Immune System Essays (Examples)

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Immune Biopsychology Interactions of the

Words: 4188 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47766172



An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.

The…… [Read More]

References

Buske-Kirschbaum, a. (2009). "Cortisol Responses to Stress in Allergic Children: Interaction with the Immune Response." Neuroimmunomodulation 16, pp. 325-32.

Coe, C. & Laudenslager, M. (2007). "Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence." Brain, behavior, and immunity 21(8), pp. 1000-8.

Dugdale, D. (2008). "Immune response -- overview." University of Maryland medical center. Accessed 22 May 2010. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000821.htm

Dunigan, J.; Carr, B. & Steel, J. (2007). "Posttraumatic Growth, Immunity and Survival in Patients with Hepatoma." Digestive diseases and sciences 52(9), pp. 2452-9.
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Immune Boosting Therapies for RA Patients

Words: 2111 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23041738

Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis

THERAPIES/TREATENTS TO HELP THE IUNE SYSTE OF An 18-55 PATIENT DIAGNOSED WITH RHEUATOID ARTHRITIS

Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Annotated Bibliography

Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.

Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…… [Read More]

Michael Schiff, Michael E. Weinblatt, Robert Valente, Desiree van der Heijde, Gustavo Citera, Ayanbola Elegbe, Michael Maldonado, Roy Fleischmann. (2013). Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two- year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Clinical and epidemiological research Journal. 2013-203843v1, Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013- 203843

Ritika Khandpur1, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera1, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Alison Gizinski1, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Jason S. Knight, Sean Friday, Sam Li, Rajiv M. Patel, Venkataraman Subramanian, Paul Thompson, Pojen Chen, David A. Fox1, Subramaniam Pennathur and Mariana J. Kaplan. (2013). NETs Are a Source of Citrullinated Autoantigens and Stimulate Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science Translational Medicine Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 178, pp. 178ra40, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005580

Scott, D. L. (2012). Biologics-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Journal, Vol. 91 No.1 January 2012. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.278
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Immune Responses

Words: 519 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25828996

IgE

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is an antibody that helps in regulating the destruction of harmful cells and antigens within the human body. If a 4-year-old patient is being prescribed this medication it is intended to help in decreasing the brutal symptoms of asthma and other ailments such as rhinitis.

IgE is one of the several kinds of immunoglobulin's, also known as antibodies, that is contained within the human immune system. IgE's encounter the allergen, or virus within the body and are programmed to destroy it. This process is completed by the IgE antibodies when they signal the basophile or mast cells to release a histamine or other damaging chemical to the invading antibody. In the war to provide immunity to the body IgE is a main weapon that can neutralize those pathogens that are consistent with an asthma patient.

Each type of IgE has a specific code or mission that…… [Read More]

References

Ritter, C., Battig, M., Kraemer, R., & Stadler, B.M. (1991). IgE hidden in immune complexes with anti-IgE autoantibodies in children with asthma. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 88(5), 793-801.

Seeger, M., Thierse, H.J., Lange, H., Shaw, L., Hansen, H., & Lemke, H. (1998). Antigen-independent suppression of the IgE immune response to bee venom phospholipase A2 by maternally derived monoclonal IgG antibodies. European journal of immunology, 28(7), 2124-2130.
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Immune Elephant Experience and Reaction Different Views

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87657766

Immune Elephant

Experience and Reaction: Different Views on the Physiology and Psychology of the Negative

There are many different explanations for the way in which thoughts are formed, impressions are made, and perceptions are shaped, and though the modern era has provided an abundance of objective observation and experimentation in the area this has not settled the issue. Far from it, in fact; if anything, the growth of reliable research and evidence in this area has contributed to a divergence of theories that, at least in some aspects, currently appear to be mutually exclusive. The theories of psychologists and neuroscientists at times seem especially opposed to each other, and it will require deeper investigations and the uncovering of more substantial evidence to truly bring many of these well-founded theories in line with each other.

An excellent case in point of the apparent divergence of psychology and neuroscience when it comes…… [Read More]

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Whey Protein and the Immune

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88694493



Whey protein includes a range of fractions such as alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin and the minor fractions such as lactoferrin and serum proteins. These fractions are established immuneenhancing components" ("Whey and HIV / AIDS").

In addition, recent research has shown that whey protein has a rich concentration of cysteine, which boosts glutathione (GSH) production. "GSH is an anti-oxidant required for a healthy immune system" ("Benefits of Whey").

The concentration of GSH regulates the body's antioxidant and immune defense system. Other protein sources simply do not have the ability to boost GSH production, as whey protein does. It is this GSH production boost that optimizes many aspects of the immune function. An abundance of cysteine to the liver, through the consumption of whey protein, will boost muscle glutamine production and help maintain immune competence ("Whey and HIV / AIDS").

In the end, proteins are a necessary building block of life. Without protein,…… [Read More]

References

Benefits of Whey Proteins. 2001. Whey Protein Institute. December 12, 2006 http://www.wheyoflife.org/benefits.cfm.

Oshman, D. & Oshman, P. "Fit & Well: Protein has Big Role in Fitness." Maryland Gazette 8 Dec. 2004: p. C5, ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com.

Whey and HIV / AIDS." Dairy Field 189(1) Jan 2006: p. 48, ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 12, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com.

Whey Protein. 26 Nov. 2006. Wikipedia.org. December 12, 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whey_protein.
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Tissue Maturation Body System Effects

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40406059

e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm

Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm

Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.

Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
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Lymphatic System Is a Sub-System of the

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43064359

Lymphatic system is a sub-system of the circulatory system. It contains a network of nodes, or vessels and filters, which remove toxins from the body. The role of the lymphatic system in the homeostasis of the body is that it serves as the primary drainage for all of the body's other systems, removing all toxins and excess fluids. It is a major defense against disease and also helps carry nutrients throughout the body.

The lymphatic system does not circulate blood. Lymph is its primary fluid and is formed from fluids surround cells throughout the body and passed into lymph vessels. If this fluid were not removed or filtered, the result would be toxins accumulating in the body. This would create swelling and also prevent the body from fighting against infection and disease.

