Instead, the authors merely present their own findings in a series of databases without any cross-comparison with previous studies. Furthermore, rather than fully explicating their methods, most of their 'results' section is devoted to explaining why the 12-months follow-up yielded more accurate reporting. Although this finding is indeed interesting and important, it is not directly related to how the research question was framed in terms of the superiority of using two different sources of data-tracking.
Is the method of presentation effective? Is the method of presentation accurate?
While the findings are interesting, there are many questions left open-ended from a reader's point-of-view. For instance, how were these diagnoses obtained? Were they from individuals willingly being tested for HIV or who had received a diagnosis because of other complications or because of enforced testing (such as before entering a correctional setting). Different states have entirely different methods of tabulating data (for…… [Read More]
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has grown into an epidemic that has spun out of control and grown into something that needs to be addressed in a manner that everyone will finally agree that this situation has to be remedied. No longer can HIV be viewed as a way to ostracize those who most need help, nor should it be seen as a method to suppress those of lower socioeconomic status and of minority background, which so far combined, are the groups with the highest rate of HIV infection (Downer, 2009).
In order for anything to change with the HIV situation in the world, a way of dealing with this issue in a calm rational manner needs to be established. Currently, there are individuals living with HIV that have not been receiving the proper care to address their needs and their particular situation (Downer, 2009). My public health vision for the…… [Read More]
What is HIV?
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is believed to be the virus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a deadly disease that affects nearly one million Americans every year (Silverstein, 1991).
HIV is classified as a retrovirus that uses RNA templates to produce DNA. For example, within the core of HIV, a double molecule of ribonucleic acid, RNA, exists. When the virus invades a cell, this genetic material is replicated in the form of DNA.
However, in order to produce this DNA, HIV must first be able to produce a particular enzyme that can construct a DNA molecule through a RNA template. This enzyme, known as RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is also referred to as reverse transcription because it reverses the typical cellular process of transcription.
The DNA molecules created by reverse transcription are then placed in the genetic material of the host cell, where they are co-replicated…… [Read More]
Those participants in the high-risk groups were found to significantly associated with certain psychiatric conditions. These included: anxiety/tension, depression, having serious thoughts of suicide, experiencing hallucinations, and difficulties concentrating. In addition, participants who had reported being bothered by psychological or emotional problems, within the last 30 days, were also significantly more likely to be in the high-risk HIV / AIDS group.
This is in contrast to the results of those who had tested positive for HIV / AIDS, with only 15% of respondents who were HIV / AIDS positive being in the high-risk group, according to Fitzgerald, Lundgren and Chassler. In fact, those participants who were HIV / AIDS positive were approximately 82% less likely to be found to engage in the defined high-risk behaviors, when compared with those who had not tested HIV / AIDS positive. In addition, at the bivariate level, the researchers found no significant difference in…… [Read More]
Customer Inserts His/Her Name
Explain how HIV infects CD4+ cells?
The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus which belongs to a group of viruses known as the retroviruses. HIV causes in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) by infecting the cells of the human and uses up all the energy inside the cells which is required for the growth and development of human cells. AIDS is a fatal disease in which the immunity system of the human body is destroyed due to which the body becomes vulnerable to various infections and also the weakness of the body's immune system also allows other diseases to attack the body. Once a person is infected with HIV, this virus feeds on the energy present in the cells and multiplies in the white blood cells. White blood cells are the ones which build up the immune system and when they are weakened by the HIV…… [Read More]
Although AIDS was first discussed in medical literature in 1981, recent evidence proves the HIV virus existed long before. The first documented infection, based on plasma samples, was from 1959 (Avert).
The three most direct modes of HIV transmission between humans include sex, blood transfusions or needle sharing, and mother to infant. The HIV virus cannot survive long without a host body. Transmission therefore requires fresh bodily fluids and yet HIV cannot be transmitted via mosquitoes.
HIV / AIDS carries an enormous social stigma as psychologically devastating as the disease is physically fatal. Because the first medically chronicled cases of HIV / AIDS were gay men, the disease became synonymous with homosexuality. Homophobia fueled fears of the disease and simultaneously stymied efforts to increase public awareness of its devastating effects on all persons. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 60% of adults living with AIDS are female.
Avert. Web site retrieved…… [Read More]
Overall, 8% from the control group completed testing and counseling versus 23% from the intervention group, which is a "modest increase" according to the researchers. None of those who completed testing was positive for HIV.
