Hyperthyroidism Essays (Examples)

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Grave's Disease

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97073410

Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.

Overview and Brief History of the Condition:

Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.

Causes:

The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.

Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:

pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.

Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
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Endocrinology Amazing Hormones Counterbalance of Sugar and

Words: 2340 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87661716

Endocrinology

AMAZING HORMONES

Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon

Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).

Insulin and Glucagon

The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013

from http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/B1108/B1108_2002_Groups/pancstems/stemcell/insulin_glucagon.htm

Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.

Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from  http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
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Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88864222

Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal

The objective of this study is to address anesthesia needs in two specific cases with the first being a 12-week-old Jack Russell puppy and the second being a 12-year-old geriatric cat.

12-Week-old Jack Russell Puppy

This 12-week-old Jack Russell Puppy has eaten a babies dummy. This case study will highlight the anesthesia requirements and protocol and highlight the relevance of effect on renal function, speed of recovery, analgesia, emphasis on knowledge and understanding. Even at 12-weeks of age, this puppy is considered a pediatric patient according to the work of Gleed and Seymour (1991). This means that the patient has a higher oxygen requirement that the adult. The tongue of this patient due to his age is large and the airway is small in diameter. As well, there is a lower functional renal capacity in this age patient all of which make the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bennett, RC, et al. (2008) Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane in dogs anaesthetized for clinical surgical or diagnostic procedures. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 49, 392-397.

Gleed, R and Seymour C (Eds) (1991) Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia and Hall, LW Clarke KW Trim CM 2001 Veterinary Anesthesia 10th edition Myerscough College 2011 Drugs used for Premedication

HEDip CVN VN 2020 Veterinary Anesthesia: Anesthesia for Specific Scenarios. Session Introduction Myerscough College 2011.

Hollingshead KW & Mckelvey D (2000) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia 3rd Edn Mosby Missouri
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Myxedema Is a Potentially Deadly Endocrine Regulation

Words: 1022 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8566461

Myxedema is a potentially deadly endocrine regulation disease that usually arises in connection with pre-existing hypothyroidism, when the normal homeostatic mechanisms for responding to hypothyroidism are overwhelmed. It occurs most often in elderly women, and is usually characterized by swelling of the skin and other soft tissues (Wall, 2000).

The thyroid gland is central to homeostatic metabolic functions, and operates as part of a complex feedback loop involving both the pituitary and hypothalamus to control essential elements of fluid and electrolyte balance and thermoregulation. Under normal conditions, the hypothalamus influences pituitary hormonal output of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the secretion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TH). Virtually any disruption of the precise functioning of these individual glands, or their complex interrelationships can precipitate conditions of hyperthyroidism and Grave's Disease or hypothyroidism and myxedema (MedicineNet, 2002).

Classic symptoms of myxedema include facial puffiness caused by subcutaneous accumulation of mucoploysaccharide, coarsening or…… [Read More]

References

Information on Hypothyroidism. (MedicineNet.com website)

Accessed July 25, 2004, at http://www.medicinenet.com/hyperthyroidism/page1.htm

Last updated: July 2, 2002

Manifold, C.A. Hypothyroidism and Myxedema Coma. (E-medicine.com website)
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Autoimmune President George H W Bush

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50143410

Te tyroid is regulated by te pituitary gland. Autoimmune diseases, infections, ormonal imbalance or ereditary conditions can result in tyroid malfunction. Tese tyroid disorders usually come in one of two forms: functional, suc as ypotyroidism and ypertyroidism, and structural, suc as nodules and goiters, as in te case of te former President. Earlier tis year, Barbara Bus ad a mild relapse of er Graves' disease. Se began experiencing eartbeat irregularities tat can lead to cardiac arrest in older patients.

Graves' disease is te most common cause of ypertyroidism in te United States. Symptoms of te disease, suc as anxiety, restlessness, irritability, emotional instability, fatigue, muscle weakness or cramps, increased appetite, palpitations and eate intolerance can be accompanied by a quickened eartbeat, atrial fibrillation, tremor, an eye stare or canges in te air. Oter symptoms include increased sweating and bowl movements, sortness of breat on exertion and weigt canges.

