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Hygiene as a pivotal method of preventing infection in a health care setting
Hand Hygiene as a Pivotal Method of Preventing Infection in a Healthcare Setting
Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).
Nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. American journal of infection control, 36(6), 430-435.
To increase the chances of survival of VLBW infants, there are continued improvements in neo-natal management. However, the risk of infection during their stay in hospital is especially because they undergo diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In order to eliminate the infections, and provide more chances of survival, the article suggests that hand washing is the only effective measure to prevent the transmission of microorganisms. In addition, it suggests that it is the most important precaution in infection control. In the study, sixteen VLBW infants, in the "before" period and five others in the "after" period…
Allerganzi, B., Pittet, D. (2009). The role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention. Journal of hospital infection, 73, 305-315.
Andrej, T., & Andreas, W.F. (2004). Hand hygiene: A frequently missed lifesaving opportunity during patient care. Mayo clinic proceedings, 79(1), 109-216.
Asare, A., Enweronu-Laryea, C.C., & Newman, J.M. (2009). Hand hygiene practices in a neo-natal intensive care unit in Ghana. Journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5), 352-356.
Carpetti, G.M., Sandri, F., Trridapallli, E., Galleti, S., Petracci, E., & Faldella, G. (2007).
World Health Organization, (2007) estimates that more than 1.4 million people suffer form one disease to the other and HAI (Health care-associated infections) are the most important infections that occurs globally. In advanced countries, between 5% and 10% of patients acquire one or more infections within the hospitals environment while between 15 and 40% of patients-to-critical-care are estimated to be affected. In the United States, one out 136 patients acquire one or more infection in hospital, equivalent to 2 million cases yearly. In the UK, HAI causes 5000 attributable deaths yearly. There is substantial evidence that hand hygiene reduces the incidence of HAI and hand hygiene is the fundamental action that enhances patient safety. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, there is still an unacceptable low compliance with the hand hygiene policy within the universal healthcare system. (World Health Organization, 2007).
Fundamental objective of this project is to…
Dubberke, E.R. And Gerding, D.N. (2011).Rationale for Hand Hygiene Recommendations after Caring for a Patient with Clostridium difficile Infection. The Joint Commision. USA.
Klavs, I. et al. (2003). Risk factors and Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Slovenia -- results of the first national survey, 2001. Journal of Hospital Infection. 54:149 -- 157.
Klevens, R et al. (2007).Estimating health care -- associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Report. 122:160 -- 166.
Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee (2010). Best Practices for Hand Hygiene in All Health Care Settings . Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
Hygiene and the Theory of Planned Behavior
Describe the theory and your rationale for selecting the theory
Among healthcare subjects, hand hygiene falls under the theory of planned behavior. The act of engaging in proper hand-washing practices is of foundational importance to providing a safe, healthy and sanitary context for healthcare. However, according to the study by O'Boyle et al. (2001), many healthcare professionals simply do not comply with expectations in this area. This denotes the need for improved behavioral compliance among healthcare professionals. This need underscores the cause for selected the theory applied here. According to O'Boyle et al., "most health care workers (HCs) are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures, yet failure to adhere to guidelines is common." (O'Boyle et al., p. 352)
Discuss how the theory works to support your proposed solution
This theory is particularly useful in moving toward the proposed solution of instituting…
O'Boyle, C.A.; Henly, S.J. & Larson, E. (2001). Understanding Adherence to Hand Hygiene Recommendations: The Theory of Planned Behavior. American Journal of Infectious Control, 29(6), 352-360.
How Hygiene Factors in Job Context Affect Job Dissatisfaction
Everybody has to work and most people identify significantly with their work. It is no secret that occupation is one of the singularly most important factors in most lives. When people are asked about themselves they will generally first talk about who they are in relation to their job, and then about other factors. The workplace then is one of the most important places in the life if an individual, but it can become one of the most stressful also.
In 1959 Frederick Herzberg had been doing research on this very subject since 1957 and he determined that there were a few (five) satisfiers and eleven job dissatisfiers. A company could work to increase the satisfaction of employees because the, rightly, believed that a happy employee is a productive employee. Unfortunately, there were many theories about how to make…
Clements-Croome, D. (2006). Creating the productive workplace. London: Taylor & Francis.
Davies, S.J. (2007). Security supervision and management: The theory and practice of asset protection. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Gawel, J.E. (1997). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 5(11).
Gitman, L.J., & McDaniel, C. (2008). The future of business: The essentials. Grand Rapids, MI: Cengage Learning.
Preventing Disease Through Improved Hygiene:
Low-income children in the Washington D.C. schools
According to a 2011 study published in the American Journal of Infectious Disease Control, simple acts of good hygiene can have a lasting impact upon childhood health and school attendance. This issue is particularly critical for low-income students, for whom attendance at school can have a significant impact upon their future development, given the stresses that exist at home and the positive influence that attending school can provide. School attendance rates for at-risk youth can affect long-term success later on in high school. However, children in this demographic group face tremendous obstacles in getting to school: transportation, a lack of parental support, and also an increased risk of illness at home and at school. Low-income children are at particular risk for respiratory infections, which can be easily spread through inadequate hand-washing and sanitation at school. Combined with old…
Studies show hand hygiene correlates with decreased risk of transmitting infection. (2011).
American Journal of Infectious Disease Control. Retrieved October 27, 2011 at http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/news/2011/08/studies-show-hand-hygiene-correlates-with-decreased-risk-of-transmitting-infection.aspx
You Stink! What personal hygiene is and how you can get it
Want to look, feel, and smell your best? Then you'll need to master the art of personal hygiene. When you take good care of your body, your friends will notice. You will look better, feel better, and smell better. Personal hygiene might sound like a bore, but it's actually a set of fun practices that should become second nature. Pretty soon, you won't have to think about things like brushing your teeth or washing your feet -- you'll just do them automatically.
Personal hygiene practices are very straightforward and do not involve a great deal of time, money, or energy. The practices might be different depending on your level of physical activity on any given day, how old you are, and whether you are a boy or a girl. egardless, there are some general pointers that can…
Boehkle, J. (2011). Personal hygiene in teenagers. Livestrong. Retrieved online: http://www.livestrong.com/article/94690-personal-hygiene-teenagers/
DuBois, D. (n.d.). Clean and nearly teen: personal hygiene. Retrieved online: http://www.stlouischildrens.org/content/healthinfo/CleanandNearlyTeenPersonalHygiene.htm
"Personal Hygiene: Taking Care of Your Body," (2011). Kids Health. Retrieved online: http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetailsKids.aspx?p=335&np=289&id=2146
Compliance With Hand Hygiene Policies
Compliance hand hygiene policies health care facility ichmond hospital Texas
Compliance with hand hygiene policies in ichmond hospital, Texas
Hand hygiene policies are a plan of action adopted by health care providers that aim at preventing the transmission of infections or microorganisms from a patient to patient or from inanimate objects and surfaces to a patient through the hands of a healthcare provider or any other person dealing with a patient. They are specific hand hygiene practices carried out to reduce the risk of acquiring a hospital acquired infection, also known as nosocomial infections. This protects the patient, the hospital staff and even visitors.
