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Divorce on Children
Impact of Divorce on Children
Impacts on Education of Children
Impacts of elocation on children
Strategies to educe the Impact of Divorce
The latest studies have indicated that parental divorce has a negative impact on children. Children who experience divorce are more likely to experience social, psychological, educational and behavioral problems. This research paper describes that why such problems prevail in children and how these issues affect the competency level of these children. The paper also seeks to find out ways through which the impact of divorce on children can be reduced.
Impact of Divorce on Children
A detailed survey was conducted in different schools and institutions in order to find out the behavioral changes among the children having intact and separated parents so that the impact of divorce on children could be determined. Some secondary data, including books, magazines, journals…
Amato, P.R. Princeton University, (1994). Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce. Retrieved from Princeton University website: http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/04_01_08.pdf
Evans, M.D.R., & Kelley, J. Melbourne Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, (n.d.).Effects of divorce on children's educational attainment, and whether they are accounted for by moving house. Retrieved from Melbourne Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research website: http://www.melbourneinstitute.com/downloads/labour/25_FinReport.pdf
Gindes, M. American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML), (1998). The psychological effects of relocation for children of divorce. Retrieved from American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) website: http://www.aaml.org/sites/default/files/psychological effects-article.pdf
Hughes Jr., R. University of Illinois, Department of Human and Community Development. (2005).The effects of divorce on children. Retrieved from University of Illinois website: https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/14470/The Effects of Divorce on Children -- 2005.pdf?sequence=2
Divorce on Children
Impact of Divorce on Children
Many Pebbles, Many ipples:
Impacts of Divorce on Early Childhood Development
Divorce is seen by both parents and children who have experienced it as one of the single most stressful life events they have endured (Stadelmann et al. 2010). While it is well-documented that divorce has an impact on the development of children of all ages, it is difficult to associate specific effects with divorce because of the high number of correlative factors involved in the event of divorce. This paper looks at four particular factors associated with divorce -- parental stress, parental separation, socioeconomic upheaval, and remarriage -- and traces the effects that these individual stressors have on different stages of child development. It finds that all three factors impact children of all ages, though children of younger ages tend to experience more profound behavioral effects, while older children tend to…
Benson, J. (2009) Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
DeFranc, W. And Mahalik, J.R. (2002) Masculine gender role conflict and stress in relation to parental attachment and separation. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, 51-60.
Hughes, R. (November 20, 2010) What is the real divorce rate in the U.S. Huffington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-hughes/what-is-the-real-divorce-_b_785045.html .
Nauert, R. (March 7, 2007) Family stress affects kid's physical health. PsychCentral. Retrieved Aprill 11, 2012 from http://psychcentral.com/news/2007/03/07/family-stress-affects-kids-physical-health/669.html .
Perspective #1 -- Divorce is Harmful to the Welfare of Family Members
The classic position on marital divorce is that marital dissolution is tremendously harmful to all family members and to children in particular. According to that view, married couples should remain married even if they are unhappy, mainly because divorce is very harmful to children. The rationale for that perspective is that children are the parties most victimized by divorce because it disrupts their life home and interferes with their relationships with their parents.
Proponents of this position suggest that children of divorced parents typically develop problems in the area of trust and may be much more prone to relationship difficulties as adults that predispose them to divorce in their own marriages. In fact, this is one of the reasons that many married couples who are unhappy and who might choose to get divorced if they were childless…
Branden, N. (1999) The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Mavis, H. "Marriage and divorce American style: a destructive marriage is not a happy family" The American Prospect; April 8, 2002.
Roberts, S. "The Shelf Life of Bliss." The New York Times, July 1, 2007.
Impacts of Divorce on Children
a. While divorce can be the lesser of two evils, divorce nonetheless can affect any involved children in many ways.
II. Positive Effects
a. Children feel a sense of relief
b. They are happier if the parents thrive after splitting up
c. Happier but split parents mean happier kids
d. Shared custody can be much better than a volatile household
e. Modeling that leaving a dysfunctional relationship is a good thing
III. Negative Effects
a. Children might act out at school
b. Single parent families can be cash-strapped
c. The effects of the divorce can extend into the child’s adult life
d. The take offense to one parent verbally assaulting the other
e. Stress of some sort is normal and expected
a. Parents should work things out if possible, but some marriages should end if certain lines are cross or attempts…
The author notes that little research is accorded to children's diminished psychosocial behavior following divorce. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (n=10,061), he examines the associations between divorce and children's outcome and suggests that divorce is associated with diminished psychosocial well-being in children thereby explaining the connection between divorce and lower academic achievement.