(Dwyer)

First…… [Read More]

http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/barbara-bush-mild-relapse-graves-disease-released-houston/story?id=10249550 

3. Fitzgerald, Paul. Graves Disease. 16 December 2003.

Accessed at:  http://www.nytimes.com/2000/06/25/health/your-thyroid-may-be-talking-but-is-the-doctor-listening.html?pagewanted=2
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Drug Synthroid

Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52345470

Synthroid, Drug Profile

SYNTHROID® (levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP) is an important drug, used to treat hypothyroidism. Synthroid has been extensively studied for over 42 years. It is the most widely prescribed thyroid medicine in the United States. Currently, over eight million people are using Synthroid for thyroid replacement therapy. [Abbott, 2001]

Synthetic Levothyroxine (T4 ) is identical in chemical composition and molecular weight to naturally secreted T4. Synthroid tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: acacia, confectioner's sugar, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, talc, and color additives.[Abbott, 2001].

Synthroid is pregnancy category A. Studies have shown that Synthroid increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if given during pregnancy. The possibility of fetal harm does appear to be remote, however, Synthroid should only given during pregnancy if it is clearly needed [Abbott, 2001]. In addition Abbot Laboratories reports that thyroid hormones do cross the placental barrier to some extent. T4 levels in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abbott Laboratories, (2001) Synthroid Product Information. Synthroid,.com. Abbott Park, Illinois Accessed February, 2002 URL: http://www.synthroid.com/

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. (AACE) (1995)clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 1;1995:56-62.

Banahan BF, et al.(1998) Generic substitution of NTI drugs: Issues for Formulary Committee Consideration. Formulary. 33;1998:1082-1096.

BASF Pharmaceuticals.(2002) Synthroid. Drug Manufacturer Information. Found on Commercial website. Drug InfoNet. Com Accessed February, 2002. http://www.druginfonet.com/synthrod.htm
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How and Why Graves Disease Attacts Women Under Forty

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62002473

Graves' Disease

Identify the Disease

Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system that results in too many thyroid hormones being produced, a situation that is called hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormones impact many different body functions, so the " ... signs and symptoms" that are linked to Graves' disease cannot easily be zeroed in on specifically (Mayo Clinic). Anyone can be stricken with Graves' disease but it is far more common among women who haven't reached the age of 40 yet. To summarize, Graves' is actually caused by a "malfunction of disease-fighting immune system," which is, too many thyroid hormones are being produced.

The Mayo Clinic provides a list of signs and symptoms that a person may have Graves' disease. Some of the signs associated with Graves' disease include: being irritable or anxious; a fine tremor in hands or fingers; sensitive to heat and increased perspiration; losing weight though eating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Acton, A.Q. (2013). Graves' Disease: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. Atlanta,

Georgia: ScholarlyEditions.

Bahn, R.S. (2015). Graves' Disease: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians. New York:

Springer.
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Patient's Guide to Epinephrine Injection

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84370481

In addition, epinephrine injection should not be used when women are in the second stages of labor. Furthermore, because the effects of this drug on pregnant women remain unclear, pregnant women should only use epinephrine injection when the risks to the mother outweigh the potential risks to the fetus (product insert).

hat not to do when taking this medication:

Although there are no specific recommendations provided by the manufacturer, patients who use this drug should be aware of the possible side effects and avoid strenuous activities that will cause additional increases in blood pressure or heart rates. Take it easy after using this drug!

In addition, patients should avoid using the same injection site repeatedly since it can adversely affect skin integrity (product insert).

You may experience the following side effects following an injection:

Headaches, fear, and hearts palpitations (these side effects are more common in patients who suffer from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albertine, Kurt H. Anatomica. Willoughby,

NSW: Global Book Publishing Ptd

Ltd.

Barlow, David H. Anxiety and Its Disorders:
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Aspartame Sweet Nothing Food and

Words: 2406 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52247038

, 2006). The evidence reflects only a low level weight loss but is still worthwhile to consider in controlling weight at roughly 0.007 kg per week. It is useful for individual weight loss programs. Losing 0.2 kg per week requires a decrease of 220 kilocalories per day. Achieving a 32% reduction requires a sacrifice of 330 kilocalories a day from sucrose by substituting aspartame. Using aspartame replaces 70 g of sucrose or roughly two cans of soft drinks every day (Hunty et al.). This means less expense.

