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human body is made of 206 bones and an estimated 500 muscles, most of which are skeletal muscles attached from one bone to another. While one end of the skeletal muscles attaches to a relatively stationary bone, the other attaches to a movable bone. Some of the major bones of the body and muscles attached to each include
Tibia -- which is one of the bones in the lower leg with several muscles attach to it. These muscles include hamstring muscles, calf muscles like popliteus and soleus, and muscles that flex and expand ankles and toes like tibialis anterior.
Fibula -- the second bone in the lower leg, which also acts as an attachment place for muscles that extend and flex the foot. It has similar muscles to tibia.
Scapula -- sixteen muscles attach to it including the four rotator cuff muscles, upper back muscles, deltoids, bicep and tricep muscles,…
A decomposition does not end after the soft tissue has disappeared. The skeleton also has a decompositional rate that is based on the loss of organic (collagen) and inorganic components. Some of the inorganic compounds we use to determine the length of time since death include calcium, potassium and magnesium. (ibid)
In a temperate climate for example, it normally takes ten to twelve years to decompose fully to a skeleton. Therefore, the high number of variables involved making exact calculations based on a few characteristics of decomposition are extremely difficult and very often all the possible decomposition factors have to be taken into account.
The role played by microbes and bacteria is extremely significant in the decomposition process, but difficult to use as a dependable measurement in forensics as there are a vast amount of different types of bacteria associated with the decomposition of the body. These include Staphylococcus, Candida,…
Chemistry. [Internet] Adipocere. Available at http://adipocere.homestead.com/chemistry.html [Accessed February 1, 2005.
Decomposition: Free-Template. Available at http://www.free-template.org/de/decomposition.html[Accessed 2 Febraury 2005]
Decomposition. [Internet] Available at http://deathonline.net/decomposition/body_changes/rigor_mortis.htm. Accessed 2 Febraury 2005]
Decomposition: Wikipedia [Internet] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposition [Accessed 22 January 2005] (Health. [Internet] BBC. U.K. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/ask_doctor/death_body.shtml [Accessed January 30, 2005) (How fast does a human body begin to decompose, and what are the products? [Internet] BBC. U.K. Available at http://www.shroudstory.com/faq/turin-shroud-faq-11.htm . [Accessed February 3, 2005)
..). Because of these problems, employees working under these conditions also suffer from more vehicle related accidents. In particular, individuals working evening and night shifts are more likely to fall asleep on their way home after work. Statistics demonstrate that "...41% of extended hours employees reported nodding off while driving compared with 28% of day workers" (Extended hours...). What this effectively suggests is that firefighters and first responders face a number of notable health and safety threats as a direct result of their schedules and the resultant sleep outcomes.
Addressing the Issue
Although the overall research that has been collected in this field is not extensive, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (2005, Extended...) notes that there are some steps that employers can take to improve outcomes for professionals that must work unusual work schedules. Specifically, this organization reports that "When there is a choice, managers should limit the…
Akerstedt, T., Fredlund, P., Gillberg, M., & Jansson, B. (2002). A prospective study of fatal occupational accidents -- relationship to sleeping difficulties and occupational factors. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(1), 69-71.
Akerstedt, T., & Nilsson, P.M. (2003). Sleep as restitution: An introduction. Journal of Internal Medicine, 254(1), 6-12.
Extended unusual work shifts. (2005). Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Accessed November 17, 2007 at http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_Hurricane_Facts/faq_longhours.html .
Kenyon, T.A. (2007). On call: Alert or unsafe? A report of the AORN on-call electronic task force. AORN Journal, 86(4), 630-39.
Human Health and Disease
How could the information learned about a disease's epidemiology be used to protect public health? What kind of epidemiological information would a public health official want to know about this disease? What actions might they take based on this information?
The epidemiology will look at factors such as demographics, causes, patterns and the impact the disease is having. This is used to determine the symptoms, educate the general public and create vaccines to treat the condition. Public health officials need to know about which groups of people are most vulnerable, the way the disease is spread, mortality rates, possible vaccines and what actions are being taken by other stakeholders (i.e. governments, nonprofits and businesses). These areas will help them to determine impact it is having and create strategies to prevent it from spreading. To achieve these objectives they will educate the public, work with researchers to…
EVA Kwong and the Human Body
Eastern philosophy and culture are highly driven by an underlying sense of animism, which denotes that there is life and interconnectedness in all things. The trees, rocks, soil, air and even our own bodies are seen as connected on a continuum that is imbued with the energy of life. This is perhaps the underlying principle defining the work of Hong Kong-born sculptor Eva Kwong. Indeed, this principle converges with the estern ideals of abstract representation to shape the remarkable body of work the Kwong has produced. Pursuing the larger part of her studies in American universities and ultimately becoming a professor at Kent State University, according to the article by Hawk (2010), Kwong's work suggests a philosophical convergence of both Eastern and estern values. Particularly, as the discussion here shows, Kwong's best works express this idea of animism through abstract representations of the aspects,…
Kwong, E. (2008). Energy Vibrations. Harn Museum.
Hawk, S.R. (2010). Eva Kwong: Works. Sherrie Gallerie.
Hoffmann, R. (2008). Love Between the Atoms: Eva Kwong. Roaldhoffmann.com.
Ergonomic isk Assessment
The human body encourages a specific posture and has muscles and joints which can become overstressed through repetition or overextension. Unfortunately, every job has actions which cause these types of problems. Injuries in the workplace are expected to a degree because it is impossible to determine every area that could cause an incident, but the science of ergonomics is used to act as a mitigating factor for some common injuries that could easily be eliminated with a simple assessment. Ergonomic risk assessments are completed as a specific look at the occupations in a particular workplace to determine the possible risks that exist and to find solutions to those issues. This paper discusses the common reasons for ergonomic assessments, their benefits, why they are not performed, and what one should include.
The literature on this subject is very clear in its description of a wide range of…
Adeyemi, A.O. (2010). ICT facilities: Ergonomic effects on academic library staff. Library Philosophy and Practice, 1-3.
Brandenburg, D.L., & Mirka, G.A. (2005). Assessing the effects of positive feedback and reinforcement in the introduction phase of an ergonomic intervention. Human Factors, 47(3), 526-534.
Environmental Safety. (2012). Statistics. University of Maryland. Retrieved from http://www.des.umd.edu/os/erg/stats.html
IAPA. (2007). Ergonomic risk assessment. Industrial Accident Prevention Association. Retrieved from http://www.iapa.ca/pdf/fd_erg_risk_assessment.pdf
Water: The Only Liquid the ody Needs
To live a fully healthy and functional life, water is indispensible. From the point in history when primitive species moved from the oceans to land, a major factor of survival has continually been stopping dehydration. The important adaptations that enable this are present in almost all species of animals, including man. Water makes up varying percentages of the body weight of humans from 75% in infants, to about 55% in the elderly, and is crucial for maintenance of cellular homeostasis (Popkin, D'Anci and Rosenberg). Even though humans can survive a couple of weeks without eating, the human body cannot last even a few days devoid of water (Student Nutrition awareness campaign). Even slight dehydration can disturb physiological functions resulting in headaches, exhaustion, dryness of the mouth, and even muscle weaknesses and mental deterioration, according to Heller (Reinberg).
