. Hawai'I Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(3), 68-73.
When most people are asked 'what do nurses do," there is a strong likelihood that the word 'caring' will arise in the conversation. Many nurses, particularly new nurses, identify caring as one of the personal qualities that attracted them to the profession. However, caring can be a very nebulous concept, as even non-nurses give 'care' to others and non-nurses can be 'caring' people. Nursing, in an effort to create an empirical and academic basis for itself as a discipline has fought against the idea that nursing is just about caring. However, it cannot 'ignore' the idea of caring, given that one of the concepts that distinguishes nursing from other forms of medical care is its patient-centric and individualistic perspective.
I have chosen caring as the concept I will focus on in this paper, with a specific focus on Jean Watson's Theory of Caring, given that it is one of…
Cara, Chantal. (2011).A pragmatic view of Jean Watson's caring theory.
Universite de Montreal. Retrieved www.humancaring.org/conted/Pragmatic%20View.doc
Giguere, Barbara. (2002). Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health science. Nursing Education Perspectives. Retrieved http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3317/is_6_23/ai_n28962844/
Gross, Terry. (2011). Grant Achatz: The chef who lost his sense of taste. Fresh Air. NPR.
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…
A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx
Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).
Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…
Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
history of Hempstead Village in Nassau County, New York, along with the demographics, the poverty statistics, and information pertaining to the problem of STDs (Chlamydia) in the community.
Brief History of Hempstead Village
The Reverend Robert Fordham and John Carman rowed across Long Island Sound in 1643 to negotiate with several Native American tribes (Massapequak, Mericoke, Rockaway and Matinecock) about buying land for a village. Subsequently, in the 1800s, Hempstead Village became a trading center and by 1853 it became incorporated as a village. Such notables from the American Revolution as George ashington enjoyed staying in Hempstead Village. The population of Hempstead Village skyrocketed after orld ar I, because many people in the City of New York preferred the suburban lifestyle (villageofhempstead.org).
Hempstead Village Facts -- Demographics & Poverty Rate
Today, according to the U.S. Census, the there are approximately 55,527 (as of 2014) residents in this town of 3.7…
City Data. (2013). Poverty Rates in Hempstead. Retrieved December 12, 2015, from http://www.city-data.com .
MedicineNet. (2015). What is Chlamydia / What causes Chlamydia? Retrieved December
12, 2015, from http://www/medicinenet.com.
New York Department of Health. (2014). Reported Cases by Disease and County. Retrieved December 12, 2015, from http://www.health.ny.gov.
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…
Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,