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Bradly, C. (2007). Veteran Status and Marital Aggression: Does Military Service Make a Difference? Journal of family Violence, 22(10), 197-207.
The article that was chosen was called "Veteran Status and Marital Aggression: Does Military Service Make a Difference?" By Christopher Bradley. So give a brief summary of this article it needs to be understood that the previous research was what had initiated this study in the first place. The previous research that got this article rolling was the fact demonstrated that the rates of domestic violence are much higher among couples where at least one person is on active duty. The thing that is considered to be a little unclear is whether or not the inclination to participate in domestic violence remains after a person has left the military and entered into veteran status. The resolve of this study was to assess whether or not veteran status will…
Society derives gender roles from religious doctrines and some derive them from thoughts and ideas derived from Darwinism. At a point when Darwinism introduced ideas that the best genes are transferred to the male rather the female, men in general became psychologically programmed that they were the superior species. Such ideas of male superiority and others from religious doctrines, male instructed the females what their role in life was. Taking care of the household was thought of a job that is useless and so should be allocated to the useless sex i.e. The female. Some religious doctrines like Islam however did correct such views and told people, that taking care of the household is as important as being the bread earner and gave women a higher status than man. However if man had not taken the view that he is superior and not instructed the women and defined for them…
Human Sexuality and Homophobia
Even in the wake of political correctness, homophobia still haunts many people in our culture. Heterosexuality is still the dominant social expression and any intimate relationship that falls outside the accepted boundaries of heterosexual union is considered to be taboo. The modern media and institutes of higher learning are only recently beginning to try changing the ingrained belief that heterosexuality is the only "normal" form of sexual relationship. However, in spite of gender studies courses and television shows portraying homosexuality in a positive light, many people, including myself, still retain some homophobic beliefs. In fact, based on the recent outcry against gay marriages, American society is generally and powerfully heterosexist. Homophobia manifests in a wide range of behaviors, many of which are so innocuous as to go unnoticed. For instance, when people make jokes or utter stereotypes about gay men or lesbians, they are essentially cloaking…
Human Sexuality and its Problems.
The name of the work reviewed for purposes of this report is "Human Sexuality and its Problems" by John Bancroft, MD, FCPscych. The work was published by Churchill Livingstone in Edinburgh, London in 1989. First published in 1983, the work was reprinted during the following years: 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1999. The book includes an index including the following: Sexual Disorders, Sex (Psychology), Sex (Biology), Title, Sex Behavior, Sex Disorders.
The author sought to accomplish two purposes. First, the book was intended to aid health professionals working with sexual problems. The "wider purpose" of the book however, was to help readers understand how a variety of factors and human interactions actually affect human sexuality. Bancroft argues that understanding human sexuality is contingent upon the ability of people to grasp the complex relationship between mind and body interaction.
The author successfully provides a foundation…
Bancroft, John. "Human Sexuality and its Problems." Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh, London: 1989.
A person largely differs from an object in the greatest sense. Individuals, as thinking beings, are treated thusly into a degree of personage. Once an individual ceases to be treated as a "person," only then does the person become objectified -- that which anything is treated merely as a piece of solid, concrete material to be looked at with indifference. Throughout the course of history, humanity has undergone vast periods wherein objectification is a way of life. hether this mode applies to sexuality or not does not seem to matter; but it is clear that the current time has pushed this term of "objectification" into the arms of sexual representation. Objectification, however sexual or non-sexual, damages the human psyche, enough so that at an extreme degree of objectification -- for example the treatment of women as sex symbols -- can allow individuals from justifying the reason to stop…
Garry, Ann. "Sex, Lies, and Pornography." Ethics in Practice. 2nd Ed. H. LaFollette. Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Nussbaum, Martha C. "Objectification." Philosophy and Public Affairs. Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 249-291. Blackwell Publishing, 1995.
Shrage, Laurie. "Should Feminists Oppose Prostitution?"
Note Jennings and Shapiro, " communities of color have many traditions that impact (GLBTQ) issues in different ways... A young (GLBTQ) person of color faces multiple 'identity' issues that teams from the dominant culture do not" (p. 215).
Indeed, racism within the GLBTQ community has long existed, exacerbating the conflicts between different constituents of this group. For example, white-run gay bars and clubs often excluded African-American gays and lesbians in the 1950s. Today, people of color in the GLBTQ community note that such racism still exists, often in the form of the exclusion of people of color from the larger GLBTQ community. European-Americans often had difficulty ascribing the experience of the individual over societal oppression (ColorQorld).
One reason for such an attitude may stem from the mistaken attitude among the white GLBTQ community that "communities of color are even less 'progressive' than white communities when it came to homosexuality/transgender issues,…
ColorQWorld. Racism in Queer America. ColorQ.org. 04 November 2004. http://www.colorq.org/Articles/2000/gayracism.htm
Jennings, Kevin and Shapiro, Pat. Always My Child: A Parent's Guide to Understanding Your Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered or Questioning Son or Daughter. Fireside, 2002.
Menkart, Deborah. Putting the Movement Back into Civil Rights Teaching. Teaching for Change and Poverty & Race Research, 2004.
Zanazanian, Paul. Sexism a problem within the gay and lesbian community. The Link, Tuesday, January 15, 2002 @06:00AM. 04 November 2004. http://thelink.concordia.ca/article.pl?sid=02/01/15/0728204
It seems natural in a world where social influence and cultural traditions influence so many aspects of ones behavior that they would also influence one's sexuality. However, there is still a strong case for classical and traditional theories of human sexuality, and one can't simply discount years of research that also links biological and genetic factors with human sexuality.
Suffice to say that the best approach to human sexuality and explaining human behaviors may be a multi-disciplinary approach, one that acknowledges the importance of the physiological components of human sexuality as much as it recognizes the cognitive and social factors that influence one's behaviors and preferences.
There is a strong body of evidence and a good case presented by Dyrne & Hogben that cognitive factors can serve as adequate reinforcement for certain sexual behaviors and preferences. One may simply conclude that there is not a 'one size fits all' approach…
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Belsky, J., Steinberg, L., & Draper, P. (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647-670.