Disorders or complications originated in the lymphatic system create serious illness in the body. This is because this…… [Read More]

References

Brown, P. (2005). Lymphatic system: Unlocking the drains. Nature, 436(7050), 456-458. doi:10.1038/436456a.
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Skeletal System Purpose and Functions

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41575906

Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).

Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html

Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL

Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf

ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
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Endocrine System in the Human

Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57127349

Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)

eferences

Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to equire Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic…… [Read More]

References

Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to Require Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic Substances Control Act? Environmental Law, 30(2), 413.
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Information Technology IT Security Systems

Words: 3128 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51446477

Computer Security Systems

The report provides new security tools and techniques that computer and IT (Information Technology) professionals, network security specialists, individuals, corporate and public organizations can employ to enhance security of their computer and information systems. In the fast paced IT environment, new threats appear daily that make many organizations to lose data and information that worth billions of dollars. In essence, the computer and IT security professionals are required to develop new computer and IT security tools and techniques to protect their information resources.

The present age of universal computer connectivity has offered both opportunities and threats for corporate organizations Typically, since corporate and public organizations rely on computer and network systems to achieve their business objectives, they also face inherent risks which include electronic fraud, eavesdropping, virus attack and hacking. In essence, some hackers use malicious software with an intention to gain access to corporate computer systems…… [Read More]

Reference

Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009. Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.

Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.

Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.

Osterhage, W. (2011). Wireless Security. UK, Science Publishers.
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Main Systems of Human Body

Words: 3828 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37436002

The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.

The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…… [Read More]

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Why the Lymphatic System Is Not Present in Certain Organs

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73475658

network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes in the human body termed the lymphatic system that is an important component of the immune system (Lymph system, 2015). The lymphatic network collects waste materials, fluid, and pathogens such as bacteria and viruses in the body and carries lymph, a clear watery fluid that contains white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections (Lymph system, 2015). To gain some additional insights into its purpose and operation, this paper provides an explanation concerning why the lymphatic system is not found in some parts of the body and describes what areas have no lymph or lymphatic vessels. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

In 1652, the Danish physician Thomas Bartholin (1616 -- 1680) published a description of the human thoracic duct, noting that these lacteal vessels created another bodily circulatory…… [Read More]

References

Cavendish, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of life sciences. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish.

Lymph system. (2015). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.

org/cancer/cancerbasics/lymph-nodes-and-cancer.

Lymphatic system. (2015). Virtual Medical Center. Retrieved from http://www.myvmc.com / medical-centres/cancer/lymphatic-system/.
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System the Overall Objective of

Words: 2297 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60502302

But argument and criticism carried on across the boundaries of two or more different sets of fundamental assumptions may not intersect sufficiently for discourse to be productive, or even meaningful. Systematic improvement of intellectual performance, justification and criticism of knowledge claims, must proceed from a foundation of known, though not necessarily shared, basic assumptions. Conclusions are inseparable from the assumptions and reasoning on which they depend.

Further, even if agreement is reached with respect to the overarching purpose of inquiry, disagreement about the more limited purposes assumed to be necessary prerequisites to the achievement of that overall purpose remains possible or even likely. In the present volume, for example, the normative purpose of inquiry, the purpose to be achieved or fulfilled by directing human actions in a business setting, is taken to be the maintenance and improvement of the conditions of life of some human population. Those who agree on…… [Read More]

References

Ascher William. Forecasting: An Appraisal for Policy-Makers and Planners. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Burk Arthur W. Choice, Causes, Reasons. University of Chicago Press, 1979.

Business - Ethics
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Evidence-Based Practice

Words: 1524 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6937497

SYSTEMS THEOY vs. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEOY

EVIDENCED-BASED PACTICE

Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory

Systems theory and healthcare delivery in the U.S.

According to theorist Ludwig von Bertalanffy, it is essential to view organisms -- both living and man-made -- as functional systems in a holistic sense to understand their true nature. This principle is manifested in the human body and also the organizations which provide healthcare. "A complex adaptive system is a collection of individual agents with freedom to act in ways that are not always totally predictable, and whose actions are interconnected so that one agent's actions changes the context for other agents. Examples include the immune system, a colony of termites, the financial market, and just about any collection of humans (for example, a family, a committee, or a primary healthcare team)" (Plsek & Greenhalgh 2001: 625).

Complex systems, such as the healthcare delivery system,…… [Read More]

References

Bryant, R. (2010). Extending the reach of nursing knowledge and innovation. Nursing and Health Policy Perspectives. International Nursing Review, 57(4), 406.

Retrieved from CINAL at doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2010.00864.x

Fitzgerald, L. (2002 et al.). Interlocking interactions, the diffusion of innovations in health care.

Human Relations 55(12) 1429-1449. Retrieved from Google Scholar:
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Legal Justice Information Systems Integration

Words: 2569 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70165819

For instance, in the eyes of the courts, an offense's level could be equated to the guideline for the seriousness of a crime. The next aspect of the scorecard was the offender's personal or associative criminal history. Prior offenses dictated a level of conviction frequencies and social offenses. Therefore the personal criminal history of an individual ends up playing a major role in the sentencing guidelines. A person's propensity to repeat offences entails longer sentences. The person that had a history of repeat offenses offered a greater threat and therefore was often thought to be more dangerous to society. but, how does the justice system maintain a culprit's history without an ability to utilize integrated processes?

This is a prime example of where justice information systems integration could have far reaching implications. In regard to sentencing, first time offenders in one community may not have been labeled as serial offenders…… [Read More]

References

Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices in Network Security -- as the Networking Landscape Changes, So Must the Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid of Imperfection When it Comes to Developing Those for Your Group. Network Computing.

Capital Punishment in U.S. Hit 30-Year Low in 2003. Ed. All American Patriots. (March 1, 2005). Retrieved on April 21, 2005, from All American Patriots at http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-6869-PHPSESSID-c7528df1df14be6397da4e89e25a7374.html.

Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at  http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview 

Holmes, Amir., Webster, Lawrence P., & Sullivan, Teri (2004). JIEM Reference Model. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.search.org/integration/JRM1.0.1.pdf
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British Parliamentary System of Government With the

Words: 2576 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48035361

British Parliamentary System of Government with the United States Federal System of Government

The British Parliamentary system of government is one of the oldest political systems in the world that has evolved over a period of centuries. The British model has influenced the system of governments in many countries of the world including the United States. On the other hand, the U.S. system of government is a Federal system that came into existence when the United States (the former American colonies) rebelled against British rule and declared its independence in the latter part of the eighteenth century, followed by the adoption of its own constitution in 1787. Although having some similarities with the British System of government, the U.S. system of government is unique in several aspects, having its own characteristics. In this paper we shall look at some key features of the two systems of government and compare and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Jean H. "The United States Government." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003. CD-ROM Version

The British Constitution -- an Introduction." April 22, 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/british_constitution1.htm

The British Parliamentary System." BBC Web Site. 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/classic/A591383

Judicial Independence" April 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/judicial_independence.htm
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Hacker Mitigation and Culture in the International Systems

Words: 2409 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87369052

Hacker Culture and Mitigation in the International Systems

The explosion of the internet technology in the contemporary business and IT environments has assisted more than 300 million computer users to be connected through a maze of internet networks. Moreover, the network connectivity has facilitated the speed of communication among businesses and individuals. (Hampton, 2012). Despite the benefits associated with the internet and network technologies, the new technologies have opened the chance for hackers to attack the information systems of business organizations and collect sensitive information worth millions of dollars. Each year, businesses have been a victim of cyber-attacks in the United States. As an increasing number of people and businesses own internet-enabled devices, more businesses have become a victim of cyber-attacks, which has become a critical concern in the business and governmental environments. (Hacker news, n.d.).

The objective of this paper is to analyze the cyber incidents of the Sony…… [Read More]

Reference

Atkinson, S (2015). Psychology and the hacker - Psychological Incident Handling. Sans Institute.

Christopher, A. & Vasili, M. (2006). The KGB and the World: The Mitrokhin Archive II. Penguin. 41: 120-1.

FBI (2014). Update on Sony Investigation. Federal Bureau of Investigation. USA.

Fotinger, C.S. & Ziegler, W.(2004). Understanding a hacker's mind -- A psychological insight into the hijacking of identities. Donau-Universitat Krems. Commissioned by RSA Security.
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American Education System Has Come

Words: 2427 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20980145

Teachers should feel the pressure when their students do not succeed while opponents argue that placing such pressure on teachers just adds to the problem and makes success just that more difficult and unlikely.

Even the most ardent opponents to standardized testing among the teaching profession would likely argue that the demand for accountability is a legitimate one. Every profession needs to establish its credibility among the public and teachers should not be immune from this process, however, what has been lost in the process of trying to make teachers accountable is the value of what can be learned beyond the preparation for the standardized test. There is a necessity and value in establishing accountability but the method of using the standardized test to do so must be questioned.

When the use of standardized testing first came into vogue throughout the U.S. The goal was to establish a procedure for…… [Read More]

References

Herman, J.L. (1993). The Effects of Standardized Testing in Teaching and Schools. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20-25.

Linn, R.L. (2001). A Century of Standardized Testing: Controversies and Pendulum Swings. Educational Assessment, 29-38.

McGuinn, P.J. (2006). The Early Federal Role in Education (to 1988) - ESEA and the Equity Regime. In P.J. McGuinn, No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005 (pp. 25-50). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

McNeil, L.M. (2007). Contradictions of School Reform: Educational Costs of Standardized Testing. New York: Taylor & Francis.
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Financial System Reforms Over the

Words: 10927 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77379478



3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets

ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…… [Read More]

Bibliography

2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].

Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].

Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: [29 March 2010].

Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
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Ems System in King County

Words: 5883 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83973579

King County, WAshignton

Emergency Medical Service (EMS)

"Measure and improve" is the motto that drives King County EMS

Demographics of the System

King County, Washington - Overview

Service Area

Population Density

Economic Indicators from Census Data

Structural Attributes of the EMS System

Geographic Scope

Standard Setting and Enforcement

Division of Functions

Market Allocation

Failure to Perform -- Consequences

Business Structure

Management Level

King County EMS System Outputs

Prevention and Early Dectection

Bystander Action and System Access

911 Call Taking

First esponse Dispatch and Services

Ambulance Services

eceiving Facility Interface

Medical Oversight

HallMarks of HPEMS

Accountability

Independent Oversight

Accounting of Service Costs

System Features that Ensure Economic Efficiency

System Features that Ensure Long-Term High Performance

King County EMS Performance Measures

Clinical Level 22

Esponse Time STandard 22

Cost Per Transport 25

Cost Per Unit Hour 25

Unit Hour Utilization 26

System Cost Per-Capita 26

Subsidy Per-Captia 26

Conclusion 27

eferences 29…… [Read More]

References

Anderstone, B. (2014, January 21). Seattle as liberal bastion? Think again. . Retrieved from Crosscut: http://crosscut.com/2014/01/political-heat-map-shows-seattle-not-liberal/

Bissel, R., Eslinger, D., & Zimmerman, L. (1998). The Efficacy of Advanced Life Support: A Review of the Literature. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 69-79.

Blackwell, T., & Kaufman, J. (2002). Response Time Effectiveness: Comparison of Response Time and Survival in an Urban Emergency Medical Services System. Clinical Practice, 288-295.