When talking about body fluids we…
Beck, Melinda. Studies Lead You to Water, But How Much to Drink? 1 July 2008. 29 April 2015.
Grandjean, C. Ann. Water requirements, impinging factors, and recommended intakes. n.d. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrequirements/en/ . 29 April 2015.
Gwinnutt, Matthew and Jennifer Thorburn. Body Fluids - part 1. 2010.
Popkin, M. Barry, E. Kristen D'Anci and H. Irwin Rosenberg. "Water, Hydration and Health." Nutr Rev (2010): 439-458.
The initial, dramatic increase in the body's production of TNF-alpha in response to viral exposure demonstrates a heightened immunological response targeted to the protection against infection.
Viral respiratory tract infections, such as cold and influenza, are the most common human illnesses. They have significant health and economic consequences, particularly with young children and youth, older individuals and those with other underlying or chronic conditions. Annually, an average of 5 to 20% of Americans contract influenza, with over 200,000 being hospitalized with influenza-related complications and about 36,000 dying from the disease. It is also estimated that 1 billion colds occur each year in the U.S. Only medications that help with the symptoms medications and homeopathic remedies have been available until this time. Due to these high incidence rates, a safe and effective alternative is clearly needed to reduce the burden of illness.
Although the study did not directly evaluate an immune…
Baron, M. (2009) A Patented Strain of Bacillus coagulans Increased Immune Response to Viral Challenge Postgraduate Medicine. 121(2): 114-18
Endres, J.R., Clewell, A., Jade, K.A., Farber, T., Hauswirth, J & Schauss, A.G. (2009)
Consuming large doses of Bacillus coagulans deemed safe for humans Food and Chemical Toxicology 47(6): 1231-1238.
Medical Diagnostic Tools and the Effects of Nuclear Radiation on the Human ody
Computed axial tomography (CAT) or computer tomography (CT) scanning technologies have been thoroughly incorporated into modern medical diagnostics. In some clinical respects, CT scans are preferable to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and much better than traditional X-rays. However, CT scans expose patients to more ionizing radiation and could conceivably contribute to cellular damage and to harmful cellular mutation (i.e. cancer), especially in the long-term. It is not yet understood precisely how much damage is caused by each isolated exposure, largely because it is extremely difficult to isolate clinical radiation exposure from either natural (i.e. non-manmade or man-caused) sources or radiation exposure or from other risk factors and independent variables. Nevertheless, the implication of empirical evidence to date is that certain segments of the patient population in particular are more vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of exposure…
Bleise, A., Danesi, P.R., and Burkart, W. (2003). Depleted uranium: Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 64(2/3): 93-112.
Brenner, D.J. And Hall, E.J. (2007). Computed Tomography -- An Increasing Source of Radiation Exposure. New England Journal of Medicine, 357:2277-2284.
Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmra072149
Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History & Future of Nuclear Weapons. Columbia University Publishing: New York.
Degenerative ailments, for example Alzheimer's, could be treated. Recovery from traumatic injuries like burns and strokes can occur more quickly with stem cell technology as well. It is not hyperbole to suggest that stem cell research is the most important area of research in medicine today, and from it we are likely to derive a wide range of treatments and therapies that will extend our lives and improve their quality as well.
2. There are two types of stem cells -- adult and embryonic. The latter are derived from embryos, typically ones that come from fertility clinics and with donor consent. These are then cultured in a lab to generate a cell line. Over time, the stem cell line can be duplicated and enlarged to a point where it is ready for use in labs (NIH, 2002).
Adult stem cells come from adults. There are differences between embryonic and adult…
NIH.gov. (2002). Stem cell basics. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics1.aspx
Sexing the ody
What is at Stake in the Continued Scientific Pursuit of the Essential Differences between Males and Females
Right away, what is at stake is the entire life of an intersexual person, which is meddled into and muddled by mainstream medicine's gender biases (Fausto-Sterling, 2000, pp 8, 16). Not only modern America but also the world-at-large demand that a person be either male or female in unquestioning obedience to, or "sublime" conformity with, medicine. A mainstream physician, for example, who comes across the male sex organ of a newly-born hermaphrodite and finds that it measures less than 3 cm, decides that it should be "repaired" to conform to genital norms. He decides to shorten the small phallus to make it look like a clitoris through appropriate surgical procedures and ultimately declares the newborn to be a girl. A hermaphrodite is also called an intersexual,…
Cooper-White. M. (2014). Sex may explain why men have superior navigational
Skills. The Huffington Post. Retrieved on December 8, 2014 from http://www.brainfacts.org/brain-basics/neuroanatomy/articles/2014/his-and-hers-sex-differences-in-the-brain/
Curley, A. (2014). His and hers: sex differences in the brain. Brainfacts.org. Retrieved on December 8, 2014 from
Muscle fiber type and performance
The body majorly has two types of muscles, the slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers. Most people have, on estimation, 50% slow-twitch fibers and 50% fast-twitch ones. This however can significantly change depending on the type of training an athlete goes through. The slow-twitch muscles come into play for the endurance athletes hence they will develop more of this type over time with training. Fast-twitch muscle fibers are way better for activities that need short periods of intense activity such as among sprinters hence such athletes will develop more of this over time (Rivera H., 2018).
Breakdown of glycogen
Glycogen Phosphorylase catalyzes breakdown of glycogen into Glucose-1-Phosphate (G1P). The reaction that produces G1P from the glycogen in the body is referred to as phosphorolysis. Phosphorolysis reaction use phosphate to breakdown bigger molecules into smaller ones. The process of breaking down of the glycogen into glucose is…
Bazenilla F., (2002). The Nerve Impulse. Retrieved February 25, 2017 from http://nerve.bsd.uchicago.edu/TheNerveImpulse05.pdf
Hamilton A., (2018). Fat as Fuel. February 25, 2017 from https://www.peakendurancesport.com/nutrition-for-endurance-athletes/supplements/fat-as-fuel/
National Center for Biotechnology Information, (2018). Glycogen Breakdown Requires the Interplay of Several Enzymes. February 25, 2017 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22467/
Rivera H., (2018). Muscle Fiber Types and How They Relate To Your Training Program. February 25, 2017 from http://www.hugorivera.net/muscle-fibers-trainin.html
Virtual Medical Centre, (2018). Blood Function and Composition. February 25, 2017 from https://www.myvmc.com/anatomy/blood-function-and-composition/
Sodium and potassium could be seen as the dynamic duo critical for normal functioning of several processes in the body. In addition to assessing the role the sodium-potassium pump plays in the propagation of an action potential, this text will also highlight both the pathophysiologic impact of hyperkalemia on the action potential as well as the resulting clinical manifestations.
