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Instead, the authors merely present their own findings in a series of databases without any cross-comparison with previous studies. Furthermore, rather than fully explicating their methods, most of their 'results' section is devoted to explaining why the 12-months follow-up yielded more accurate reporting. Although this finding is indeed interesting and important, it is not directly related to how the research question was framed in terms of the superiority of using two different sources of data-tracking.
Is the method of presentation effective? Is the method of presentation accurate?
While the findings are interesting, there are many questions left open-ended from a reader's point-of-view. For instance, how were these diagnoses obtained? Were they from individuals willingly being tested for HIV or who had received a diagnosis because of other complications or because of enforced testing (such as before entering a correctional setting). Different states have entirely different methods of tabulating data (for…
Hall, Irene H., Ruiguang Song, John E. Gerstle III, & Lisa M. Lee (2006). Assessing the completeness of reporting of human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses in 2002 -- 2003: Capture-recapture methods. American Journal of Epidemiology.
164 (4): 391. Retrieved June 17, 2010 at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/164/4/391
Notes on using capture-recapture techniques to assess the sensitivity of rapid case-finding
Methods. (2006, July). VALID International Ltd. Version 0.7. Retrieved June 17, 2010 at http://www.brixtonhealth.com/CRCaseFinding.pdf
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has grown into an epidemic that has spun out of control and grown into something that needs to be addressed in a manner that everyone will finally agree that this situation has to be remedied. No longer can HIV be viewed as a way to ostracize those who most need help, nor should it be seen as a method to suppress those of lower socioeconomic status and of minority background, which so far combined, are the groups with the highest rate of HIV infection (Downer, 2009).
In order for anything to change with the HIV situation in the world, a way of dealing with this issue in a calm rational manner needs to be established. Currently, there are individuals living with HIV that have not been receiving the proper care to address their needs and their particular situation (Downer, 2009). My public health vision for the…
Paltiel, D.A., Weinstein, M.C., Kimmel, A.D., Seage, G.R., Losina, E., Zhang, H., Freedberg, K.A., & Walensky, R.P. (2005). Expanded screening for HIV in the United States -- An analysis of cost-effectiveness. New England Jounral of Medicine. 352(6): 586-595.
Hall, H.I., Geduld, J., Boulos, D., Rhodes, P., An, Q., Mastro, T.D., Janssen, R.S., & Archibald, C.P. (2009). Epidemiology of HIV in the United States and Canada: Current status and ongoing challenges. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydromes. 51: S13-S20.
Downer G.A. eds. (2009). HIV in communities of color: A compendium of culturally competent promising practices. National Minority AIDS Education and Training Center: Howard University College of Medicine. 1-59.
Millett, G.A., Crowley, J.S., Koh, H., Valdiserri, R.O., Frieden, T., Dieffenbach, C.W., Fenton, K.A., Benjamin, R., Whitescarver, J., Mermin, J., Parham-Hopson, D., & Fauci, A.S. (). A way forward: The national HIV / AIDS strategy and reducing HIV incidence in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 55(2): S144-S147.
What is HIV?
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is believed to be the virus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a deadly disease that affects nearly one million Americans every year (Silverstein, 1991).
HIV is classified as a retrovirus that uses RNA templates to produce DNA. For example, within the core of HIV, a double molecule of ribonucleic acid, RNA, exists. When the virus invades a cell, this genetic material is replicated in the form of DNA.
However, in order to produce this DNA, HIV must first be able to produce a particular enzyme that can construct a DNA molecule through a RNA template. This enzyme, known as RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is also referred to as reverse transcription because it reverses the typical cellular process of transcription.
The DNA molecules created by reverse transcription are then placed in the genetic material of the host cell, where they are co-replicated…
Aronstein, D.M. & Thompson, B.J. (eds.) HIV and Social Work: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: The Harrington Park Press, 1998.
Cohen, P.T., Sande, M.A., & Volberding, P.A. (eds.). The AIDS Knowledge Base: A Textbook on HIV Disease from the University of California, San Francisco, and the San Francisco General Hospital (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
Folks, Thomas. Transmission of AIDS. California: University of California, 1998.
National Journal Group Inc. Kaiser Daily HIV / AIDS Report, 2001. Retrieved from Internet on 3/11/03: http://www.kaisernetwork.org/dailyreports/hiv.
Those participants in the high-risk groups were found to significantly associated with certain psychiatric conditions. These included: anxiety/tension, depression, having serious thoughts of suicide, experiencing hallucinations, and difficulties concentrating. In addition, participants who had reported being bothered by psychological or emotional problems, within the last 30 days, were also significantly more likely to be in the high-risk HIV / AIDS group.
This is in contrast to the results of those who had tested positive for HIV / AIDS, with only 15% of respondents who were HIV / AIDS positive being in the high-risk group, according to Fitzgerald, Lundgren and Chassler. In fact, those participants who were HIV / AIDS positive were approximately 82% less likely to be found to engage in the defined high-risk behaviors, when compared with those who had not tested HIV / AIDS positive. In addition, at the bivariate level, the researchers found no significant difference in…
Fitzgerald, T, L Lundgren, and D. Chassler . "Factors associated with HIV / AIDS high-risk behaviours among female injection drug users." AIDS Care 19.1 (2007): 67-74. Print.
Kressina, T., Bruce, R. & McCance, E. "Medication assisted treatment in the treatment of drug abuse and dependence in HIV / AIDS infected drug users." Current HIV Research. 7.4 (2009): 354-364 / Print.
Von Unger, H. & Collins, P. "Transforming the meaning of HIV / AIDS in recovery from substance use." Health care for Women International 26.4 (2005): 308-324. Print.
Customer Inserts His/Her Name
Explain how HIV infects CD4+ cells?