Chapter 5. (n.d.). Becoming Responsive by Building Long-Term Customer Relationships. In Relevance Regained.
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Ems System in King County

Words: 2241 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73968169

King County, WAshignton

Emergency Medical Service (EMS)

Demographics of the System

King County, Washington

Service Area

Population Density

Economic Indicators from Census Data

Structural Attributes of the EMS System

Geographic Scope

Standard Setting and Enforcement

Division of Functions

Market Allocation

Failure to Perform -- Consequences

Business Structure

Management Level

Demographics of the System

King County, Washington

King County, Washington is the most populace county in the state of Washington as well as in the top 15 most populated counties in the United States (13th). The county has a total land area of 2,307 square miles with slight over eight percent of this area being water (United States Census Bureau, 2015). The area is known for being a center for liberal politics and Seattle is one of the most liberal cities in the country and has elected socialist councilmembers, gay mayors, endorsed the "War on Christmas," has strongly supported environmental movements,…… [Read More]

References

Anderstone, B. (2014, January 21). Seattle as liberal bastion? Think again. . Retrieved from Crosscut: http://crosscut.com/2014/01/political-heat-map-shows-seattle-not-liberal/

Duke, M. (2012, October 27). Population-Weighted Density: How Seattle Stacks Up. Retrieved from Seattle Transit: http://seattletransitblog.com/2012/10/27/population-weighted-density-how-seattle-stacks-up/

King County. (2013, June 5). King County's Changing Demographics. Retrieved from King County: http://www.kingcounty.gov/~/media/exec/PSB/documents/AGR/KingCountyDemographics2012.ashx?la=en

Pubic Health - Seattle and King County. (2013, April 10). Medic One/Emergency Medical Services. Retrieved from 2014-2019 Strategic Plan.
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Critical Updates for IT Systems

Words: 4083 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90847460

Compliance Patch Level

The author of this report has been tasked with discussing the overall subject of patch compliance level. Indeed, the pros and cons of using the patch compliance level framework will be assessed. There will also be an assessment of several critical things such as the patch compliance level of a given patch, what level of patch compliance is safe and what needs to be considered when evaluating the current patch compliance level. Patching is very much a security-related matter and helps both system and network administrators to keep their systems completely up-to-date and as safe as possible from vulnerabilities and hacking attacks. Not applying and installing needed patches to software such as operating systems, firmware, device drivers, databases and so forth can leave an enterprise information technology environment susceptible to attack. While the deployment of patches should be planned and deployed carefully, it is very important to…… [Read More]

References

Blue, V. (2015). New report: DHS is a mess of cybersecurity incompetence -- ZDNet. ZDNet.

Retrieved 21 October 2015, from http://www.zdnet.com/article/new-report-the-dhs-is-a-mess-of-cybersecurity-incompetence/

Chan, J. (2015). Patchmanagement.org. Retrieved 16 October 2015, from http://www.patchmanagement.org/pmessentials.asp

Codenomicon. (2015). Heartbleed Bug. Heartbleed.com. Retrieved 21 October 2015, from http://heartbleed.com/
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Ems System in King County

Words: 2371 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42174822

King County, WAshignton

Demographics of the System

King County, Washington

Service Area

Population Density

Economic Indicators from Census Data

Structural Attributes of the EMS System

Geographic Scope

Standard Setting and Enforcement

Division of Functions

Market Allocation

Failure to Perform -- Consequences

Business Structure

Management Level

Demographics of the System

King County, Washington

King County, Washington is the most populace county in the state of Washington as well as in the top 15 most populated counties in the United States (13th). The county has a total land area of 2,307 square miles with slight over eight percent of this area being water (United States Census Bureau, 2015). The area is known for being a center for liberal politics and Seattle is one of the most liberal cities in the country and has elected socialist councilmembers, gay mayors, endorsed the "War on Christmas," has strongly supported environmental movements, and is among the…… [Read More]

References

Anderstone, B. (2014, January 21). Seattle as liberal bastion? Think again. . Retrieved from Crosscut: http://crosscut.com/2014/01/political-heat-map-shows-seattle-not-liberal/

Duke, M. (2012, October 27). Population-Weighted Density: How Seattle Stacks Up. Retrieved from Seattle Transit: http://seattletransitblog.com/2012/10/27/population-weighted-density-how-seattle-stacks-up/

King County. (2013, June 5). King County's Changing Demographics. Retrieved from King County: http://www.kingcounty.gov/~/media/exec/PSB/documents/AGR/KingCountyDemographics2012.ashx?la=en

Pubic Health - Seattle and King County. (2013, April 10). Medic One/Emergency Medical Services. Retrieved from 2014-2019 Strategic Plan.
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Ideal Performance Management System

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3031138

Performance Management and Performance Appraisal eport:

Military

As a member of the U.S. military, my organization's current performance management and performance appraisal system is driven by very unique needs. It is in many ways highly bureaucratic and standardized. This is so that the requirements of the organization vs. The personal and subjective responses of supervisors define the ratings process. It also has specific mechanisms for the mentorship of soldiers advancing through the system. Although there are certain aspects to the Army's performance management approach which are quite specialized and specific, I believe that any organization, including private for-profit enterprises, could learn from its philosophy. Its strong emphasis on mentorship and performance feedback minimize frustration with criticism and the candidate's sense of being unfairly judged. The process is on one hand uniform in terms of the benchmarks to which candidates are held but on the other hand, the coaching and individualized…… [Read More]

References

Aguinis, H. (2013). Performance management (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Aguinis, H., Joo, H., Gottfredson, R. (2011). Why we hate performance management -- and why we should love it. Business Horizons, 54, 503 -- 507
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]

References

Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
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B And T Lymphocytes the Biology of

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69729583

B and T. Lymphocytes

The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them

The Biology of B. Lymphocytes

B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…… [Read More]

References

Austyn, J., M. And Wood, J., K. (1994). Principles of Cellular and Molecular Immunology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Beltman, J., B., Maree, A. & Boer, R. (2007), Spatial modelling of brief and long interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, Australian Society for Immunology, Pp. 1-9, Retrieved October 14, 2012.

House, B., R. & Descotes, J. (2010), Cytokines in Human Health: Immunotoxicology, Pathology,

and Therapeutic Applications (Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology), New
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Programs for Children in the

Words: 3771 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16676278

However, from 2008 the number began to decrease slightly. The rate of increase in the number of children aging out of the United States foster care system from 1998 to 2007 is 71.7%. Whereas the rate declined by 0.71% in the year 2008. In the year 2009, there was again a decline of 0.33%. In the year 2010, the number of children aging out of foster care system declined by 5.4%. It can be concluded from the above figure that there was a significant increase in the number of children aging out of foster care system from the year 1998 to 2007. Whereas, this number started declining from the year 2008 and it is still following a declining trend. (McCoy-oth, DeVoogh & Fletcher, 2011)

Challenges Faced by the youth aging out of Foster Care System

Children who age out of the foster care system generally face many problems in relation…… [Read More]