The Role of the Sodium-Potassium Pump on the Propagation of an Action Potential
In essence, messages sent by axons, according to Kalat (2012), are referred to as action potentials. In the context of this discussion, therefore, action potential has got to do with the electrical potential changes as a consequence of impulse passage along a nerve cell’s membrane.
The generation of action potential is dependent upon active transport pumps as well as a number of positive transport channels. With regard to the sodium-potassium pump (which is essentially a carrier protein),…
Kalat, J.W. (2012). Biological Psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Mushiyakh, Y., Dangaria, H., Qavi, S., Ali, N., Pannone, J. & Tompkins, D. (2012). Treatment and Pathogenesis of Acute Hyperkalemia. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect, 1(4), 39-46.
Toole, G. & Toole, S. (2004). Essential A2 Biology for OCR. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
Biological structures like bones, tendons, and ligaments have mechanical properties that allow the body to move. Furthermore, bones, tendons, and ligaments are structurally, mechanically, and functionally related. Bone is connected to other bone with ligament. Tendons connect muscles to the bone, enabling movement. Both ligament and tendons are comprised primarily of collagen. However, both ligament and tendon have a unique hierarchical structure, in which the outer casing contains successive layers of inner material called fascicles. The structure of tendons and ligaments is not unlike that of a Russian doll. Although both tendons and ligaments have a similar hierarchical structure, they differ in the way the fascicles (including subfibrils, fibrils and fibers) are arranged. Their differential structural arrangement is impacts their different mechanical properties.
Generally, ligaments are less tightly structured and therefore more elastic in nature. Tendon fibers, on the other hand, have more of a parallel arrangement with larger fibers.…
The large intestine begins near the lower coils of the small intestines but then ascends up the right side and bend back over the top of the highest loop of the small intestine. Several layers of muscle and sinewy tissue wrap around the area housing the internal organs (Iazzetti & igutti, 2007).
The other organs located in the major body cavity include the bladder, gall bladder, and pancreas. In addition, the female body cavity also contains a uterus.
Besides the major internal organs, there are major blood vessels that run down the body cavity directly from the heart and branch off to smaller arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the rest of the body (Iazzetti & igutti, 2007).
Iazzetti, G, igutti, E.…
Iazzetti, G, Rigutti, E. (2007). Atlas of Anatomy. London: TAJ Books.
The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.
The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…
The work environment, for example, could be conducive to this type of stress, as can the relationship with other employees and with supervisors.
This type of fatigue is vastly different from the mental or physical fatigue of direct work overburden, and is also more subtle than these types of fatigue. It should therefore be carefully monitored in terms of its nature and how it interacts with other types of fatigue, particularly when the workforce is diminished.
Because of the complexity of psychological loading factors, Dr. Bill should be careful to monitor, revise, and update company policy in terms of issues such as communication among employees as well as among employees and their supervisors. Communication can play a significant part in how employees perceive their work, as well as how they experience the burden of their work in a psychological sense.
Mental loading, on the other hand, is probably the most…
Advameg, Inc. (2012). Sprains and Strains. Retrieved from: http://www.faqs.org/sports-science/Sp-Tw/Sprains-and-Strains.html#b
City Office (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.yourcityoffice.com/articles/48/office-space_lighting.html
How Does Human Metabolism Work? (2012). Retrieved from: http://campus.bethlehem.edu/eclinic/eclinic_0013e.pdf
Overgaard, D., Gyntelberg, F. And Heitmann, B.L. (2004). Psychological workload and body weight: is there an association? A review of the literature. Occupational Medicine, no. 54. Retrieved from: http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/1/35.long
Body Surface Area-Based Dosing
Flat- Fixed Dosing vs. Body Surface Area-Based Dosing of Anticancer Drugs in Adults: Does It Make a Difference?
Explain Body-Surface-Area-based dosage
Body Surface Area-based dosing is a critical formula applicable in the calculation of drug doses in the case of two types of patient groups. These two types of patient groups include cancer patient under the aspect of chemotherapy and pediatric patients. DuBois and DuBois derived the formula in the case of 1916 in a research which nine individuals took part (DuBois & DuBois, 1916). It is ideal to note that the average or normal adults have a BSA of about 1.73 m2. It refers to the current standard of care applicable in the determination of the dose of various chemotherapy drugs in relation to the body surface area of the patients on chemotherapy drugs. It is critical to understand that BSA-based dosing is a 'one…
DuBois D, DuBois EF. (1916). A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight were known. Arch Intern Med; 17:863 -- 871.
Boyd E. (1935). The Growth of the Surface Area of the Human Body. Minneapolis:
Gehan EA, George SL. (1970). Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep; 54:225 -- 235.
Scripture CD, Figg WD. (2006). Drug interactions in cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer; 6:546
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)
Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed…
Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;
Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.
Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4
British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at http://www.buav.org/campaigns/primates/zerooption.html
Human interactions with nonhuman animals should be guided solely by the impact of these interactions with other human beings, and not upon any perceived impact upon nonhuman animals themselves. This argument is based largely upon Descartes' understanding of the essential difference between humans and nonhuman animals. Descartes' argues that the body is external to the mind, and that non-human animals do not possess the pure, thinking mind of humans. Thus, Descartes argues that nonhuman animals are simply machines, and that human treatment of animals should only be guided by the impact of such interaction upon other humans. In contrast, thinkers like Anthony eston have argued that similarity of human and animal perception and experience means that human should treat animals as feeling beings. Similarly, Abram argues that the human connection with the natural world should govern our interaction with animals. Descartes' arguments for the uniqueness of human thought essentially counter…
Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human
World. Vintage, 1997.
Descartes, Rene. Animals are Machines. In Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, eds S.J. Armstrong and R.G. Botzler, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993,
Human Factors in Aviation
rief Historical ackground
The Airline Industry has a history that dates back to 1903 when the Wright brothers made their first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Initially the public did not take the idea of the airplane travel favorably. ut this event marked the beginning of the Airline Industry as more and more inputs were given by people such as Charles Lindbergh who successfully completed a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 and created massive interest in flying with the general public.