Hand hygiene policies
The policies indicate when the staff must perform the hand hygiene activities; it also states the types of agents that should be used to achieve hand hygiene and any other measures. The policy indicates that:
Hand hygiene should…
Boyce JM, P.D. (2002). Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR Recomm Rep, 51(RR-16), 1-45.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR, 51(No. RR-16), 1-45.
Earl ML, e. a. (2001). Improved rates of compliance with hand antisepsis guidelines: a three-phase observational study. Am J. Nurs, 101(3), 26-33.
Hsin Chi, K.-Y. C., Hong-Chang Chang, Nan-Chang Chiu. (2009). International Journal of Infectious Diseases. Infections associated with indwelling ventriculostomy catheters in a teaching hospital 14(3), 216-219
Table 1: Motivational Hygiene Theory
Each of the factors that comprise the model is briefly discussed here.
Achievement -- Often defined as the successful completion of a task, this attribute anchors the Motivators area of the Motivational Hygiene Theory model.
ecognition of achievement -- Herzberg meant for this to include recognition from anyone in the organization from a co-worker to a client to a superior. Herzberg mentions in his theories that recognition that combines the verbal and visual are the most effective (Herzberg, 1987).
The Work itself -- Only after a worker has been able to have their Hygiene factors met can they attain the level of satisfaction with the work itself, and this came out of the study of technical professionals cited earlier in this analysis (Backer, 1973).
esponsibility -- elated to the three most critical areas of learning and job achievement which are autonomy, mastery and purpose, responsibility…
Backer (1973) Motivating Workers. Johannesburg: McGraw-Hill
Baldonado, a., and J. Spangenburg. 2009. Leadership and the Future: Gen Y Workers and Two-Factor Theory. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 15, no. 1, (September 1): 99-103
Chapman, n.d.- Frederick Herzberg Motivational Theory [Online] Available from: http://www.mftrou.com/frederick-herzberg-theory.html Accessed on September 19, 2009.
Herzberg (1976) the Managerial Choice: to be efficient and to be human. Dow Jones-Irwin: Homewood, Illinois
A large New Orleans Hospital has been affected with a Katrina disaster, which has contributed to evacuation of staffs to Baton ouge. Six weeks after the event, I have been mandated with the responsibility of supervising a team that will return to the hospital since I am an Industrial Hygienist. This team will also be responsible for evaluating the situation and engaging in a plan to re-establish basic medical needs for the staffs involved in the recovery initiative. While the team comprises various leaders of the hospital, the Incident Commander or person in-charge of recovery is looking for guidance on safe entry, safe clean-up procedures, suitable PPE for all recovery employees, and a hazard assessment for the most crucial items. He also needs an assessment of operations that can contribute to acute or chronic health effects, disease, or illness. This process of supervising the team in the recovery…
Kilgore, G. (2007, January). After Katrina -- A Firsthand Account of SH&E Issues in Refrigeration Recovery. Professional Safety, 52(1), 31-35.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2013, June 10). Keeping Workers Safe During
Hurricane Sandy Cleanup and Recovery. Retrieved from United States Department of Labor website: https://www.osha.gov/sandy/sample_results.html
Sigma Aldrich. (2009). Overview of Products for Air Monitoring. Retrieved August 31, 2014,
Oral Hygiene Practices -- Pregnant omen
This paper delves into the research that has been conducted on pregnant women with regard to their use of proper oral hygiene practices. The paper is based on the research and findings from an article in the Journal of the American Dental Association (Boggess, et al., 2010).
Oral Hygiene Practices -- Dental Service Utilization -- Pregnant omen
There is ample available literature to justify Boggess' assertion that poor oral practices can lead to loss of teeth, gingivitis, periodontal infection and dental caries. And as Boggess writes on page 553, those oral diseases are found in disproportionate numbers in communities that are in the low-income category, and in communities where ethnic minorities reside. But also, these dental issues are found among pregnant women, in particular among "racial or ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status," Boggess continues (553). The question addressed -- why do…
Boggess, Kim A., Urlaub, Diana M., Massey, Katie E., Moos, Merry-K, Matheson, Matthew B.,
and Lorenz, Carol. (2010). Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women. Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol. 141, 553-561.
Another caution that exists for people suffering from lupus is to exercise caution before and after receiving dental treatment. Lupus patients could develop serious heart infections from the streptococci that might be released into their bloodstream during routine dental procedures, even bi-annual teeth cleanings (Blau and Schultz, 174). The infection can travel to the heart when the patient has certain other manifestations of lupus, and, if the patient has developed a condition called verrucous endocarditis, then it can be deadly if the streptococci infect the heart (Blau and Schultz, 174). Therefore it is strongly recommended that prior to and following dental procedures and cleanings that lupus patients receive antiobiotics that can help them to be prepared to defend their body against the streptococci (Blau and Schultz, 174-175).
The antibiotic -- usually amoxicillin, or another member of the penicillin family, or erythromycin in cases of penicillin allergy -- is taken an…
Blau, Sheldon Paul, and Dodi Schultz. Living with Lupus: All the Knowledge You Need to Help Yourself. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1993. Questia. 21 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91348486 .
De Rossi, Scott S. DMD, and Glick, Michael, DMD. Lupus Erythematosus: Considerations for Dentistry. Journal American Dental Association, vol 129, March, 1998, 330-339.
Doris examined the claim that hand hygiene education and individual feedback on hand hygiene frequency and method enhances hand hygiene frequency and improves nurses’ methodology scores of hand hygiene as stated by Chun et al. (2014). The evaluation entailed using the criteria for examining statistical research to determine whether statistical evidence support the claim. Through the critical appraisal process for statistical analysis by Cohn et al. (2009), Doris demonstrated that the research by Chun et al. (2014) has statistical evidence to support the claim. During the critical appraisal process, Doris examined whether the study met each of the various components in the…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…of the statistical analysis to show how evidence support the claim. In addition, Doris examined evidence relating to hand hygiene frequency when nurses came into contact with MRSA isolated patients. As a result,…
Ethical Misconduct Among Industrial Hygienists in England by Burgess and Mullen (2002). There are a lot of codes of ethics published for ethical hygienists, but surprisingly few articles discussing ethics in the profession. In this article, the authors note that "failure to behave ethically might have serious and possibly fatal consequences," highlighting the need for a greater level of discussion with respect to ethics in the profession. The authors conducted a survey of 43 industrial hygienists, and found that 33 of them had witnessed ethical misconduct.