Delamater, J.D. & Hyde, J.S. (1998). "Essentialism vs. Social Constructionism in the study of human sexuality." The Journal of Sex Research, 35(1):10
He was unworthy, ecause he had in effect ecome oth a woman and a prostitute. If as an adult he nevertheless went ahead and exercised his citizenship y casting his vote or speaking in the assemly, he could e put on trial and lose not only his citizenship ut also his life. Such charges may not have een rought very often, ut it did sometimes happen,(18) and the very possiility must have preyed on the minds of oys who knew they could later e accused (p. 183)."
So we see that the attachment of shame, social ostracizing, and even prosecution if not as the penetrator, ut as the penetrated. Being penetrated y another male was deemed feminine, and women did not have the power of authority in ancient society. The pattern emerges of move in the direction of legal regulation here that can e traced to this ancient setting.
bibliography which follows this proposal remains somewhat fluid in nature as works are added or deleted if comprehensive review determines a lack of appropriate substance to support or contribute to the dissertation study.
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5008140716' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Geez! What you girls go through! However, that still leaves us with my problem with condoms. What else can we use?
Rhiannon: Um...there's always diaphragms. I'd have to go get fitted for that. Plus we'd have to use gel. And the diaphragm has to be put in before sex. That takes a few minutes, longer than condoms, I think. That seems to reduce the spontaneity of sex. Regardless, I'm open to it. However, it doesn't address the STD issue.
Ronan: Rhiannon, I'm clean. And I'm sure you are too.
Rhiannon: Sure enough, I'm free of diseases. I get checked regularly. But, well, I don't think neither you nor I should put ourselves in that situation, even if we are faithful to each other. Condoms, really, are the only way to ensure that we don't run the risk of getting an STD...unless we abstain altogether.
Ronan: I don't want that.
Human Sexuality -- the Monogamy Gene
Monogamy Gene Summary
According to researchers, there is a specific gene possessed by some human males that predisposes them to long-term commitment within monogamous pair bonds. The gene is associated with the hormone vasopressin and it apparently plays a very similar role in humans to analogous genes in other mammals, such as the Prairie Vole. In voles, exposure to vasopressin immediately triggers a protective bonding instinct on the part of males. In humans, researchers have determined that men lacking in specific genetic markers are less likely to bond closely and commit to one woman whereas their counterparts with the marker are more inclined to do so.
The discovery leads to natural speculation about the possible future uses of this information, such as in the screening of potential mates by females hoping to find a partner with a natural tendency to bond closely to his…
Foucault (1981) suggested that moden social life is bound up with the ise of "disciplinay powe," which could be contolled and egulated (Giddens, 1992). Foucault temed sexuality "an especially dense tansfe point fo elations of powe," a point which can become a focus of social contol. We might see intenet sexuality as eflecting a change in the locus of powe, whee the intenet has become a dense tansfe medium fo those elations of powe. Specifically, the intenet has become a place whee simulation of sex, and sexual bate, occu with minimal contol and egulation (Ross, 2005)."
The Intenet povides the foum fo one peson to have seveal diffeent sexual pesonas with diffeent ages, gendes, pefeences and desies.
This has held tue though othe eadings I have done in the past. In fact, news shows ae constantly boadcasting the fact that people use the intenet to petend to be something othe…
references, and other areas that may be frowned upon in the participant's three dimensional, real life circle.
This article helped me realize that the social theory surrounding sexual exploits is being changed through the use of electronic media.
Ross, Michael (2005). Typing, doing, and being: sexuality and the internet.
The Journal of Sex Research
History Of Human Sexuality
Sexuality has had a significant role in the flow of human history. It has been used as a means of control; form of art or in the form of science played a role in influencing the lives of people right through human history. Sexuality has been altered by the behavior and beliefs of people. Sexuality has also changed the way people behave and their beliefs. From the dawn of creation, the customs of disparate people starting with the most primitive to the modern civilized society has always looked upon sexuality as the guiding light with regard to their relation with the surroundings and the supernatural being. Sexuality has been used down history as a means of demonstrating a statement of right too. An example of this can be seen in what the women known as flappers did in the 1920's in America. (History of Sexuality)
In spite of the fact that there may have existed two great cultures that once widely accepted homosexuality as mere manifestation of the human sexuality, the Western world inherited a traditional negative attitude when it comes to this. Parents may accept their sons' and daughter's homosexuality and learn how to live with it, but they will never feel happy about it. Why? Authors like Greenberg (1988), avies (1982) and Gayle Rubin (1984) are preoccupied to go to the roots of things and to find out what motivates people to fight each other when it comes to such a basic and private right as the choice of a sexual partner.
Children out of wedlock, birth control means and masturbation are today topics in the Western society that are no longer taboos. On the other hand, homosexuality is in many respects, still generating harsh debates. Not only the political, but also the…
Davies, C. 1982. Sexual Taboos and Social Boundaries. University of Reading
Greenberg, D.F. 1988. The Construction of Homosexuality. The University of Chicago Press
Rubin, G. 1984. Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality. Pandora.
Health and Human Sexuality
The place of the homosexual person in today's society has become an electrically charged breeding ground for misunderstanding, emotional sound bites, and political rhetoric. The appearance of increasing numbers of television shows which address homosexual issues makes it apparent that societies perspective on this subject is also up for grabs, and being competed for heavily in the public marketplace. At issue, or what appears to be at issue from this writers perspective is the level to which society will accept persons with same gender sexual orientation, and what kind of social and emotional support and aid will be of help to these individuals.
However, deeper at the core of this debate seems to be a level of malevolence which the gay person perceives to be directed against themselves whenever someone questions their sexual orientation. In the public debate, whenever a person or organization suggests that homosexual…
Family Support and Acceptance, Gay Male Identity Formation, and Psychological Adjustment: A Path Model.