The concern for human factor involvement in aviation started as soon as the interest of general public was roused in it. The initial concern was for the safety of people daring to fly the aircraft as accidents were reported due to a flaw in the design or working of the plane. A pilot task was to juggle with the complexity…
Daniel J. Garland, V. David Hopkins, John A. Wise. (1999). Handbook of Aviation Human Factors. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Clint A. Bowers, C. Shawn Burke, Eduardo Salas, Katherine A. Wilson. (2001) Team Training in the Skies: Does Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training Work?, Vol. 43
Clint A. Bowers, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Randall L. Oser, Carolyn Prince, Eduardo Salas, Renee J. Stout. (1999) A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training, Vol. 41
Airlines in the industry. (N.d.) Retrieved on Sep 30, 2005 from:
Body piercing has grown more accepting in the est and as well as other parts of the world, and in some areas, certain types of piercings that were once considered radical are becoming more accepted (Body1 pp). For example, ear piercing was uncommon for middle to upper class estern males, however, today men with pierced ears can be found working in banks and other conservative settings, while in other parts of the world ear piercing is still considered inappropriate for men, as are multiple ear piercings for women (Body1 pp). Some people regard the practice of piercing as spiritual or as embracing the 'modern primitive,' while others consider it as simply faddish (Body1 pp). Some view the practice as a form of artistic or self-expression, while others use it as a form of sexual expression, or for symbolic reasons, however the current popularity of body piercing has diluted much of…
Body Piercing. Webster's New Millennium Dictionary of English. Retrieved July 26, 2005 at http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=Body%20Piercing
Body1 piercing. Retrieved July 26, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_piercing
Lauren Slater's (2005) article "Who holds the clicker?," Susan Blackmore's excerpt "Strange Creatures" -- taken from her book The Meme Machine, and Alain De Botton's chapter "On Habit" from his book The Art of Travel are very different pieces that all challenge the idea of the self in human kind. Is there a self? Or are we all controlled by things outside of our control? While science may be able to find ways of changing or enhancing our bodies, and though there may be some truth in the idea that our genes don't allow us to have complete free will over our selves, we cannot deny that most humans believe that there is something inside each and every one of us that gives us a purpose on this earth. Whether manipulated by a remote control clicker or partially-governed by memes, the fact that we are able to challenge…
Blackmore, S. (2003). Strange creatures. Extract from The meme machine. Accessed on 8
De Botton, A. (2004). On habit. From The art of travel. Vintage.
These practices include: selective hiring, employment security, self-managed team, extensive training, sharing information, diminution of status differences, and stipulation of high pay contingent on organizational performance.
Other authors analyzed by Chang and Huang sustain that SHM benefits company both directly and indirectly as it modifies passivity into initiative by clearly communicating organizational goals and encouraging the participation of line-managers. In addition, by generating structural cohesion, defined as "an employee-generated synergy that propels a company forward, enabling the firm to respond to its environment while still moving forward" (Chang and Huang, 2005), the SHM influences positively organizational performance.
Various other testimonials strengthen the idea that a good strategic orientation of human resources will mostly appear in high performance firms, as contrary to the cases of low performance firms, which tended to apply more conventional methods. (Jackson and Schuler, 1995)
Human esources Management (HM) and the Strategic Management Process (SMP)
Armstrong, M., "A Handbook of Human Resource Management," Kogan Page, 2000, 7th Edition, London
Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S., "Managing Human Resources: A partnership perspective," South-Western College, 2000, Cincinnati, OH
Milkovich, G.T., and Boudreau, J.W., "Human Resource Management," Times Mirror Higher Education Group, USA, 1997, p. 2-10
On the other hand however, it gives rise to an exclusive attitude and a multiple layer style of development and economic evolution because there will always be countries that fail to keep up with innovative technology, high tech research and revolutionary concepts which stand at the basis of today's creative industries. This is why the population in least developed countries does not consider globalization as being benefic for the improvement in their standard of living.
All in all, it can be said that the success and nature of a process is totally dependent of the perspective which is under analysis. Concerning stem cell research, arguments coming from the medical point-of-view favor the continuing of the research while those embracing the religious and ethical perspective strongly disagree. Similarly, depending on the point-of-view, globalization can be seen as both an inclusive and an exclusive process.
Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie…
Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie Zoloth (Editor). The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy (Basic Bioethics). Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.
IMF. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? 2000. 17 September 2006. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#II
National Academy of Sciences. Potential U.S. Patient Populations for Stem Cell-Based Therapies. 2000. 17 September 2006. http://www4.nationalacademies.org/onpi/webextra.nsf/44bf87db309563a0852566f2006d63bb/e5d8fdf14955556185256ac3000711c6?OpenDocument
Reaves, Jessica. "The Great Debate over Stem Cell Research." July 11, 2001. TIME. 2001. 17 September 2006. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,167245,00.html
Body, Mind, and Soul in the Cancer Ward
Margaret Edson’s Wit dramatizes the death of a literature professor from cancer. The play is designed to show the limits of the intellect to fully understand human tragedy and existence. Although the central protagonist Professor Vivian Bearin was a rigorous academic fluent in the works of John Donne when she was healthy, ultimately the fact her old English professor is able to provide her comfort during her dying moments by reading a children’s book provides her the greatest solace more than her philosophy and more than intellectualism. Bearin embarked upon an academic career because she was primarily interested in the life of the mind, not the body. The central irony of the play is that she is being killed by her own body with ovarian cancer. Ultimately, human beings are unable to escape the body in the form of death. The play…
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
In my work "Conduit" I presented a basic fantasy of everyone's, to pee off a skyscraper. While this is a crazy and often considered offensive idea, sometimes it is those notions that free the mind in a new way.
Stelarc: I hope that people are offended by my art. I hope that in a way people are offended at the way that science has made the human body obsolete. I want viewers to feel and think when they see me hanging from flesh hooks or be enraged when they see my "Third Ear" for perhapes it will reawaken and reanimate what seems to be a dead society.
Question 3: Where do you see art and society moving in the future?
Stelarc: While I can't really speak for art in general, I fear that society is moving further and further away from the miraculous and inspired. It seems to me that…
It was noted that the variation in the role and responsibilities of the negotiator towards others in different organization was responsible for the growing stress and mental illness on the basis of uncertainties experienced by the employees in their interaction and performance. It was also noted that the employees were asked and forcibly compelled to 'analyze the value of various partners' (Harris, 2002), this was of course considered to be risky practice, and the employees reflected their concerns towards the nature of responsibility, but of course were not able to veto because of the threat of the termination of their services was apparent. The technological revolution, in particular concentrated in the cellular and telecommunication technology was responsible for mental illness among the employees. The employees also complained of the mental stress due to the increasing expectation laid down by the employers without any provision of financial rewards, and access to…
John Upson, David Ketchen, and R. Duane Ireland. Managing Employee Stress: A Key to the Effectiveness of Strategic Supply Chain Management. Organizational Dynamics. 2007. Vol. 36.1.
David Lee. Managing Employee Stress and safety. Maine Employers Mutual Insurance Company. 2000. MEMIC Publication. pp. 23
Harris. Putting People First: Value Options. Rothenberg International LLC. 2002
Ellen Jaffe Gill. Robert Segal. Jaelline Jaffe. Job Stress Management: Causes and Effects. Help Guide Publication. 2007.