The study is useful for my research since it mentions psychosocial factors. Nonetheless, I find author's conclusions shaky for at least three reasons: firstly, author limited his study to children of kindergarten age therefore conclusions cannot be generalized to children of all ages; secondly, many more variables must taken into consideration regarding resulting low academic achievement; thirdly, children's academic level prior to divorce must be considered too.
. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my…
3. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my research since it connects past and present material on divorce concluding with gaps and research questions that still need to be addressed.
The author observes that research on divorce during the past decade focused on a range of topics that included associations between divorce and the well being of children and former spouses, interventions for divorcing couples, and predictors for divorce. Methodology generally employed longitudinal studies, genetically informed designs, and statistical models that controlled for possible confounding variables. Current trends are to focus on the number of family transitions (e.g. quantity of divorce, remarriage etc.). The author concludes with description of existent gaps in the literature and suggestions for new directions in research.
Data will be collected using a survey instrument. The instrument will be designed by researchers for the purposes of this particular study and will feature two sections. The first section will ask for some brief familial and biographical information. First and foremost, the survey will ask the life and marital status of the respondents' parents, accounting for single mothers, single fathers, legal non-biological guardians, divorced parents, remarried parents and married parents. This section will also ask for information regarding siblings and other particulars of the family living situation. Surveys will not ask for names or other individual identifiers, insuring anonymity and privacy for all respondents.
In the second section of the survey, aata will be collected using a Fixed Alternatives Likert Scale survey. Here, 20 statements will be presented to the respondent. The respondent will be asked to circle one of five numbered responses:
-2. Strongly Disagree
Among the factors which this article elucidates are necessary to be considered, Hetherington et al. indicate that "the long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se." (Hetherington et al., 303)
From a clinical treatment perspective, the article by Konstam (2009) is particularly useful. This presents the view that for those verging on adulthood who experience the divorce of parents, there is a more sophisticated and thus more complex sense of loss which is difficult to interpret. This is experienced differently than the dissolution of a marriage for young children who may lack the wherewithal to have observed clear warning signs. Here, Konstam suggests that clinical assistance can be a valuable resource for contending with issues…
Amato, P. (2000). The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 11-26.
Amato, P. & Cheadle, J.(2008). Parental divorce, marital conflict and children's behavior problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children. Social Forces, 83
Baker, a. (2005). The Long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children:
A good number of studies over the years have linked deviant behaviors such as juvenile delinquency and anti-social behavior to children living in broken homes (Bandura & Walters in Demo & Acock, 1988, p.636). Dornbusch et al.'s (in ibid.) nationwide study among 12-17 male and female children of divorced families found that adolescents living in household with only their mothers performing the sole parent role are more likely to engage in deviant acts while the presence of an additional adult lessens the likelihood of committing deviant acts.
Long have we known about the negative effects of divorce, I believe it is high time to look at the under-acknowledged domain of the divorce literature, i.e. The positive effects of divorce. According to Hetherington & Kelly in Lyons (2002, p.1), three-fourths of the children from divorced families have actually grown to be resilient and lead lives with healthy…
Cooney, T.M. et al. (1995). Surviving the Break-Up? Predictors of Parent-Adult Child Relations After Parental Divorce. Family Relations, 44, 153-161.
Demo, DH & Acock, a.C. (1988). The Impact of Divorce on Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 619-648.
Henning, J.S. & Oldham, J.T. (1977). Children of Divorce: Legal and Psychological Crises. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 55-58.
Lyons, L. (2002). Gallup Tuesday Briefing. Kids and Divorce 1, 1-3.
One such area is how divorce affects the children of divorce once they are married and have children of their own. Do they have difficulty committing? Are they more likely to delay marriage? Answers to these types of questions may prove beneficial to examining further the long-term effects of divorce on children.
esources in Palm Spring California include family and individual counseling services throughout the city. Some of these resources include The Counseling Center located at 1111 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for the counseling center is (760) [HIDDEN] In addition, there is the Smoketree Counseling Services located at 2825 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for smoketree is (760) [HIDDEN] Additionally there are other counselors in the area specializing in therapy as it relates to divorce. One such therapist is Nancy Ackerman. She has more…
Jeynes, W.H. (2001). The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children's Consumption of Alcohol. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 305. Retrieved February 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lengua, L.J.,Wolchik S.A., Sandler I.N., West S.G.(2000) The Additive and Interactive effects of Parenting and Temperament in Predicting Adjustment Problems in Children of Divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 29 (2), p.232.
