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It is a time when parents are overworked, stressed, and frequently sleep-deprived for prolonged periods of time. Those are all significant potential stressors that contribute to depression; naturally, where a single parent faces those stressors and obligations alone, the magnitude of stress would be expected to increase proportionately.
Furthermore, single parenthood is probably directly associated with higher instances of loneliness and emotional emptiness as compared with parenthood within a stable nuclear family environment with a supportive spouse. Indeed, being single late into adulthood (especially for women) is a likely source of anxiety and depression. The prospect of finding a partner is greatly reduced by virtue of single parenthood, both as a practical matter having to do with time management and energy as well as in terms of motherhood being a potential barrier to the interest of many prospective partners. Finally, all of the available research (Brugha, Sharp, & Cooper, 1998;…
Anstey, K. "How important is mental activity in old age?" Australian Psychologist, Vol.
34; (1999): 128-131.
Brugha, T.S., Sharp, H.M., and Cooper, S.A. "The Leicester 500 Project. Social support and the development of postnatal depressive symptoms, a prospective cohort survey." Psychological Medicine, Vol. 28; (1998): 63 -- 79.
De Wolff, M.S. And van Ijzendoorn, M.H. "Sensitivity and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment." Child Development, Vol. 68;
Human Psychology Drives Economy
Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.
The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.
The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…
Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ainslie, G. (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral / Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82 (4): 463 -- 496.
Alkerlof & Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human psychology drives economy and why it matters for global capitalism
Arrow, Kenneth and Gerard Debreu. (1954). "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy." Econometrica 22, no. 3 (1954): 265-90.
More specifically, children whose
transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long-
lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled. Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that
corresponds to the precise stage of development (i.e. oral or anal phase, etc.) where their essential needs where unfulfilled within their family of origin (McWilliams, 2004).
Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships (McWilliams, 2004). Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…
Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., and Carson, R.C. (2004). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.
Mitchell, S., and Black, M. (1995). Freud And Beyond: A History Of Modern
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
y that time, several guards had become sadistic and the behavior of the prisoners provided clear indications of psychological breakdown. Interviews with study participants suggested that merely the perception of their respective roles influenced their behavior. More importantly, the groupthink that prevailed within the group of prison guards overcame any individual personal reluctance they may have had to treat their prisoners so harshly (Macionis 2003). The Significance of the Phenomenon of Groupthink on Individual ehavior:
Like deference to authority, groupthink is a natural human tendency that likely evolved as a necessary component of human social relationships that were essential to the early success of our species (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). In modern context, however, groupthink represents tremendous destructive potential because in the extreme, it involves the complete suspension of individual judgment and perception. In benign situations groupthink is evident in popular culture, such as in the cycle of fashion trends,…
Branden, Nathaniel (1999). The Psychology of Self-Esteem.
New York: Bantam.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
In principle, Freud views the development of human personality as largely attributable to neurological functions representing particular components of personality rather than neurological structures, and in that sense, his prescient views predating the technology that would later confirm the neurological basis of human perception and behavior by a full half-century (Dennet 1991). On the other hand, the detailed descriptions provided by Freud for the precise conflicts and interactions among and between the Id, Super Ego, and the Ego amount more to arbitrary characterizations rather than to the precise neurological processes envisioned by Freud (Dennet 1991).
That is not to deny the existence of the various urges emphasized by Freud and the factors responsible for their degree of expression in human conduct. Contemporary psychologists acknowledge the profound role played by various neurological components of human behavior as well as their general connection to specific parts of the brain, all of which…
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Penguin.
Important Theorists and their Contributions:
roca contributed greatly to the initial recognition of the importance of specific brain regions to particular aspects of human psychology and behavior in the middle of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, William James published one of the first formal academic explanation of biopsychology just before the turn of the 20th century, titled the Principles of Psychology (Dennet, 1991; Pinker, 2002). James acknowledged that personal experience and external environmental factors played a role in human psychological development, but only in so far as they represent sets and types of automatic, involuntary, and inherent biological responses to circumstances (Dennet, 1991).
Approximately 60 years later, Walter Hess pioneered a method of directly exploring the role of specific brain regions and structures through the use of electro- stimulation (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). y implanting electrodes into anesthetized laboratory animals, Hess demonstrated that specific behaviors could be triggered by electrically…
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Dennet, D. (1996). Kinds of Minds: Toward an Understanding of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature.
Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.
The Cognitive Perspective:
The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.
According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…
REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
The modern psychologist is only as good as his or her understanding of the way that the principles described in multiple areas of the field interrelate to produce behavior and perception.