Core affect (CA) on the other hand refers to a neurophysiological state which is accessible consciously as very simple and yet nonreflective feeling which forms an integral part of hedonistic as well as arousing values. The hedonistic values are responsible for the feeling of pleasure and displeasure while the arousal feelings are activated by sleep. In the study of affect, it became clear that its core characteristics are many. Some of the characteristics are valence which is the extent, to which an individual feels bad. Arousal, which is the sleep-activated value denoting to the extent to which one feels energized. Affects exists in each and every person without the need of any form of stimulus. Affects is a primitive aspect of every being and is noted to be university as well as ubiquitous. Affect is the center of all human laden events and called in various names as pointed out…
Zhang, P (2011a).Organizational & Business Context
Zhang, P (2011b).Interactive Technologies
Zhang, P (2011c).Physical Engineering
Zhang, P (2011d).Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Engineering
Human biological, social, and cognitive evolution has depended on food. That much seems obvious, but what is less obvious is the specific ways that first fire, and then agriculture, and then the combination of advanced cooking and food preservation methods have contributed to the quality of the human brain and the efficacy of the human body. Even at its most basic, cooking transforms the available nutrients in plants, and renders some otherwise inedible plants both edible/nonpoisonous or better able to provide bioavailable nutrients. Even just sticking plants and animal parts into a fire and waiting for a transformation to take place fueled human biological evolution because "cooking made available to our ancestors unprecedented nutrients that fueled brain growth over time, and reduced the need for energy-expensive chewing of tough foods," (King). Bioavailability increases from just 30 to 40% of nutrients in raw plants to a full hundred percent (Mott). Cooking…
Adler, J. (2013). Why fire makes us human. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-fire-makes-us-human-72989884/
King, Barbara. "Cooking Or Slicing Food: What Drove Early Human Evolution?" NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2016/03/17/470784072/cooking-or-slicing-food-what-drove-early-human-evolution
Mott, Nicholas. "What Makes Us Human?" National Geographic. 26 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/10/121026-human-cooking-evolution-raw-food-health-science/
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Advice is given to supervisors on how to correct poor appearance and employee misconduct. In these instances, progressive guidelines and other requirements must be taken into account the completing disciplinary actions and in resolving employee grievances and appeals. Information is given to employees to encourage a better understanding of management's goals and policies. Information is also given to employees in order to assist them in improving poor performance, on or off duty misconduct, and/or to address personal issues that influence them in the workplace. Employees are told about appropriate policies, legislation, and bargaining agreements. Employees are also directed about their complaint and appeal rights and discrimination and whistleblower safeguards (Employee elations, 2009).
Preserving a positive, productive work environment is significant for all managers. This is often accomplished by engaging in: mentoring and coaching your staff, regular feedback, including annual performance reviews, open and honest communication regarding group, unit and university…
Compensation and Benefits. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2010, from Auxillium West Web site:
Employee Health and Safety. (2009). Retrieved August 19, 2010, from Small Business Notes
Web site: http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/operating/hr/safety.html
Human esource Standards and Staffing
The times when there was high vacancy rate in both public and private hospitals and clinics across the United State have come and gone, but the shortage of nurses is evidence. However according to 2002 report by the workforce commission of America Hospital Association, nursing shortage is reflects fundamental changes in population demographic. It shows clearly the demands of staffing in nursing professional (Mark W. Stanton, 2010). Therefore, what is staffing? And what are great challenges to staffing and requirement when doing staffing?
Staffing can be defined as the method of determining and providing the acceptable number and mix nursing personnel to produce a desired level of acre to meet the patients demand (Mike. ichard, 2009). It's purposely to provide the nursing unit with an appropriate and an acceptable number of workers in each unit to perform the nursing task as required. The unit requires…
Florence. Nightingale, (2010). International Council of Nurses
Krista Sheehan (2009) Ethical Standards of Nursing Education
Andragogy Nursing Education
The idea of human freedom transcends the spectrum of most subjects worthy of academic discussion. The purpose of this essay is to investigate, describe and discuss the concept of human freedom as it specifically relates to sociology and the social landscape. In order to accomplish this I will highlight some of aspects of human freedom to demonstrate the complexity and necessity of understanding this ideal. Political, religious and economic factors will be included to give this broad issue context and to further broaden the discussion and descriptions of this important subject.
Society could be described as a qualitative manifestation of human freedom. Differing cultures residing in various national landscapes appear to hold varying views on what is allowed or not allowed in these areas. Freedom is therefore rationally based upon the local and domestic traditions and practices of given areas. ar and conflict appears as the process where…
Carlisle, C. (2012). Evil, part 3. does freedom make us evil? The Guardian, 29 Oct, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/29/does-freedom - make-us-evil
Greenwell, A. (2011). Catholic Social Teaching and Authentic Human Freedom. Catholic Online, 27 Dec, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/hf/faith/story.php?id=44188
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United Nations Web Site. Viewed 20 November, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).
The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…
Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.
Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from http://aviationglossary.com/aviation-safety-terms/dirty-dozen-errors-human-factors/
Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.
Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from http://www.scsi-inc.com/HFAM.php
Human Factor in Cargo Security
Is Human Factor important Cargo Security
Cargo security I one of the major issues handled with priority by Homeland security department in United States of America. It is regarded as a positional facilitator in terrorism activities. Another notable factor in implementing security measures for cargo was theft as a direct business cost for U.S. It is observed that businesses lost $15b to $30 billion as a loss to cargo theft in 2006. The research further states that personnel access, vehicles access, and proliferation of papers are one of the major causes of cargo theft. It is evident that certain factors have a direct influence on maintaining security for cargo. Technology, processes, procedures, systems, and all of the above human involvement are major issues in cargo security. It requires maintaining a high level of integrity for all these factors to reduce risk in cargo transportation.
Giermanski, J. (2011, June 01). Facing the realities and probabilities of enhancing supply chain security. The Maritime Executive, Retrieved from http://www.maritime-executive.com/article/facing-the-realities-and-probabilities-of-enhancing-supply-chain-security/
Giermanski, J. (2012). Global Supply Chain Security. USA: Rowman & Littlefield.
Iseby, J. (2008). 9/11 Comm Recommendations. USA: Nova Science Pub Incorporated.
Ivanov, D., & Sokolov, B.V. (2010). Adaptive supply chain management. London: Springer verlag.
hen the behavior is followed by a favorable consequence, the behavior is more likely to recur over and over. However, if the behavior is followed by a negative consequence or a painful consequence, then the behavior is less like to happen again.
The third type of learning is Motor Learning. Carlson says that motor learning is "the establishment of changes within the motor system." (433). He claims that this type of learning is a component of the stimulus-response type of learning. However, this type of learning must involve some form of sensory guidance from the environment and it elicits a reaction from the body.