200 Times Sweeter and Cheaper

On the average, aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (Hu et al., 2008). Not only does it mean less calories but also less cost. The taste difference between them is that the sweetness of aspartame is detected by the taste buds longer than sucrose. This can, however, be resolved by adding acesulfame potassium. Aspartame also has limited…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

FDA (2007). FDA statement on European aspartame study. Office of Food Additive

Safety: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.fda.gove/Food/FoodingredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/ucm200858.htm

Hendrickson, K. (2011). Differences in aspartame and fructose. Live Strong:

Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/278757-differences-in-aspartame-fructose
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Beta Blockers Invented by Sir

Words: 1964 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19181337



1958

After studying the cardiovascular effects of various catecholamines, Moran and his research partner, Perkins, are published in the same journal as Ahlquist arguing "that DCI's activity belonged to Ahlquist's 'beta-adrenergic' type, and coined the term 'beta-adrenergic blocking drug', later shortened to 'beta-blocker'"

1959

Sir James Black joins the cardiovascular team at Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., reads Moran's research and realizes the possibilities of synthesizing an analog to DCI that would be clinically useful.

1959

Black's ICI report contradicts Waring's arguing that the "altered fat metabolism with associated changes in blood coagulability interact, permissively, with sympathetic neurohumoural stress responses to produce fatal damage."

1962

Black synthesizes propranolol (Inderal)

1963

ICI launches Black's first beta blocker treatment -- pronethalol (Alderlin).

1964

The first clinical studies are conducted for the use of proopranolol.

1965

ICI launches propranolol, the replacement for propranolol as it was found to cause thymic tumors in mice.

1966…… [Read More]

References

Altman, L. (2 Feb 1982), New class of drugs revolutionizes therapy for heart disease, [Online], Available: http://www.nytimes.com/1982/02/02/science/new-class-of-drugs-revolutionizes-therap-y-for-heart-disease.html?&pagewanted=print [22/10/09].

Archard, G. (2005), Beta-Blocker Use in CHF Patients: History of CHF Treatments, [Online], Available: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/510212_2 [22/10/09].

Betaxolol, (2008), [Online], Available:  http://www.medicinenet.com/betaxolol/article.htm  [22/10/09].

Bisoprolol, (2008), [Online], Available:  http://www.medicinenet.com/bisoprolol/article.htm  [22/10/09].
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Mental Retardation Is Generally Understood

Words: 2000 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76150564

They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)

6. Conclusion

The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.

My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…… [Read More]

References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm

Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836

Lustig D.C. (1996)

Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825" Journal of Rehabilitation, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n4_v62" Oct-Dec, 1996. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_2_65/ai_54924773/pg_1?tag=artBody;col1

Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.hmc.psu.edu/childrens/healthinfo/m/mentalretardation.htm
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Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
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Psychedelic Therapy Psychedelic or Hallucinogenic

Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95412737

" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).

West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kotler, Steven. Drugs in Rehab. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc., April 2005

Klotter, Jule. End-of-Life and Psychedelic Research. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Group, July 2005

Kurtzweil, Paula. Medical Possibilities for Psychedelic Drugs. FDA Consumer: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995

Luke, David P. And Marrios Kottenis. A Preliminary Survey of Paranormal Experiences with Psychoactive Drugs. Journal of Parapsychology: Parapsychology Press, 2005
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Role of Hormones in the Control of

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7095470

role of hormones in the control of body fuel/energy mechanism has been appreciated for close to a century (Dzamko & Steinberg,2009). This concept was identified by the groundbreaking findings by the scientists, Banting et al. (1922) that the hormone, insulin could effectively restore euglycaemia. This paper seeks to give an in depth understanding of metabolism by definition and gives the various component of metabolism and finally the hormonal influence of metabolism. This paper looks into the various substrates that are influence the hormonal actions in fuel metabolism, circumstances under which they occur and the various pathways followed during these metabolisms (Becker, 2001). The intermediary compounds are also considered to the effect. In conclusion, the paper discuses the medical conditions that would arise once these hormones fail to act.

Metabolism is a biological process that takes place in living organisms throughout their lives, once metabolism stops the individuals automatically dies. A…… [Read More]

References

Banting, F., Best, C., Collip, J., Macleod, J. & Noble, E. (1922). The effects of insulin on experimental hyperglycemia in rabbits. Am J. Physiol 62, 559 -- 580.