The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus which belongs to a group of viruses known as the retroviruses. HIV causes in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) by infecting the cells of the human and uses up all the energy inside the cells which is required for the growth and development of human cells. AIDS is a fatal disease in which the immunity system of the human body is destroyed due to which the body becomes vulnerable to various infections and also the weakness of the body's immune system also allows other diseases to attack the body. Once a person is infected with HIV, this virus feeds on the energy present in the cells and multiplies in the white blood cells. White blood cells are the ones which build up the immune system and when they are weakened by the HIV…
McClatchey, Kenneth D (2002). Clinical Laboratory Medicine. 2nd. Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Rose, Hamilton (2002). Manual of Clinical Immunology. 6th. Edition, ASM, 2002.
Whiteside, Alan (2008). HIV / AIDS: A Very Short Introduction. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA; 1st edition. ISBN-10: 0192806920.
Although AIDS was first discussed in medical literature in 1981, recent evidence proves the HIV virus existed long before. The first documented infection, based on plasma samples, was from 1959 (Avert).
The three most direct modes of HIV transmission between humans include sex, blood transfusions or needle sharing, and mother to infant. The HIV virus cannot survive long without a host body. Transmission therefore requires fresh bodily fluids and yet HIV cannot be transmitted via mosquitoes.
HIV / AIDS carries an enormous social stigma as psychologically devastating as the disease is physically fatal. Because the first medically chronicled cases of HIV / AIDS were gay men, the disease became synonymous with homosexuality. Homophobia fueled fears of the disease and simultaneously stymied efforts to increase public awareness of its devastating effects on all persons. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 60% of adults living with AIDS are female.
Avert. Web site retrieved…
Avert. Web site retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.avert.org/worldstats.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/index.htm
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…
Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/
Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2
Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.
CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf
Combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in South Africa
Although Swaziland has the highest incidence rate for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 27.7%, South Africa suffers from the largest number of people living with HIV in the world (6.8 million) (The global HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2016) out of a total population of around 53.5 million (South Africa population, 2016). In fact, during the time required to read this introduction, someone died of HIV in South Africa. Unfortunately, South Africa is certainly not unique in experiencing these high rates of infection and many sub-Saharan African nations are likewise seriously affected by the disease (The global HIV/AID epidemic, 2016). South Africa, though, is also suffering from a number of social problems that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic. In response to these alarming trends, the international community, including the United States, has allocated an enormous amount of resources to help stop the…
Birnbaum, J. K. & Murray, C. J. (2011, April). Exposing misclassified HIV / AIDS deaths in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(4), 278-281.
du Toit, J. & Burger, A. (2010, Spring). Tackling HIV / AIDS in the workplace: Best practice being developed in South Africa carries an important message for companies everywhere. European Business Forum, 17, 70-73.
Global Fund overview. (2016). Global Fund. Retrieved from http://www.theglobalfund.org/en / overview/.
South African economy. (2016). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov / library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html.
SIV Phylogeny in Western Gorillas
SIV in Western Gorillas
Phylogenetic Analysis of SIV in Western Gorillas
In order to better understand how SIV is transmitted Takehisa et al. (2009) undertook several experiments to determine the phylogenetic relationship between SIVgor and SIVcpz. These experiments depended primarily on sequence homology comparisons, a commonly-used and well-accepted approach for determining phylogenetic relationships.
The specific aims are as follows:
Whole genome sequence homology comparisons will be performed between different strains of SIVgor, SIVcpz, and HIV-1, to establish the relative similarity and thus reveal phylogenetic relationships.
SIVgor sequence will be examined for evidence of recombination. Should a recombination signature be found, it can be used to help search for the most recent common ancestor.
There are multiple strains of SIVcpz infecting chimpanzees from central and eastern Africa, and previous research has shown these strains are geographically-specific. SIVgor sequence comparisons with SIVcpz strains isolated from wild chimpanzee…
Takehisa, Jun et al. "Origin and biology of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in wild-living Western Gorillas" Journal of Virology 83.4 (2009): 1635-1648. Web. May 8, 2011.
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…
Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus
SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.
Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients
with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
During the period from April to June2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak had a negative impact on Thai economies. The total revenue from tourism was 10% lower than expected.
However many studies of the tourist industry in the country point out that it is extremely resilient and " in the tsunami disaster, a quick recovery process began after a deep sentiment of sadness. Investment recovered very quickly with a view to cleaning up the destruction left behind. Following recent years of strong growth, the economy of Thailand should be in a strong position to recover from this tragedy." (Seenprachawong U.)
There is little doubt that the Thai tourist industry is one that is extremely dependent on changes in the natural environment and influences on the culture from the outside. While the resilience of this industry have be shown in the face of natural disasters,…
Asia Market Research. March 16, 2007. http://www.asiamarketresearch.com/
Continued unrest, travel warnings hit Thai tourism. March 16, 2007. http://www.dancewithshadows.com/travel/thai-tourism.asp
Community-Based Tourism in Doi Inthanon National Park:Case Study of Ban
Mae Klang Luang Tourism Alliance, Chiangmai, Thailand. March 16, 2007. http://www.iges.or.jp/APEIS/RISPO/inventory/db/pdf/0006.pdf
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…
Cdc.gov. (2013, May 29). What is HIV? Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html
Impact-dc.com. (2010). A State of Emergency. Retrieved from Impact-dc.com: http://www.impact-dc.com/a-state-of-emergency-hivaids-impact-in-the-african-american-community/
Gelaude, D.J., Sovine, M.L., & Sawxyer, M. (2013). Hiv prevention programs delivered by community-based organizations to young transgender persons of color:
Lessons learned to improve future program implementation. International Journal
African-Americans and AID Risk
The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…
Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.
Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1 (May - June 2002): S88-95.
Stoskopf, C.H., Richter, D.L., Kim Y.K. "Factors Affecting Health Status in African-Americans Living With HIV / AIDS." AIDS Patient Care and STDS 15.6 (June 2001): 331-8.