Love, K.M. And Murdock T. (2004) Attachment to Parents and Psychological well being: An Examination of young Adult College Student in intact Families and Step Families Journal of Family Psychology. 18 (4)
Nielsen, L. (1999). College Aged Students with Divorced Parents: Facts and Fiction. College Student Journal, 33(4), 543.
Ananat & Michaels (2008) concur with the emphasis on income being the deciding factor upon the divorced child's success. They found that divorce significantly "increases women's odds of having very high or very low income. In other words, while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal earnings through child support, welfare, combining households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly unsuccessful. e conclude that by raising both poverty and inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences" (Ananat & Michaels 2008). Some women use divorce as a vehicle of self-empowerment, for other women who are unable to compensate, poverty becomes more severe in a single-income household. Another interesting finding of Ananat & Michael's research is that "having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up," and this may account for the lower incomes of children with divorce, if women still tend to earn less than…
Ananat, E., & G. Michaels. (2008). The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of women with children. The Journal of Human Resources, 43(3), 611. Retrieved August
9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1521034461).
Steele, F., W. Sigle-Rushton, & Y. Kravdal. (2009). Consequences of family disruption on children's educational outcomes in Norway. Demography, 46(3), 553-574. Retrieved
August 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1799973811).
I will also solicit from individual his or her basics demographics and personal information such as rough socio-economic status ('I make approximately ($-) per month); vocational occupation; characteristics of place that respondent lives in; details of children (amount, ages, etc.) and how respondent feels program impacted his children; age children were when divorce occurred: details of support system (if any) and of extended family (if any). I will also ascertain that I am targeting individuals who have been divorced once and not remarried and that they have not introduced any other significant partner in their lives at the moment. This is so as to control for possible confounding elements. Stakeholders and participants in this sense are participants of the online / forum / chatgroup / blog environment.
Two of the ethical precautions that I will take will include coding the respondent's genuine or pseudo online identity so that he…
Bowler, G.M., Jr. (2010). Netnography: A method specifically designed to study cultures and communities online. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1270-1275.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
Of course, the amount of transitions (the amount of divorce in the family) greatly increases the risk for children to settle in satisfying marriages and divorce themselves when young adults.
Protective factors reducing impact of divorce on children
The research question here is whether there are any factors that may be considered that are empirically proved to be able to mitigate the effect of divorce in children.
Within the last decade, researchers have identified various such factors each having a range of associated variables themselves.
1. Competent custodial parents and parenting: One of the best protective factors is the quality of parenting following divorce and the psychological adjustment of the custodial parents. Effective parental behavior such as warmth, nurturing, emotional support, authoritative discipline, and age appropriate behavior demonstrate the best means for providing emotional support for children as compared to parents who are withdrawn, inattentive and provide coercive discipline (Sandler…
Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
Bausermann, R. (2002). Child adjustment in joint-custody vs. sole-custody arrangements: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 91 -- 102.
Kelly, J. (2007). Children's Living Arrangements Following Separation and Divorce: Insights From Empirical and Clinical Research. Fam Proc 46,35 -- 52.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
This article is of extreme importance in this research study. It adds to the other articles mentioned by discussing the importance of protective factors in detail and urging caution when espousing a correlative relationship between cause and effect in divorce and the reaction of children.
eon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, eon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), eon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. eon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, eon (2003) found…
Leon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, Leon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), Leon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. Leon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, Leon (2003) found results that were remarkably similar to Amato's, noting that children with divorced parents tended to be associated with developmental problems such as being withdrawn or having behavior problems. However, it would be easy to argue that other factors were responsible for these results. In addition, interpreting the results of these tests was made difficult by various factors that might lead to their invalidation, such as the fact that the data was collected from self-report surveys (Leon, 2003). Still Leon (2003) concludes that divorce certainly impacts the lives of young children very greatly and the developmental level of young children should determine how professionals such as psychologists respond to the issue of divorce in the child's home. Further, while parenting skills were important mitigating factors for both older and younger children after divorce, Leon (2003) points out that for younger children, it is most important that parents be warm and loving.