Family Process, Summer, 2001, by Yoel Elizur,
old, my best friend was a kid named Matthew. We went to the same schools, played on the same soccer team, attended the same church, and lived in the same neighborhood. We were at each other's house constantly. Matthew's father was a hairdresser and owned a salon. My mom was one of his clients.
I cannot remember not knowing that Matthew's father was gay. No one ever told me. I never saw Matthew's father with another man. Other than his profession, nothing about Matthew's father was stereotypically homosexual. Somehow, I knew it. However, Matthew's father's sexual orientation was never an issue between Matthew and me any more than my parents' heterosexuality was an issue. Nor was it a problem between Matthew's father and my parents, who liked both Matthew and his father very much.
Since I grew up with a gay adult in my environment, homosexuality was neither shocking nor…
Eyes ide Shut and the Psychoanalytic Theory of Human Sexuality
The film Eyes ide Shut (1999) by Stanley Kubrick may be interpreted from the standpoint of human sexuality by using the psychoanalytic approach developed by Sigmund Freud. The film is, in a sense, a representation of Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams and descends by layers through the various stages of the human personality -- the Id, Ego, and Supergo.
Eyes ide Shut is based on a short novel by Arthur Schnitzler entitled Dream Story. The story focuses on human sexuality in all its various manifestations, from the sexual exploitation of a young nymphet to an orgy at an elite club to the relationship between a husband and wife and the threat of infidelity that arises between them. Human sexuality becomes a specter in the film that is only barely understand by the characters, as it on occasion imperils them, gives…
Carroll, Janell. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity (4th ed). University of Hartford:
Thomson Wadsworth, 2013. Print.
Kubrick, Stanley, Dir. Eyes Wide Shut. LA: Warner Bros., 1999. Film.
6). But this evidence of a strong fetal environmental predisposition for homosexuality ignores the admission of the authors that "the odds of homosexual participants being NCRH [non-consistently-right-handedness]" was 39% "although the odds for homosexual women alone" were 91%, thus significantly greater than for homosexual men 34% (Kauth 2008, p.6).
If these numbers were so different, the question arises as to why left-handedness is more common in female homosexuals, versus male homosexuals, and also, the criteria used by researchers in their categorization of female homosexuality. Thus invisible, subconscious biases about the nature of homosexuality, and the acceptance of one's cultural construction of homosexuality as a self-evident fact underlines the fact that science, particularly the science of sexuality, always takes place in a social context that affects the perception of the researchers.
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632.…
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632. Retrieved September 22, 2009,
from Research Library. (Document ID: 1719302541).
Graceffo, S. (2008, July 23). Homo Made. Syracuse New Times, p. 12. Retrieved September 22,
2009, from Alt-Press Watch (APW). (Document ID: 1532821511).
...difficult, if not impossible, to clearly define "sex" because of the diversity of human sexual experiences. For some, sex is vaginal intercourse only. For others, sex includes everything from masturbation to oral sex to nude role-playing games. Because people tend to have multiple sex partners in their lifetime, sex may also mean different things to the very same person.
With regards to oral sex, attitudes have changed tremendously over the years and vary throughout cultures. Saletan points out that historically, oral sex has been perceived of as "not only more intimate than intercourse but also reserved for those who were married," even though now, oral sex is commonplace among people who have casual sex (1). There are not necessarily specific sectors of the population that have strong opinions about oral sex, except that in some societies sex is viewed as only something done to procreate. In those cultures, oral sex…
Sexual organs in older adults rarely fail completely. When failure does occur, it is generally the by-product of a medical intervention such as surgery or medications (Huffstetler, 2006)."
he facts of this article have been well supported by other reading that I have done in the past. I have spent time looking at various aspects human sexuality among older people and have found the research and texts that have been recently published all support the belief that older people do enjoy and continue to have sexual relations.
For years this was a topic that was not discussed nor was much research done to determine its importance or existence among society residents, but in more recent years there has been an increased focus on the sexuality of older adults.
Many studies have looked at the older adult's interest in sex as well as the ability to participate in sexual relations with…
This article was helpful to me in my studies because it supported and elaborated on what my readings have already found. People are sexual throughout their lives and the acceptance of that will help those working with the elderly to provide the best and most objective treatment and care possible.
Huffstetler, Beverly (2006) Sexuality in older adults: a deconstructionist perspective.(Clinical report) Adultspan Journal.
Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals
Sexuality of Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals
It is extremely difficult to define human sexuality. The first hurdle is determining a person's gender. In addition to male and female, there are people who do not fit neatly into either category, whether because of chromosomal or biological differences. The second hurdle is to define someone's sexual orientation, which refers primarily to sexual attraction, but is mistakenly used to define behavior. The problem with such a limited point-of-view is that sexual behavior does not necessarily follow from sexual attraction.
One of the most limiting views of human sexuality is the idea that sexuality is rigid and that people cannot be attracted to one sex and also be attracted to members of the other sex. To those that hold this view, there are two forms of human sexuality: homosexuality and heterosexuality. Others hold a different view of human sexuality and view…
Athenadorus. "Homosexuality: Its Genetic Basis and Evolutionary Benefit." Danaan Press.
2002. Danaan Press. 10 Nov. 2005 .
Wikipedia. "Intersexuality." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005
This phenomenon objectifies women by suggesting (at least implicitly) that only the opinions and sensibilities of the most attactive females, such as the models featued in advetisements, ae wothwhile. The mee absence of females of aveage and less-than-aveage elative physical attactiveness fom commecial advetising conditions eveyone in society to ignoe women unless they ae paticulaly sexually attactive. Besides being unfai to women who happen not to look like the models in commecial advetising, this also devalues any legitimate talents and the intelligence and meaningful contibutions of women who do happen to be elatively attactive. It ceates the natual infeence that attactive women who ae successful achieved thei success by vitue of thei physical appeaance instead of thei othe attibutes.
In addition to objectifying women as though they ae nothing moe than thei elative level of physical attactiveness, the ovewhelming focus on sexuality and female attactiveness in commecial advetising also denigates…
references and euphemisms for "penis" such as "special part of male anatomy" in an apparent attempt to comply with the letter if not the spirit of laws that prohibit dishonest statements in advertising. Likewise, they include very obscure printed language at the bottom of the screen advising that the product is designed "for entertainment purposes only."