References

Browne, K. Save the Children, (2009). The risk of harm to young children in institutional care. Retrieved from Save the Children website: http://www.crin.org/docs/The_Risk_of_Harm.pdf

Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Foster care statistics 2010. Retrieved from Children's Bureau website: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/foster.pdf

Gardner, D. National Association of Counties (NACo), (2008). Youth aging out of foster care identifying strategies and best practices. Retrieved from National Association of Counties (NACo) website: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/ca/YouthAgingoutofFoster.pdf

Hancock, B.R. FaithBridge Foster Care, (2009).Changing foster care in America: From crisis to community. Retrieved from FaithBridge Foster Care website: http://www.faithbridgefostercare.org/media/1210/faithbridge_white_paper_042009.pdf
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Immunology Toll Like Receptors

Words: 1635 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78389438

Immunology - Toll-Like receptors

The family of Toll-like eceptors has gained in importance since the discovery that they could be potential regulators and controllers of the immune response system in the human body as they are capable of recognizing the molecular patterns that are associated with pathogens. It was found that Toll-like eceptors are capable of recognizing endogenous ligands, as well as microbial components and those Toll-like receptors are activated by small-molecular-mass synthetic compounds and for these reasons the Toll-like eceptors are significant in that they are potential targets for the development of new therapies for several diseases. (Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets for multiple diseases)

Toll eceptors were first found in an insect, the fruit fly Drosophila and these receptors were found to play a significant part in the innate immunity by the recognization of microbial particles and also by triggering the immune cells against the source of…… [Read More]

References

Cohen J; Hopkins P. (April 6, 2002) "Toll-like receptors: the key to the stable door?" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=PubMed& list_uids=11983029& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 12/20/2004

Imler, Jean-Luc; Zheng Liangbiao. "Biology of Toll receptors: lessons from insects and mammals" Retrieved from http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/1/18 Accessed on 12/20/2004

Lin-fu Zhou; Kai-sheng Yin "Toll-like receptors: function and roles in asthma." Retrieved from http://www.cmj.org/information/full.asp?id=1817 Accessed on 12/20/2004

"Multidisciplinary UI Team Awarded Grant to Study Innate Immune System" (November 24, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.uihealthcare.com/news/news/2003/11/24microbes.html Accessed on 12/20/2004
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Biology There Are Several Possible

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94676250

The blood with the IgG must be effectively removed from the body, or reduced to levels that will not allow the cells to be a danger to the infant. If caught early enough, plasma transfers for the mother can result in enough of a reduction of IgG levels to forestall the effects to the fetus.

8)

Autoimmune diseases occur when, for a variety of reasons, the body responds to its own cells as though they were dangerous foreign cells. In this way they are similar to an allergic response; an unrecognized but harmless entity is viciously attacked by the body in an attempt to destroy the perceived intruder. This is annoying (and possibly deadly) when it comes to allergies, and far more so when the body essentially becomes allergic to itself.

Though the reasons behind the onset of Type I diabetes are still not fully understood, the disease occurs when…… [Read More]

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HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Is a

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77149589

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system causing the individual to be at risk for opportunity infections, or infections that come about because the immune system is weak. It is a slow progressive disease that is present throughout the body. Humans can get infected with HIV through contact with tissues, such as vaginal, anal area, mouth, eyes, or a break in the skin, such as a wound. It is diagnosed with blood tests and treated with a combination of drug therapies. There has been no cure found for HIV, so the person ends up dying from the virus in the long run.

The most common way HIV is spread is through sexual contact, needle sharing, and transmission from an infected mother to a baby through pregnancy, labor, or breastfeeding. It is spread by body secretions of an infected person to tissues of another person.…… [Read More]

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Stress Response Associated With Cardiac Bypass Surgery and Anesthesia Concerns

Words: 2550 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88266403

Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique

Cardiac surgery by nature elicits a powerful stress response resulting from activation of stress hormones including epinephrine, norpinephine and cortisol hormones among others. Surgical trauma and blood loss may contribute to this stress response. Some surgeons have suggested that cardio pulmonary bypass surgery in and of itself activates an inflammatory response that results in a stress reaction.

The role of the anesthesiologist in cardiac surgery is to as much extent as possible, to reduce the stress response that results form cardiac surgery. Stress response can be mitigated by a variety of anesthetic technique, including use of opioids and epidural anesthesia. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.

Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique

INTRODUCTION stress response may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cook, Richard I. "Adapting to New Technology in the Operating Room." Human Factors, Vol. 38, 1996.

Cook, R.I., Woods, D.D., Howie, M.B., Horrow, J.C. & Gaba, D.M. (1992). "Unintentional delivery of vasoactive drugs with an electromechanical infusion device." Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 6, 238-244.

Cuschieri, R.J., Morran, C.G., Howie, J.C., & McArdle, C.S. (1985). "Postoperative pain a dpulmonary complications: comparison of three analgesic regimens." British Journal of Surgery, 72, 495-499.

Glaser, J., Kiecolt-Glaser, MacCallum P., Marucha, P., & Page, G. "Psychological Influences on Surgical Recovery: Perspectives from Psychoneuroimmunology." American Psychologists, Vol. 53, 1998.
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Autoimmune Disorders Maladaptive Responses to

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74622935

"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease" (IBD, 2013, CDC). Ulcerative colitis affects the large colon; Crohn's usually affects the small colon and the beginning portion of the large colon. egardless in both manifestations of IBD, the body attacks the cells of the intestine, mistaking 'good' things like food and bacteria for dangerous invaders and thus causing chronic inflammation.

The effects of IBD can be extremely severe because of the nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and subsequent weight loss and malnutrition that they cause. Crohn's is particularly dangerous because it can cause intestinal blockage from severe swelling and scaring. Ulcers can cause fistulas which become infected. Unlike lupus, both forms of IBD can be treated with surgery as well as various anti-inflammatory drugs.…… [Read More]

References

Systemic Lupus Erythematous (Lupus). (2013). American College of Rheumatology.