With the results controlled for race/ethnicity, i.e., meaning, within the same race/ethnic group, the turnout from the incentive-driven group was significantly higher than the control group. It was also found that whether or not they came from the incentive group, African-Americans and to a lesser degree, Hispanics were significantly less likely to complete testing and counseling compared to the other racial groups.
The researchers concluded that financial incentive resulted in a moderate increase in the number of ED-referred patients completing HIV testing and counseling. They could not say if this method was going to increase the percentage of detection of undiagnosed HIV+ individuals or if it's going to be cost-effective. They recommended point-of-care testing, or…… [Read More]
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…… [Read More]
Combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in South Africa
Although Swaziland has the highest incidence rate for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 27.7%, South Africa suffers from the largest number of people living with HIV in the world (6.8 million) (The global HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2016) out of a total population of around 53.5 million (South Africa population, 2016). In fact, during the time required to read this introduction, someone died of HIV in South Africa. Unfortunately, South Africa is certainly not unique in experiencing these high rates of infection and many sub-Saharan African nations are likewise seriously affected by the disease (The global HIV/AID epidemic, 2016). South Africa, though, is also suffering from a number of social problems that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic. In response to these alarming trends, the international community, including the United States, has allocated an enormous amount of resources to help stop the…… [Read More]
SIV Phylogeny in Western Gorillas
SIV in Western Gorillas
Phylogenetic Analysis of SIV in Western Gorillas
In order to better understand how SIV is transmitted Takehisa et al. (2009) undertook several experiments to determine the phylogenetic relationship between SIVgor and SIVcpz. These experiments depended primarily on sequence homology comparisons, a commonly-used and well-accepted approach for determining phylogenetic relationships.
The specific aims are as follows:
Whole genome sequence homology comparisons will be performed between different strains of SIVgor, SIVcpz, and HIV-1, to establish the relative similarity and thus reveal phylogenetic relationships.
SIVgor sequence will be examined for evidence of recombination. Should a recombination signature be found, it can be used to help search for the most recent common ancestor.
There are multiple strains of SIVcpz infecting chimpanzees from central and eastern Africa, and previous research has shown these strains are geographically-specific. SIVgor sequence comparisons with SIVcpz strains isolated from wild chimpanzee…… [Read More]
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…… [Read More]
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]
During the period from April to June2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak had a negative impact on Thai economies. The total revenue from tourism was 10% lower than expected.
However many studies of the tourist industry in the country point out that it is extremely resilient and " in the tsunami disaster, a quick recovery process began after a deep sentiment of sadness. Investment recovered very quickly with a view to cleaning up the destruction left behind. Following recent years of strong growth, the economy of Thailand should be in a strong position to recover from this tragedy." (Seenprachawong U.)
There is little doubt that the Thai tourist industry is one that is extremely dependent on changes in the natural environment and influences on the culture from the outside. While the resilience of this industry have be shown in the face of natural disasters,…… [Read More]
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…… [Read More]
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…… [Read More]
African-Americans and AID Risk
The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…… [Read More]
Description of HIV; the causes, symptoms, complications, mode of transmission and treatment
HIV is a condition that manifests in the virus attacking the immune system of the victim. When the immune system is weakened, the body does not effectively fight off diseases. The combination of the infection plus the virus that triggers it is referred to as HIV. The immune system heavily relies on the presence of white blood cells to carry out the defence activities. The HIV virus targets and destroys a type of white blood cells referred to as CD4 cells. If the virus destroys a significant number of these cells, the body begins to fail to fight infections. The final stage of infection by HIV is called AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS suffer ailments that are not commonly experienced by healthy people. They may acquire rare cancers and…… [Read More]
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate secto, ensuing that a gowing majoity of people, especially in the ichest counties, and paticulaly in the United States, must pay -- often consideably -- fo health cae. Finally, gowing inteest in cosmetic sugey, involving such elective pocedues as hinoplasty, liposuction, beast enhancement o eduction, LASIK eye sugey and so on, o moe simply the emoval of tattoos, have ceated new demands. Vaious foms of dental sugey, especially cosmetic dental sugey, ae not coveed by insuance in counties like the UK and Austalia; hence dental touism has become paticulaly common. In Asia these tends ae 'the unlikely child of new global ealities: the fallout of teoism, the Asian economic downtun, intenet access to pice infomation, and the globalisation of health sevices'…… [Read More]
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…… [Read More]
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]
For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.