It is my hope to work in family and child counseling areas in some capacity where I have the opportunity to help families experiencing difficulties maintaining beneficial and healthy relationships and a home environment conducive to well adjusted child and adolescent development. In retrospect, I would like to have become more familiar with childhood education issues simply because I realize that the working environment I envision will almost certainly give rise to an opportunity (and possibly an obligation) to become knowledgeable enough about childhood education theory to meet the needs of my clients as comprehensively as possible. In retrospect, my portfolio might be stronger from a professional perspective if it contained evidence of my having studied childhood education. Strictly…
Obviously, this could have a lasting affect on the study of psychology and predicting many unwanted behaviors and addictions. By studying the human genome of a particular patient, the psychologist might be able to predict these behaviors, and begin treatment or medication to alleviate them.
In addition, children's genomes could be decoded early in life in an effort to find these problems before they start, and treat them behaviorally so they do not occur. Studying the genomes of known addicts or patients with other behavioral problems could also help researchers find more ways to predict these behaviors and perhaps a way to stop them from occurring someday.
This research has many other health implications as well. It could show that many issues that have always been thought to begin in the mind and the psyche can actually be hereditary, and there is no way to stop them from occurring, only…
Next, researchers corroborated the results of the study with other relevant facts on the subject. To achieve this objective, they would look at a number of different pieces to confirm the underlying effect. A good example of this is when researchers would study the classic piece of literature on human psychology, Man Search for Meaning. In the book, the author (Viktor Frankel) says, "There is nothing in the world, I venture to say, that would so effectively help one to survive even the worst conditions as the knowledge that there is a meaning in one's life" (Davis, 2003) This is significant, because Frankel is saying that humankind can survive some of the most horrific conditions, if they are given a reason to endure. As a result, one could effectively argue that the research and the subsequent examination of the different pieces of literature confirm the effect that religion…
Cline, A. (2010). Karl Marx on Religion. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from About.com website: http://atheism.about.com/od/weeklyquotes/a/marx01.htm
Davis, K. (2003). Meaning, Purpose and Religiosity in at Risk Youth. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31.
Nonetheless, an argument from common sense can be made based on our own observational context. For example, neurologically speaking, there is a wealth of evidence to illustrate that genes have an immense impact on the final structure of the brain, and thus on behavior. Schizophrenia is an obvious example of this.
Logically, though, there is also abundant support for Dawkins' thesis. oughly, an argument can be shown to be logically viable if its conclusions can be reasonably drawn from its suppositions based on the available evidence. This is abundantly the case in the Selfish Gene, wherein Dawkins (1976) draws on all the existing evidence on evolutionary theory and the development of life, including the mechanism of natural selection (p. 48) and DNA as the molecule of choice for genetic propagation (pp. 22-23). The evidence that Dawkins provides is, quite simply, sufficient to support his argument that the gene should be…
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2005). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. 5th ed. Wadsworth-Thomson Learning.
Since they were conducted, the American Psychological Association (APA) has established rules and strict guidelines for ethical experimentation that would not allow the kind of deception used at that time. In both experiments, the subjects experienced numerous after-effects including depression, anxiety, and tremendous guilt and they received psychological counselling afterwards.
In the case of the Zimbardo experiment, it is understandable why the prisoners would have suffered from the experience, but it is less obvious why the prison guards and the subjects in the Milgram experiment would. The Milgram subjects in particular did not actually cause any harm to anybody because the setup and the shocks were completely faked. Still, the realization of what they were capable of doing shocked them and caused them tremendous shame, guilt, and anxiety. The members of the Zimbardo experiment have held periodic reunions with Dr. Zimbardo over the years and he filmed a documentary detailing…
Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.
In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…
The Journal of Evolutionary Psychology (2006). Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/psychology.html
Oracle ThinkQuest. (2011) History of Psychology. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyp1
Rossman, J. (2007, Dec 3). Biological Psychology: Foundations of Biopsychology. Associated Content. Retrieved from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/428842/biological_psychology_foundations_of.html
Throughout my studies in psychology, I find the classes and topics on emotion and motivation interesting and educative. This is because the class touched a lot on the issues that made me understand myself better than I did before the topic was introduced. The class aided my understanding on the aspect of sexual orientation, especially homosexuality. This is due to the information that was present on the materials offered in class. There was adequacy of explanation on the issue of motivation and emotion in relation to human psychology (Weiten, 2011). The topic on motivation and emotion touched on various issues, for example, the significance of groups, power plus obedience, and the perception about us and other people.
The aspect of social psychology seemed to fascinate me most, because of information regarding how the people we interact with influence our lives. I came to understand that the perception about…
Whitehead, Neil. 2011. Neither Genes nor Choice: Same-Sex Attraction Is Mostly a Unique
Reaction to Environmental Factors, Journal of Human Sexuality 3 (1), 81-114.
Weiten, Wayne. 2011. Psychology: themes and variations. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…
Business enterprises and organizations believe that empowering workers develops their self-esteem, which in turn gives them the momentum to take responsibility of their own projects. The significance of the field of psychology on Human Resource Management in the future will be fueled by increased performance expectations and employer branding that characterizes this field. As a result, every personnel in this department will be required to take up a role in coaching, mentoring, and planning, which requires use of psychological tools.