The authors provided with their survey nine different categories of ethical misconduct, thereby making clear the definition of the term. Some that were found to have occurred were data fabrication, failure to share credit on work, failure to protect confidentiality, criticizing the integrity of another hygienist for one's own gain, and plagiarism. Some of these could result in injury, but many violate the code…
ABIH (2007). American Board of Industrial Hygiene Code of Ethics. American Board of Industrial Hygiene. Retrieved October 23, 2015 from http://www.abih.org/sites/default/files/downloads/ABIHCodeofEthics.pdf
Burgess, G. & Mullen, D. (2002). Observations of ethical misconduct among industrial hygienists in England. AIHA Journal. 63 (2002) 151-155.
Oral Hygiene Methodology
There is a significant amount of research that shows statistical correlation between oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and the presence bacteria responsible for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Several interventions have been shown as effective in reducing the incidence of VAP, but many have not gained widespread clinical use in a majority of hospitals. esearch does show that the amount of oropharyngeal bacteria present in the mouth and oral cavity has a relationship to the propensity of developing VAP. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate levels of oral hygiene combined with the bacterial colonization of ventilator equipment. We expect that oral and mouth washes regularly administrated that include chlorohexedine will kill bacteria and reduce incidence of VAP infections on ICU patients. The aim of this study will be to survey the efficacy of chlorohexdedine mouth washes in a randomized group of patients who were placed in an…
Chlebicki, P., & Safdar, N. (2007). Topical chlorhexidine for prevention of ventilator-associated peneumonia: A Meta-analysis. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 595-602.
Collard, H., & Saint, S. (2005, June). Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Retrieved from ahrq.gov: http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety/pdf/chap17.pdf
Dodek, P., et al. (2004). Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumomia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(4), 305-13.
Lansford, T., et al. (2007). Efficacy of a Pneumonia Prevention Protocol in the Reduction of Ventilatory-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients. Liebert Open Access- Surgical Infections. 8 (5): 5505-10.
Hygiene in Medical Settings
My message will be on hand hygiene for everyone that comes to the hospital.
Hand hygiene for hospital guests is just as important as it is for hospital personnel. Everyday interactions and activities can lead to exposure to a variety of bacteria that can create illness. In a hospital setting, this means that guests with good intentions towards loved ones can inadvertently make an illness worse or introduce new germs into clinically sanitized environments. Bacteria and other illness causing agents are often picked up from external environments and surfaces and then transported through body parts such as the nose, throat, skin, and hair. Because the hands are one of the most active parts of the body, we also carry germs between our fingers and underneath fingernails. Therefore, it becomes important that everyone wash their hands properly and frequently to decrease the transmission of bacteria and other…
Kuo, C.C. (2011). What's your hand hygiene?. AAOS Now, 5(10), 17-18.
Smith, S.S. (2009). A review of hand-washing techniques in primary care and community settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(6), 786-790. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02546.x.
Naturally, any problem that results in 1.7 instances of illness and 100,000 preventable deaths is automatically extremely clinically significant. What makes this topic especially clinically significant is that nosocomial infections are largely a function of behaviors that violate established principles of standard hygiene and antisepsis in clinical settings. If the information can be used to publicize the importance of reducing hospital acquired infections and to increase healthcare worker compliance with antiseptic protocols, it could greatly improve the safety and quality of the American healthcare system.
Primary Barriers to Hand Washing Compliance
The main barriers reported in connection with the low rate of hand washing compliance in U.S. hospitals include ignorance, laziness, habit, and convenience. Ignorance comes into play when healthcare providers fail to consider how vulnerable hospitalized patients are to infection and how easily bacterial infections can be caused by hand-to-hand or hand-to surface contamination. Laziness is an issue because…
Being that it is an operation that is being conducted in an industrial area, and in an industry that dealt with compressed gas, it is critical that all the safety measures are taken into account in a categorical and safe manner in the bid to re-enter the after the terrible hurricane. For instance there are various experts who are present and I would recommend that their individual expertise be put to use in the recovery process. First, the entire employees' body must be informed of the extent of the damage and the seriousness of the problem at hand and instructed not to venture into any area within the firm without the clearance and subsequent communication through a central communications office that they have to be informed of. I would also suggest to the Incident Commander to have a formal written process for the recovery of the firm. This…
Biophica Inc., (2011). The "Chlorinated" Water Issue and the Water Ionization Alternative using
Colloidal Copper or Colloidal Silver Nanocrystal Ionization. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://www.biophysica.com/chlorine.html
Healthy Working Lives, (2010). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Retrieved October 19,
2011 from http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/minimising-workplace-risks/ppe.aspx
Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)
Work practice and administrative controls
Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…
Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf
Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.
Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.
ationalism Politics Impacts Public's View
Web Article eview
The principle best-practice strategy elucidated within Louis DePaola's article entitled "Infection control in the dental office" is for practitioners to adhere to sanitary and hygiene mandates as noted within a pair of documents produced by the Centers for Disease Control. The first document is the Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care (which was published in 2011), and the companion Infection Prevention Checklist for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care. These documents have a number of specific measures for those working in dental offices to follow to reduce the incidence of healthcare associated infections (HAI).
In addition to denoting several of the key guidelines for practitioners to adhere to in order to ensure safety and reduce the rate of infection transmission, the author also reinforces several key facets of this literature that apply to dental office…
DePaola, L. (2012). "Infection control in the dental office." http://static.ow.ly/. Retrieved from http://static.ow.ly/docs/RICDE%20Infection%20Control%20in%20the%20Dental%20Office,%20Standards%20of%20Care%202012%20(CE%20Article%20PDF)_Mcl.pdf
"The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2011" Census.gov (2012): 32, internet, 26 Jun. 2013. Available: http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p60-244.pdf.]
With so many residents facing homelessness, it seems imperative to understand the cost of not implementing the hygiene centers through the local public health departments. When researchers examined the hospitalization rates of homeless persons in Honolulu, Hawaii, they found that hospitalizations in acute-care hospitals occurred at a rate 5.6-fold above the average for state residents.[footnoteRef:6] for psychiatric hospitals, it was 131-fold higher. The estimated cost of the excess hospitalization for the 1,751 homeless persons studied was close to $3.5 million in 1992 dollars. In 2010 dollars,[footnoteRef:7] this would amount to about $4.9 million. Based on a homeless population of 136,000 to 750,000 for the State of California, the excess medical costs associated with homelessness could be somewhere between $381 million and $2.1 billion dollars per year. [6: Jon V. Martell et al., "Hospitalization in an…
Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.
Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…
references utilized in this article there could have been more useful information provided from these sources. In addition, considering the fact of the redundancy of this research compared to the previous research it would have been an improvement to look at another alternative to decreasing ETS. Though the title of the research would lead one to believe that this will in fact be about ways to decrease ETS, this is not what is truly portrayed in the research in the beginning. The reader is given information as to how much money ETS is costing medically due to health issues and infant related deaths, but very little discusses the impact that breast feeding has. It appears in the beginning that the researchers want to prove that children should be breastfeed and that mothers should not smoke because the infants that are breastfed are protected from the health problems associated with ETS. However little information is given neither in the intro nor in the review of literature to show what impact there really is for a child that is breastfed by a mother that does not smoke, in relationship to ETS from second hand sources i.e. cars, malls etc. Another weakness, which I have already discussed several times through this critique, is the sample size. This was a rather small sample and the ways in which the control and test group were handled may not have been the best methods possible. Ultimately, this research left me wondering why one would want to conduct research to confirm the already obvious, while offering no additional information to the resolution or problem at hand.
Flanders-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposure to Tobacco. Biological research for Nursing, 8(2), 104-114.
Caglar S; Yildiz S; Savaser S. (2010). Observation results of hand-washing by health-care workers in a neonatal intensive care unit. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(2), 132-137.
In this article the authors wanted to determine whether healthcare professionals were washing their hands and if they were doing so effectively. The researchers observed 344 incidents in which hand washing was warranted and found that nurses were 63% compliant and physicians were 53% compliant. However, when it came to making sure that the job was done thoroughly, physicians were able to do a better job than nurses at a 24% to 13% rate of success. Since hand washing has been proven to be the most effective and simplest method for preventing infection, it is imperative that healthcare professionals perform it as often as needed and thoroughly.
amos M.M., Schrader, ., Trujillo, ., Blea, M., & Greenberg, C. (2011). School nurse inspections improve…
Researchers are trying different techniques to increase the incidence of compliance with hand washing guidelines and in this study they used social pressure. Initially, compliance with hand washing regulations was deemed to be significantly below expected standard within the nursing staff. To hopefully combat this, researchers told the staff that they were going to weigh the soap dispenser bags to see if people were actually using them or not. The object of the study was to determine if this type of pressure would induce the staff into better compliance with hand washing regulations. The researchers found that this type of behavioral technique is very effective.
15. Parish, C. (2008). Patient campaigner calls for TV cameras to check hand-washing. Nursing Standard, 22(38), 6.
The author of the article looked at the compliance records of staff and whether patients and visitors used infection controls. The campaigner, Roger Goss, said that because MRSA and other similar healthcare-acquired infections were becoming more dangerous that staff and visitors needed to be monitored more closely to prevent spread. The man advocated that close-circuit televisions be used to determine compliance with regulations, and he encouraged staff to be fired and visitors not welcomed if they did not comply. The warning here to nurses is that people are watching whether they wash their hands properly, and they are ready to have them terminated if they do not.
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…
1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.
2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.
3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .
4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
Hurricane Aftermath, Returning to a workplace
Disasters are itself destruction to humanity for long time and recovering from that disaster is a challenge which has to be achieved with the gradual process. Safety is the fundamental concern similar to the stability of our mental and physical well-being. Proper planning is required to make the process of recovery achievable in the most efficient way, much faster and less stressful. The research paper followed is a guideline to recover from hurricane and return back to home, community, school, work and normal life.
Safety Measures Adopted and recommendations
The foremost concern after hurricane disaster is the safety of the people affected and surrounding areas. The team comprising of safety supervisors will observe issues and monitor healthcare facility of families and individuals and will scrutinize their well being. To look after the safety measures it will be important for team to make a recovery…
The Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines 'race' as not "scientific or anthropological" rather consisting of "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry" using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference" (American Anthropological Association, 1997 )
Possible quality management issues that may arise are that since people are in essence individuals and characterized by a plethora of both experiential as well as biological, sociological, historical, environmental, and so forth features, race may have little determination in the way that they act and respond to situations. An individual from one race, for instance, may have happened to have been born in that race but may look and act according to the stereotypical characteristics of another. When the concept of race is used strictly to record the quantity of people who were born to a certain category, this may not be problematic. However, when…
American Anthropological Association. (1997 ) "A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15." http://www.aaanet.org/gvt/ombdraft.htm
Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
4) Wheelworks offers a few different forms of financial compensation. They pay wages that they describe as "the highest possible." This meets the safety needs of their employees, which is key in the retail business. It was stated that many of the employees have good educations, so if they could not meet their safety needs at Wheelworks, they would be forced to do so elsewhere.
Wheelworks does not offer commission. This is good practice, since their staff are more motivated by higher-level needs such as achievement and competition. Commission is insufficient and does not support Wheelworks' attempt to differentiate themselves with their high level of customer service. There are also profit sharing plans, which motivate the employees but also foster teamwork. This is also true of the seasonal bonuses. These also reinforce the belonging needs. In this way, these types of incentives reinforce the higher order needs, while de-emphasizing the…
ethinking Marketing Strategies for Increased Efficacy
Personal hygiene products are a very sensitive issue no matter for what gender or for what age. Nonetheless, everyone needs personal hygiene whether or not they actually practice it. Therefore, there is a strong and persistent need for these kinds of products. Marketing personal hygiene products is not easy territory through which to navigate. It is important to alert consumers to the presence and characteristics of the product, but set within the wrong context, the advertising for these products can put people off, embarrass them, or disinterest them. For example, currently, AllWays markets its line of products primarily with televised commercials and print advertisements. The content of which usually includes showing the product inside the packaging as well as outside of the wrapper. Though women want to know how and where the product will work for them, showing blue liquid pouring into an…
Cross Border Journal. (2006) Chinese Market, Japanese Company, American Methods. Available from http://asiagander.typepad.com/asia_gander/2006/05/chinese_market_.html . 2012 June 20.
Lambert, A., Sargent, J.D., Glantz, S.A., & Ling, P.M. (2004) How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control. Tobacco Control, 13, 379 -- 387.
I know they found that the bacteria can only come from the mouth, but I just wonder if they are positive that was what caused the baby's death.
I would also be interested to find out why this positive correlation between gum disease and stillbirth has only been found up until now in animals. Have they just never tested humans for this before? Or have they tested them before and found not correlation until now. If the latter is the case, then why is this particular patient's outcome more viable than other tests that had the opposite results?