Second, the ExtenZe commercials purposely create the false impression that the production is a talk show called "Sex Talk" rather than a paid hour-long advertisement. Third, the commercials feature attractive young female models and actresses who are paid for their participation and dressed in sexually provocative attire to capture male attention and suggest that these are the types of women to whom users of the product will become more attractive and desirable. Fourth, the advertisement series also denigrates women by suggesting that all they want from men is a large penis. In that regard, the main topic of the scripted dialogue among the female models pertains to their specific preference for men who are "bigger and wider." One of the women complains that she waited her entire life for a man with a large and wide enough penis to satisfy her and recounts her disappointment at having begun a relationship only to discover that her man failed to "measure up." The obvious intent of the commercials (and the entire commercial venture) is obviously to exploit females while simultaneously exploiting the common male insecurity about relative penis size. In so doing, the commercials manage to insult the worth of females, the self-esteem of males, and the value of their relationships.
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
esearch has shown that men and women look for different characteristics when looking for long-term partners. Some research shows that men favor physical variables (attractiveness) more than women (lecture notes). This could be due to an underlying biological impetus to breed with women who have good genes. The fact that many men worldwide reveal a preference for younger partners might also be traceable to biology; younger women are more likely to bear children.
Women might value things like "vocational status, earning potential, expressiveness, kindness, consideration, dependability, and fondness for children," (athus, et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes). The fondness for children preference is linked to biology and psychological necessity as well, as women want mates who will be able to share in the childrearing duties. On the other hand, some men might value traits like "cooking ability, frugality, and youth (athus et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes).…
"Chapter 6: Sexual Violence."
Nunnink, S.E., Goldwaser, G., Afari, N., Nievergelt, M. & Baker, D.G. (2010). The role of emotional numbing in sexual functioning among veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Military Medicine 175(6).
PBS (2012). Teen Brain. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/view/#rest
Those employees with the strongest enthusiasm for FedEx culture are often those who have been with the company the longest. If FedEx is able to offer a compelling package to Kinko's workers, sufficient to improve retention rates, they may also build a group of leaders in the workplace, those who can help indoctrinate new workers into the FedEx culture.
Solutions and Implementation
To bring the cultures of FedEx and Kinko's closer together, FedEx should do two main things. The first is that they should afford Kinko's workers the same level of wages and benefits. This will help to attract and retain workers who are more in line with the FedEx culture. It will also help to ease the transition towards a greater level of professionalism for the existing workers. There needs to be opportunities for Kinko's employees to move into other areas of the company. In the retail environment, a…
References no author (2007) a Ream of Culture Clashes at FedEx Kinko's. AdPulp.com. Retrieved May 19, 2008 at http://www.adpulp.com/archives/2007/05/a_ream_of_cultu.php
Hirschman, Carolyn. (2001). Exit Strategies: Older Workers Want to Retire Gradually. HR Magazine. Retrieved May 19, 2008 at http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management-hiring/833239-1.html .
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…
Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.
Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37
Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
child sexuality or intersex become especially difficult to discuss. These readings all ask us to question why those taboos are in place, while at the same time trying to show how important research in human sexuality can be. Sexuality is a major part of the human experience, and a fully understanding of psychology and sociology is not possible without open explorations into issues surrounding sexuality. Added to the complex issues surrounding human sexuality is gender. Gender is totally different from, but certainly related to, sexuality. On the one hand, one's concept of gender will have a strong bearing on one's perception of oneself as a sexual being, will impact issues related to self-awareness, self-esteem, and self-confidence. On the other hand, gender is only slightly implicated in things like sexual attraction. Both gender and sexual attraction are remarkably fluid, as Diamond points out. They may even be fluid across the course…
Diamond, Milton. "A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior." The Quarterly Review of Biology, Volume 40, No. 2, June 1965
Money, John. "Childhood: The Last Frontier in Sex Research."
Sex: Unknown. Nova [Film].
The intersections between gender, sexuality, identity, and lifestyle converged at an expected moment. I was as prepared as anyone else. Andrew is my brother, and I know him well. It was his friend Darren's 21st birthday. Darren is adorable: he's six feet tall, with plump lips naturally blushed the color of Fuji apples. His skin is milky white, and his eyes are shimmering sateen blue. I haven't got a crush on Darren; I would, but Darren is gay. He's been out of the closet since he was fifteen years old. My brother has known Darren since the two played together in our little apartment complex playground. Almost two decades later, the two friends are doing shots together in a gay nightclub. My brother is straight. Really, he is. But on Darren's birthday, something happened to place my brother Andrew temporarily in an interstitial realm. My brother, not being the…
In contrast to both Mead and Freud: "The genius of Malinowski was to perceive, and substantiate, the fact that the mind of the 'primitive' man was essentially no different than that of 'civilized' peoples. That is, although beliefs, motives, and emotional responses to situations might vary markedly from one culture to the next (a fact which would disprove the universality of Freud's Oedipal Complex), the ability of the mind to perceive and process information and to formulate creative, intelligent responses was the same regardless of race or culture" (Bronislaw Malinowski, NNMD, 2009). Myths, irrational as they might be, were common to all cultures -- and all cultures had unique elements of such irrationality. Malinowski's attitudes and expressions prefigure modern postmodernism and its emphasis on subjectivity and irrationality, and its suggestion that sexuality is merely one impulse amongst many, as opposed to the most significant impulse, as believed by Freud and…
"Bronislaw Malinowski." NNDB, 2009. Accessed June 19, 2009 at http://www.nndb.com/people/320/000099023/
Freud, Sigmund. Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex. Translated by A.A. Brill.
Project Gutenberg, 1920. June 19, 2009.