The field of psychology has continued to play a significant role in the development of Human Resource Management across business enterprises and organizations. This is evident in the fact that HRM personnel and professionals are increasingly using psychological concepts in their entire processes, especially the selection process.
Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. eb. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Cullinane, Niall, and Tony Dundon. "The Psychological Contract: A Critical Review." International Journal of Management Reviews 8.2 (2006): 113-29. School of Business and Public Policy. National University of Ireland, 2006. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Kulshrestha, Sandeep. "Human Resource Management -- Evolving as a Sciencewith Inspiration from Psychology." Hr and Psychology. Scribd, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Kumar, Suraj. "Role of Psychology in Human Resource Management and Development." All Best Articles. Responsive Website Design, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Obedience to Authoity, Confomity, Intellectual Independence, and Ethical Values
Today, ethical issues have become temendously impotant aspects of moden business and business management. One need look no futhe than vey ecent headlines about the deteioation of ethical compliance in the financial sevices and home motgage industies to ealize that unethical pactices ae extemely dangeous to business oganizations as well as to evey component of society capable of being affected by ethical tansgessions. The cuent Ameican economic cisis was caused diectly by the systemic ethical violations within the home motgage and loan industy in conjunction with long-standing unethical pactices thoughout the financial sevices and negotiable secuities makets. In essence, some of the nation's bightest minds spent the last decade o moe devising highly complex methods of violating evey element of the spiit of existing financial sevices industy egulation by inventing motgage-backed secuities and incedibly unethical and dangeous methods of playing both…
references and waking schedule of individuals instead of requiring everyone to keep identical traditional business hours. The same holds true for the value of allowing teleworking opportunities. Even elements such as workstation lighting and layout can play a significant role in promoting maximum output and productivity. That concept would also suggest allowing employees greater flexibility in some of the ways that they perform their work tasks. In addition to maximizing morale and productivity in the workplace, those features would also promote rather than stifle intellectual creativity.
282). Furthermore, research supports that an audience is more likely to be persuaded when the persuasion technique matches their attitude functions. Thus, people in the advertising industry are far more likely to be successful persuaders when they carefully consider the predominant attitude type of their audience and tailor their advertisements to that specific group.
A final example of the contributions of psychology to advertising is a highly significant one. In 1957, Vance Packard wrote a book titled The Hidden Persuasion, which discussed the psychoanalytical techniques used by many advertising companies (Nelson, 2008). The book sold millions of copies, was translated into 12 languages, and remained on the U.S. bestseller list for a year. Nevertheless, it was highly criticized by many academics and people in the advertising industry who wrongfully assumed that it was focused mainly on subliminal messages. However, Packard never actually used the term "subliminal" and focused very little…
Gresko, J., Kennedy, L. & Lesniak, J. (1996). Social psychological factors underlying the impact of advertising. Retrieved from Miami University Website:
Kardes, F.R. (2005). The psychology of advertising. In Brock, T.C. & Green, M.C. (Eds.),
Persuasion: psychological insights and perspectives (p. 281-303). Thousand Oaks,
Gender biases and stereotypes persist at almost every level and in every area of society. Often, the differential treatment given to males and females is subtle and deeply ingrained, taken so much for granted that most people are unaware that they are perpetuating gender bias. For example, adults treat male and female children differently, speaking to them using different tones of voice, reacting differently to their actions, and showing subtle signs of approval or disapproval when the child does or does not conform to gender norms. Even parents who claim to be progressive and egalitarian unconsciously pass on gender norms and stereotypes because they are just reacting to children the way they have been programmed and patterned to act. Boys are expected to be more aggressive, more physical, and less sensitive or emotional than girls. Sometimes the differential treatment reverberates, leading to unequal treatment with meaningful life outcomes such as…
Human and Machine Intelligence
The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?
The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of…
Block, N. (____). The mind as the software of the brain. Chapter 14.
Bostrom, N. (2003). Creating Superintelligence involves less risk than waiting. In S. Engdahl, Artificial Intelligence. Green Press: Detroit.
Can a Machine Think? Chapter 5.
Chatham, C. (2011). 10 important differences between brains and computers. Developing Intelligence [over time, across species, cross-platform]. Viewable at http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/why_the_brain_is_not_like_a_co.php .
I believe I have learned many things in class that will help make me more effective and successful in my personal life. Perhaps the most evident thing I have learned is how to determine my own conscious motivators and recognize how my unconscious beliefs and morals may impact my attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. This falls more into the realm of social psychology. I have learned exactly how critical environment can be to ones success or distress.