In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.
Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…… [Read More]
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS on American Society
hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).
The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]
According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).
Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…… [Read More]
African-American women are at greater risk for contracting HIV than other races. Stemming from this hypothesis, it will be investigated whether race, in this case being African-American, impacts the course of HIV after infection. Past research has indicated that African-American women, including both adults and adolescents, are disproportionately at risk for the contraction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the resultant development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011; Johnson et al., 1994). esearchers have explored the impact that sex-related issues have on the increases risk among this population, and it has been determined that sexual assertiveness is an interpersonal predictor of sexual behavior that poses increased risk for contracting HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). Furthermore, research has indicated that women demonstrated low sexual assertiveness are at a greater risk for the development of HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). It may be suggested that research in this…… [Read More]
Ethics of Prisoner Experiments
Prior to the medical trial at Nuremberg physicians and scientists were largely free to conduct experiments on unsuspecting persons (Freyhofer, 2004, p. 9-10), including inmates inside America's prisons. When it was discovered that German physicians had been conducting inhumane experiments on death camp and concentration camp prisoners during WWII, the world was shocked that doctors were capable of such behavior. The American Military Tribunal in Nuremberg heard arguments from both the defense and prosecution for twenty three doctors and administrators accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defense argued that the doctors' conduct was not a significant departure from past practices and any inhumanity was more a function of the ongoing hostilities. The judges on the tribunal saw it differently and created ethical guidelines for medical researchers, because the evidence presented in court revealed the Hippocratic Oath could not protect patients and…… [Read More]
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…… [Read More]
2005 study by Mohala Tucker Besser et al., conducted upon HIV-positive pregnant women who are about to undergo voluntary caesarian section to give birth. Mohala Tucker Besser et al. used a sample population to study whether or not HIV was present within the amniotic fluid of these pregnant women, and discovered that -- contrary to a previous study published in 1987 -- it was not. Additional relevant studies -- including the original 1987 Lancet publication by Mundy Schinazi Gerber et al., and further studies involving viral transmission between mothers and newborns and specific risk factors for HIV transmission in prenatal and perinatal situations -- are examined in conjunction with Mohala Tucker Besser's 2005 study. The finding has implications for preventing HIV transmission between mothers and newborn infants, and confirms the growing clinical consensus that elective caesarian section remains one of the most reliable ways to reduce viral transmission from an…… [Read More]
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…… [Read More]
osa Lee Cunningham. Elements such as the subject's health history, legal history, psychosocial history, and diagnostic impressions will be covered.
osa Lee Cunningham
DOB/Age: October 7, 1936
Date of Interview: October 7, 1994
eason for Assessment: osa Lee Cunningham was discovered having a fit at Washington's Howard University Hospital, owing to over-consumption of heroin. In spite of being enrolled in an intervention for drug treatment, there did not appear to be any inclination in osa to quit drugs. In fact, she wished she could access methadone, a synthetic drug with heroin-like effects. Some days prior to being interviewed, osa awoke to find herself with fever; her condition had exacerbated. By noon, she was admitted to the emergency room (Dash, 1996 Prologue). osa states that her drug consumption levels hinge on the amount of money in her pocket and heroin accessibility. The subject also had Preludin-use history, a drug she…… [Read More]
HIV AIDS / HIV / AIDS: Societal Influence on Product Development
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). This virus interferes with the ability of the body to counter disease causing organisms.
Factors that Affected the response to HIV-AIDs 1980s-present day
There were several factors that influenced the response by the government and the pharmaceutical industry to the emergence of the AIDs virus.
This came out largely in the form of the degree of empowerment. Women were in a system that saw them as less than equal. Factors such as the movement of people within and without countries affected how well the disease was tracked. Many countries were not tracking the disease or did not have systems to survey it and even identify the people who had the highest risk of contracting it. Another social factor was that the youth were uninhibited when it came…… [Read More]
Identify and Describe the Aggregate
This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.