Description of HIV; the causes, symptoms, complications, mode of transmission and treatment
HIV is a condition that manifests in the virus attacking the immune system of the victim. When the immune system is weakened, the body does not effectively fight off diseases. The combination of the infection plus the virus that triggers it is referred to as HIV. The immune system heavily relies on the presence of white blood cells to carry out the defence activities. The HIV virus targets and destroys a type of white blood cells referred to as CD4 cells. If the virus destroys a significant number of these cells, the body begins to fail to fight infections. The final stage of infection by HIV is called AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS suffer ailments that are not commonly experienced by healthy people. They may acquire rare cancers and…
CATIE. (2016). The Social Determinants of Health and Structural Interventions. Retrieved from Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information: http://www.catie.ca/en/hiv-canada/introduction
Hariri, S., & McKenna, M. T. (2007). Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. Clin Microbiol Rev, 20(3), 478 -- 488.
MDH. (2001, March). Public Health Interventions - Applications for Public Health Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Minnesota Department of Health Division of Community Health Services Public Health Nursing Section: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf
Morison, L. (2001). The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Br Med Bull, 58(1), 7-18.
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate secto, ensuing that a gowing majoity of people, especially in the ichest counties, and paticulaly in the United States, must pay -- often consideably -- fo health cae. Finally, gowing inteest in cosmetic sugey, involving such elective pocedues as hinoplasty, liposuction, beast enhancement o eduction, LASIK eye sugey and so on, o moe simply the emoval of tattoos, have ceated new demands. Vaious foms of dental sugey, especially cosmetic dental sugey, ae not coveed by insuance in counties like the UK and Austalia; hence dental touism has become paticulaly common. In Asia these tends ae 'the unlikely child of new global ealities: the fallout of teoism, the Asian economic downtun, intenet access to pice infomation, and the globalisation of health sevices'…
references because the family vetoes it, in part because they were never made known. For a grieving and bereft family, a request for organ donation is difficult to agree to because they can only guess at the wishes of the deceased and if there were any doubt at all, would not the natural answer be a rejection? If relatives had severe objections, they should be taken into account for to do otherwise raises the spectre of the swastika, but the point remains that by changing the default position of organ donation it is a veto clearly against the deceased's wishes, which would be rather more unlikely to take place than the current veto due to a simple lack of information. It is not that the PC system is ethically unsound (Hatfield and Walker 1998).
It can be argued that presumed consent is superior to the opt-in system because it truly ensures autonomy by giving effect to choices each person makes. It gives legal effect to individual autonomy and it ensures truly informed consent when accompanied by public education and information, instead of intuitive responses to organ donation. But one has to question how comfortable the deceased family will be when they come to realise that their relatives' kidney is being placed into someone who is HIV positive. This is likely to be an ethical and morale matter rather than a discriminatory one (Williams, 1999).
Nonetheless, some problems with presumed consent have been pointed out. Patient autonomy lies at the very heart of modern medicine and medical research. This is partly a reaction against medical paternalism and an increasing awareness of the integrity of the individual. It may be argued that a presumed consent (PC) system is paternalistic - but it concomitantly reinforces individual autonomy and preserves the dignity and integrity of the individual especially in comparison to, for example, an organs market. (Brooks).
McLean points out that underpinning the system of organ donation is the fundamental view that organ transplantation should be a gift relationship and should not be based on the type of disease a person has. This underlines that HIV sufferers are just as entitled to a kidney transplant as those who are looking for a heart transplant. John Morris doubts that proposals to change legislation to allow presumed consent to be introduced are likely to be publicly accepted. However, why is presumed consent any less a gift? It does not mean widespread harvesting of major organs. It means greater public awareness and individual choice that is made concrete.
In today's modern, the reality is that HIV / AIDS is at a crossroads where the economic and political niches of the contemporary modern condition provide both the possibility to raise scientific research in order to create a means of effective pandemic or the new religion of globalize capital may only serve as to extend HIV / AIDS to become the biggest social issue of all history. There is a huge issue with regards to donor transplantation and especially kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, some patients with Human Immunodeficiency Disease are denied equal access to kidney transplantation and the same priorities of other people who are suffering from other serious diseases. Therefore, in this research, evidence will be provided to proof HIV patients have the same rights as others to get a kidney transplant regardless if they appear completely diseased.
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…
Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html
Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html
Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004. http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html
Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.
In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.
Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…
References (March 18, 1998). The Untold Story: AIDS and Black American: A Briefing on the Crisis of AIDS among African-Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of African-Americans on HIV / AIDS.
Andriote, John-Manuel. (2005). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans: A 'State of Emergency. Population Reference Bureau.
CDC. (2003) Late vs. early testing of HIV -- 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 581-86.
A de la Vega, Ernesto. (March, 1990). Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population With Sexuality and HIV / AIDS Information and Education. SIECUS Report 18 (3), p.3.
Essien et al. (2005). Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health: 5: 3.
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).
Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…
Margaret Newman and James Fowler both focus their attention on the larger, more spiritual context of human experience and the implication this has in one's healing. There are commonalities that exist between the philosophies of both theorists: human reasoning, the ability to adopt to another's perspective, social awareness, and human formation of a world-view. Newman offers the nurse-patient relationship can be enhanced if it is viewed as a caring partnership. HEC does not really pretend to be a quick fix or direct nursing intervention; instead, it presents an opportunity to assist the sick by recognizing patterns and using this intelligence to expand a patient's consciousness, self-care, and comfort (Awa & Yamashita, 2008).
Fowler concerns himself more with faith as a lens through which we see the world. His ideas about faith over the span of one's lifetime can be particularly beneficial when working with elderly populations. Older, Stage 5 and 6 adults may begin to reincorporate earlier religious beliefs and traditions that were previously discarded (Fowler, 2004). This could be due to physical limitations or also used as a self-healing mechanism to avoid feelings of helplessness or abandonment. A nurse who is attentive can acknowledge this mature spirituality as being helpful to a patient attempting to find meaning in his or her illness.
In sum, both theories/frameworks have implications for the practice of nursing. A theory, by definition, is a group of related concepts that propose action that guide practice. From Margaret Newman and even non-nursing theorist James Fowler we see how using a systematic view of inter-relationships between concepts of spirituality, higher consciousness, caring and empathy can be useful for describing, explaining, predicting, and prescribing nursing interventions that make a difference in the lives of patients. Both philosophies offer insight that can create better nurses.