With regard to my profession, I believe that I can use psychology in many ways. Psychology is an important tool for employees and managers alike. When used correctly it can help foster a collaborative and open work environment that encourages individual thinking, behavior, and goal setting. It can also be used to mitigate and problem solve. Psychology can also be used to address more difficult aspects of the workplace environment.
A learned for example…
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983
Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.
Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.
Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
This does not mean that I do not think I would learn a lot from the introductory course. I just believe that there has to be a foundation for knowledge, and that is what the beginning psychology course is generally designed for. By getting a good foundation it would then be easier to learn about any and all of the important issues that will likely be addressed within more advanced courses as the curriculum becomes more difficult.
Based on the experience that you have and what you have done, my question to you would be this: Do you believe that alcohol and substance abuse problems are psychological in and of themselves, or are they merely physical manifestations or reactions to these problems?
Psychology -- Contribution of Psychological Experiments
Philip anyard explains how Stanley Milgram came to be involved with research regarding the Nazi slaughter of millions of people in Europe during World War II. Milgram's obedience study of course had emotional and cultural meaning for him because he is Jewish. In fact he feels blessed that even though his family roots were in Europe in proximity to where the Holocaust took place, he was born in the U.S. And hence avoided the Nazi madness. What is the value of Milgram's research experiments? That is the crux of this section -- the value of Milgram's research into why people are obedient at pivotal moments -- including moments when human lives are at stake.
What does this particular method allow psychologists to study? In the first place, having someone in a room by himself giving shocks to a person he cannot see, a person…
Banyard, Philip. Just Following Orders? Chapter 2.
Edgar, Helen, and Edgar, Graham. Paying Attention. Chapter 8.
Toates, Frederick. Changing Behaviour. Chapter 4
How is the research described in your chosen article an example of social psychology?
Social psychology is often seen as the study of how people's feelings, outlooks, and behaviors are influenced by the definite, likely, or indirect presence of others. In this study the authors believe that people think that they communicate with people who are close to them better than they do with strangers. This is an example of social psychology because they are looking at how the behavior of communication is influenced by friends or strangers.
What was the study's main hypothesis? Explain (i.e., tell me more than yes/no) whether or not it was supported.
The researchers hypothesis was that people take part in active observation of strangers' different viewpoints because they know they have to, but that they let down their guard and rely more on their own viewpoint when they communicate with a friend.…
Savitsky, Kenneth, Keysar, Boaz, Epley, Nicholas, Carter, Travis and Swanson, Ashley. (2010).
The closeness-communication bias: Increased egocentrism among friends vs. strangers. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47 (2011) 269 -- 273.
Research into the value of critical thinking probably came about when reud became influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of the behavior of early human societies. Later theorists in the field of psychology, such as Hyman Spotnitz, a modern psychoanylist, and William Graham Sumner, expanded reud's theory to include the ability of the human mind to think critically, or to bend one's mind (forgetting the bad and remembering chosen events) to form one's impression of life. Melanie Klein theorized that a child's perception of what is occuring around them determines whether they develop into depressive or schizoid-depressive personalities, or whether, with proper guidance, they develop normally. (Klein, 1966) it is important that research continue in the field of psychology to determine what techniques of critical thinking may aid the disturbed patient.
reud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna reud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP.
reud, S. (1913) Totem and…
Freud, S. (1913) Totem and Taboo. London: Dover Publications (Reprinted in paperback: September 23, 1998).
Persons, S. (Ed.). (1963). Social Darwinism: Selected Essays of William Graham Sumner, Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Scriven, M. And Paul, R. (2004). The Critical Thinking Community, Foundation for Critical Thinking. Dillon Beach, CA.
Psychology: Identification with a Group
When a person finds himself or herself identifying with a group, there are usually several factors that influence those patterns of identification. Most notably, these are common factors such as race, ethnicity, income levels, a shared problem or issue, education, or other deciding factors that cause individuals to form opinions about one another (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Some people identify with others more strongly and some have more tenuous bonds, but the majority of people who identify with a group do so because of the similarities but also because they feel the bond with the group. There are things in that group to which the person can relate, and when a group is relatable that group is much more likely to be identified with by others (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Overall, some individuals who are focused on a particular group find more to "like" about…
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7 -- 24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W.G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33 -- 47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole
Twin Studies and the Acquisition of Human Intelligence
The question of nature vs. nurture has been a topic of conversation, a hotly debated issue and reason for researchers to gather copious amounts of material for thousands of years. Philosophers discussed whether a child was mainly constructed of inborn (nature) or learned/observed traits (nurture) before Alexander the Great had conquered anything. Nature refers what is commonly called genetics today; nurture, conversely, is what an individual picks up from the environment. Many have been in one camp or another, but only recently have scientists had the ability to truly assess which is more correct.
One facet of this study, that of intelligence, may be the single greatest issue of discussion among scientists and lay persons. Intelligence as nature has taken a beating in the public arena due to such publications as "The Bell Curve." Many did not appreciate the findings,…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M., and Bornstein, M.H., 2000. Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2). pp. 218-232.