Environmental Influences, Domain Specificity, and Heterozygous Potential:
Environmental influences have also contributed profoundly to human sexual behavior, which becomes particularly evident when one examines certain statistical tendencies pertaining to both conscious and unconscious choices in female mate selection (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). As is the case with many sexually reproducing organisms, human females have evolved a marked preference for both physical and behavioral male traits consistent with the ability to provide physical protection and to garner both natural and social resources. Females of many species prefer male suitors who display characteristics such as large relative body size, robustness, good health, and those suggesting physical strength, aggressiveness, and leadership (Margulis & Sagan 1999).
Whereas some of those traits are observable externally (such as relative size), others are imperceptible on any conscious level. This is particularly true as regards heterozygous potential conducive to healthy offspring, such as the marked unconscious preference demonstrated…
Ackerman, D. (1995) a Natural History of Love.
New York: Vintage
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy.
New York: Henry Holt.
esolving Technical Problems
Sometimes, psychological issues progress to the point where they have a physical effect, and there are other purely biological issues that can cause some technical problems when it comes to sex. The Penners do not ignore these, of course, but rather suggest ways that comfortable married couples can work together to overcome these difficulties. They stress that it is important for an individual experiencing these problems to become comfortable with their own bodies and with whatever negative development has arisen, and again this demonstrates the need for healthy sexuality to take place within the trust and comfort that a marriage bed provides. As long as two committed partners are willing to work together, these problems can be surmounted.
What is most noticeable about the way in which the Penners approach and address these issues is the absolute ease and comfort with which very delicate and often very…
Berecz, J. (2002). "Is there such a thing as 'Christian' sex?" Pastoral psychology 50(3), pp. 139-46.
Clark, E. (2000). "Biblical interpretation and the construction of Christian sexualities." Church history 69(2), pp. 277-80.
Ferrebee, L. (1995). "Do your spouse a favor." Marriage partnership 12(2), pp. 58.
Lana, T. (2008). "Natural law in marriage and sexuality." Philippinia sacra 43(128), pp. 355-64.
Language and Sexuality from a Desire-Based Perspective
Anthropology -- Language & Sexuality
The broader theoretical treatment of the study of sexuality has long been recognized in the fields of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Historically, sexuality has been discussed in sociocultural studies of language over the long-term. In fact, this work and the research it generated make up the emergent history and the scope of research on language and sexuality. This analytical discourse on the topic of sexuality and language is socially oriented, to be certain, but the it has followed a path of convenience, resulting in piecemeal treatment and an underlying fragmentation of the body of work.
Discussion of the desire-oriented approach to sexuality and language, theorizing the motivation and development of the approach from a poststructuralist position.
Women and men's talk: single/mixed sex; private/public
Gender and politeness
Peer and classroom talk
5. Public and workplace talk…
Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Palgrave Publishing.
Motschenbacher, H. ( 2011, November 11). Language, gender, and sexual identity: Poststructuralist perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing.
Sauntson, H. And Kyratzis, S. (Eds.) (2007). Language, sexualities, & desires: Cross-cultural perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan.
The most arrangement of these hominids is as shown in the table above (antala, 2007, p.17).
Humans have undergone a series of evolution from the most primitive hominids to the modern man. The development in the structure of the hominids was gradual; with almost half being upright and the rest being bent creatures. Evolution is expected to continue and man is expected to evolve into a different creature depending on the use and disuse of his limbs.
Macroevolution gives finer details about the origin of humans and tries to bring out substantive information from carbon dating that indicate that for real man is a product of a continuous evolution and thus is thus not the final product of evolution. However, the theory of evolution has faced a lot of criticism especially from the Theologians whose views about the origin of humans are contrary to those of macroevolution. The theory…
Barsh, G. (2003). What controls variation in human skin colour? Journal on Biological
Principles. 11(7), 19-22.
Fleagle, J. (1998). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Second Edition. New York: Academic
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
teenage sexuality. The writer links research and theory to a practical problem and discusses how they are similar. The writer also discusses teenage sexuality in the context of education. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Americans have adjusted a lot of their thinking when it comes to teenage sexuality during recent years. There was a time when a pregnant teen would have been removed from the school and sent to a school for unwed mothers. There was a time when a sexually active female was labeled a slut, or said to be loose. Those days are on the retreat as Americans accept teenage sexuality more than ever before. With that acceptance comes the question of when and how to teach sex education. Schools are at a crossroad because they are dealing with pregnant teens but many parents are opposed to the sex education of their children within…
Mallet, Pascal; Apostolidis, Themistoklis; Paty, Benjamin (1997). The development of gender schemata about heterosexual and homosexual others during adolescence.. Vol. 124, The Journal of General Psychology, pp 91(14).
Feigenbaum, Rhona-Weinstein, Estelle-et al.,(1995). College students' sexual attitudes and behaviors: Implications for sexuality education.. Vol. 44, Journal of American College Health, pp 112.
Brody, Stuart; Rau, Harald; Fuhrer, Niklas; Hillebrand, Heiko; Rudiger, Daniela; Braun, Manuel (1996). Traditional ideology as an inhibitor of sexual behavior.. Vol. 130, The Journal of Psychology, pp 615(12).
National Poll Shows Parents Overwhelmingly Support Comprehensive Sex Education Over Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage by 5 to 1 Margin (Accessed 10-23-2002) http://www.siecus.org/media/press/press0028.html
Bright Lights, Bobby Benedicto describes the urban gay subculture in Manila within the context of the "global scene." The points Benedicto makes in Under Bright Lights can be applied to variety of issues related to race, class, gender, and social power. Benedicto provides a sociological analysis of gay Manila primarily through a Marxist lens. The author endeavors to show how the "gay scene" has built itself unconsciously upon a pedestal of ironic privilege. With access to wealth and relative power, the urban gay comprise an "elite" that is contrary to the "laborer" lifestyle lived by most of their compatriots. When gay Philippino men travel abroad, they often do so on the trans-national network of "gay globality," the major urban centers with thriving gay subcultures. Benedicto claims that the gay subculture is reinforcing a class-based divide, an observation that may not be immediately apparent but which has a strong impact on…
Lucal, B. (1999). What it means to be gendered me. Gender and Society 13(6): 781-797.