African-American women are at greater risk for contracting HIV than other races. Stemming from this hypothesis, it will be investigated whether race, in this case being African-American, impacts the course of HIV after infection. Past research has indicated that African-American women, including both adults and adolescents, are disproportionately at risk for the contraction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the resultant development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011; Johnson et al., 1994). esearchers have explored the impact that sex-related issues have on the increases risk among this population, and it has been determined that sexual assertiveness is an interpersonal predictor of sexual behavior that poses increased risk for contracting HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). Furthermore, research has indicated that women demonstrated low sexual assertiveness are at a greater risk for the development of HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). It may be suggested that research in this…
Kennedy, B.R., Jenkins, C.C. Promoting African-American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV / AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 18(4), 142-9.
Johnson, E.H., Jackson, L.A., Hinkle, Y., Gilbert, D., Hoopwood, T., Lollis, C.M., Willis, C., Gant, L. (1994). What is the significance of black-white differences in risky sexual behavior? Journal of the National Medical Association, 86(10), 745-59.
Ethics of Prisoner Experiments
Prior to the medical trial at Nuremberg physicians and scientists were largely free to conduct experiments on unsuspecting persons (Freyhofer, 2004, p. 9-10), including inmates inside America's prisons. When it was discovered that German physicians had been conducting inhumane experiments on death camp and concentration camp prisoners during WWII, the world was shocked that doctors were capable of such behavior. The American Military Tribunal in Nuremberg heard arguments from both the defense and prosecution for twenty three doctors and administrators accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defense argued that the doctors' conduct was not a significant departure from past practices and any inhumanity was more a function of the ongoing hostilities. The judges on the tribunal saw it differently and created ethical guidelines for medical researchers, because the evidence presented in court revealed the Hippocratic Oath could not protect patients and…
Freyhofer, Horst A. (2004). The Nuremberg Medical Trial: The Holocaust and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code: Vol. 53. Studies in Modern European History. New York: Peter Lang.
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). (2005). The Nuremberg Code. HHS.gov. Retrieved 4 Sep. 2013 from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html .
Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of Skin. Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science. New York: Rutledge.
Lerner, Barron H. (2007). Subjects or objects? Prisoners and human experimentation. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(18), 1806-1807.
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf .
CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/Surv2011.pdf .
Dyck, E.V., Meheus, A.Z., & Piot, P. (1999). Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Katz, A.R., Lee, M.V.C., & Wasserman, G.M. (2012). Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: A review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i. Hawai'I Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(3), 68-73.
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…
CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014
from http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm .
Gorin, S. (2000, February). A 'society for all ages': Saving Social Security and Medicare. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 69.
Israel, B.A. & Parker, E.A. (2006, October). Community-based participatory research: Lessons
2005 study by Mohala Tucker Besser et al., conducted upon HIV-positive pregnant women who are about to undergo voluntary caesarian section to give birth. Mohala Tucker Besser et al. used a sample population to study whether or not HIV was present within the amniotic fluid of these pregnant women, and discovered that -- contrary to a previous study published in 1987 -- it was not. Additional relevant studies -- including the original 1987 Lancet publication by Mundy Schinazi Gerber et al., and further studies involving viral transmission between mothers and newborns and specific risk factors for HIV transmission in prenatal and perinatal situations -- are examined in conjunction with Mohala Tucker Besser's 2005 study. The finding has implications for preventing HIV transmission between mothers and newborn infants, and confirms the growing clinical consensus that elective caesarian section remains one of the most reliable ways to reduce viral transmission from an…
Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY, Mizokami M, Hirano K, Chen DS. (1996). Least microtransfusion from mother to fetus in elective cesarean delivery. Obstetric Gynecology 87: 244-248.
Magder LS, Mofenson L, Paul ME, Zorrilla CD, Blattner WA, Tuomala RE, LaRussa P, Landesman S, Rich KC. (2005). Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficicency Syndrome 38: 87-95.
Mofenson LM 1997. Mother-child HIV-1 transmission: timing and determinants. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 24: 759-784.
Mohlala BK, Tucker TJ, Besser MJ, Williamson C, Yeats J, Smit L, Anthony J, Puren A. (2005). Investigation of HIV in amniotic fluid from HIV-infected pregnant women at full term. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192: 488-491.
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…
Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03 #S2X
____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/
____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Retreived from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/index.html
osa Lee Cunningham. Elements such as the subject's health history, legal history, psychosocial history, and diagnostic impressions will be covered.
osa Lee Cunningham
DOB/Age: October 7, 1936
Date of Interview: October 7, 1994
eason for Assessment: osa Lee Cunningham was discovered having a fit at Washington's Howard University Hospital, owing to over-consumption of heroin. In spite of being enrolled in an intervention for drug treatment, there did not appear to be any inclination in osa to quit drugs. In fact, she wished she could access methadone, a synthetic drug with heroin-like effects. Some days prior to being interviewed, osa awoke to find herself with fever; her condition had exacerbated. By noon, she was admitted to the emergency room (Dash, 1996 Prologue). osa states that her drug consumption levels hinge on the amount of money in her pocket and heroin accessibility. The subject also had Preludin-use history, a drug she…
Chapman, D., & Perry, G. (2008). Depression as a Major Component of Public Health for Older Adults. Preventing Chronic Disease, 5(1).Retrieved, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2248771/
Dash, L. (1996). Rosa Lee: A Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=cc8_CQAAQBAJ&pg=GBS.PA34.w.1.0.349
(n.d.). Drug Addiction Help. Family Therapy. Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.addictions.com/family-therapy/
(n.d.). Drug and Alcohol Detox -- Body Cleansing -- Best Detox Diet Programs .Drug Detox Rehab Programs -- Drug Detoxification Centers .Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.detox.net/articles/drug-detox-rehab-programs/
HIV AIDS / HIV / AIDS: Societal Influence on Product Development
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). This virus interferes with the ability of the body to counter disease causing organisms.