Farber, S.L., 1981. Identical twins reared apart: A reanalysis. New York: Basic Books.
Gander, E., 2003. On our minds: How evolutionary psychology is reshaping the nature- versus-nurture debate. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Mackintosh, N.J., 1998. IQ and human intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
" Earlier, in Leary et. al.'s article, it was stated how thoughtless commitment of an activity is vital to the success of self-control, since at this stage, the individual loses his/her concept of self-awareness. However, in Hoyle's analysis, impulsivity is a factor that hampers the individual's performance of an activity with a high level of self-control. Thus, the relationship between impulsivity and self-regulation are inversely proportional to each other: as the individual increases his/her level of impulsivity, the level of self-regulation decreases.
Combining both factors, Hoyle then created a bigger picture of his interpretation of and perspective about self-regulation. For him, in order to fully gain self-regulation in the self, there should be an "alignment" of both the real and ideal self. The real self are actions and behavior that the individual observes on a daily basis, while the ideal self could be a part of the individual's personality, or…
Hoyle, R. (Dec 2006). "Personality and self-regulation: Trait and information-processing perspectives." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.
Leary, M, C. Adams and E. Tate. (Dec 2006). "Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.
Human Figure Drawing
Testing has become an integral part of psychological theory and practice. Rooted in historical perspectives and heated conversation of principles, wagering purpose and ethics, it involves the statistical conceptualizations of psychometrics and the connection of the validity of a test to the reality of a person. The field of psychological testing is characterized by the use of small samples to apply larger generalizations to a specific individual; samples of behavioral trends combine with observations over a limited time in which performance of prescribed tasks is compared to a the pre-studied responses of members of a norm group. These responses, compiled and analyzed before compared to the studied individual, are often crafted into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the specific person to the range of responses given by the norm group and make appropriate personality discussions therein. A common type of psychological…
Plubraarn and Theermonparp, p. S615.
Sturner, R.A., Rothbaum, F., Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. "The Effects of Stress on Children's Human Figure Drawings." Journal of Clinical Psychology. Vol. 36, No. 1. January,1980. p. 324.
Wang, H., Ericsson, K., Winblad, B., Fratiglioni, L. "The Human Figure Drawing Test as a Screen for Dementia in the Elderly: A Community-Based Study." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Vol. 27, No. 1. August, 1998. p. 25.
If a person behaves in a confused or agitated way, I would begin to suspect that all is not well. Drowsiness, abnormal eye movements, and a staggering gait are also symptoms that, together with the undesirable emotional and cognitive states, are symptoms that generally appear for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Heath Grades Inc., 2011).
The idea of "activation" concerns the frequency of memory use. The more a memory is used, the more it is activated. Activation leads to strength. Frequent activation means that a memory will become increasingly stronger. One example of this is the study process. If a piece of text is studied for the first time, recall is weak. When the initial memory is activated by revisiting material, it is strengthened slightly. Increased activation therefore means increased strength. In other words, activation is the active process that results in the unconscious strengthening of recall.
According to Halligan,…
Dowd, E.T. (2006, Sep.). What Changes in Cognitive Therapy? The Role of Tacit Knowledge Structures. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Halligan, S.L., Michael, T., Clark, D.M., and Ehlers, A. (2003). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Assault: the role of Cognitive Processing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 71, No. 3
Health Grades (2011). Symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Retrieved from: http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/w/wernicke_korsakoff_syndrome/symptoms.htm
Melnyk, L and Bruck, M (2004). Timing Moderates the Effects of Repeated Suggestive Interviewing on Children's Eyewitness Memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol 18.
I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.
According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:
Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.
Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.
Creating a bedtime ritual…
Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm
Carpenter, S. & Huffman, K. (2009). Visualizing Psychology (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.aasment.org/resources/factsheets/crsd.pdf
Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sleep/HQ01387
Lauren Slater's (2005) article "Who holds the clicker?," Susan Blackmore's excerpt "Strange Creatures" -- taken from her book The Meme Machine, and Alain De Botton's chapter "On Habit" from his book The Art of Travel are very different pieces that all challenge the idea of the self in human kind. Is there a self? Or are we all controlled by things outside of our control? While science may be able to find ways of changing or enhancing our bodies, and though there may be some truth in the idea that our genes don't allow us to have complete free will over our selves, we cannot deny that most humans believe that there is something inside each and every one of us that gives us a purpose on this earth. Whether manipulated by a remote control clicker or partially-governed by memes, the fact that we are able to challenge…
Blackmore, S. (2003). Strange creatures. Extract from The meme machine. Accessed on 8
De Botton, A. (2004). On habit. From The art of travel. Vintage.