Retrieved:

http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/lupus.asp

IBD. (2013). CDC. Retrieved:
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Psychological and Physiological Effects of Exercise on the Mind and the Body

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97000787

Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)

Sometimes people feel…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm

Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003

Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995

Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
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Due to Run Off From

Words: 1115 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9402806



The inquiry cited above makes use of the functions of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Analysis is the act of reviewing and comparing data. In the inquiry of the herbicides, the analysis occurs with the review of prior evaluations and inquires. This analysis of studies regarding the effect of atrazine allowed the inquiry to come up with its hypothesis and thus direct the actual experiment. Without an analysis of the original, existing data the concept of comparing use of atrazine, isoxaflutale and a mix of both would not have been thought of.

The concept of synthesis refers to the integration of two or more existing elements in order to create something new. In the inquiry, there are numerous levels of synthesis. First and foremost is the agricultural practice of combining atrazine with isoxaflutale as a method of creating a new, supposedly less toxic herbicide that would comply with the regulations issued…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Heston, Emily D., Kathleen Brundage. The Immunotoxic Effect of a Mixture of Atrazine and Isoxaflutole. Mountain State University: Department of Microbology, Immunology and Cell Biology.

Lee, Jennifer. "Popular Pesticide Faulted for Frogs Sexual Abnormalities," New York Times, 2003-06-19, p. 20.

Wackett LP, Sadowsky, MJ, Martinez B. Biodegradaton of Atrazine Degradation in Natural Environments. Biodegradation. 13: 11-19, 2002.

Walsh, Edward. "EPA Stops Short of Banning Herbicide," Washington Post, 2003-02-01, p. A14.
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Antibodies List the Five Different Kinds of

Words: 452 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54907745

Antibodies

List the five different kinds of antibodies and describe each of their functions.

An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize invaders, such as bacteria and viruses. The term immunogloben is often used interchangeably with the term antibody. The first primary function of antibodies is to bind antigens. The second primary function is to combine with immunoglobulin receptors. The five classes of antibodies are IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE.

IgG is the most common antibody in the human body. It is the only antibody which can pass through the placenta, so this is what provides fetuses with protection before they develop their own immune systems. IgG can bind to a wide range of pathogens.

IgA is found in the stomach, intestines, breast milk, tears, and saliva. IgA fights pathogens which contact the surface of the body, and pathogens which are swallowed or…… [Read More]

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Customer Inserts His Her Name Explain How HIV

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75376293

Customer Inserts His/Her Name

Explain how HIV infects CD4+ cells?

The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus which belongs to a group of viruses known as the retroviruses. HIV causes in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) by infecting the cells of the human and uses up all the energy inside the cells which is required for the growth and development of human cells. AIDS is a fatal disease in which the immunity system of the human body is destroyed due to which the body becomes vulnerable to various infections and also the weakness of the body's immune system also allows other diseases to attack the body. Once a person is infected with HIV, this virus feeds on the energy present in the cells and multiplies in the white blood cells. White blood cells are the ones which build up the immune system and when they are weakened by the HIV…… [Read More]

References

McClatchey, Kenneth D (2002). Clinical Laboratory Medicine. 2nd. Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Rose, Hamilton (2002). Manual of Clinical Immunology. 6th. Edition, ASM, 2002.

Whiteside, Alan (2008). HIV / AIDS: A Very Short Introduction. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA; 1st edition. ISBN-10: 0192806920.
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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97332427

Psuedomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Epidemiology

The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.

Ecology

P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…… [Read More]

References

Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long.
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Nf-Kb Akirin Nf-Kb Akirin A

Words: 1972 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4446642

1-2). Based on previous research that found that Akirin proteins were ubiquitous in flies and humans and strictly nuclear, Tufet sought to determine if the Akirin homologues had a similar function in mice. While the experiment using Akirin-1 failed to produce any meaningful results, the tests using Akirin-2 showed that it acts in tandem with or downstream of NF-B in the regulation of TL- and IL-1-inducible gene expression (Tufet).

This author concludes, "This study has identified a previously unknown nuclear factor that, together with or downstream of NF-B, can regulate innate immune responses. Further studies will be needed to determine precisely how Akirin proteins control gene expression" (Tufet, p. 3). The strengths of this summary were two-fold: (a) the author provides an understandable overview and background of the investigation and its rationale, and (b) the timeliness of the study results makes it a valuable addition to the existing body of…… [Read More]

References

Beutler, B. & Moresco, E.M. (2008, January). Akirins vs. infection. Nature Immunology, 9(1), 7-9.

Goto, a., et al. (2008). Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-B- dependent gene expression in Drosophila and mice. Nature Immunology, 9, 97-104 in Tufet and others.

Gough, N.R. (2008, January 8). Akirins clarify NF-B signaling. Scientific Signaling, 1(1), 6.

Hayden, M.S. & Ghosh, S. (2008, February). Shared principles in NF-?B signaling. Cell, 132, 344-362.
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Treatment to Patients the Main Objective of

Words: 4516 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23316992

Treatment to Patients

The main objective of providing treatment to patients is to relieve symptoms along with decreasing the progression of the disease as well as the mortality or morbidity. However, in some cases, this objective is not fully achieved, especially in the case of the patients who are admitted to the ICU with some serious and almost always a terminal stage of the disease. For example, when old patients are admitted in the ICU, their immunity is extremely low and this is the perfect time for the opportunistic infections to make matters worse for these patients. There are many infections that are specifically associated with patients admitted in the hospitals. Pseudomonas Aurigeonosa is a micro-organism that is well documented to cause bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia in the patients who are terminally ill and are receiving treatment in the hospital setting. Since most of the patients in the ICU are…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Beekmann, SE;Diekema, DJ; Chapin, KC;Doern, GV (2003) Effects of rapid detection of bloodstream infections on length of hospitalization and hospital charges.J ClinMicrobiol, 41:3119-3125.

Boussekey, N, Leroy, O, Georges, H, Devos, P, d'Escrivan, T, Guery, B (2005).Diagnostic and prognostic values of admission procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit.Infection, 33:257-263.

Charles, PE, Dalle, F, Aho, S, Quenot, JP, Doise, JM, Aube, H, Olsson, NO, Blettery, B: Serum procalcitonin measurement contribution to the early diagnosis of candidemia in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med, 32:1577-1583.