Factors that Affected the response to HIV-AIDs 1980s-present day
There were several factors that influenced the response by the government and the pharmaceutical industry to the emergence of the AIDs virus.
This came out largely in the form of the degree of empowerment. Women were in a system that saw them as less than equal. Factors such as the movement of people within and without countries affected how well the disease was tracked. Many countries were not tracking the disease or did not have systems to survey it and even identify the people who had the highest risk of contracting it. Another social factor was that the youth were uninhibited when it came…
Avert. (2015). AIDS Timeline. Retrieved from http://www.avert.org/aids-timeline.htm on
12th January, 2016.
Mayo Clinic. (2015). Definition. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases conditions/hiv-aids/basics/definition / on 12th January, 2016.
Nazario, B. (2014). AIDS Retrospective Slideshow: A Pictorial Timeline of the HIV / AIDS
Identify and Describe the Aggregate
This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.
In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…
Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.
Avert.org. (2014). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved from Avert: http://www.avert.org/men-who-have-sex-men-msm-hiv-aids.htm
Beyrer, C. (2007). HIV Epidemiology Update and Transmission Factors: Risks and Risk Contexts -- 16th International AIDS Conference Epidemiology Plenary. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 981-987.
CDC. (2013, Novemeber 29). HIV Testing and Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men -- United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp. 958-962.
It is considered to be a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and has, since 1981, killed more than 25 million people worldwide (United Nations).
In most of the world, HIV infection is more prevelant in the heterosexual population, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, however, it became known as the "Gay Plague" due to its initial discovery in the homosexual population, the lack of condom use at the time, and the predominance of anal sexual activity. Unforrtunatly, HIV / AIDS also carries with it ostracism, rejection, and discriminiation. This stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents a number of individuals from seeking HIV testing, receiving their results, securing treatment, or even turning what would normally be a managable chronic illness into something that is dire and a death sentence -- as well as perpetuating the disease -- all because of misguided bias (Ogden and Nyblade)
(NORC), National Health and Social Life. Summary - the Sex Survey. June 1993. March 2011 .
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Busko, a. "Civil Rights in the 21st Century." July 2006. The Writer's Voice. March 2011 .
These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).
There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…
Introduction to TCM. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2010, from Traditional Chinese Medicine
Page Web site: http://www.tcmpage.com/
Kent, Molly E. And Romanelli, Frank. (2008). Reexamining Syphilis: An Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management. Retrieved January 27, 2010,
from Medscape Web site: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/571812
However, the extent of discrimination and stigma on a HIV infected HCW is much higher creating severe health, economic and psychosocial consequences for the person. The risk of HIV infection is 100 times lesser than HV infection and by following 'Universal Procedures' it is possible to eliminate chances of an infected HCW from affecting a patient. HIV positive nurses should be permitted to work in safe settings without 'exposure prone procedures' so they can continue to participate in care giving while they are themselves coping with the burden of the disease. This is in line with the globally accepted GIPA principle of encouraging the active participation of HIV patients as an effective means to prevent, control and provide support services for people infected with HIV. While patients' safety should be the foremost issue in the field of health provision, care must be taken not to subject the HIV positive HCWs…
1) Susan J. Westrick, JD, MS, RN, Katherine McCormack Dempski, JD, BSN, RN, (2009),'Essentials of Nursing Law and Ethics', Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Pg. 223-224
2) Kathy Shaw, (Oct 2003), 'Workplace Issues for HIV positive Nurses', Georgia Nursing, available online at, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3925/is_200308/ai_n9255768/
3) Mahendra, vs. Gilborn, L., Bharat, S., Mudoi, R., Gupta, I., George, B. et
al.(2007). Understanding and measuring AIDS related stigma in health care settings: A developing country perspective, Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/
The patient and his partner's privacy must be respected, but if at all possible the nurse should treat the patient as part of a larger social environment, which includes the patient's family and his community. The patient's status and his partner's health status will impact the quality of life they both experience in their relationship, and affect treatment compliance.
Dealing with sensitive issues early on in the intervention builds the necessary trust and getting the patient's loved ones 'on board' in terms of encouraging treatment compliance will improve his quality of life as well as act as positive incentives for compliance. Finally, sexuality and the importance of sexual functioning are vital in maintaining a high quality of life. Sexual issues in terms of practicing appropriate 'safe sex' are important to address with an HIV-positive patient. Interviewing the patient about his or her sexual practices and afterwards in a sensitive manner…
Cohen, E., & Cesta, T. (2005) Nursing case management: Advanced practice applications. 4th
ed. Philadelphia: Mosby.
Solomon, S., Batavia, a., Venkatesh, K., Brown, L., Verma, P., Cecelia, a., Daly, C., Mahendra,
V., Kumarasamy, N., & Mayer, K.. (2009). A longitudinal quality of life study. AIDS
As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.
ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…
Aziz, a.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, a., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., & Mullin, B. (2009).
Sharps management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness.
British Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 92-98.
Billington, a., Crane, C., Jownally, S., Kirkwood, L., & Roodhouse, a. (2008).
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri .
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).
The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…
Blumberg, S.J., Osborn, M.L., Larry, C. & Olson, L. (2003). The impact of touch-tone data entry on reports of HIV and STD risk behaviors in telephone interviews. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 121.
Hak-Su, K. (2004, March-May). Why we must defeat HIV / AIDS. UN Chronicle, 41(1), 51.
Hackl, K.L., Somlai, a.M., Kelly, J.A. & Kalichman, S.C. (1997). Women living with HIV / AIDS: The dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health and Social Work, 22(1), 53.
HIV / AIDS and women. (2008). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/index.htm .
A group of researchers write, "To effectively respond to this pandemic, HIV / AIDS must be treated as both an emergency and a long-term developmental issue" (Da Cruz, Da Cruz & Hammers, 2007). First, additional research must be developed to help find an ultimate cure for this disease. This would be the ultimate form of control and eradication, and would eliminate this social problem from the world.