All of the couples shared the following conditions: both living in Israel, divorced for at least 1 1/2 years, at least one child between 2 and 16 years of age, and the mother having custody (Nehami, 2003). Furthermore, the fathers all had contact with their children after the divorce, which is not universal (Nehami, 2003). This is a very specific sample. It would be difficult to suggest that the study would generalize to all people. It might generalize to all divorced people in Israel sharing the same characteristics, which would be a significantly large population. However, different legal systems are going to show bias towards fathers or towards mothers, which changes the nature of the divorce process. In fact, in some areas, men must be the initiators of divorce, so that would not even be a variable. Therefore, in many ways, this study simply cannot be generalized to different populations.…
Nehami, B. (2003). Divorced process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents. Family Process 42, a (1): 117-31.
The Significance of Present-Day Changes in the Institution of Marriage:
Today, it is a fact that more and more marriages are becoming impermanent and less long lasting than they ever have been before. What is the cause for this phenomenon? Levi-Strauss maintain that today, there is an equal division of labor, and as a direct consequence, what happens is that the rights and responsibilities between both the partners of opposite sexes becomes equalized, and as a result, there is less dependence of one partner on the other. Perhaps the so called 'woman's movement' may have also contributed to this type of occurrence, and various other changes in society, including a considerable lessening of housework, and also the sexual revolution that took place during the sixties may also have contributed to the upsetting of the balance of the equation between men and women. Consider housework, for example, today. (Nazzari, pp:…
Coughlan, W.G. Marriage Breakdown. In A.P. Elkin (ed) Marriage and the Family in Australia. Angus and Robertson, 1957.
Eekelaar, John. Regulating Divorce.
Clarendon Press, 1991.
Glendon, Mary Ann. The Transformation of Family Law: State, Law and family in the United
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.
Divorce on Children
Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…
As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.
These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).
Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…
Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family
Journal, 13(4), 452-455.
Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Rising Divorce Rates
The Need for and Purpose of the Project
Impact of Divorce on Children
Chapter 5-Conclusions, Summary and Recommendations,
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Divorce has become popular throughout the many years it has existed and divorce rates continue to increase. More than a million people a year get a divorce (Tucker-Ladd 35). Young couples are more commonly known to get a divorce, than those who have been married for two or three years (35). Forty percent of men and fifty percent of women are divorced before that age of thirty (35). About fifteen to twenty percent of people ages 35 to 55 are now currently divorced (35). About twenty percent of marriages last less than fifteen years (35). Recent statistics say that sixty-five to seventy percent of new marriages will fail (35).
There is one thing in…
Berry, Dawn Bradley. "The divorce recovery sourcebook." Los Angeles: Lowell
House, c 1998
Bienenfeld, Florence Ph. D, M.F.C.C. "Do It Yourslef Conflict Resolution for Couples." Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press, 2000.
Cavin, Shelly Smith. "Personality Types and Interpersonal Communication."
Are Social Networking and Sites Increasing the Rate of Divorce?
The first element of this hypothesis is: are divorce rates really increasing? Generalized references to divorce seem to consistently say "the divorce rate is increasing" and "50% of all U.S. marriages end in divorce." However, if 50% of all U.S. marriages ended in divorce in 1980, and the same percentage in 1990 and the same in 2000 and the same in 2010, then at least in that respect, the rate of divorce is not increasing. According to "Divorce Rates," the per capita rate of divorce in the U.S. was: "1991, 0.47%; 1992, 0.48%; 1993, 0.46%; 1994, 0.46%; 1995, 0.46%; 1995, 0.43%; 1997, 0.43%; 1998, 0.42%; 1999, 0.41%; 2000, 0.41%; 2001, 0.40%; 2002, 0.38%; 2005, 0.36%" (Americans for Divorce Reform, 2006), and according to the "Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog," the divorce rate in 2010 was 0.36% (Divorce Statistics…
Americans for Divorce Reform. (2006). Divorce Rates - Divorce Statistics. Retrieved from divorcereform.org: http://www.divorcereform.org/rates.html
Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. (2011, July 1). Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. Retrieved from familylaw.typepad.com: http://familylaw.typepad.com/stats/
Kendall, T.D. (2010). The Relationship Between Internet Access and Divorce Rate. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Volume 32, Number 3, 449-460.
Live Science Staff. (2010, January 26). College-Educated Women More Likely to Stay Married. Retrieved from livescience.com: http://www.livescience.com/8049-college-educated-women-stay-married.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Livesciencecom+ (LiveScience.com+Science+Headline+Feed)
In reality, such a parent would have difficulty raising a child on his or her own and the finances that he or she previously invested in providing the child with entertaining activities need to be directed at buying more important resources for the child.