It may also be appropriate for psychology not to be a science because data for it will always be internal. Psychology is the study of people and what drives people is internal and not observable. If psychologists all took a scientific approach like the behaviorists, science might know a lot about what people do and how they behave. However, scientists would know nothing about why. Finally, it is worth considering that psychology is often studied and applied for the purpose of helping people. In this case, does it matter if a theory cannot be proven if it is effective in helping a person control anger or overcome depression or recover from anorexia? In this way, psychology becomes an applied science where the results and outcomes are important regardless of whether any type of theory can be scientifically proven.
Appiah, A. (1989). Necessary questions: An introduction to philosophy. Englewood Cliffs,…
Appiah, A. (1989). Necessary questions: An introduction to philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., & Bursten, B.E. (1994). Chemistry: The central science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Freud, S. (1991). On Metapsychology. New York: Penguin.
Pavlov, I. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,
from Colorado State Web site:
Anxiety Attacks and Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from Helpguide.org Web site:
Humanism takes the position that the human intellect is sufficient to deduce moral principles and that all human beings have the same natural right to dignity and personal autonomy.
The humanistic perspective does not absolutely reject the underlying principles of psychoanalytical theory, but places more focus on conscious self-reflection than on any assumption that the roots of all human conduct is necessarily a function of repressed trauma, sexual urges, and unresolved psychological conflicts. Humanism also rejects anthropocentrism in that it does not consider human life to be different in kind from other biological life forms, but only different in degree of development and complexity.
Existentialism rejects many of the same concepts as humanism in the realm of religious or supernatural sources of human morality. Whereas humanists start with an assumption that human beings are inherently good and that the prosperity of human societies is necessarily good, existentialism recognizes no…
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).
Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.
Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
According to Dawkins, observations do not equal reality. Instead, observations are generally the opposite of reality, and Dawkins suggests that it is probable that some higher intelligence exists. Perhaps it is this intelligence that allows humans' minds to misperceive reality in a way that is useful to them, such as seeing a rock as solid rather than containing mostly empty spaces.
What is interesting about the two thinkers' ideas of reality is that the author of "The Quantum Brain" has a human-centered idea of reality, while Dawkins' idea is universe-centered, or at least drawing its strength from something that is greater than the human race. By suggesting that human observation makes something real and that something does not exist unless a person observes it, the author of "The Quantum Brain" establishes the human race as the highest order, the ones that decide what is reality and what is not. However,…
"Talks Richard Dawkins on Our 'Queer' Universe." Retrieved August 27, 2009, from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/richard_dawkins_on_our_queer_universe.html
During this process is when they could become traumatized, based upon different events surrounding their bodily functions (such as: wetting the bed). At which point, the individual may exhibit a host of behaviors later on life to include: shyness, domination and compulsive disorders. In the phallic stage (which lasts from 3 -- 5 years old), the child becomes aware of their gender. It is at this stage that the personality is fully developed, with the child cultivating a love for their mother or father (commonly called the Electra or Oedipus complexes). Latency is when there is little to no development in the personality during this part of someone's life. The genital stage begins at the age of 12 years old. During this part of an individual's life, is when the person will begin to a have a renewed interest in: their sexual orientation and those who they are attracted to.…
Incentive Theory. (n.d.). Academics. Retrieved from: http://academics.tjhsst.edu/psych/oldPsych/ch9-2/inct.htm
Bell, R. (1991) Women of Classical Mythology: A Biographical Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Hierarchy of Needs. About. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Deci, E. (1985), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, New York, NY: Plenum.
The results of the experiment were that performance remained consistently good in all subjects until they reached the 8-digit sequence. All four of the subjects successfully remembered the 4-digit, 5-digit, 6-digit, and 7-digit sequences accurately. Three of four subjects remembered the 8-digit sequence and none of the subjects was able to remember the 9-digit or 10-digit numerical sequence.
The results seemed to confirm the experimental hypotheses. Moreover each of the subjects indicated separately that he or she had broken up the numerical sequences to aid memorization. More specifically, each subject responded that he or she had used the familiar form of 7-digit telephone numbers to assist in memorizing all of the sequences.
Even in the case of sequences shorter than 7-digits, the subjects all indicated that they…
So there has to be some sort of regulatory mechanism whereby we allow information to enter the information-processing system. The fact that we allow information to pass through implies that we have some choice about it, and indeed we do. In other words, attention is strategic (obinson-iegler and obinson-iegler, 2008).
Organized memory structures are called schemas. These are organized bodies of knowledge or set of movements that guide motor activities. Each schema is assumed to cover only a limited range of knowledge. Therefore, a given action sequence must be made up of a number of hierarchically organized schemas. The highest-level schema is called the parent schema and consists of a series of child schemas that are initiated by the parent schema at the appropriate time. Schemas play a huge role in helping us to organize information so that it can be remembered later on (obinson-iegler and obinson-iegler, 2008).