I am the type of person who always wants to know the how's, why's where's and when's, so I may be expecting too much from one small article. However I cannot help but wonder if some of the claims in the article are a bit sensationalized in the sense that they are…
Merolla, Lisa. Gum Disease can Lead to Stillbirth. Cosmos, January, 27-2010
Fluoridation: A Public Health Debate
Fluoridation (the adding of fluoride to water) has been a hotly debated health issue for over half a century. Some advocate fluoridation by citing the many oral benefits available through the process, heralding the betterment of public hygiene that has been achieved from the procedure's inception. Detractors, on the other hand, point out the possible side effects from the abuse of fluoridation, the health problems being experienced around the globe by countries with fluoridated water, and the indelible rights of man. Because the decision to fluoridate drinking water or not affects so many of the worlds population it is definitely a worthy topic to sink ones teeth into.
The concept of fluoridation began in the early 20th century by a Colorado Springs, Colorado dentist named Frederick McKay. Upon moving to the area from the East Coast, McKay noticed that several of his patients "exhibited strange…
http://www.ada.org -- retrieved February 18, 2002
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/oh/fl-info.htm -- retrieved February 18, 2002
http://www.nidcr.nih.gov -- retrieved February 18, 2002
www.nofluoride.com -- retrieved February 18, 2002
Following the story and the demonstration, the use of a song to reinforce the steps to proper brushing would assure that the students learn and remember each step. If the music is set to a song they are already familiar with, the chance of learning and remember are increased as the student will make a positive connection.
Finally, a kinestic activity should take place. This could be by having the student draw a picture of him/her doing proper technique or by having the students role-play proper techniques with a partner.
When teaching a group of five-year-old students, it is important to have a wide variety of activities that reach all styles and types of learning. The activities should not be too long and should be taught using vocabulary and language that they identify with and clearly understand. Therefore, the Multiple Intelligence learning theory would be best in this…
working definition of abnormality.
Abnormality is defined as 'atypicality' or a deviation from the norm (McLeod 2008). Deviation may be viewed in a positive or negative light. In our culture, someone who has a high IQ is viewed as deviant in a positive manner, while someone who is deviant because he or she is bipolar is viewed as deviant in a negative manner. But some modes of deviancy, such as depression, are so common a large percentage of the population suffers from the condition (McLeod 2008). Other forms of abnormality, like seeing visions, are considered highly deviant today in a negative fashion, but were viewed in a positive light as a form of divine insight in ages past, and still are in some cultures.
Defining abnormality merely as violation of social norms can be a poor way to judge a patient, given that homosexuality was once classified as a mental…
Dryden-Edwards, Roxanne. "Schizophrenia types and symptoms." Web MD. 4 Dec 2011.
[2 May 2012] http://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/guide/schizophrenia-symptoms
McLeod, Sean. "Abnormal psychology." Simply Psychology. 2008. [2 May 2012]
Drawing from Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Shank's old boss failed to fulfill the needs of both esteem and belonging. Belonging is related to making sure employees are comfortable and feel that they are part of the team or group. Although esteem is making employees feel a sense of accomplishment. Shank has described the former boss as being non-motivating, having no relationship with employees and having told employees that they are just a number in the organization. During the tenure of the former boss, motivating employees was not a prime factor. The former boss ran the company on the bottom line of getting things done, making profit, efficiently and effectively. If things were not done in the right manner, the boss would replace the employees. Since the boss is operating at a twofold level of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs (security and physiology), its top priority must be to motivate…
communicates trends affect industry (career path've chosen-Dental Hygiene) ten years. Make create a complete, relevant, effective attention getter; include complete transitions main points; wrap a memorable conclusion.
Current trends affecting the dental industry
Although many occupations are being outsourced, you can't outsource your dental care!
With the aging of the population and increased demand for physical 'perfection,' the demands placed upon the dental industry and career opportunities are likely to increase.
Demand for dental profession: Demographic trends
It has been estimated that "roughly 60 to 70% of the adult American population seeks routine dental care -- a rate that is believed to be holding stable," indicating that there will be a sustained need for the profession in recent years (Lavers 2013).
B. Demand will increase because of population growth in populations with high levels of need: "Based upon census data, the number of people ages 60 to 79 is projected…
Dental hygienist. (2013). U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved from:
Goff, J. (2012). Looking ahead: Industry insiders forecast future trends. Dental Products Report.
Retrieved from: http://www.dentalproductsreport.com/dental/article/looking-ahead-industry-insiders-forecast-future-trends
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is perhaps the most commonly known theory of motivation, which is likely due to the broad applicability of the theory. Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs as part of his research on human potential and a component of positive psychology he termed self-actualization (Maslow, 1943; 1954). Maslow believed that human motivation is heightened when people seek fulfillment through personal growth and discovery. Self-actualized people are fully engaged with their potential, in an ongoing, lifelong effort to create meaning in their lives through highly personalized, positive endeavor (Maslow, 1962).
Doubtless, employers would enjoy not having to be concerned with motivating their employees if, in fact, their employees would "self-actualize" through their work. Indeed, some people do experience self-actualization when they are engaged in their paid employment. But, perhaps more often than not, people who become self-actualized are able to spend time either playing or laboring…
Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96.
Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Maslow, A.H. (1962). Towards a Psychology of Being. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company.
Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354.
1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory states that every individual has different levels of needs that must be met for them to reach their ultimate potential. The basic level includes the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, while the more advanced levels require such things as positive social relationships and self-esteem. An officers job can be difficult, especially over a number of years. The reality that most officers eventually face is how to deal with stress and staying motivated. Applying Maslow's model can be beneficial to ensure that as many officers needs are as possible so that they can be resilient in their roles and maintain a positive attitude.
2. Herzberg's Hygiene/Motivators Theory
The hygiene/motivators theory considers satisfaction on two different dimensions. Factors such as salary, benefits, work environment, and others may lead to a satisfied officer who is not necessarily a…
Assessment of risk factors for oral cancer and patient education activities; and 6. Interest in additional training.
I selected this article because of the importance of the topic. All too often, the roles and responsibilities of dental hygienists are considered primarily superficial. Meanwhile, dental hygienists are in position to contribute tremendously to patient health and welfare to the extent they perform oral cancer screenings routinely. According to the research findings, adherence to such diagnostic practices is sporadic at best and substantially dependent on time constraints, the focus and instructions of employing dentists, awareness of need and importance of the issue, and lack of adequate awareness training in hygienists' educational programs. The results also indicated that many experienced dental hygienists are among the least likely to focus on oral cancer screening simply because the topic was not regularly covered in dental hygienist training programs until relatively recently. Others expressed frustration…
Aesthetic needs are met by creating a wholly bicycle-centric environment. It is aesthetically important for cycling geeks to be immersed in such as environment. Lastly, self-actualization needs are met in that the employees are encouraged to set their own course in their employment. The environment is such that the other needs of the employees are met to such a degree that they have the freedom to pursue the path of self-actualization within the context of the bicycle store.