In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…… [Read More]
Human immunodeficiency virus - HIV continues to be a serious health concern across the world. In essence, HIV brings about harm to the body of an individual by destroying infection fighting white blood cells. Not all persons with HIV end up developing AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), which is the last HIV infection stage. In the United States, Centers for Disease and Control – CDC (2018) points out that HIV has been on the decline within the last decade as a result of targeted efforts to prevent the same. However, according to CDC, “progress has been uneven, and the annual infections and diagnoses have increased among some groups.” It is important to note that there are a wide range of HIV transmission modes, with some of the most prominent modes being unprotected sex, via blood-borne exposure, and from an infected mother to her child (Schulz, 2016). This text concerns itself…… [Read More]
It is considered to be a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and has, since 1981, killed more than 25 million people worldwide (United Nations).
In most of the world, HIV infection is more prevelant in the heterosexual population, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, however, it became known as the "Gay Plague" due to its initial discovery in the homosexual population, the lack of condom use at the time, and the predominance of anal sexual activity. Unforrtunatly, HIV / AIDS also carries with it ostracism, rejection, and discriminiation. This stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents a number of individuals from seeking HIV testing, receiving their results, securing treatment, or even turning what would normally be a managable chronic illness into something that is dire and a death sentence -- as well as perpetuating the disease -- all because of misguided bias (Ogden and Nyblade)
Cultural Issues…… [Read More]
Moreover, CoPs develop their practice through improving the diffusion of innovation within their active networks; the benefits of such interactions are countless especially in the field of healthcare. One can assume that specialty doctors' communities would present the perfect example for CoPs because they share the same practice, interest and professionalism. It would be interesting to study if those CoP networks exist in United Arab Emirates, whether they are active or not and whether leaders can be identified. Collecting such data will enable this project to measure if the rate of diffusion of new innovation can be improved and hence be used by pharmaceutical companies in UAE to improve their resource allocation; all within healthcares' ethical framework.
Overview of Study
This dissertation used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. To this end, chapter one introduced the topic under consideration, a statement of the problem, the purpose and…… [Read More]
These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).
There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…… [Read More]
However, the extent of discrimination and stigma on a HIV infected HCW is much higher creating severe health, economic and psychosocial consequences for the person. The risk of HIV infection is 100 times lesser than HV infection and by following 'Universal Procedures' it is possible to eliminate chances of an infected HCW from affecting a patient. HIV positive nurses should be permitted to work in safe settings without 'exposure prone procedures' so they can continue to participate in care giving while they are themselves coping with the burden of the disease. This is in line with the globally accepted GIPA principle of encouraging the active participation of HIV patients as an effective means to prevent, control and provide support services for people infected with HIV. While patients' safety should be the foremost issue in the field of health provision, care must be taken not to subject the HIV positive HCWs…… [Read More]
The patient and his partner's privacy must be respected, but if at all possible the nurse should treat the patient as part of a larger social environment, which includes the patient's family and his community. The patient's status and his partner's health status will impact the quality of life they both experience in their relationship, and affect treatment compliance.
Dealing with sensitive issues early on in the intervention builds the necessary trust and getting the patient's loved ones 'on board' in terms of encouraging treatment compliance will improve his quality of life as well as act as positive incentives for compliance. Finally, sexuality and the importance of sexual functioning are vital in maintaining a high quality of life. Sexual issues in terms of practicing appropriate 'safe sex' are important to address with an HIV-positive patient. Interviewing the patient about his or her sexual practices and afterwards in a sensitive manner…… [Read More]
As to catheter straps, if fastened too tightly they can act as tourniquets, cutting off the needed flow of blood and presenting. And at least theoretically, use of straps brings about a risk of increasing the complications such as "…deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism" in those patients with "impaired lower extremity circulation" (Billington 504). Research presented in this article shows that the problem of infection due to poorly attached catheters can be reduced significantly through the use of a product called "Bard StatLock" -- which, the authors insist, is an effective stabilization device because it allows movement (through a swivel clip), because it is a "sterile latex-free, tug-resistant product" (Billington 504). An article in the journal RN, incidentally, states that treating "hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia" can cost a hospital up to $45,000.
ashing "Bloody Hands": An article in the Australian Nursing Journal asserts, "…hand hygiene is the single most effective…… [Read More]
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…… [Read More]
In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).
The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…… [Read More]
A group of researchers write, "To effectively respond to this pandemic, HIV / AIDS must be treated as both an emergency and a long-term developmental issue" (Da Cruz, Da Cruz & Hammers, 2007). First, additional research must be developed to help find an ultimate cure for this disease. This would be the ultimate form of control and eradication, and would eliminate this social problem from the world.