However, this research is costly and takes time. Simply developing drugs that help combat the disease effectively has taken decades, and there is still no cure or preventative for AIDS, other than abstinence. There is an office of AIDS research in the Federal Government that coordinates research and development activities, and there is research under way to help develop an AIDS vaccine to prevent the disease. esearch should be heavily funded, and if federal funds are not available, they should be sought through…
Da Cruz, J.D., Da Cruz, B.K., & Hammers, C. (2007). HIV / AIDS: The pandemic hits the 'sleeping giant'. International Social Science Review, 82(1-2), 55+.
Editors. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the AIDS.gov Web site: http://www.aids.gov/ .
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S., and that the world is moving rapidly in the direction of a world community, a global community, and a global economic system. This is an argument separate and apart from the issue at hand, but is peripheral to it in that in order for the world community to grow and to develop an economic that facilitates the population in the world, that it becomes necessary for borders to become invisible and for individuals to have free and unhindered access to other regions of the world. Thomas C. Fischer, in his book, the United States, the European Union, and "Globalization" of World Trade: Allies or Adversaries (2000), discusses borders in relationship to globalization, and helps put into perspective the concept of open borders and globalization.
In conclusion, there is a need to be cautious about the borders as a result of economic and social conditions that exist south of the…
Fischer, T.C. (2000). The United States, the European Union, and the "Globalization" of World Trade: Allies or Adversaries?. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Retrieved November 28, 2007, from Questia database:
Health and Human Services, Division Immigration Health Services, online, found at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5219a3.htm , retrieved 27 November 2007.
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He says that if the prices are still too high, the UN should offer subsidies. (oseley, 2003)
2. Rupert ondy - Senior Vice President and General Counsel
He played a key role in the merger between Glaxo Welcome and SmithKline as well as after the merger. ondy developed an efficient post merger legal department and he ensured legal representation to all organizational departments. (Practical Law Company, 2003)
3. John Clarke - President, Consumer Healthcare
Clarke is the main actor on the company's Consumer Healthcare market and it is due to him that oral hygiene, over-the-counter and nutritional healthcare products have been promoted by GlaxoSmithKline. (Forbes Magazine, 2007)
4. Marc Dunoyer - President, Pharmaceuticals Japan
He extensively promoted the anti-allergy Zyrtec drugs in Japan and around the world.
5. Russell Greig - President, Pharmaceuticals International
Greig is in charge of the GSK operations outside the United States, mainly Japan and the…
2007, GlaxoSmithKline PLC GSK Ratios, Reuters Information on Stocks, http://stocks.us.reuters.com/stocks/ratios.asp?rpc=66&symbol=GSK , last accessed on October 26, 2007
GlaxoSmithKline Official Website, http://gsk.com/,last accessed on October 28, 2007
GlaxoSmithKline Annual Report for 2006, a Human Race, Retrieved on October 28, 2007 at http://www.gsk.com /investors/reps06/annual-report-2006.pdf
Smith Shull, S., Morris, R.J., 2003, GlaxoSmithKline's Retaliation Against Cross-Border Sales of Prescription Drugs
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…
Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.
Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.
Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.
Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.
As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.
Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The
Debate over Physician-Assisted…
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
It would then become incumbent on the experienced coder to be able to read through the injuries and determine the accurate code to use. Another issue Kramer, Barancik, and Thode, Jr. (1990) found was that certain areas of the body lacked a code when injured to a very specific area of the body.
The training and education one needs to be a successful medical coder, and in particular a remote medical coder, is extensive. If we examine Figure 1 below, we can understand why this is so:
AAT (alpha-1 antitrypsin) deficiency 273.4
AAV (disease) (illness) (infection) - see Human immunodeficiency virus (disease) (illness) (infection)
Abactio - see Abortion, induced
Abactus venter - see Abortion, induced
Abasia (-astasia) 307.9
Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome (cystinosis) 270.0
Abdomen, abdominal - see also condition
Kramer, Barancik, and Thode, Jr. (1990) found
Abduction contracture, hip or other joint -…
American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA). (2011). Quality healthcare through quality information. Retrieved from http://www.ahima.org/Default.aspx/ .
Kramer, Caroline F., Jerome I. Barancik, and Henry C. Thode, Jr. (1990). Improving the sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated injury scale coding system. Public Health Reports, Vol. 105, No. 4, pp. 334-40.
Rodecker, Kristy. (2010). Medical billing and coding. Retrieved from http://www.medicalbillingandmedicalcoding.com/ .
Taylor, JM. (2008). [Emergency Department] Management. Experienced coders help ED create excellence. The Monthly Update On Emergency Department Management, Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 123-5.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…
Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill
Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical
Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide
health issues facing the differed populations of the United States today, and these health concerns differ between males and females, income levels, and races. As such, it is important, prior to discussing any particular health concern, to first establish the target age cohort for which information is to be presented. Once this cohort is established, creating programs targeted to a specific population becomes a much simpler task.
This paper discusses the top five leading causes of death for African-American women age 25 to 44 in the United States in the year 2001. Additionally, this paper will focus on one particular cause of death for this population, and will outline an existing prevention program, aimed at this target age cohort. Finally, this paper will present data from studies on this prevention effort, to determine if the effort is succeeding.
As stated, the age cohort to be analyzed in this paper is…
Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2004). LCWK3: Percent of total deaths; and death rates for the 15 leading causes of death in selected age groups, by race and sex; United States, 2001. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Lauby, J, Smith, P, and Stark, M. (2000, Feb,). A community level HIV prevention intervention for inner city women: results of the Women and Infants Demonstration Project. American Journal of Public Health, 90(2): 216-220.
Liebman, T, Bond, P, Smith, D, and Tunstall, C. (1999, April). The Women and Infants Demonstration Project: an integrated approach to AIDS prevention and research. AIDS Education and Prevention, 2(107): 107-121.