Campfield, L.A., Smith, F.J., Guisez, Y., Devos, R. & Burn, P. (1995). Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269, 546 -- 549.

Cusin, I., Sainsbury, A., Doyle, P., Rohmer-Jeanreneaud, F. & Jeanrenaud, B. (1995). The ob gene and insulin: a relationship leading to clues to the understanding of obesity. Diabetes 44,

1467 -- 1470.
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Pigmentation the Problems Relating to Skin Pigment

Words: 2285 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60854652

Pigmentation

The problems relating to skin pigment are associated with symptoms of the skin appearing faded or deeper than the usual or often spotted and blemished. (Skin pigmentation disorders) The unusual skin development and unusual pigmentation of the skin is seen to present at the time of birth or develop at the later stages. (Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders) The skin pigmentation disorders seem to arise over a large number of races and conditions. (Nacinamide Helps to Lighten Skin) Some problems like albinism are considered exceptional phenomenon about a single case arises in every 17000 people. Other cases like age spots are very common. (Skin pigmentation disorders) Irrespective of the fact that it is quite harmless in its effects in most of the cases, however, the growth and pigmentation disorders warrant thorough watching for any other variations that may mark a development of cancerous skin cells. There are several…… [Read More]

References and Annotations Comments on Differential Diagnosis of the Skin Discoloration of Argyria. Retrieved from  http://www.jeghers.com/annts/ARGYRIA1976.html  Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/uvahealth/peds_derm/bengnhub.cfm Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Gray, John. The World of Skin Care. P& G. Skin Care Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pg.com/science/skincare/Skin_tws_16.htm Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Nacinamide Helps to Lighten Skin. Retrieved from  http://www.vitamins-nutrition.org/vitamins-research/vitamin-b3/nacinamide-lighten-skin.html  Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Pigmentation change after skin resurfacing. Retrieved from http://www.phudson.com/SKIN/FAQ/pigment.html Accessed on 8 December, 2004
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Anti-Depressants -- Brain Chemistry the

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69463714

Norepinephrine is usually quickly removed from the synapse and pumped back into the cell that released it in order to turn off and reset the system. By blocking the removal of norepinephrine, tricyclics appear to prolong or intensify norepinephrine's message to the post-synaptic cells.

However, the fundamental biochemical effect of antidepressants on the brain that is responsible for their benefit remains a mystery. It is thought that the change in neuroamine signaling at the synapse caused by anti-depressants "may set off a cascade of events involving second messenger systems that eventually results in the improvement of the symptoms of depression" (Enna, 1991, 187). Unfortunately, how these medications truly operate remains largely unknown.

Another group of anti-depressants is called selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, first introduced in 1988. Unlike the tricyclics, these new anti-depressants have little direct effect on norepinephrine in the brain; instead, they block the re-uptake of serotonin which gives…… [Read More]

References

Davis, Joel. (1984). Endorphins: New Waves in Brain Chemistry. New York: Dial Press.

Dunn, Adrian J. (1989). Functional Chemistry of the Brain. New York: Spectrum Publications.

Enna, J.S., Ed., et al. (1991). Antidepressants: Neurochemical, Behavioral and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Raven Press.

Kendler, K.S., et al. (1992). "Major Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder." Archives of General Psychiatry. 49: 716-22.
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Childhood Depression

Words: 4442 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78449735

Childhood Depression

Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).

Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).

Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).

Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
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Ritalin Indicative of Serious Social

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95009794

The symptoms of ADHD, as described above, may simply be the behavior of a normal child. "Except for a minority of cases involving distinct medical problems such as hyperthyroidism and explicit brain injuries, most youngsters diagnosed with ADHD may simply be normal, highly playful children who have difficulty adjusting to certain institutional expectations." (Panksepp)

Ritalin is used by so many people because it seems to be easier than dealing with the untreated child, or seeking alternative treatment options.