Robinson-Riegler, Gregory and Robinson-Riegler, Bridget. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:
Applying the Science of the Mind (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
here could be numerous reasons for the shift, including the growing trend of body fitness and overall media portrayal of the male physique.
he study conducted through Monash University has confirmed most of the findings of earlier research. here are significant opportunities for error within the study however. Since all participants are blind participants through the university website, there are almost no controls over the data and thus it is subject to many different unintended biases. Age factors should also be considered as the majority of those surveyed were college students, and are not a complete and accurate reflection of the cross sections of society. Overall, more research needs to be conducted within the area of the growth in male body dissatisfaction and factors that will help both genders deal with their overestimation of body shape.
Fallon, a.E., & Rozin, P. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape.…
Turner, S., Hamilton, H., Jacobs, M., Angood, L.M., & Dwyer, DH (1997). The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis. Adolescence, 32(127), 603-614.
Abell, S.C., & Richards, M.H. (1996). The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: An investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 691-703.
Crawford, D., & Worsley, a. (1987). Present and desired body weights of Australian adults: A cause for concern. Community Health Studies, 11.
Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior
The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation…
Biderman, Albert D; Zimmer, Herbert. (1961) "The Manipulation of Human Behavior." John
Wiley & Sons: New York.
Brown, Judson Seise. (1961) "The Motivation of Behavior."
McGraw-Hill: New York.
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…
Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.
d.). This shows how things that people have been exposed to outside of the organization environment can also influence the decisions that they make while at work.
These theories are typically used to clarify how people react in situations wherein they are expected to utilize their intelligence within their companies. "Spearman's General Intelligence Theory; otherwise called the Structural Model, speaks to the fact that intelligence is derived from a single factor; that of how one relates to co-workers with respect to circumstances in which they are required to make a decision between two or more options alternatives that are competing against each other" (Organizational Behavior Theories, n.d.). The theorists suggests that how the workers will reason and react to these conditions will be determined in relation to the duration of time they have been working in the company. If a person is new to a company then they will not…
Messick, D.M. (2009). What can psychology tell us about business ethics? Journal of Business Ethics, 89(01674544), 73-80.
Organizational Behavior Theories. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.organizationalbehaviortheories.net/
Once I put my mind to doing something I find that I am totally committed to do it. I have learned that if I am not totally committed, not only does it make whatever I am doing very annoying, it often does not turn out well in the end.
A person who possesses initiative and optimism is always ready to seize opportunities that present themselves. These people pursue goals beyond what is expected or them and are always utilizing unusual and enterprising effort to accomplish things (Goleman, 2000). People who possess initiative have the drive to want to make things happen. These people almost always have optimism at the same time which allows them to believe that they can make whatever they want to happen. I find myself always wanting to get things done but not always having the optimism to follow through.
According to Cherry (2011) there are three…
Cherry, K. (2011). What is motivation? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Goleman, D. (2000). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
Since survey data relies on self-reported information, and since the levels of anxiety in a patient can increase and decrease based on the experience of the patient, it is possible that lack of care in working the question can actually increase the patient's anxiety. For example, a question that states "If the radiology department finds cancer in your bones....," the patient may be forced to think about issues which increase their anxiety levels, thus inaccurately raising the levels of reported anxiety in the radiology department.
The other major limitation to the survey design is that, in any self-report, there is a possibility for patients to answer in a way that is contrary to reality (Snaith, 2003). In the case of anxiety research, the subject may not be aware of his or her levels of anxiety, or may choose to answer in such a way that denies the anxiety. s mentioned…
A study by Rachman in 1974 determined that, since fear and anxiety are closely related, subjects have a difficult time determining which is which. Thus, subjects in a fearful situation such as a radiology lab may have a tendency to over-estimate their levels of anxiety, due to their inability to distinguish fear from anxiety. On the other hand, smaller levels of anxiety may be undetectable to the subject, if the corresponding feeling of fear is absent (Ewert, 1986).
Additionally, survey research has been consistently been doubted due to the inability to prove a subjects response. Since surveys rely on the input of subjects, there are always slight possibilities that the subjects will lie, or be otherwise inaccurate in their responses. A study by Epstein in 1976 suggested that anxiety in humans is related to ideas of ego, self-esteem, and are associated with a weakness or inability to cope. Certain subjects who feel this way may inadvertently deny their own feelings of anxiety in a radiology department, because admitting the anxiety exists would threaten their self-concept (Ewert, 1986). In any of the above cases, the answers would be used in data collection, but would not be a true representation of anxiety levels.
A second type of research design is that of the experiment. In this design, the researcher manipulates an independent variable in
Identify and describe at least 4 characteristics of your style.