O'Leary, A. (2005). HIV-risk reduction interventions for women: how far have we come? New York, NY: American Foundation for AIDS Research.
HIV / AIDS in Rural America Disproportionate Impact on Minority and Multicultural Populations." ational Rural Health Association Issue Paper. July, 2004.
Malt, Jennifer. "Social Distance and Patients' Rating of Healthcare Providers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 42 (Dec. 2001).
Magnus, Stephen a. And Mick, Stephen S. "Medical Schools, Affirmative Action, and the eglected Role of Social Class." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 90, 2000.
ational Program Report. Program to Address the Sociocultural Barriers to Health in Hispanic Communities. Washington, D.C.: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1999.
Malt, Jennifer. "Social Distance and Patients' Rating of Healthcare Providers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 42 (Dec. 2001). P. 360.
Magnus, Stephen a. And Mick, Stephen S. "Medical Schools, Affirmative Action, and the eglected Role of Social Class." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 90, 2000. p. 1197.
ational Program Report. Program to Address the Sociocultural Barriers to Health…
Notes from the 2004 Rosalynn Carter Symposium on Mental Health. The Carter Center. www.thecartercenter.org
Research from the University of Hanover, as discussed in Tanya Ott's interviews with NPR's WBHM in "Making Sense of Mental Health. www.wbhm.org
HIV / AIDS in Rural America Disproportionate Impact on Minority and Multicultural Populations." National Rural Health Association Issue Paper. July, 2004. p.1.
At the same time, it also needs to be mentioned that one has to take a decision based on the consideration that whether the person has any individual choice of his/her own in the matter. One of the main reasons for developing such an attitude may be because of depression in the minds of the patient. This matter needs to be raised and decided by the doctor and medicines prescribed accordingly to the need. These medicines have to be given by force, to the patient, if necessary, if he is unwilling to take them. At the same time, one may also understand that when medicines are being forced down a patient's throat, the effects and situation of the mind of the patient makes the medicine to be less effective, unless otherwise it is a medicine which has enough direct physical action. All the developmental effects are being slowed down by…
Burgio, Kathryn L; Locher, Julie L; Goode, Patricia S; Michael, Hardin, J; McDowell, B. Joan;
Dombrowski, Marianne; Candib, Dorothy. (16 December, 1998) "Behavioral vs. Drug Treatment for Urge Urinary Incontinence in Older Women" JAMA. Vol: 280; No: 23. Retrieved at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/280/23/1995?ijkey=a2a0bc880a62c67942c75cc0e54e42e29540ce3c&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaAccessed 18 September, 2005
Curry, M. A; Perrin, N; Wall, E. (1998) "Effects of abuse on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and adolescent women" Obstetrics & Gynecology. Vol: 92; pp: 530-534. Retrieved at http://www.greenjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/92/4/530?ijkey=d09f32f9fa411fa987cece30aea39728bd3107d3&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaAccessed 20 September, 2005
Ernst, Edzard; Rand, Julia I; Stevinson, Clare. (1998) "Complementary Therapies for Depression" Arch Gen Psychiatry. Vol: 55; pp: 1026-1032. Retrieved at http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/55/11/1026?ijkey=4aefcb2b211b2daf78065877dca0b571d0e42275&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaAccessed 20 September, 2005
Nursing in 2021
Over the next decade, and for years to come afterwards, the expected growth in the older adult population will have a significant impact on the healthcare system. The baby boom generation, individuals born between 1946 and 1964, began turning 65 in 2011. By 2020 the number of Americans age 65 and older is expected to rise to 54 million. Furthermore, as a result of better nutrition, safety and health care the number of individuals who reach the age of 85 or older will grow even more dramatically ("The Impact of Aging Population on the Health Workforce in the United States," 2006).
This will precipitate a greater demand for health care in general and will also affect the nature of the skills and services the health care workforce must be equipped to provide, and the settings in which this care is provided. As a person ages, their immune…
ACNP. (2010). Numbers of nurse practitioners in U.S. American college of nurse practitioners. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.acnpweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3353
"The impact of aging population on the health workforce in the United States: summary of key findings." (2006, March) Center for health workforce studies, School of Public Health, University of Albany. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from http://www.albany.edu/news/pdf_files/impact_of_aging_excerpt.pdf
Cronenwett, L.R. (Ed.). (2011). The future of nursing education. In The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Institute of Medicine. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Workforce/Nursing/Future%20of%20Nursing%20Education.pdf
Teen Alcohol Abuse
Adolescent alcohol abuse has been an ongoing public health problem for many years. While alcohol abuse trends tend to increase and subside over time, recent research continues to show an alarming level of alcohol use. For example, surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that alcohol use has dropped slightly when compared with previous years, in 2011 almost two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and almost one third (29%) of eighth graders had used alcohol within the past month (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst, 2011).
Health Needs Assessment
As of 1988, the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 is prohibited. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) define underage drinking as consuming alcohol prior to the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. Further, zero tolerance laws make it illegal in all states for youth under age 21 to drive…
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Alcohol & drug use. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/alcoholdrug/index.htm
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2011). InfoFacts: Nationwide trends. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/nationwide-trends
Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. (n.d.) Substance abuse/Chemical dependency. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/mental_health/mental_health_about/substance/Pages/index.aspx
Sterling, S., Weisner, C., Hinman, A., & Parthasarathy, S. (2010 July). "Access to treatment for adolescents with substance use and co-occurring disorders: Challenges and opportunities." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(7): 637-726. doi: 10:1016/j.jaac.2010.03.019
Clinical isk Management
Hospitals are one of the top listed high-risk places of work. Just like any high-risk workplaces, Clinical isk Management (CM) procedures are formulated to enable hospitals in identifying, containing, as well as manage work related risks such as injuries, which are bound within the facilities. Implementation of element contained in risk management procedures in any hospital setting should be effected in order to ensure for the safety of both patients and workers accommodated in the facility.
isk management is highly prioritized in most high-risk organizations. Technological advances have been realized in modern medicine progressively resulting to more complex care and treatment processes. Despite the positive result of leveraging care opportunities, such advancements may result in adversities that might in turn affect patients and staff working in hospital environments. Since it is far from possible to eradicate such risks completely, clinical risk management procedures are there…
Elizabeth, A. H and Betty, J.H. (1976). The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 924 -- 927: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers.