Despite increasingly widespread concern over ADHD medications being given to some children unnecessarily, drugs have unquestionably helped children who truly do have ADHD." (Meyer) The question, however, remains regarding whether or not ADHD can be properly diagnosed at all. Until ADHD was introduced to the public, children with this supposed disorder were only known as "daydreamers," and while these students sometimes had academic trouble, they still functioned in society. Yet children are…… [Read More]

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Eating Disorder Is Characterized by Abnormal Eating

Words: 3326 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38191377

Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…… [Read More]

References

Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820

Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135

Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016

Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
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Congestive Cardiac Failure Mr Ward Is a

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2196173

Congestive Cadiac Failue

M Wad is a 71-yea-old male who epots feeling a non-adiating, "heavy" discomfot in the lowe etostenal and epigastic egion paticulaly when he bends ove o walks shot distances. He also epots a futhe 7 days of dyspnoea duing modeate exetion. On examination his blood pessue was 165/95 mm HG, pulse 90 -100 bpm, espiatoy ate of 24 with inspiatoy cackles at both lung bases.

The following blood tests whee odeed: a full blood count (FBC), Uea Electolytes and Ceatinine (UEC), Live Function Tests (LFT), CK and Toponin. All esults wee within nomal limits.

An Ateial Blood Gas was also collected esulting in: pH [HIDDEN], pCO2 38.7mmHg, PO2 69.8mmHg, HCO3 24.0mmol/L, BE -0.7mmol/L and O2 SAT 89.3%

M Wad also has an ECG that showed nomal sinus hythm, and a chest x-ay showing cadiac enlagement and lowe-lobe infiltates, suggesting the pesence of acute exacebation of congestive cadiac…… [Read More]

references http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what_causes_congestive_heart_failure_000013_2.htm

http://www.medicinenet.com/congestive_heart_failure/page4.htm

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/services/tests/labtests/bnp.aspx http://www.lef.org/protocols/heart_circulatory/congestive_heart_failure_05.htm

http://www.heartfailure.org/eng_site/hf_signsympt.asp http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1228&context=hsm_pubs

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/examinations/ecg.htm
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Medical Assessment Initial Patient Analysis Chief Complaint

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71592150

Medical Assessment

Initial Patient Analysis

Chief Complaint

Discomfort in lower back.

HPI

Patient is a 78-year-old woman presented as disheveled, with bug bites throughout her body, and exuding a foul odor. Cognitively, she orients only to her name with a BMI of 30 and a minimal understanding of the English language. She is able to nod "yes" or "no" to questions, but calls the nurse "Mother." She is unsteady on her feet, and has a fine "pill-rolling "tremor in her left hand. He legs are quite cool to the touch, hairless, and toe capillary refill is greater than 2 seconds.

Past Medical History

Unknown, but patient appears to be in distress both physically and psychologically.

OBJECTIVE

General App.

Poor, disheveled, may not be receiving adequate care or living in an environment with enough food or warmth. BMI of 30 is technically obese, which also may indicate the patient is not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hypoglycemia. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved from:  http://symptoms.webmd.com/#./conditionView 

Michael, K. And Shaughnessy, M. (2006). Stroke Prevention and Management in Older

Adults. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 21 (55): 521-26.

Mohr, J., et al. (2004). Stroke: Pathopshyciology, Diagnosis and Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone.
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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://121.52.154.227/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
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Obesity and Health Structural Plan for Older Adults

Words: 3452 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14164409

Optimal Health and Obesity for Older Adults

In older adults, obesity can aggravate physical function deterioration that comes with age, and result in frailty. However, appropriate obesity treatment in older adults is controversial, owing to decrease of corresponding health risks in relation to increased body mass index (MI) and concerns that loss of weight could potentially have harmful impacts on older individuals. Thus, it is especially vital to take into account therapies for weight loss, and alter one's lifestyle to nutritious food for improving obese older adults' physical function, as well as potentially improving or preventing medical complications linked to obesity. Health promotion strategy at individual and societal levels would enable older adults to adopt a changed and positive lifestyle, in addition to creating awareness among individuals of different age groups to urge older persons to keep up a healthy, nutritional lifestyle.

Introduction

At present, 7% of global population is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Corzine, J., & Jacobs, F. (2006). The New Jersey Obesity Prevention Action Plan. New Jersey:

The Department of Health and Senior Services. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/documents/obesity_prevention.pdf 

Feeney, M.J. (2010). Optimal Health Throughout the Life Span. Health Connections, 1.
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Analyzing Odyssey Dante Frankenstein

Words: 3056 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95647040

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

References

Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/

Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at  http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf 

Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential

Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at: http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
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Dealing With an Under Active Thyroid

Words: 1978 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30054161

Hypothyroidism is a fairly common disorder that patients are diagnosed with and it can have wide ranging effects. While hyperthyroidism is when the thyroid is excreting too much into the bloodstream, hypothyroidism is the opposite. If untreated, the effects on the body are numerous and substantial with the most prominent affected area being the body's metabolism rate and quality. Even with these risks, there is absolutely treatment available for the disorder once it is identified with certainty. This report will cover, after a more detailed description of hypothyroidism, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods that are used to address the disorder.