THE ROLE OF CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE EVOLUTION OF HUMANITY
Undestanding the evolution of humanity has been one of the most citical quests fo most individuals in the cuent society. The intesection between envionmental influences and cultue ceates an aea of social inteest with a focus on human evolution. Empiical eseach shows that the society plays a significant ole in shaping the evolution of human beings as evidenced by psychological analysis of human evolution. The extaodinay coopeative natue of human beings aises moe questions on the peceived changes of human behavio and inteaction ove time (Hawkes, Paine, & School, 2006). Among the factos that dive human beings to stive to undestand thei evolution, include paleoanthopology esults that povide unique infomation that povides significant evidence to the aspects of human evolution postulated to have occued millions of yeas ago. Results fom fossil studies such as inceasing bain size and…
references: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1 -- 14.
Croll, E., & Parkin, D. (2002). Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development. Routledge.
Darlington, P.J. (1978). Altruism: Its characteristics and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75(1), 385 -- 389.
Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions vs. social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408 -- 423.
Foley, R. (1995). The adaptive legacy of human evolution: A search for the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 4(6), 194 -- 203
In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature." (Prothero 197). New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma.
As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism. One of…
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In World Religions in America. 4th Edition. Westminster John Knox, 2009.
Prothero, Stephen. "From Spiritualism to Theosophy: 'Uplifting a Democratic Tradition." Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation
Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 197-216.
Sexuality can be discussed and analyzed through concepts made in other works of the author. These essays revolve around the idea of sexual perversions and why they develop in the first place. In the second essay, Freud talks about the various psychosocial stages of development. The third essay revolves around the genital stage and how a person is more included to sexuality when he or she begins puberty. Freud has stated that normal sexual activity between a man and a woman and is only limited to sexual intercourse. Anything apart from that is considered a perversion or a deviation from normal human sexual activity.
Conclusion derived from this the theory of sexuality and other Freudian concepts is that: Abnormal sexual perversions develop in a person due to psychosocial conflict in life and these perversions are a threat to stability of civilization. Freud insists on the notion that sexuality is a…
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. London: Imago Pub. Co., 1949. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. The ego and the id. New York: Norton, 1961. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. The major works of Sigmund Freud. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1955. Print.
human nature that people like to categorize and have thinks set clearly to them in 'black and white'. People have always liked to think in terms of dualisms: there is the Cartesian 'body and soul' and 'paradise and hell', and "good and evil' amongst so many other dualisms. Either one category or the other exists. Belonging to that same schematic order of pattern is 'man and woman'. Shades of grey such as sexless individuals perplex and disturb people. They are bound to react with intolerance when faced with these exceptions. Nonetheless, differences of sex are not so clear. This essay is an elaboration on just that, showing that the popular view that there are only two genders in a dichotomous relationship need not necessarily be so. Gender and biological differences of gender are not so clear.
As part of our evolutionary background, people tend to categorize and think in terms…
Human rights defence Eunuchs of India - Deprived of Human Rights http://www.humanrightsdefence.org/eunuchs-of-india-deprived-of-human-rights.html
Nagle, J. (1998) constructing ethnicity.... In New Tribalisms by MW Hughey. NY: NY Univ. Press Vicinus, Martha, ed. Suffer and Be Still: Women in the Victorian Age. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.
Jane Eyre: an authoritative text / Charlotte Bronte; edited by Richard J. Dunn. New York: Norton, c2000.
More specifically, the theory to be tested is that a review of current efforts in that regard will help determine the most useful and productive methods of rectifying gender inequality in third-world countries.
The proposed research design will emphasize the review of existing relief organization efforts and those of foreign governments in relation to gender inequality issues in third-world countries. That review will be conducted in conjunction with an empirical review of human rights progress in those countries in the areas of gender inequality. The relative degree of identifiable improvement in gender inequality issues that correspond to existing relief efforts will enable the researcher to determine what approaches are most helpful for improving the lives of women suffering from gender inequality in their countries.
Findings, Implications, and Conclusions
The findings of this study will consist of a qualitative review of factors associated with the quality of life of…
human service professional in the helping process has many dimensions. One of the most important of these, according to Murphy and Dillon (2012) is the ethical aspect, because "ethical codes stress the primacy of the service obligation to the client, confidentiality, integrity, and follow-through." The needs of the client should be the primary concern of the human service professional, which is why years of training and practice are required before they are truly qualified and fully prepared to take on the responsibility of helping other individuals who are in crisis.
Adherence to strong ethical codes is of crucial importance in this profession. Having a clear and specific set of ethical guidelines is essential because human service professionals are human beings with their own personal values. They have sets of beliefs which may be deeply engrained, including prejudices formed from their cultural, social, and educational backgrounds. These are sometimes so deeply…
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th
Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Murphy, E., & Dillon, C. (2012). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th Ed.).
Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.
According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…
Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007 http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html
Question 5: 1899 was a difficult year for Gauguin. After a brief period of fortune, he was again destitute, was suffering from a leg injury, and had for all intents and purposes settled in Tahiti and separated himself from the Parisian art world. He painted Two Tahitian Women shortly after a suicide attempt (Walther, 87). Chances are that his audience at this point was himself, though the specter of the Parisian art culture probably still played a role in his decisions. He may still have been seeking ways to break with the Impressionist tradition, but the purity and emotion of the paintings of this period suggest an artist who was using art to experience and internalize the world more than one who was seeking to deliver a message to an audience.
Question 6: Gauguin's Tahitian paintings are strongly representative of the Expressionism movement. Expressionism sacrifices realism for the sake of…
Biscupik, Joan. "Decency' Can be Weighed in Art Agency's Funding." Washington Post. June 26, 1998. Retrieved Aug. 4, 2011. Web.
"Fin de Siecle." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved Aug. 4, 2011. Web.
Getlein, Mark. Living with Art, 9th ed. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
Turner, Jane. The Grove Dictionary of Art: From Renaissance to Impressionism. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. Print.