Stanbury, M. S and Anderson, H.A. (2000). Guidelines; Minimum and Comprehensive State-Based Activities in Occupational Safety and Health: DHHS (NIOSH) publication No. 95 -- 107.
Stanbury, M.J. And Goldoft, M. Use of OSHA Inspection Data for Fatal Occupational Injury Surveillance in New Jersey. Am J. Public Health 1990; 80: 200-202.
Tepper, A. (2000). Surveillance of Occupational Illnesses, Injuries, and Hazards in New Jersey. NJDOH.
.'s secretions, administration of I.V. fluids to keep B.. hydrated, and, prior to hospitalization, the administration of albuterol.
B..'s breathing was labored and was not significantly improved by the interventions, although suctioning to clear the airways and the introduction of oxygen ensured adequate oxygen intake. Postiaux et al. found that the addition of prolonged slow expirations and provoked coughs could contribute "actively to a direct and immediate drainage of secretions" (2011). This might have helped alleviate "some bronchial obstruction symptoms that are usually associated with an increased load of breathing, due to a positive intrathoracic pressure and an increased respiratory rate" (Postiaux et al., 2011).
Potential Long-Term Effects / Complications
An early and severe infection with SV bronchiolitis is associated with breathing difficulties such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy later in life (Todd et al., 2010). Whether the SV causes these problems or whether a common factor makes infants more…
Essouri, S., Durand, P., Chevret, L., Balu, L., Devictor, D., Fauroux, B., & Tissieres, P. (2011).
Optimal level of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in severe viral bronchiolitis. Intensive Care Medicine, 37, 2002-2007.
Fitzgerald, D. (2011). Viral bronchiolitis for the clinician. Journal of Paediatrics and Child
Health, 47, 160-166.
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,
Does Socio-economic Status Impact lives of People with HIV and AIDS?
Individuals with a lower socio-economic status are more prone to contracting HIV and AIDS virus. This measure also determines how individual status, relates to proper medical care. Lack of socioeconomic strength associated to the practice of risky sexual behaviors results to HIV contraction. Men engage in sexual intercourse with many partners without using a condom (Will 2000). Women at this lower level engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Homeless people are more vulnerable to infection, women in such situations are prone to rape and, men are most likely drug users. Individuals with low socioeconomic resources are prone to injury, which makes the susceptible to the effects of the virus that affects the central nervous system (Earnshaw, Valerie and Stephenie 2009).
Does HIV Infection Affect the Socio Sconomic Status of Infected Persons?
HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the productivity…
Semple, S.J., Patterson, T.L., Temoshok, L.R., McCutchan, J.A., Straits-Troster,
K., Chandler, J.A., & Grant, I. 2003. "Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women." Women & Health, 20(4), 15-36.
Earnshaw, Valerie a., and Stephenie R. Chaudoir.2009. "From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures." AIDS
and Behavior 13.6 (2009): 1160-1177.
Children with AIDS
The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…
Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.
Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.
Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context eport
Article from "MedPage Today"
The writer, Mr. Smith, interviewed Dr. Myron Cohen of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill about the treatment of HIV / AIDS. Dr. Cohen says that the guideline from International Antiviral Society and DHSS (Department of Health and Human Services) treatment for HIV need to be started immediately after the diagnosis regardless of the CD4 cell count. HIV treatment involves different steps. First and foremost is for people to have a test for HIV detection. Once it is detected, treatment should be started. HIV and AIDS are two different diseases. HIV can be controlled and a person can lead a normal life. However, there are side effects of HIV treatment as well like it produces elite controllers i.e. patients who will progress towards AIDS slowly or not at all. But despite…
Altman, L.K. (2012, July 30). A World Without AIDS, Still Worlds Away. The NewYork Times.
Beasley, D., & Miles, T. (2012, July 18). AIDS deaths worldwide drop as access to drugs improves. Chicago Tribune.
Smit, M. (2013, January 05). HIV / AIDS in Practice: When to Start Therapy, a Clinical Context Report. MedPage Today.
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…
Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.
Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.
Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief
Group: Princeton, NJ.
Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens:
Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus
his paper is written specifically for health care professionals who may, at some point during the course of their workday, be exposed to certain bloodborne pathogens, potentially resulting in serious illness. herefore, it is important that these professionals create and maintain a plan to address key issues that may arise during the testing and care of potentially infected patients. By writing this article, the authors hope to establish a standard procedure for dealing with occupational exposure to the pathogens for healthcare workers while also reviewing much of the current information available.
he authors note that there have been many studied performed over the years that deal with exposure to bloodborne pathogens, but this article attempts to combine them into one coherent plan for all healthcare workers to follow. hey reference several studies that…
The authors do not present many controversial findings in this article, but the demand for zidovudine is growing as an immediate treatment after exposure. The authors find no evidence to support its efficacy and, therefore, do not condone its use. They also question the efficacy of using other antibodies in the wake of exposure since there is little evidence suggesting they have any effect at all. The authors have clearly been working with bloodborne pathogens for some time and have grown concerned about the exposure rate of many professional healthcare workers. They view the immediate influence of counseling as essential in helping a worker to overcome the emotional aspect of exposure and believe that every precaution must be taken to avoid such risks. While most people would readily agree with this position on the risks associated with treating infected patients, some would argue that these risks should not supersede the patient's privacy, a contention that the authors seem to find ineffectual. For them, the risks facing healthcare workers are far more important than any privacy issues that may present themselves.
Gerberding, Julie L. And David K. Henderson. "Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens: Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immuno-
Deficiency Virus." Clinical Infectious Diseases 14.6 (1992): 1179-1185. Print.