2) Herzberg's Two Factor Theory suggests that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are independent of one another. He explains that job satisfaction arises from motivators, such as recognition and personal growth. Job dissatisfaction arises from a different set of factors, such as company policy, interpersonal relationships, and money.
At Wheelworks, several motivators are at work. The floor staff are motivated by the learning they experience at the educational seminars; the satisfaction they…
This level is comprised of early detection and treatment of diseases, disorders, and poor health; including those which are occupational in nature. This level simply states that by eliminating the cause of the disability, the impairment caused by the disability will diminish. For example, the lowering of one's stress level will prevent future illnesses and diseases; and in the long run, may prevent an impairment caused primarily from the stress that occurred in the past. Therefore, preventing, limiting, or reversing the disability caused by impairment is an effective way of preventing disabilities before they occur.
Finally, the third level deals with preventing the transition of the disability into unacceptable challenges or handicap. This level includes surgical or therapeutic measures in the treatment, training in self-care, provision of technical and engineering aids, social and vocational counseling, and educating the public to improve public awareness, acceptance of, and behavior towards those people…
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
I think that proper networking and research on who is making quality products, and finding a vendor with a good track record of customer satisfaction would be crucial in getting a positive consumer reaction.
Networking is invaluable when you do not miss opportunities that are available just from people talking about your product. Some of the smaller stores are involved in fairs and events where products can be introduced to the public without the burden of larger brand name competition.
Additionally, my variety of personal strengths will help me succeed when I launch my new business. I am not intimidated by the possibility that my business might fail. I know that I will work very hard to make my business successful, and if the business is not successful, I will know that I would have done everything possible to make the business succeed.
I am not afraid or intimidated…
The Body Shop. (2004) Where we come from. Retrieved October 2, 2004, from: http://bodyshopinternational.com/web/tbsgl/about_where.jsp
Bath & Body Works, Inc. (nd). Retrieved October 2, 2004, from: http://www.hoovers.com/bath-&-body-works/--ID__104462 -- /free-co- factsheet.xhtml
Biesada, a. (2004) Hoovers Online. The Body Shop International PLC.
Both women suffer hard and endure their pain gracefully. Wang Ya-Ming cries but does not feel sorry for herself. Her tears are like a symbolic means of self-purification. She stood "with her back to the classroom," and did not make a habit of crying (3). Her inner strength is evident in her self-composure. Wang Ya-Ming is stalwart and self-contained. She studies hard and for the most part ignores and quietly endures the taunting and teasing. At one point in the story, the narrator notices that her chin was "tilted slightly higher than usual, as through she were calmed by a feeling of repose and a sense of contentment," (3). When she is forced to sleep on a hard bench outside of the dorm bedroom, she comments, "Sleep is sleep no matter where you lie down, so what's the difference," (5). In a similar way, Hsiang Lin's Wife demonstrates remarkable strength…
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…
Describe theory rationale selecting theory. 2. Discuss theory works support proposed solution. 3. Explain incorporate theory project.
Self-efficacy theory and the promotion of hand-washing
According to the Centers for Disease Control, hand-washing is one of the most important ways in which to curtail the spread of a wide range of infections and bacteria. Hand-washing can reduce the risks of contracting the common cold, influenza, and other viruses (Wash your hands, 2012, CDC). It can also lessen the chances that bacteria such as E.coli and salmonella will be transmitted from the preparer of food to the diner, or that contaminants from raw poultry and other meats will be spread to fruits, vegetables, and other components of the meal. Hands should be washed thoroughly after preparing food, using the toilet, dealing with animals or children, or handling garbage. But many people fail to take this simple step.
Hand-washing is one…
Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Self-efficacy. About.com. Retrieved:
Wash your hands. (2012). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved:
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
LISTEINE TODAY VS. LISTEINE FOM YESTEDAY
Listerine is one of those few renowned products which have ruled globally for more than a century. Since, its inception since 1890s, it has managed to provide sustainable and effective solutions for oral hygiene.
One noticeable thing about Listerine is that its original formula hasn't changed much. In fact, now it is known as Listerine original. One can still find the same formula of Listerine which was used six decades back, in the market. However, science has made great advancement in 1900s and we have also made great progress in dental sciences. Therefore, for curing other problems related to oral protection, various other types of Listerine have been introduced in the market.
These new types are quite different from the original formula. Their color and uses that they are meant for, are also different. By providing this vast range of products, Listerine has…
ADA Seal Product Report, Retrieved from http://www.ada.org /5275.aspx?productid=4438&company=Johnson+%26+Johnson+Healthcare+Products
McCullough, M.J. And Farah, C.S. (2008), The role of alcohol in oral carcinogenesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwashes. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.00070.x/full
Levitt, S.D. And Dubner, S.J. (2009). Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores The Hidden Side Of Everything. New York: HarperCollins. P. 87
Types and Composition of Listerine Mouthwash, Retrieved from http://www.listerine.in/products/coolmint
life I have been a go-getter. I graduated from high school at 16 because I was eager to begin my college education. Currently I am working on dual Bachelor degrees. One will be in Biochemistry and the other will be in Psychology. The same personality trait that has allowed me to graduate from high school early, pursue a dual degree program and many other accomplishments, is what will turn me into a service orientated and dedicated dentist.
One of the things I have pursued as a University of California, San Diego student, is my membership in the campus "For Los Angelitos" club. One of the things we did as a club was to travel to poverty stricken areas and provide lessons about oral hygiene. Equipped with small bags filled with oral care products, we traveled to Tijuana, Mexico where we provided oral care education to the children of the area.…
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
nurses play a very important role in the emotional, spiritual, and physical care of the patient with different illness. When it comes to nursing homes, nurses are responsible for the well-being of the individuals there. Even though majority of the persons there are not critically there, they still depend on nurses for their care both medically and emotionally.
Sanghine (2013) reported that two nursing home nurses managed to turn off the alarms of nineteen patients at night so they would not be disturbed during their sleep. They were caught when the care home manager checked up on them in the middle of the night. IT was reported that elderly patients in ages 75 to 100 were not able to call for help. Not only that, they also reported ill treatment to the persons only because they preferred their own comfort and sleep before their duty at the nursing home.
Baldwin, P., Dodd, M., & Wrate, R. (1997). Young doctors' health -- I. How do working conditions affect attitudes, health and performance?. Social Science & Medicine, 45(1), 35 -- 40.