Digiovine, B; Chenoweth, C; Watts, C; Higgins, M (1999)The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. RespirCrit Care Med, 160:976-981.
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Progress of Vaccine Development Particularly the Challenges

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33109389

progress of vaccine development, particularly the challenges. There is also a discussion of funding and its impact on HIV research.

Ever since HIV / AIDS made the evolutionary jump from chimpanzees to humans, it has infected approximately one percent of the global population; in 2005 it killed almost three million people alone. HIV's continued spread is due to its ability to evade the human immune system and vaccines (Understanding Evolution, 2007).

Even with recent advances in scientists' understanding of HIV origination, development and immunology, there are still major scientific obstacles. Several prototype HIV vaccine candidates have failed so far to protect against HIV infection or to reduce viral loads, that is, the concentration of HIV virus in the blood after infection during clinical studies of effectiveness. Therefore there must be a renewed, well-coordinated commitment to conducting basic discovery research as well as preclinical studies and clinical trials (Barouch, 2008).

In…… [Read More]

Reference List

Barouch, DH (2008 October 2). Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature, 455(7213): 613-619. doi: 10.1038/nature07352

Cohen, J. (2008 July 25). The great funding surge. Science. 321(5888), 512-519. doi: 10.1126/science.321.5888.512

Koff, W.C. & Berkley, S.F. (2010 July 29). The Renaissance in HIV vaccine development -- Future directions. The New England Journal of Medicine. 363:e7 Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1007629

National Institutes of Health. (2010 November 17). Global HIV vaccine development. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/research/vaccines/research/pages/globalvaccinedev.aspx
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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html

"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html

Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
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Using Proteins to Inhibit Tumor Growth

Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47828291

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Griffiths, D., et al. (2013). Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T. Antigen Targets

the EMO Adaptor Protein To Disrupt Inflammatory Signaling. Journal of Virology. 87 (24), 13853-67.

Merkel cell carcinoma is a relatively rare disease in which malignant cells form in the skin, usually in individuals who have a weak immune system or extensive exposure to the sun. Merkel cells are found in the top (epidermis) layer of the skin, close to the nerve endings that house responders to touch. Merkel cell carcinoma is also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, sometimes as trabecular cancer. It forms when the Merkel cells grow rapidly and out of control, usually starting in areas of the skin that have more exposure to the sun (neck, arms, legs, etc.). The cancer tends to grow robustly and metastasize at a relatively early stage. Typically, it spreads to nearby lymph nodes and then…… [Read More]

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Diagnosis and Treatment of TB

Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44261432

Tuberculosis

Causative agent

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…… [Read More]

References

Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from  http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx 

Knechel, N. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from  http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/29/2/34.short 

Mathema, B., Kurepina, N., Bifani, P., & Kreiswirth, B. (2006). Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592690/
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Global Nutrition According to Who

Words: 434 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8540533



According to UNCEF, replacement of many nutrients such as protein, potassium, magnesium and zince is essential for recovery from malnutrition (http://www.unicefusa.org/news/news-from-the-field/treating-malnutrition-as.html).The organization mentions ready-to-use therapeutic foods such as F75 and Plumpy'nut. F75 is high in energy, fat, and protein, and provide a large amount of nutrients while Plumpy'nut contains vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, E, and K, and minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, iodine, sodium, and selenium.

WHO advises that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables contains immune-system boosting mironutrients that can help those suffering from over nourishment to boost their body's natural defenses against infectious diseases (http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/press_releases/pr_20030304.htm)… [Read More]

In the United States, food is more readily available than in developing countries. Yet, there are still amply cases of malnutrition. The types I've cases I've seen while growing up have stemmed from the economic realities of low-income households who lacked the financial resources for food and/or the education and awareness to make good nutritional decisions and to seek the appropriate assistance to help their families.

According to UNICEF, replacement of many nutrients such as protein, potassium, magnesium and zince is essential for recovery from malnutrition (http://www.unicefusa.org/news/news-from-the-field/treating-malnutrition-as.html).The organization mentions ready-to-use therapeutic foods such as F75 and Plumpy'nut. F75 is high in energy, fat, and protein, and provide a large amount of nutrients while Plumpy'nut contains vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, E, and K, and minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, iodine, sodium, and selenium.

WHO advises that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables contains immune-system boosting mironutrients that can help those suffering from over nourishment to boost their body's natural defenses against infectious diseases (http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/press_releases/pr_20030304.htm)
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Gilbert Short or Long-Term in

Words: 2296 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59026803

The following quotation, in which the author discusses how one of her patients was so adept at disassociating from painful situations that her appendix nearly ruptures, exemplifies this argument. "I don't want to die because I can't feel anything. I don't want to end up dead because I can't feel what's going on in my body…" This quotation from Stout's patient Julia indicates how hazardous it can be to gratify oneself for the present moment only to make one's future infinitely worse because of that fact. Julia was so good at disassociation from pain that she was not aware of when there was a reason for the pain and needed to help herself. Similarly, GenMe has been so pacified by the self-esteem movement that in the future, they will lack many of the essential attributes to be able to conduct happy, productive lives. This is largely due to the fact…… [Read More]

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importance of vitamin c in body

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58942352

Vitamin C is not endogenously created in the human body, which is why it is essential that human beings receive enough Vitamin C in their diet. Diseases like scurvy can result from inadequate intake of Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid. Vitamin C performs a plethora of functions in the human body. It is an antioxidant, it is involved in protein metabolism, and is "required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters," (National Institutes of Health, 2016). Because of the role of collagen in wound healing, it can be said that Vitamin C facilitates wound healing (NIH, 2016). Because of its antioxidant functions, Vitamin C is also critical for optimal immune system functioning (NIH, 2016). Vitamin C also improves the absorption of plant-based iron, or nonheme iron (NIH, 2016). Vitamin C is water soluble and is excreted in the urine.