Finally, the fourth type of learning that Carlson describes is Relational Learning. This is the most complex type of learning and it "involves learning the relationship among individual stimuli." (431) Relational Learning involves spatial learning which is the actual process of identifying similarities and differences among…
Carlson, Neil. Physiology of Behavior, Ninth Edition. Published by Allyn and Bacon in Institute of Perceptual Learning. How Perceptual Learning Works. Retrieved on December 10, 2009 from http://www.perceptuallearning.com/plearn.php.
Motor Teaching and Motor Learning. Retrieved December 10, 209 from http://moon.ouhsc.edu/dthompso/mtrlrng/mtrlrng.htm
Human and Machine Intelligence
The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?
The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of…
Block, N. (____). The mind as the software of the brain. Chapter 14.
Bostrom, N. (2003). Creating Superintelligence involves less risk than waiting. In S. Engdahl, Artificial Intelligence. Green Press: Detroit.
Can a Machine Think? Chapter 5.
Chatham, C. (2011). 10 important differences between brains and computers. Developing Intelligence [over time, across species, cross-platform]. Viewable at http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/why_the_brain_is_not_like_a_co.php .
Body modification is also used as a form of entertainment, as in cases of suspension, where individuals pierce their bodies with fish hooks, wire or other objects and then hang or elevate their body much like a "circus" trick (Leo 1).
There are many side effects of body modification, often contingent on the amount of or intensity of body modification a person is involved with. For example, ear piercing might leave few side effects other than some scar tissue in the ear; the same is true of piercing in other locations. Any form of body modification involving piercing the skin or cutting into the body introduces the risk of infections (Bendle 193).
Modern plastic surgery may leave scarring, especially when invasive procedures including tummy tucks or breast augmentation are performed; despite this many people are advocates of body modification, which has in its own right created a culture…
Bendle, Mervyn. In the Flesh: The Cultural Politics of Body Modification. Journal of Sociology, 40.2: 2004, p. 193.
Kewitt, Kim. Mutilating the Body: Identity in Blood and Ink. Bowling Green, OH:
Bowling Green State University Popular Press: 1997.
Leo, Jessica D. Suspension: Going Beyond the Limits of Body Modification. Retrieved May 14, 2007: http://www.journalism.ryerson.ca/online/tor/umm/jdileo_feature.htm
here could be numerous reasons for the shift, including the growing trend of body fitness and overall media portrayal of the male physique.
he study conducted through Monash University has confirmed most of the findings of earlier research. here are significant opportunities for error within the study however. Since all participants are blind participants through the university website, there are almost no controls over the data and thus it is subject to many different unintended biases. Age factors should also be considered as the majority of those surveyed were college students, and are not a complete and accurate reflection of the cross sections of society. Overall, more research needs to be conducted within the area of the growth in male body dissatisfaction and factors that will help both genders deal with their overestimation of body shape.
Fallon, a.E., & Rozin, P. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape.…
Turner, S., Hamilton, H., Jacobs, M., Angood, L.M., & Dwyer, DH (1997). The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis. Adolescence, 32(127), 603-614.
Abell, S.C., & Richards, M.H. (1996). The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: An investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 691-703.
Crawford, D., & Worsley, a. (1987). Present and desired body weights of Australian adults: A cause for concern. Community Health Studies, 11.
K. The advertising campaign does not differ from that in other countries, since it is integrated in the company's global marketing strategy.
egarding the consumer behavior strategy, it is recommended that The Body Shop implements a marketing approach that is more centered on competitive advantage. The company did not manage to distinguish its competitive advantage. The Body Shop is not sufficiently differentiated from other cosmetics producers that also address the South Korean market.
It is also recommended that the company analyzes consumers' needs that have not yet been addressed by their competitors. Such situations present opportunities that can be exploited by the company in order to gain more customers.
egarding the website strategy and its relation with the localization theory, it is recommended that the company's website is active enough in educating and informing consumers about the company's social values and campaigns. In addition to this, the website should…
1. Multi-Channel Marketing. Making Bricks and Clicks Stick (2000). McKinsey Marketing Solutions. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.mckinsey.com/practices/retail/knowledge/articles/Multichannelmarketing.pdf .
2. Chaffey, D. (2009). Online revenue models and business models. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.davechaffey.com/Internet-Marketing/C2-Internet-micro-environment/Online-revenue-models .
3. Value Proposition (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueproposition.asp .
4. Perner, L. (2009). Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing. University of Southern California. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/ .
A matrix is developed in order to show the probability of an employee moving from one job to another or leaving the organization altogether. The underlying assumption is that the departure or movement of personnel among various job classifications can be predicted from past movements (Stone, 2009, p.69). Another tool that can be used is that of a trend analysis. A trend analysis is study of the organizations past employment needs over a period of years in order to predict the future. This is based on the theory that the future is an extrapolation from the past. This allows Human esource needs to be estimated by examining the events of the past (H Planning, n.d.).
With a merger it is important for these processes to be done involving all employees at both institutions so that a clear picture can be captured of what internal resources are already available. This allows…
"An Assessment Framework for the Community College." 2004. Viewed 18 March 2010,
"Building Successful Organizations Workforce Planning in HHS." 2001. Viewed 17 March 2010,
"Guidelines for Determining Personnel Staff Needs." n.d. Viewed 18 March 2010,
"HR Planning." n.d. Viewed 18 March 2010,
The use of the word MY also suggests that the speaker feels a sense of possession towards the assistant, thus the assistant's departure is seen as a loss of control, not merely a setback to the project as he says.
7. it's an animal urge, Puff. it's nothing to be ashamed of (65)
The word Puff suggests an animal, even if Puff is not an animal -- Puff is being assured that acting like an animal is natural, and not worthy of shame, despite Puff's feelings to the contrary and the ambiguous quality of Puff's name.
8. Remember, when in doubt: don't ever do what you really want to do (69)
This statement goes against the assurances of the naturalness of human behavior and impulses -- go against one's human or animal nature, it suggests, and repress and resist gut instincts. Instead, follow societal dictates and one's own superego.
Human esource Management
The latest issue to discuss in the human resource management field is about unequal job opportunities available for women in the organization, or we can say that discrimination shown towards women in the organizations. This issue has been discussed and worked upon by UNO and various governmental and non-governmental organizations. However, even through governmental efforts these measures do not resolve the issue because it has to be addressed at the organizational level. The consequences of discrimination is not merely not giving jobs to someone but rather eventually it affects the overall employment scenario.
DISCIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF GENDE:
Various discriminations shown towards women can be explained by analyzing each human resource management theory separately.
Wages and salaries is the award given for the mental and physical work done by a person in an organization over a period of time. Most of the time the…
Kabira, Wanjiku Mukabi, ed|Masinjila, Masheti|Muthoni, Wanjira, ed, Road to Empowerment [Part 10 of 10]., Contemporary Women's Issues Database, 01-01-1994, pp 88-103.