Bates, D., Boyle, D., V, er Vliet, M., Schneider, J., & Leape, L. (1995). Relationship between medication errors and adverse drug events. Journal Of General Internal Medicine, 10(4), 199 -- 205.
Chaudhury, H., Mahmood, A., & Valente, M. (2009). The effect of environmental design on reducing nursing errors and increasing efficiency in acute care settings a review and analysis of the literature. Environment And Behavior, 41(6), 755 -- 786.
Hughes, R., & Rogers, A. (2008). The effects of fatigue and sleepiness on nurse performance and patient safety. Agency For Healthcare Research And Quality (U.S.).
These are questions dealing with attitude and are the most important questions when doing qualitative social science research to gauge relationships among events. In addition to construction questions about attitudes, it is important to have the questions drafted in the correct format (Nachmias, 2008).
The Quantitative methodologies will be the statistical tests designed for the overall model to incorporate the information provided through one, two or all of the Qualitative data analysis methodologies. The tests used to determine the relationship between these "qualitative" factors and increases in Infection rates, will be the Chi-Square, Student's T-Test, ANOVA (to test for variations among the data), the construction of a Linear Regression Model and the calculation of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, otherwise known as "R-Squared" (Nachmias, 2008).
These tests will be utilized in conjunction with a predetermined level of significance, or alpha. Since these tests will all be measuring the means and relationships…
Barrett, R. & Randle, J. (2008). Hand hygiene practices: nursing students' perceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(14), 1851-1857.
Beggs, C.; Noakes, C.; Shepherd, S.; Kerr, K.; Sleigh, P. & Banfield, K. (2006). The influence of nurse cohorting on hand hygiene effectiveness. American Journal of Infection Control, 34, 10, 621-626.
Larson, E.; Quiros, D. & Lin, S. (2007). Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates. American Journal of Infection Control, 35(10), 666-675.
Roberts, C.; Roberts, J. & Roberts, R.J. (2009). Investigation into the effect of an alcohol-based hand product on infection rate in a nursing home setting. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10(4), 138-142.
Clinical Governance and Auditing
Throughout this paper, an attempt has been made to demonstrate an understanding of the procedure of Clinical Audit (CA). The focus of this CA is the high risk area of patient safety, and with regard to how this is linked to patient safety, hand hygiene has been selected. The findings and the recommendations that follow combined with the CA tool and the selection criteria will be outlined in form of a Clinical Audit. For the purposes of improving clinical practice, CAs forms an integral aspect of clinical governance. It is indeed notable that CAs encapsulates practice which through analysis can result to quality enhancement, particularly for the patients. Various definitions of the term which are invariably the same and which tend towards verbosity exist, but a terse and precise definition is given by Coffey (2009) who puts forth that a CA is a systematic evaluation of…
Hart T. (2013).Promoting hand hygiene in clinical practice. Nursing Times; 109: 38, 14-15.
Tollefson, J. (2011). Clinical skills for enrolled/division 2 nurses. South Melbourne, Vic, Cengage Learning.
Scott, H.R., Blyth, K.G., & Jones, J.B. (2009).Davidson's Foundations of Clinical Practice. London, Elsevier Health Sciences UK..
Wilson, J. (2006). Infection control in clinical practice. Edinburgh, Elsevier, Baillie're Tindall.
Herzberg and Blanchards' Theory
Leadership and Motivation
Comparison of Situational Theory against the Two Factor Theory
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
Leadership / Behavior of the leader
Development Level of the Follower
Steps in the Situational Leadership Strategy
Strengths of the Situational Leadership Strategy
Drawbacks of the Situational Leadership Strategy
Assumptions of Situational Leadership Conditions
Fredrick Herzberg's Theory of Human Motivation
Hygiene Factors of the Two Factor Theory
Hygiene / Maintenance Factors
Motivating Factors of the Two Factor Theory
Limitations of the Two Factor Theory
Contrast between the two theories
What do we mean by leadership? It can be identified as the process through which a person is capable of influencing people's thoughts, attitudes, behavior and making an impact by what they say and how they act. A leader sets out the pattern for others to follow and lead on. A leader may guide his followers…
Akrani, Gaurav. 2010. Fredrick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory -- Motivation Hygiene http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2010/06/frederick-herzberg-two-factor-theory.html
Blanchard, Kenneth H. And Hersey, Paul. 1988. Management and Organizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988).
Hersey, Paul. 1984. The Situational Leader (Escondido, CA: Center for Leadership Studies, 1984).
Graeff, Claude L. "The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View," Academy of Management Review, vol. 8 (1983), pp. 285-291, and the research summary in Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, Sixth Edition (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2006), pp. 223-225.
However, these changes are merely quick fixes, and simply by removing dissatisfaction factors, does not equate to satisfaction, for this reason, to increase productivity, the telesales organization must move forward to intrinsic changes as well (Buhler, 2003).
Once it is ascertained that these hygiene factors are met, organizations can begin to work on the motivation factors, which will really improve productivity for the long-term. "People are most deeply motivated by work that stretches and excites them while also advancing organizational goals" (Levinson, 2003). Praise and recognition and growth and advancement opportunity are powerful motivators (Nelson, 2002). However, the daily grind of a telesales employee's tasks can be mind numbing.
Therefore, the organization will be challenged to make the work exciting and rewarding for the employee. In addition, there should be the ability to move up within the organization and hiring from within, even into other departments such as customer service…
Buhler, P.M. (Dec 2003). Managing in the new millennium. Supervision, 64(12). Retrieved November 6, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Creech, R.M. (Summer 1995). Employee motivation. Management Quarterly, 36(2). Retrieved November 6, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Frederick Herzber g. (16 Oct 2004). Retrieved November 6, 2004, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Herzberg .
Gawel, J.E. (Jan 1999). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. ERIC Digest. Retrieved November 6, 2004, from ERIC Clearinghouse of educational Management database.
Fundamentally, hygiene factors are required to make sure a worker is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are desired to motivate a worker to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified peoples actions and how and why they do them, for instance, if one performs a work related action because they have to then that is ranked as movement, but if one performs a work related action because they want to then that is ranked as motivation (Scheid, 2010).
The principles of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory have been applied to a wide variety of factors influencing worker satisfaction. These factors comprise: working circumstances, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company, job, company policies and interpersonal associations (Two Factor Theory -- Herzberg, Frederick, 2011). In the application of Motivation-Hygiene theory to this study of employee attendance and satisfaction, the factor that will be looked at is that of onsite childcare programs.