Absorption rates are optimal at moderate levels…… [Read More]

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Cellular Function and Aging Tumor Suppression Protein

Words: 2307 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72336870

Cellular Function and Aging

Tumor Suppression Protein 53 and Effects on Cellular Function and Aging

The concept of aging has many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that act as markers on an individual organism. Ignoring mortality associated with external environmental factors, very few organisms can be said to have cellular immortality with no decrease in cellular function or repeat division in normal diploid cells. Cellular senescence is a normal process that halts cellular division after a set of cycles of replication. Senescent cells can remain completely functional but lose the programmed process of replication. The normal pathway for senescent cells is either aging with metabolic pathways continuing for the cell or programmed cell death which is known as apoptosis that occurs when cellular function changes, a specific lifetime is reached for the cell or the cell is damaged. The multicellular cnidarians known as a Hydra has been shown to have a…… [Read More]

References

Cappisi, J. (2005) Senescent cells, tumor suppression and organisimal aging: good citizens, bad neighbors. Cell 120 1-10.

Coppe, J.P. Patil, C.K. Rodier, F. Sun, Y. Munoz, D.P. Goldstein, J. Nelson, P.S. Desprez, P. Campisi, J. (2008) Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor. PLOS Biology, 6-12, 2853-2868

Faragher, R.G. (2000) Cell senescence and human aging: where's the link? Biochemical Society Transactions 28 221-226.

Kirkwood, T.B. Austad, S.N. (2000) Why do we age? Nature 408. 233-238.
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Patients Making Bad Decisions

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78831626

Medical ethics and rules like the Hippocratic oath are fairly clear-cut when applying them to real-world solutions and situations. However, there are some situations where the "right answer" can be elusive and people will sometimes go against their own self-interest. Such seems to be the case with Mr. Simpson. He has weak lungs and his doctors and family morbidly fear that if/when he gets the flu again, it will literally kill him. However, even with this being the case, Mr. Simpson refuses to get the flu show under the auspices that he could end up getting the flu as a direct result of the shot despite assurances that this will not happen. Of course, this can absolutely happen in real life but that argument is not a factor in this case study as it is assumed he cannot possibly contract the virus. While Mr. Simpson is obviously not making the…… [Read More]

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Endocrinology Amazing Hormones Counterbalance of Sugar and

Words: 2340 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87661716

Endocrinology

AMAZING HORMONES

Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon

Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).

Insulin and Glucagon

The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013

from http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/B1108/B1108_2002_Groups/pancstems/stemcell/insulin_glucagon.htm

Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.

Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from  http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
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Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
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Etiology Symptoms Prevention and Treatment HIV

Words: 1764 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15431072

Etiology

Symptoms

Prevention and Treatment

HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html

Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html

Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004.  http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html 

Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV Is

Words: 2800 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57245085



It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).

Diagnosis

The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at  http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm.

Feltes, T.F. And Sondheimer, H.M. (2006) Palivizumab and the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus illness in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 7(9): 1471-1480.

Flynn, J.D., Akers, W.S., Jones, M., Stevkovic, N., Waid, T., Mullett, T. And Jahania, S. (2004) Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: Case report and review of literature. Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482817?src=mp.

Health-Cares.net (2005) "How is RSV infection diagnosed?" Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at  http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/rsv-infection-diagnosis.php .
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Multiple Sclerosis

Words: 761 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62790396

Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis or MS refers to an autoimmune, chronic condition which impacts physical movement, function and sensation. The problem sets in following neuron insulation destruction (i.e., myelin sheath destruction) within an individual’s central nervous system (CNS) (Cengage Learning, 2013). Symptoms of the disorder start showing up at early adulthood, greatly impacting patients’ domestic, social, and professional lives. As the absence of myelin retards action potential conduct, the disorder is manifested as performance impairment, having a potential destructive influence on patient behavior. MS often entails a relatively progressive onset of behavioral deficiencies and neurological symptoms (Hoang & Shepherd, 2010).
Multiple Sclerosis and Nervous System
Chronic, advancing cognitive deterioration within multiple sclerosis has been ascribed to a neuro-pathological, neurodegenerative disease process (in other words, diffused brain atrophy and axonal destruction). Additionally, atrophy and white matter lesions are known to play a significant part in cognitive dysfunction among individuals diagnosed with…… [Read More]

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Vitamin D Is a Group of Fat-Soluble

Words: 1823 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39271463

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules known as secosteroids. Vitamin D itself is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not available in many foods. However, photochemically, it is produced when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D externally, though, is biologically inert in the human body, and "must undergo two hydroxylations in the body. The first occurs in the liver and converts Vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (VanDen Berg 1997, S76). Although called a vitamin, Vitamin D is not actually an essential dietary vitamin because it can be synthesized in more than adequate amounts from sunlight. Typically, an organic chemical, or group of chemicals, is known as a vitamin when it must be obtained through diet or other means, and cannot be synthesized through bodily processes.

Vitamin D…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Vitamin D (2012). Office of Dietary Supplements -- National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

Balasubramanian and Ganesh. (2008). Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 127 (2): 250-55.

Dryden, Jim. (2005). Sunlight Exposure May Help Prevent Periodontal Disease. Washington University St. Louis -- News and Information. Retrieved from: http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/5881.aspx

Feldman, D., et.al. (2012). Vitamin D, Volume 1. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
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Health Factors Influencing Support of

Words: 2984 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75826212

It is a well acknowledged truth that memory related diseases like Alzheimer's are common in older people rather than younger ones. Memory tends to becomes less competent with age. It might take longer to learn new things or remember familiar words or names. Many measures can be adopted to reduce the increasing adverse effects of memory like eating a healthy diet, including physical exercise as a part of daily routine and by being social. Despite of adopting these measures to reduce the effects of growing age on health, these problems cannot be eradicated completely. Young people are more energetic and are less viable to diseases because of the strength of their immune system. They have a stronger defense system against diseases because of the age. There is a strong relationship between age and support of health. Aging is inevitable. It is tend to occur but applying few important measures cannot…… [Read More]

References

Annandale, E., & Hunt, K. (2000). Gender Inequalities in Health. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Athenstaedt, U. (2002). Gender Role Self-Concept, Gender Role Attitudes and the Participation in Gender-Typed Vocational and Leisure Sport Courses . Psychologische Beitrage, 33-45.

Manuck, S.B., Jennings, R., Rabin, B.S., & Baum, a. (2000). Behavior, Health, and Aging. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Norton, F.E. (1946). Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company.