However, this research is costly and takes time. Simply developing drugs that help combat the disease effectively has taken decades, and there is still no cure or preventative for AIDS, other than abstinence. There is an office of AIDS research in the Federal Government that coordinates research and development activities, and there is research under way to help develop an AIDS vaccine to prevent the disease. esearch should be heavily funded, and if federal funds are not available, they should be sought through…… [Read More]
S., and that the world is moving rapidly in the direction of a world community, a global community, and a global economic system. This is an argument separate and apart from the issue at hand, but is peripheral to it in that in order for the world community to grow and to develop an economic that facilitates the population in the world, that it becomes necessary for borders to become invisible and for individuals to have free and unhindered access to other regions of the world. Thomas C. Fischer, in his book, the United States, the European Union, and "Globalization" of World Trade: Allies or Adversaries (2000), discusses borders in relationship to globalization, and helps put into perspective the concept of open borders and globalization.
In conclusion, there is a need to be cautious about the borders as a result of economic and social conditions that exist south of the…… [Read More]
He says that if the prices are still too high, the UN should offer subsidies. (oseley, 2003)
2. Rupert ondy - Senior Vice President and General Counsel
He played a key role in the merger between Glaxo Welcome and SmithKline as well as after the merger. ondy developed an efficient post merger legal department and he ensured legal representation to all organizational departments. (Practical Law Company, 2003)
3. John Clarke - President, Consumer Healthcare
Clarke is the main actor on the company's Consumer Healthcare market and it is due to him that oral hygiene, over-the-counter and nutritional healthcare products have been promoted by GlaxoSmithKline. (Forbes Magazine, 2007)
4. Marc Dunoyer - President, Pharmaceuticals Japan
He extensively promoted the anti-allergy Zyrtec drugs in Japan and around the world.
5. Russell Greig - President, Pharmaceuticals International
Greig is in charge of the GSK operations outside the United States, mainly Japan and the…… [Read More]
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…… [Read More]
As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.
Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The
Debate over Physician-Assisted…… [Read More]
It would then become incumbent on the experienced coder to be able to read through the injuries and determine the accurate code to use. Another issue Kramer, Barancik, and Thode, Jr. (1990) found was that certain areas of the body lacked a code when injured to a very specific area of the body.
The training and education one needs to be a successful medical coder, and in particular a remote medical coder, is extensive. If we examine Figure 1 below, we can understand why this is so:
AAT (alpha-1 antitrypsin) deficiency 273.4
AAV (disease) (illness) (infection) - see Human immunodeficiency virus (disease) (illness) (infection)
Abactio - see Abortion, induced
Abactus venter - see Abortion, induced
Abasia (-astasia) 307.9
Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome (cystinosis) 270.0
Abdomen, abdominal - see also condition
Kramer, Barancik, and Thode, Jr. (1990) found
Abduction contracture, hip or other joint -…… [Read More]
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]
health issues facing the differed populations of the United States today, and these health concerns differ between males and females, income levels, and races. As such, it is important, prior to discussing any particular health concern, to first establish the target age cohort for which information is to be presented. Once this cohort is established, creating programs targeted to a specific population becomes a much simpler task.
This paper discusses the top five leading causes of death for African-American women age 25 to 44 in the United States in the year 2001. Additionally, this paper will focus on one particular cause of death for this population, and will outline an existing prevention program, aimed at this target age cohort. Finally, this paper will present data from studies on this prevention effort, to determine if the effort is succeeding.
As stated, the age cohort to be analyzed in this paper is…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS in Rural America Disproportionate Impact on Minority and Multicultural Populations." ational Rural Health Association Issue Paper. July, 2004.
Malt, Jennifer. "Social Distance and Patients' Rating of Healthcare Providers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 42 (Dec. 2001).
Magnus, Stephen a. And Mick, Stephen S. "Medical Schools, Affirmative Action, and the eglected Role of Social Class." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 90, 2000.
ational Program Report. Program to Address the Sociocultural Barriers to Health in Hispanic Communities. Washington, D.C.: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1999.
Malt, Jennifer. "Social Distance and Patients' Rating of Healthcare Providers." Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 42 (Dec. 2001). P. 360.