A parent who is no longer in charge of his or her child's life has practically no problems buying a great deal of things for his or her child and thus influences the child in feeling that he or she is not receiving enough attention from the parent holding custody. Children can also be affected by the fact that parents often believe that there is a competition between themselves and their peers concerning who receives the most appreciation from the child.
IV. Children's development
hereas people are well-aware that divorce can be harmful for a large number of children who see their parents getting separated, the…
Amato, Paul R. "The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family 62.4 (2000)
DeBord, Carmen, "The Effects of Divorce on Children," Retrieved November 11, 2011, from the North Carolina State University Website: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs471.pdf
Leo, John, "The Sleeper Effect," Human Life Review Fall 2000.
Palosaari, Ulla and Aro, Hillevi, "Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood,"Adolescence 29.115 (1994)
If there are no significant differences in student counselor perceptions of marriage, then student counselors can be trained in pre-marital and marital therapies without reference to the counselor demographic. The goals of the treatment remain the same.
3. How can it be applied to marriage and couple counseling?
As the authors suggest, the findings can be applied to help counselors and especially student counselors because the results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other contexts. The findings show that while age, gender, and marital status might not bias the counselor when treating clients, those factors cannot be ignored. The findins can be applied to a cross-cultural counseling setting. Moreover, the findings suggest that counselors could become more aware of the needs of couples, when couples are experiencing trouble or when individuals come to counselors with complaints that can be traced to the relationship. Moreover individual counseling issues can be located within…
Stephens, O.A. (2012). Student Counsellors' Perceived Causes of Divorce among Couples in Lagos Metropolis. Ife PsychologIA, 20(2), September 2012
divorce, which by definition is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties and the legal process has to be followed, The research aims at bringing out the causes and the impact or effects of divorce by so doing the paper will highlight some causes and effects about the topic and then arguments supporting the ideas will be spell based on supporting references.
Divorce is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties, many at times the approval of court of law and in some cases other legal authorities are needed to authenticate this process. This process features many issues like spousal support, where children are involved we have child support and custody and finally we have distribution of property.
Subsequently to the refinement, marriage came to be well thought-out as a common bond that is among the non-Catholic expanses based on this ground civil authorities…
Blackstone (1984), "Commentaries on the Laws of England" p. 435 (Legal Classics Library spec. ed.
Pamela J. Smock, (1993) "The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young Women over the Past Two Decades." Demography 30: 353-371.
Robert Coombs (1991), "Marital Status and Personal Well-Being" A Literature Review," Family Relations 40:97-102; I.M. Joung, et al.
Rowd, Alisha (2011), "Common Causes of Divorce." 3 Jan. 2008 EzineArticles.com. 8 Feb.
Critical Thinking and Divorce
Critical thinking refers to reflective thinking whereby a person views an event or incident objectively to develop arguments and then tries to reach some sound unbiased conclusions. The ability to think critically has occupied a pivotal position in last few decades because it allows a person to reach a conclusion that has not been colored by bias or pre-conceived notions about a certain person or issue. However critical thinking is something that most people are required to learn and not everyone is born with the skills to critically analyze a situation. Let us see how critical thinking has been defined and that will help us understand what exactly is meant by this term. We can then go on to apply critical thinking to the process of divorce.
John Dewey was one of the early thinkers to develop and present a sound definition of critical thinking. To…
Dewey, J. (1909) revised edition (1993). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
McPeck, John. 1981. Critical Thinking and Education. New York: St. Martin's.
Siegel, Harvey. 1988. Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical Thinking and Education. New York: Routledge.
Watson, G., & Glaser, E. (1941, 1980). Manual: The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. New York: Harcourt
Marriage and the Bible: Understanding the Concept
In ancient Israel, marriage was largely a social construct arranged between parents for their children -- divorce was possible but largely for the very rich, and even the Old Testament presumption was that marriage was a lasting, lifelong covenant (Elwell 1996: 346). The custom of marriage was often that of a "family" affair, with the parents governing the union rather than the personal will of the participants (Elwell 1996: 740). Today, marriage is largely considered a matter of personal choice without theological significance, much less an analog to the relationship of humanity and God (Elwell 1996:743). Although some aspects of the modern conception of marriage may seem to have positive benefits, in terms of its stress upon the spiritual bonds between individuals rather than social needs, the Biblical concept of marriage as that of a permanent union that cannot be dissolved because of…
Elwell, W. (1996). Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Baker Publishing Group.