According to the results of the personality test, I am a moderately expressed INFJ. This personality type is often known as a 'counselor' type. Counselor types enjoy being alone and can be quite productive in solitude. They are described as one of the most 'poetical' of the different Jungian types and can be emotional (Idealist portrait of a counselor (INFJ), 2011, Keirsey Temperament). However, unlike other types of introverts, they also enjoy spending time with people because of their innate altruism. They may not seem like 'natural' leaders, because they seldom try to claim the spotlight. However, they do have great strength of character when they believe in a cause, and can be of great service to humanity as a result. They are idealistic by nature.
Q2. What is positive about your style in working with…
Butt, Joe. (2010). INFJ. Type Logic. Retrieved: http://typelogic.com/infj.html
Idealist portrait of a counselor (INFJ). (2011). Keirsey Temperament.
Human esponse to Physical Structure:
Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on explaining human behavior in relation to the physical environment. In this case, the physical environment basically incorporates plants, animals, and material objects that have a significant impact on behavior at various levels. However, this branch of psychology does not focus on the interactional procedures among people as emphasized on other branches of psychology. In analyzing human behavior, it adopts a systems approach that has become the main approach in modern science.
Impact of Physical Structure on Human Behavior:
According to various theories, the physical environment or structure affects human behavior at various levels with instant behavior acting as a function of settings with which it happens (Matthew, n.d.). The individual personality traits of people within a specified country are largely influenced by the nature and type of physical environment that these individuals are subject to…
Goode, J.P. (n.d.). 'The Human Response to the Physical Environment.' The Elementary School
Teacher, 4(5), pp. 271-282. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/992499.pdf?acceptTC=true
"Importance of Sustainable Architecture in 21st Century." (2010, June 21). Architecture Student
Chronicles. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.architecture-student.com/sustainable-design/importance-of-sustainable-architecture-in-21st-century/
This handbook was compiled as a remedy in the form of a sourcebook or guide to current work on free will and related subjects for those who wish to keep up with the latest research. (p. 3)
What is often called "the free will issue" or "the problem of free will," when viewed in historical perspective, is related to a cluster of philosophical issues -- all of them to be dealt with to some degree in this volume. 3 These include issues about (1) moral agency and responsibility, dignity, desert, accountability, and blameworthiness in ethics; (2) the nature and limits of human freedom, autonomy, coercion, and control in social and political theory; issues about (3) compulsion, addiction, self-control, self-deception, and weakness of will in philosophical psychology; (4) criminal liability, responsibility, and punishment in legal theory; (5) the relation of mind to body, consciousness, the nature of action, 4 and personhood…
Kane, R. (2001). The Oxford Handbook of Free Will.: Oxford University.
Midgley, M. (2002). Beast & Man. London & New York: Routledge.
Spruill, D.A., & Benshoff, J.M. (2000). Helping beginning counselors develop a personal theory of counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 40, p.70.
ID 83416 psychology
These stores then send information into Short-Term memory stores, which then send information into Long-Term memory stores. The believed that control process were performed in short-term memory which allowed information to be put into long-term memory and then recalled from it as well (Baddeley, 1997).
6. Suppose a two-year-old child believed every object a person can go into with a roof is called a house. One day the child refers to the family car as a house. The parent corrects him and says this is a car not a house. Based on Piaget's theory, what will this child have to do in order to correctly process this material and not make a similar error in the future?
According to Piaget the child would have to assimilate and accommodate the information in order to not make the same mistake in the future. Assimilation is the process by which a person takes…
Baddeley, Alan D. (1997). Human Memory. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from Google Books Web
Because of the speed of change in today's society, as well as the ramifications from psychological problems such as major depression, suicide, violence toward others and substance abuse, there is a need to help people more quickly and effectively deal with their psychological issues. The emphasis in more modern approaches is in self-development and self-actualization.
Cognitive behavior therapy, CBT, for example, is an approach for people to better handle the here and now, rather than dealing with the past and what has actually caused the psychological problems in the first place. Behavior therapy helps a person reduce the linkages between troublesome situations and the habitual reactions to them, such as fear, depression or rage, and self-defeating or self-damaging behavior. It also teaches individuals how to calm the mind and body, so they can feel better, think more clearly, and make better decisions. This is combined with cognitive therapy, which teaches…
In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).
According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…
Badcock, C.R. (1976). Laevi-Strauss: Structuralism and sociological theory. New York: Holmes & Meier.
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Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement:
Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of music that Dorothy listens to at home, Dorothy could immediately turn off her music to reward her mother for every instance in which she came downstairs from her bedroom.
Just as in the case of positive reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus perceived by the subject as unpleasant, (such as rock music), this form of negative reward would work whether or not Dorothy provided the reward in conjunction with and explicit acknowledging that it was a specific reward for her mother's efforts.
Likewise, just as in the case of positive reward, the negative reward would probably work much faster if Dorothy does acknowledge that her extra consideration of her mother's likes and dislikes corresponds directly to her appreciating her mother's…