Gender, Consumption and Ideology: A Look at Three Ads
When the nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward Bernays became the father of advertising, he used a simple trick that he learned from his uncle: sex sells. Bernays understand, as Freud did, that sex is one of the most powerful motivating forces of human nature (Jones). Sex and gender thus took center stage in advertising over the years. In this paper, the way that gender, consumption and ideology are tied together in advertising will be shown. This paper argues that sex and gender stereotypes persist in advertising media and that sexuality has become more provocative over time. This has happened in spite of feminist movements. Today, sexuality is something that women feel they can use to dominate men. These ads show that sex and gender in advertising is still a powerful force no matter what ideology is held by men and…
Sexuality and Severe Brain Injury
The ethical issue in this case study is the fact that Mr. Z decides to have sexual intercourse with his wife Mrs. Z who is brain damaged. Her current state does not allow her to make any valid and sober decision. The action by Mr. Z is unethical since for one to have sex they should give consent, this is however not possible for Mrs. Z since she is unable to speak. This is a clear indication that she is not able to participate in even basic decision making leave alone giving consent to sexual intercourse. The severe mental disability leaves Mrs. Z incapable of giving any valid consent to intercourse. The act of having sexual intercourse with a an individual without her direct consent is quite unethical since Mr. Z is engaging in intercourse with someone who has not given consent even…
Syracuse University. (1998). An Ethical Decision-Making Model. Retrieved June 25, 2014 from http://soe.syr.edu/academic/counseling_and_human_services/modules/Common_Ethical_Issues/ethical_decision_making_model.aspx
Rainbow, C. (2009). Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles. Retrieved June 25, 2014 from http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/theories.htm
Developing Human Potential
When an organization makes the decision to take an individual on as a part of staff, effectively they are making a human capital investment in that individual (Lepak & Snell, 1999). Where the organization pays for the training of, insuring of, and salary to that individual they in turn are expected to perform the tasks within their job description efficiently and accurately thus allowing the organization to function successfully and more importantly profitably. However, when a human element is involved, there is always a degree of risk present. In the case of developing the potential of employees to maximize their value within the company there are many factors which must be addressed in the overall assessment of their potential and potential value relative to the risk at which they place the company (Abowd, & Kramarz, 2003).
The factors influencing employee performance and there by the…
1. Patterson, M., West, M., Lawthom, R., & Nickell, S. 1997. Impact of people management practices on business performance. Institute of Personnel and Development, 1- 39.
2. Bretz, R., Read, W., & Milkovich, G. 1992. The current state of performance appraisal research and practice: Concerns, directions, and implications. Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, 1- 59.
3. Holzer, H., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. 2002. Percieved criminality, criminal background checks, and the racial hiring practices of employers. Institute for Research on Poverty, 1- 45.
4. Abowd, J., & Kramarz, F. 2003. The costs of hiring and separations. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1- 45.
Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in 1948, and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans. The UDHR ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights") (IJRC 2016 p 1) was ratified by 48 countries with some Muslim countries such as Iran, Iraq,…
Pineau's major shortcoming in her argument for communicative sexuality is that she seems to dispute the very thing she is trying to validate when she rallies against the law for requiring that the man knew she was not consenting, stating that this isn't enough. According to Pineau, even when a woman has sex without explicit protest or refusal, she many not have consented to it, and this situation should be considered rape. Also, Pineau seems to feel that communication must be only verbal as evidenced by her view of sexual teasing, a notion seeming to ignore the importance of non-verbal communication in sexuality and society in general.
Theoretically, Pineau is addressing her article to anyone that wants to learn about date rape and communicative sexuality, but in reality her views are so feminist that she will likely alienate most male readers and a large proportion of women. After…
This surgical intervention has proven controversial in modern times as many physicians and surgeons have begun to stress that gender assignment by surgical means is not warranted as an emergent condition and should therefore be delayed until such time that the individual involved can participate in the decision, or until such time as gender assignment takes place naturally, i.e. By individual socialization, and self-determination of gender assignment. In other words there are simply to many variations of the condition to warrant permanent decision making based on outward appearance, regardless of parental or medical opinions and emotions on the subject.
More frequently found in the many variations of hermaphrodites there is a condition known as pseudohermaphrodite, where the individual may present as one or the other gender/sex but have an enlarged or true to size version of the other gender's gonads. Yet, as clear cut as this might seem…
Dreger, A.D. (1998). Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Retrieved June 4, 2009.
Gilbert, S.F. (2006) Developmental Biology Eighth Edition: Online Companion Chapter 17 Hermaphrodites article: Human Hermaphrodite Retrieved June 4, 2009 http://8e.devbio.com/article.php?id=266&search=hermaphrodite
Johnstone, M. (Ed.). (1999). Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Sydney, N.S.W.: Harcourt Saunders.
Sex can be described as a biological distinction between males and females, particularly regarding reproductive functions. On the other hand gender tends to concentrate on socially constructed differences between men and women that reveal masculinity and feminity. More importantly while gender can be applied to individual difference, it can also be applied to institutional, cultural as well as structural difference.
There are theories that explain gender: Among them are biological theory and sociological theory. In terms of sociological theory, there are three concepts involved in explaining social science of gender. They include socialization, gender role, and opportunity structure. Gender role is described as a collection of acceptable behavior which is dissimilar in terms of sex within a given behavioral domain, such as parenting, in support of gendered norms. The sex determines the boundary of acceptable behavior, and where these boundaries have been violated there are consequences that follow as…
Barbara L. Frankowski, Sexual Orientation and Adolescents, 2004.American Academy of Pediatrics.
J. Richard Udry, "The Nature of Gender" Vol.31, No4. Population Association of America . http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061790.