Divorce as an experience is never easy for anyone, not the adults and especially not the children, on which the effects of divorce can take a serious toll. However, there are some factors that play a significant role in determining the impact of that experience for the child. Age, the way the entire procedure of divorce is handled, how mature parents have behaved throughout it, how the environment of the home remained pre and post divorce all are instrumental in effecting the psychological well-being of the child, whose mind is still young enough to develop imprints that can last a lifetime (University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension, n.d).
The effects of the breaking up of a family can be very consequential for the growing up child, and can even result in effects like having sex before the age of 16, getting pregnant at a young age like 20, including the…
Alastair McPhee, F.C. (2009). Disruptive Behaviour within the classroom: an ecosystemic view of pupil behaviour. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from University of Glasgow: https://dspace.gla.ac.uk/bitstream/1905/805/3/McPhee_Craig.pdf
Ceridian Corporation. (n.d). Helping Children deal with Change. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from Georgia 4-H: http://georgia4h.org/omk/edresources/KidsAndChange.pdf
Pow, H. (2011, May 8th). Divorce's toll borne by Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from The Sunday Telegraph: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/divorces-toll-borne-by-children/story-fn6e0s1g-1226051650069
University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. (n.d). The Effects of Divorce on Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from UNH: http://extension.unh.edu/Family/Documents/divorce.pdf
Teens may be especially resentful of the way this disrupts their schedules and interferes with school, friendships, work, and other usual activities (Wallerstein, 2000). And further, especially in the case of a needy, now single parent, older children and teens in particular may now face a perceived necessity of their becoming the needy parent's new and often only source of emotional support (Wallerstein). At this same time, the older child or teen's own emotional needs begin to go (and often remain) largely or entirely unmet thereafter by one or both divorced parents (Fagan).
When this occurs, the permanently life-altering; long-term damaging psychological result is often that it effectively truncates childhood or adolescence prematurely and thereby causes older children or teens to feel that they must now act like adults themselves, thus suddenly forcing them to become more independent, self-confident, selfless and self-sufficient than they genuinely feel (Wallerstein). Older children and…
Fagan, P.F. (May 14, 2004). The social scientific data on the impact of marriage and divorce on children. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2007). The effects of divorce on America.
Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation, No. 1378. http:www.elsevier.com / retrieve/pii/S0194659504000061.html.
political themes of early American politics, the major players, and issues that arose in the political arena of the time; with specific reference to Samuel Adams: adical Puritan, by William Fowler, and Founding Brothers: The evolutionary Generation, by Joseph Ellis. It has 4 sources.
The first part of this essay analyzes ideological, historical, personal and administrative features of the first American government, and uses these to explain the 'contradiction' existent in American national identity ever since.
The chief contributors to the 'contradiction' or 'argument' mentioned above were the ideas about government and public life that Samuel Adams gained from his Puritan heritage and then from his experiences during the revolutionary period; the major causes of the American evolution; the "Spirit of 76" or the Whig principles; the republican ideology stated in the Declaration of Independence; the changes in the organization of government from the Articles of Confederation to the U.S.…
Garraty and Barnes, (2000). A Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, 8th Ed. 2000, Chapter 4. pp. 107-117.
Fowler, W.M. (1997). Samuel Adams: Radical Puritan. Knopf.
Ellis, J.J. (2000). Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf.
Boston Gazette, April 4, 1768
Divorce / Counseling
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2009 in the United States there were approximately 1,077,000 marriages. That is 6.8 people per 1,000 citizens got married. On the other hand, 3.4 persons per 1,000 were divorced. That includes data from the U.S. Census, and 44 of the 50 states were included in the data. Using data from an earlier Census, the CDC reports that in 2002, the "probability of a first marriage ending in separation or divorce" within 5 years after the couple was married is 20% (CDC). The probability of a "premarital cohabitation" (that is, people living together but not joining in matrimony) ending in separation within 5 years is 49%. And after ten years, the probability "…of a first marriage ending is 33%, compared with 62% for cohabitations" (CDC). These statistics, especially relating to the high percentage of people who get…
Bernard, Janine M. (1981). The Divorce Myth. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 60(2), 67-72.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). New Report Sheds Light on Trends and Patterns in Marriage, Divorce, and Cohabitation. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/02news/div_mar_cohab.htm .