Wilkinson, Doris Y., Gender and Racial Inequality at Work: The Sources and Consequences ofJob Segregation.(book reviews). Vol. 75, Social Forces, 03-01-1997, pp 1133(2).
Richard R. Nelson, State labor legislation enacted in 1998. Vol. 122 n, Monthly Labor Review, 01-01-1999.
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.
Human esource Functions at XYZ Staffing, Inc.
Following periods of economic downturn, companies of all sizes and types frequently turn staffing agencies to help them refill vacancies that resulted from the previous downsizing initiatives that were needed to survive. In some cases, such staffing agencies provide suitable candidates for companies on a temporary basis, while in others candidates are provided for consideration for permanent employment; some agencies provide both temporary and permanent placements as well. Since staffing agencies are intimately involved in the human resource function, gaining a better understanding of how a successful organization competing in this industry achieves its goals represents a valuable and timely enterprise as well as how those activities relate to Saint Leo University's School of Business Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) -- Management Information Systems, Accounting, Economics, Management, Finance, Marketing, Legal, International Business, and Applied Decision Making. To this end, this paper analyzes XYZ…
Burgess, J. & Connell, J. (2004). International perspectives in temporary work and workers.
New York: Routledge.
Eberts, R.W. (2005). After the doors close: Assisting laid-off workers to find jobs. Economic Perspectives, 29(2), 75-77.
Flynn, G. (1999, April). Contingent staffing requires serious strategy. Personnel Journal, 74(4),
Frank and Taylor (2004) warn that motivating employees is highly dependent on their specific wants and needs. An accounting firm that mostly hires conservative, serious-minded employees who value efficiency above all else are not likely to be motivated by the offer of a life coach or a concierge. They would probably be much more motivated by a good 401k plan. However, that does not mean that all types of organizations cannot get creative with their benefits.
The key is to creating an effective and creative employee benefit strategy is talk to the employees and find out what they really want. According to Gajewski (2005) it is critically important to modify "the corporate culture to balance employee needs and desires with organizational objectives" (p. 4). Therefore, if companies can change the corporate culture in such as way that satisfies both management and employees, then they would be remiss not to do…
Alsop, R. (2008) The 'Trophy Kids' go to work. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122455219391652725.html
Are They Really Ready To Work? Employers Perspective On The Basic Knowledge And Applied Skills Of New Entrant To The 21st Century U.S. Workforce. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf
Avery, D.R., & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice: An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personnel Psychology, 59, 157-187.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C.W., Patterson, M.A., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61, 467-501.
This type of planning can help manage companies' assets and keep it in line, providing more robust information for future planning on an executive or managerial level.
egardless of the type of business or company, a robust Human esources department is an absolute necessity. Such departments provide support, increased productivity, and future growth for any organization. Even in these tough times, the Human esources departments of the United States are still going strong and providing for both organization and employee.
Heathfield, Susan M. (2009). What is the definition of Human esources? Human esources. etrieved August 19, 2009 at http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/what_hr.htm.
McNamara, Carter. (2008). Human resources management. Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. Free Management Library. etrieved August 19, 2009 at http://managementhelp.org/hr_mgmnt/hr_mgmnt.htm.
Tortorici, Frank. (2009). Strategic workforce planning enables smarter H decisions. The Human esources Portal. etrieved August 19, 2009 at http://www.hr.com/SITEFOUM?t=/contentManager/onStory&e=UTF-8&i=1116423256281&l=0&active=no&ParentID=1119278052473&StoryID=1249486709481.
UC egents. 2007). Guide to Managing Human esources. University…
Resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists. Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2008-09 ed. Retrieved August 19, 2009 at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm#nature .
The second phase would include using these metrics in order to gather the appropriate results. Finally, the third phase implies interpreting those results and using them to gain a competitive strategic advantage on the market.
The phase dealing with the development of qualitative and quantitative metrics brings about some of the usual challenges in terms of measuring things: what metrics best reflect the performance of a certain activity? In the case of human capital, quantitative metrics can sometimes be a simple as sales growth per employee or changes in financial performance and productivity.
There are several problems, however, with this type of approach. The direct link between the changes in financial performance and human capital results is difficult to prove and, quite often, a negative change in financial performance is not necessarily caused by negative performances of human capital. For example, external factors, such as the current economic crisis, could…
1. Armstrong, Michael (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). London: Kogan Page
2. Fitz-enz, Jac. February 2009. The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring the Economic Value of Employee Performance. AMACOM; Second Edition.
3. GAO 2004. A Guide For Assessing Strategic Training and Development Efforts in the Federal Government. On the Internet at http://books.google.com/books?id=MvBOBDmbOrYC&pg=PA1&dq=human+capital+management#v=onepage&q=human%20capital%20management&f=false . Last retrieved on August 1, 2009
4. Ingham, Jon. 2006. Strategic Human Capital Management: Creating Value Through People. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1 edition
As the company grew, she hired managers and put them in positions to handle operations, accounting and sales. Although these managers had those titles, it looked to me like they had little communication from the top.
When I joined, the company was having problems fulfilling orders. The purchasing people worked primarily with East Asian suppliers with a long supply chain. They had a lot of problems lining up shipments and getting our retailers what they needed. They seemed to get little help from the top.
Our warehouse was also a mess. We had three different kinds of software, and our Warehouse Manager seemed unable or unwilling to make them talk to one another. When I worked in the warehouse, no one gave me any training: I was hired in the afternoon, and started the next morning. The supervisor asked me to tag along with another employee, who took me to…
Gutteridge, T.L. (1993). A new look at organizational career development. Human Resource Planning, 71-79.
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Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
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Human Figure Drawing
Testing has become an integral part of psychological theory and practice. Rooted in historical perspectives and heated conversation of principles, wagering purpose and ethics, it involves the statistical conceptualizations of psychometrics and the connection of the validity of a test to the reality of a person. The field of psychological testing is characterized by the use of small samples to apply larger generalizations to a specific individual; samples of behavioral trends combine with observations over a limited time in which performance of prescribed tasks is compared to a the pre-studied responses of members of a norm group. These responses, compiled and analyzed before compared to the studied individual, are often crafted into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the specific person to the range of responses given by the norm group and make appropriate personality discussions therein. A common type of psychological…
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Sturner, R.A., Rothbaum, F., Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. "The Effects of Stress on Children's Human Figure Drawings." Journal of Clinical Psychology. Vol. 36, No. 1. January,1980. p. 324.
Wang, H., Ericsson, K., Winblad, B., Fratiglioni, L. "The Human Figure Drawing Test as a Screen for Dementia in the Elderly: A Community-Based Study." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Vol. 27, No. 1. August, 1998. p. 25.