As indicated in the introduction, the main effect that hypothyroidism has on the human body is a slower and more sluggish metabolism. However, to say it is just that is less than accurate. As described by WebMD, the thyroid is in charge on controlling how one's body uses energy from…… [Read More]

References

Corriher, S. (2013). How to Cure Hypothyroidism Naturally. Healthwyze.

Mayo. (2016). Treatment - Hypothyroidism - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 7 June

2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20155362

MBG. (2011). 13 Ways to Treat Hypothyroidism Naturally. mindbodygreen. Retrieved 7 June
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A Case Study Involving Hypertension

Words: 2259 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88793127

Hypertension

Essential hypertension or primary hypertension is a highly complex disorder. There are various factors modulating BP or blood pressure in order for adequate tissue perfusion to occur. These include:

Vascular reactivity

Vascular caliber

Humoral mediators

Circulating blood volume

Blood viscosity

Blood vessel elasticity

Cardiac output

Neural stimulation

History of high blood pressure in family

Ethnic background

Aside from these factors, the natural course of primary hypertension is progression from infrequent or occasional to established or frequent hypertension. There is a long, asymptomatic, and invariable period when the persistent hypertension then progresses into complicated hypertension. This means there will be target organ damage to the small arteries and aorta, retina, heart, kidneys, and central nervous system.

The journey to primary hypertension begins with prehypertension from ages 10-30 years. The transition to early hypertension occurs from ages 20-40 years. During this phase peripheral resistance is noticeable. After this stage is established…… [Read More]

References

Bolivar, J. (2013). Essential Hypertension: An Approach to Its Etiology and Neurogenic Pathophysiology. International Journal Of Hypertension, 2013, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/547809

MacGregor, G., & Kaplan, N. (2010). Hypertension. Abingdon: Health Press.

Mayo Clinic,. (2016). Overview - Creatinine test - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 29 February 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/creatinine-test/home/ovc-20179389

Podzolkov, A., & Fadeyev, V. (2009). Hypothyroidism, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, High-normal TSH-level. Clinical And Experimental Thyroidology, 5(2), 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.14341/ket2009524-16
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Analyzing Depression in Adolescent

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45960897

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

References

Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/

Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at  http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf 

Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential

Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at: http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
View Full Essay

role of autoimmunity in three endocrine disorders

Words: 1330 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42809379

ole of Autoimmunity in Three Endocrine Disorders

A number of endocrine illnesses are immune mediated and can now be reliably predicted. Autoimmune disorders can occur in a person and people related to them. Families with history of autoimmunity, and has had antibody screening done, becomes aware of those that carry such risk. Knowing the prevalence of such disorders and the diseases associated with them can help in early diagnosis and prevent them from becoming more serious. Autoimmunity affects several glands in the body. Studies reveal that alleles are very important in the determination of tissue-specific targeting (Aaron W. Michels & George S. Eisenbarth, 2010).

The Process of Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity is necessary for the body to maintain its health by countering effects of external virulent and organic attacks. It involves regulatory networks that provide the body with immunity against infection. It has not yet been determined why instances arise where autoimmunity…… [Read More]

References

Aaron W. Michels, & George S. Eisenbarth. (2010). Immunologic Endocrine Disorders. Journal of Allergy, Clinical Immunology, 225-237.

Aleksandra Krzewska, & Iwona Ben-Skowronek. (2016). Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents. Biomed Research International.

Heves Kirmizibekmez, Rahime Gul Yesiltepe Mutlu, Nafiye Demirkiran Urganci, & Ayse Oner. (2015). Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Kirmizibekmez H, Yesiltepe Mutlu RG, Demirkiran Urganci N, Oner A. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2015;7(1):80-82. doi:10.4274/jcrpe.1394., 80-82.

Kohei KAKU. (2010). Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and its Treatment Policy. Japan Medical Association Journal, 41-46.