Utilizing this theory in…
Child Care & Parent Productivity: Making the Business Case. (2004). Retrieved from http://government.cce.cornell.edu/doc/pdf/ChildCareParentProductivity.pdf
Employee Survey Use & Design. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.employmentblawg.com/2008/employee-survey-use-design/
Evans, Joel R. And Mathur, Anil. (2005). The value of online surveys. Retrieved from http://shlee.myweb.uga.edu/onlinesurvey/valueofonlinesurveys.pdf
Russell, Matthew. (2007). Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Designs. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/286816/strengths_and_weaknesses_of_research_pg2.html?cat=3
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
Teaching Plan Summary
In developing countries, Handwashing with Water and Soap (HWWS) is one of the most economical yet effective approaches to treating faecal-oral vectored diseases (Curtis, 2009). Consequently, a good HWWs campaign would benefit many in the society, especially school going children (Biran et al., 2009). The following paper will investigate teacher response to driving effective HWWS intervention in different schools across the globe (Xuan et al., 2013).
There are different HWWS campaigns going on in a wide variety of schools. These could range from in class lectures, advice from student advisors to talks during school meetings or common school meetings. Statistics show that HWWS promotional campaigns take place at least once a month for the entire school and at least once a week in each individual class.
According to the research, up to 35 HWWS promotional classes took place over the test period with up to 566 students…
Biran A, Schmidt WP, Wright R, Jones T, Seshadri M, Isaac P, (2009). The effect of a soap promotion and hygiene education campaign on handwashing behavior in rural India: a cluster randomized trial. Trop Med Int Health; 14: 1303_14.
Bowen A, Ma H, Ou J, Billhimer W, Long T, Mintz E, (2007). A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a handwashing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools. Am J. Trop Med Hyg; 76: 1166_73.
Curtis V. (2009). Planned, motivated and habitual hygiene behavior: an eleven country review. Health Educ Res; 24: 655_73.
Elliott J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Children and young adults often have a much harder time adhering to dental hygiene routines that prevent decay and the progression of caries. Often times, they fail to understand the importance of the routines and the damage that could be caused. In order to strengthen primary prevention strategies, many local municipalities have begun adding fluoride to water sources. This is a great way to augment other prevention strategies because it requires no extra effort on behalf of those benefiting from its treatment. This current research aims to explore whether or not this secondary strategy has been successful in reducing rates of untreated caries in children and young adults, ages 6 to 19. The research used regression, z-Test, and t-Test analysis in order to test the hypothesis that adding fluoride to water does help prevent caries. All three tests suggested that this is true and that ultimately; adding fluoride…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Water fluoridation data & statistics. Community Water Fluoridation. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/statistics/index.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Untreated dental caries (cavities) in children ages 2-19, United States. CDC Feature. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsuntreatedcavitieskids/
Rozier, R. Gary. (2008). Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries: A review of the evidence. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Web. http://www.nidcr.nih.gov /NR/rdonlyres/F458755E-8FF8-438C-8758-9A22D687A329/0/Gary_Rozier.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus09.pdf
Nurse Lit eview
TYPE OF ESEACH STUDY - Quantitative or qualitative
Descriptive, correlational, experimental, quasi-experimental, phenomenological, grounded theory ethnographic, historical
SAMPLE METHOD & SAMPLE SIZE
Knoll, Lautenschlager & Lipp (2009). British Journal of Nursing.
Impact of workload on hygiene practices.
trials of nursing staff.
Enforcing hygiene practices has practical healing benefits for nurses.
Souweine, B. et al. (2009). Intensive Care Medical Journal.
Compared hygiene practices. Hand rubbing vs. hand washing.
person nursing staff.
Workers completed self report questionnaires.
Hand rubbing with alcohol is preferred to handwashing in some instances.
Creedon, S. (2006). International Journal of Nursing Technologies and Classifications.
Observe health worker compliance in handwashing guidelines.
73 doctors and nurses in an Irish ICU.
Knowledge of handwashing guidelines can lead to positive outcomes.
Allen, L. et al. (2014). Nevada Nformation.
Compared hand washing with hand sanitizer.
Allen, L., & et al. . (2014). Professionalism in Nursing. Nevada RNFormation, 18(1).
Creedon, S.A. (2005). Healthcare workers' hand decontamination practices: compliance with recommended guidelines. Journal of advanced nursing, 51(3), 208-216.
Evans, M.W., Breshears, J., Campbell, A., Husbands, C., & Rupert, R. (2007). Assessment and risk reduction of infectious pathogens on chiropractic treatment tables. Chiropractic & osteopathy, 15(1), 8.
Knoll, M., Lautenschlaeger, C., & Borneff-Lipp, M. (2010). The impact of workload on hygiene compliance in nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 19(16), S18-S22.
" (United Nations, 2000) The Household udget Survey 1996/1997 reported that in excess of 14.5 of households in Mauritius are presently living below the poverty line and economic development has been stalled due to the "…rising cost of labor erosion of the protected international markets due to gradual effects of globalization and liberalization and increasing competition with other countries…" (United Nations, 2000)
The distribution aspect of income and wealth has not been addressed in a sufficient manner by the liberal economic policies that rely on the market. Unemployment has increased in recent years and this has been "accompanied by inflation that has contributed to a loss of purchasing power, especially affecting women." (United Nations, 2000)
There is a failure to meet the needs of very low income housing and creating further tensions in Mauritius are challenges related to employment equality of access and disparity in education which is stated to…
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) (2000) Mauritius. November 2000.
Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education (2002) The World Bank. Online available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/Constructing_Knowledge_Societies.pdf
Gokhool, Dharambeer (2008) 1148th Session of the International Conference on Education (Unesco) 25-28thNovember 2008,Geneva Comprehensive Approaches In Early Childhood Education: The Mauritian Experience.
Gokhool, D. Hon. (2008) Address given Certificate Award Ceremony for Training of Trainers' Course in Healthy Eating and Food Safety. 28 Apr 208, Paul O. Wiehe Auditorium, Reduit.
ERG and Herzberg's Motivational Theories:
The life of Steve Jobs
The response to the death of Steve Jobs can be described as nothing short of extraordinary. Mourners placed flowers at Apple stores all over the world. How can this be explained, given the fact that Apple was a commercial product that people bought, not a spiritual movement? The answer is that in his design philosophy Steve Jobs made use of ERG motivational theory, tapping into the potential for self-actualization in terms of how his machines were constructed. Instead of simply being functional, Apple products embodied a concept of sleekness, excellence in design, and belief in human potential. The ERG concept was likewise embodied in Jobs' own life -- Jobs was a businessman who strove to make a profit, yet he also sincerely loved his work and continued to work, long after he could have retired or delegated more of his…
Chapman, Allan. (2010). "Frederick Herzberg." 2010. 13 October 2011.
"ERG theory." Net MBA. 2010. 13 October 2011.