Human esources Management - Maintaining a Competitive Edge in the Corporate Marketplace
Change continues to reshape the workplace. Today's H professional is called upon to help the organization retain its competitive edge in the marketplace. Along with representing the best interests of employees, H professionals assume the role of strategic partner, administrative expert, and change agent. H assumes a critical role in promoting the vision and shaping the focus of the company. H professionals must be skilled and knowledgeable business partners, able to wear many hats while demonstrating their own competencies in communication and decision-making skills. (Aghazadeh, 1999)
Today, H departments face many challenges. Some are conventional and continuing concerns.
Attract, retain and motivate employees;
Ensure legal and regulatory compliance;
Manage the human side of technological change.
Perhaps, most critically today however, progressive H departments are charged with adding value to the corporation as they seek to:
Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud (1999). Human Resource Management: Issues and challenges in the new millennium. Management Research News, 22(12) 19-32.
Ashbaugh, Sam and Rowan Miranda (2002). Technology for Human Resources Management: Seven Questions and Answers. Public Personnel Management, (31) 7.
Ball, Sarah (2002, Sept). How technology can make you look good. Employee Benefits, S9-11.
Barro, Tom. A Tangled Web of Partnerships. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2003 at http://www.astd.org/CMS/templates/index.html?template_id=1&articleid=23780
Human esource Management
Human esource Training
esponsibility for Choosing the Training Method
Training and Fulfillment of Individual Employee Needs
Link between Training Need Identification and Training Evaluation
Training and development of the employees is a broader strategic objective of the human resource department. It is an essential function of the human resource department because by effectively enhancing the skills, abilities and knowledge of the employees the organizations can gain a competitive edge over their competitors. (Arthur and Bennett, 2013, pp. 234-245)
This report aims at identifying the ways in which an organization can develop an effective training program. It puts light on the fact that the management and employees shall jointly share the responsibility of selective effective training tools and programs. It also indicates that apart from benefitting the organization, training also assists the employees in fulfilling their individual needs.
In addition to that, this report also highlights the link…
Arthur, W. And Bennett, W. 2013. Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (2), pp. 234-245. Available at: http://www.ispi.org/archives/resources/EffectivenessofTrainingArthur_etal.pdf [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Brown, J. 2005. Training Needs Assessment. Alexandria: International Public Management Association for Human Resources. pp. 7-20. http://ipma-hr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/hrcenter/Training%20Needs%20Assessment/cpr_needs.pdf [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Brum, S. 2007. What Impact Does Training Have On Employee Commitment And Employee Turnover?. Kingston: University of Rhode Island. pp. 1-11. http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/research/papers/Brum-Commitment.pdf [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Community Foundations Of Canada. 2013. Implementing an Employee Training & Development Program | Learning, Training & Development | HR Toolkit | hrcouncil.ca. [online] Available at: http://hrcouncil.ca/hr-toolkit/learning-implementing.cfm [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Unions have been dropping members at an incredible rate. The trouble can't be resolved by individual unions dealing with great, monopolistic, international companies. Unions must stick together and work in the political ring to elect government officials who understand that the nation is here for the citizens, and not for business (the Decline of Unions -- Why, 2007).
In 2000 the Union Network Federation (UNI) was fashioned with the purpose of structuring a coalition that could represent employees across many nations. According to UNI, when businesses are local, unions can be local; when businesses are national, unions must be national; when businesses are international, unions must be international. Apart from UNI, there are quite a few other international trade unions that could have some pressure on the expansion of unions internationally in the future. There are presently ten Global Union Federations (GUF's), which are the global representatives of unions in…
7.6. Labor Unions. (n.d.). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from Web site:
http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/NC/B0/B66/060MB66.htmlThe Decline of Smith, Keith. (2011). Employees Continue to Not Join Labor Unions. Retrieved March 11, 2011,
The Decline of Unions -- Why? (2007). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from Web site:
The act contains a prescription drug entitlement. This is accomplished by providing subsidies for employers to convince them not to eliminate prescription drug benefits for retired workers. Further subsidies were made to prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries. Extra money was given to rural hospitals. The act also provided for a trial of partly-privatized Medicare.
Another result of the act was the creation of health savings accounts for workers. These replace company-run health reimbursement arrangements, and the HSAs offer advantages over flexible spending accounts, especially because the former rolls over where the latter does not. This part of the act was designed to replace the Medical Savings Account system. Lastly, there were internal changes such as with respect to the way claims are processed.
This law is a good law. hile expensive for the federal government because of its prescription drug provisions, it introduced the HSA system, which represents an improvement…
Ellig, Bruce R. (2001). Strategies for gaining a powerful edge in the executive talent wars. McGraw Hill Professional. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=hBPaskPAJUQC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=intrinsic+extrinsic+compensation&source=bl&ots=2u2mESAWlv&sig=cxUlTaJEdvUidA_Omlpt7lTfcuE&hl=en&ei=xxjUSYDwHOKPmAeSk8SxDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#PPA4,M1
Card, David & Krueger, Alan B. (1997). Myth and Measurement. Princeton University Press. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=VDNI0Uy86J8C&printsec=frontcover
Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize his line of reasoning that related to morality for he added that "the truth and certainty of moral discourses abstracts from the lives of men, and the existence of those values in the world, whereof they treat." Locke believed in inquiring everything and denying the authority either of the past or of the clergy for he desired everyone to depend on their own judgment and reasoning which is exactly the he created an contention to defend believing in God, and made sure to rebut the thought that reason is different to faith, saying that faith can never sway us of anything that opposes our knowledge and disagreeing that, apart from in the instance of divine revelation, people must constantly look first…
Binga, T. (2000). Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from Council for Secular Humanism: http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=hall_of_fame&page=voltaire
Hewett, C. (2006). The Life of Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate:
Hewett, C. (2006). John Locke's Theory of Knowledge. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate: http://thegreatdebate.org.uk/LockeEpistem.html
Children spend a large part of their day here, and should therefore be optimally stimulated for their learning benefit. The problem with many current classrooms is the fact that desks and chairs tend to be uncomfortable to a great degree of distraction. Other distracting factors is the lack of general comfort level within a classroom. The classroom atmosphere should be pleasant and focus the attention on the teacher and the blackboard, where information is imparted. Air-conditioning in summer and heating in winter should therefore be primary considerations, along with providing children with comfortable seating arrangements. In movie theaters, clients are provided with the utmost comfort in padded seating, helping them to enjoy the experience. Children should be provided with the same courtesy, as learning is an infinitely more worthy activity than movie entertainment. Surely the long hours spend in school and classrooms justify a better seating arrangement than is currently…
The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. Title I requires employers with 15 or more employees to provide qualified individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from the full range of employment-related opportunities available to others. For example, it prohibits discrimination in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, pay, social activities, and other privileges of employment. It restricts questions that can be asked about an applicant's disability before a job offer is made, and it requires that employers make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities, unless it results in undue hardship. Religious entities with 15 or more employees are covered under title I. Title I complaints must be filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) within 180 days of the date of discrimination, or 300 days if the charge is filed with a designated…