Susan E. Short, PhD, Yang Claire Yang, PhD, and Tania M. Jenkins, MA,. (2013) FRAMING HEALTH MATTERS Sex, Gender, Genetics, and Health, Vol 103, No. S1 | American Journal of Public Health
In other words, World War II produced an important shift in both mentality and reality. Although many of the women who had been employed during the war returned to being homemakers, there was also a significant percentage which managed to reconcile being a mother and a wife with work. Also, despite the fact that their wages were far from being equal to those of men, their contribution to the income of the household was welcome and in most cases, made a real difference as far as the economic demands of the family (essler-Harris: 280). Moreover this shift paved the way for the 1950s when a new set of ideas entered American society and seriously challenged both the labor market and social conventions. Gay bars started to appear, and although they were underground and hard to find even for members of the homosexual community, their emergence favored freedom of expression even…
Kessler-Harris, Alice. (1983). Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tully Carol T. (2000). Lesbians, Gays & the Empowerment Perspective. Columbia University Press.
Weeks, Jeffrey. (2003). Sexuality. New York: Routledge.
St. Augustine's "Confessions"
The idea that sex should be equated with sin is a Catholic tradition that has its roots in the writings of Saint Augustine. Prior to this there was little opposition or shame associated with sexual activity, especially in the Classical world. Augustine's Confessions is a book that detailed the early part of his life, his paganism, his obsession with sex, and his ultimate conversion to Christianity. Although born into a world where sex was a common and open part of life, Augustine seemed to transfer his obsession with sexual activity into an equally vehement campaign for celibacy. To Augustine, sex had been the focus of his pagan life but upon his conversion to Christianity sex became equated with the sinfulness of paganism and the corruptibility of humankind. In this role sex plays an important part in the Confessions and Augustine's Christian philosophy.
Augustine was born into a…
Saint Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine. Trans. Edward Bouverie
Pusey. Web. 12 April 2014.
e., physically), socially, and morally. In cognitive development, the individual learns how to think for himself/herself, and create decisions, judgments, and thoughts that are uniquely his/hers. Social development, meanwhile, is reinforced through one's recognition of gender identity. Through gender identity, the individual is able to determine and reinforce the role and status that society has given him or her as a man or woman. In effect, the individual becomes part of the society's institutions and structure because of the reinforcement of one's gender identity. Lastly, moral development takes place when the individual, based on his own cognitive and social experiences, is able to formulate his/her "personal philosophy," value judgment that s/he uses to create his/her beliefs, opinions, and feelings about life in general.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill ook Co.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
Add to this confusion the growing prevalence of telecommuters and the issues of the FLSA become even more complicated. Of course some telecommuting positions fall into the exempt category, and therefore are not subject to overtime pay, however some do. Due to the freedom to engage in 'private pursuits', employers may monitor when a virtual employee logs onto his or her computer and may require that he or she get permission before working overtime (Gabel & Mansfield 2003, 316). Only by fully understanding the FLSA and the legislation that has evolved from its implementation, can Human Resource professionals be certain to obey the regulations and not compromise their organization.
In addition to the monitoring of ever-changing compensation laws, Human Resource professionals must also be well versed in discrimination legislation as well. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, one of them of the most important pieces of discrimination legislation created,…
Affirmative Action. (12 Oct. 2004). Online. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affirmative_action [accessed 15 October 2004].
Crampton, Suzanne M., Hodge, John W., Mishra, Jitendra M. "The FLSA and Overtime Pay." Public Personnel Management 32, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 331-354. Database online. Available from ProQuest database.
DeLeire, Thomas. "The Wage and Employment Effects of the Americans with Disabilities Act." Journal of Human Resources 35, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 693-715. Database online. Available from Business Source Premier database.
EEO Poster. (No date). Online. Available at http://www.dol.gov/esa/regs/compliance/posters/pdf/eeopost.pdf [accessed 11 Oct. 2004].
More specifically, whereas certain components of human behavior are hard wired, many other components are learned from exposure to others in society. According to this view, the individual learns by watching others, starting in early childhood. By adulthood, those expectations transmitted through social learning are completely internalized by the individual and not perceived as matters that one learns from others.
By imitating adult role models and emulating behaviors expected of males and females in society, the developing individual learns what it means to be a male or female in that particular society. For example, if male role models and authority figures model aggressive or belligerent mannerisms in self-expression, male children absorb their exposure to these displays of masculinity and eventually come to identify with and exhibit those characteristics themselves. Similarly, if female role models and authority figures model passive or accommodating behaviors, female children come to identify with and exhibit…
Freud, in fact, went as far as defining the energizing force (libido) of humans as sexual in nature (Demartino & Stacey, p. 4).
Like the instinct theory, the drive reduction theory, too, subscribed to the functional significance of actions. The difference, however, is that drive reduction theory suggested that physiological needs, or deficits, instigate behaviors that result in the offset of those needs. Hull, the chief proponent of this theory, hypothesized that "drives" were a motivational characteristic of need states, which result from physiological disequilibrium. Therefore, drives generate energy and instigate behaviors designed to return the organism to a state of equilibrium: "...a common denominator of all primary motivations, whether due to food privation, thermal deviations...the action of sex hormones...." (einer, p. 87-92) Thus, the drive reduction theory explained sexual motivation as a drive, which resulted from a state of physiological imbalance caused by hormones.
The instinct and drive reduction…
Demartino, M.F., & Stacey, C.L. "Understanding Human Motivation." Cleveland, OH:
H. Allen, 1958.
Johnson, K.M. "Human Sexual Motivation." Spring 1997. California State University,
Northridge. Accessed Nov. 21, 2004: http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/sexmotiv.htm
data collection instrument to assess the degree to which people were aware of the problem of human trafficking and understood the concept. I began with the hypothesis that people would lack extensive awareness about the issue. I selected an interview-based methodology so I could ask specific, targeted questions regarding the nature of human trafficking.
The interview questions I submitted to my interview subjects asked them to define human trafficking, identify when and where it takes place, and to suggest possible solutions. One person I interviewed did not even know what human trafficking was: they thought it was similar to crowding or the condition of too many people being in the same place at once. The other two respondents did know that trafficking was the forcible movement of persons for illegal purposes. They said that they believed that both genders could be and were trafficked. One respondent likened it to kidnapping,…
Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United
States. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 1-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9087-7
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…