Magnus, Stephen a. And Mick, Stephen S. "Medical Schools, Affirmative Action, and the eglected Role of Social Class." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 90, 2000. p. 1197.
ational Program Report. Program to Address the Sociocultural Barriers to Health…… [Read More]
At the same time, it also needs to be mentioned that one has to take a decision based on the consideration that whether the person has any individual choice of his/her own in the matter. One of the main reasons for developing such an attitude may be because of depression in the minds of the patient. This matter needs to be raised and decided by the doctor and medicines prescribed accordingly to the need. These medicines have to be given by force, to the patient, if necessary, if he is unwilling to take them. At the same time, one may also understand that when medicines are being forced down a patient's throat, the effects and situation of the mind of the patient makes the medicine to be less effective, unless otherwise it is a medicine which has enough direct physical action. All the developmental effects are being slowed down by…… [Read More]
Nursing in 2021
Over the next decade, and for years to come afterwards, the expected growth in the older adult population will have a significant impact on the healthcare system. The baby boom generation, individuals born between 1946 and 1964, began turning 65 in 2011. By 2020 the number of Americans age 65 and older is expected to rise to 54 million. Furthermore, as a result of better nutrition, safety and health care the number of individuals who reach the age of 85 or older will grow even more dramatically ("The Impact of Aging Population on the Health Workforce in the United States," 2006).
This will precipitate a greater demand for health care in general and will also affect the nature of the skills and services the health care workforce must be equipped to provide, and the settings in which this care is provided. As a person ages, their immune…… [Read More]
Teen Alcohol Abuse
Adolescent alcohol abuse has been an ongoing public health problem for many years. While alcohol abuse trends tend to increase and subside over time, recent research continues to show an alarming level of alcohol use. For example, surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that alcohol use has dropped slightly when compared with previous years, in 2011 almost two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and almost one third (29%) of eighth graders had used alcohol within the past month (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst, 2011).
Health Needs Assessment
As of 1988, the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 is prohibited. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) define underage drinking as consuming alcohol prior to the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. Further, zero tolerance laws make it illegal in all states for youth under age 21 to drive…… [Read More]
Clinical isk Management
Hospitals are one of the top listed high-risk places of work. Just like any high-risk workplaces, Clinical isk Management (CM) procedures are formulated to enable hospitals in identifying, containing, as well as manage work related risks such as injuries, which are bound within the facilities. Implementation of element contained in risk management procedures in any hospital setting should be effected in order to ensure for the safety of both patients and workers accommodated in the facility.
isk management is highly prioritized in most high-risk organizations. Technological advances have been realized in modern medicine progressively resulting to more complex care and treatment processes. Despite the positive result of leveraging care opportunities, such advancements may result in adversities that might in turn affect patients and staff working in hospital environments. Since it is far from possible to eradicate such risks completely, clinical risk management procedures are there…… [Read More]
.'s secretions, administration of I.V. fluids to keep B.. hydrated, and, prior to hospitalization, the administration of albuterol.
B..'s breathing was labored and was not significantly improved by the interventions, although suctioning to clear the airways and the introduction of oxygen ensured adequate oxygen intake. Postiaux et al. found that the addition of prolonged slow expirations and provoked coughs could contribute "actively to a direct and immediate drainage of secretions" (2011). This might have helped alleviate "some bronchial obstruction symptoms that are usually associated with an increased load of breathing, due to a positive intrathoracic pressure and an increased respiratory rate" (Postiaux et al., 2011).
Potential Long-Term Effects / Complications
An early and severe infection with SV bronchiolitis is associated with breathing difficulties such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy later in life (Todd et al., 2010). Whether the SV causes these problems or whether a common factor makes infants more…… [Read More]
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…… [Read More]
Does Socio-economic Status Impact lives of People with HIV and AIDS?
Individuals with a lower socio-economic status are more prone to contracting HIV and AIDS virus. This measure also determines how individual status, relates to proper medical care. Lack of socioeconomic strength associated to the practice of risky sexual behaviors results to HIV contraction. Men engage in sexual intercourse with many partners without using a condom (Will 2000). Women at this lower level engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Homeless people are more vulnerable to infection, women in such situations are prone to rape and, men are most likely drug users. Individuals with low socioeconomic resources are prone to injury, which makes the susceptible to the effects of the virus that affects the central nervous system (Earnshaw, Valerie and Stephenie 2009).
Does HIV Infection Affect the Socio Sconomic Status of Infected Persons?
HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the productivity…… [Read More]