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Marriage and Divorce. Retrieved November
22, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/fastats/divorce.htm .
divorce affects the personality of Latino children
Family normally indicates to a group of persons directly associated with kinship, wherein the adult members are liable for the care of their children. The kinship involves genetic ties or ties coming out of marriage. Marriage is considered to be a sexual union between two adults, socially recognized and approved. Marriage and therefore the family in western societies are related to monogamy. A major change has emerged in the common structure of family life during the post-war periods. A high proportion of women participated in the paid labor force, which has a direct impact on growth of divorce and considerable numbers of children are forced to reside either in single parent households or with stepfamilies. Cohabitation has progressively become normal in many of the industrial nations. Many other forms of social and sexual relationship are about to flourish in the future. Still marriage…
"Chapter 15: the Family and Intimate Relationships" Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter15/welcome.htm
Accessed 8 November, 2005
"Child Psychology Lesson 1. Issues in Child Development" Retrieved from http://www.kuce.org/isc/previews/psyc/psyc333_lesson.html
'Children in the Middle" Retrieved from http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/print.cfm?pkProgramid=207
Divorce Affects Children and Teenagers
This paper presents a discussion about how divorce affects children and teenagers. The writer takes a sociological path in exploring the long-term affects on the individuals and then how that related to society. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
During the last four decades the divorce rate began to climb not only in America but also across the globe. As families began to live in separate houses researchers took on the task of studying the affects of the divorce on children and teenagers (Dunn, 1999). Now, four decades later the results are in and the experts agree divorce has an undeniable negative impact on children and teenagers. This is not to say the negative impact cannot be counterbalanced but it must be recognized as a given for groups of people affected by divorce if the world wants to correct the affects from…
Karen Thomas, On the Adolescent Hot Line: The sensitive issues Parents' divorce can compound the tough teen years., USA Today, 10-12-1998, pp 04D.
Ross Dunn (VOA-Jerusalem), Study: Children Affected by Divorce., Israel Faxx, 02-11-1999.
Author not available, CHILDREN DO SUFFER MOST FROM A DIVORCE., USA Today, 01-22-1996.
Wheaton, Blair. 1990. "Life Transitions, Role Histories, and Mental Health." American Sociological Review 55:209-23.
The objective of this study is to answer the question of whether the popular argument that children are better off when divorce makes one or both of the child's parents happier is true as argued by arbara Defoe Whitehead.
The work of arbara Dafoe Whitehead gained attention when she wrote the book 'The Divorce Culture'. Whitehead speaks of 'expressive divorce' or the notion that "divorce is an instrument for self-development, self-actualization, self-expression -- that is a way to be a new and better me. That is, one is obligated to pursue divorce if it seems to promise greater personal happiness and that obligation comes before other obligations in the marital commitment." (Miller, 1997) However, Dafoe additionally states divorce has "…hurt children…has created economic insecurity and disadvantage for many children who would not otherwise be economically vulnerable. It has led to more fragile and unstable family households. It has…
Whitehead, Barbara Dafoe (nd) The Making of a Divorce Culture.
Baskersville, Stephen, Ph.D. (2004) Strengthening Marriage Through Divorce and Custody Reform. The Family in America. The Howard Center for Family, Religion and Society. May 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.profam.org/pub/fia/fia_1805.htm
Gallagher, Maggie (1997) First things: End No-Fault Divorce?. Leadership University. Aug/Sept 1997. Retrieved from: http://www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9708/articles/gallagher.html
Smiley, Jane (2010) Divorce! It's Good for the Children! The Huffington Post. 12 Nov 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jane-smiley/divorce-its-good-for-the-_b_782469.html
The high divorce rates in First World nations have encouraged researchers, family counselors, and religious advocates to investigate the core foundations for the creation of a successful marriage. Starting in the 1960s, evolving social context ultimately shifted the rationale in why individuals choose to marry, and over time, divorce has come to be viewed as the preferred alternative to an unhappy marriage. One main fundamental principle to achieve marital success is to recognize women desire love, while men simultaneously need respect to feel fulfilled within the relationship. Emotional intelligence within a relationship and acknowledging various marital myths also contribute to the fundamental elements of marital success. Dissociating from marital myths and misconceptions is an essential part to understanding the true foundations for a happy and successful marriage. Appreciating and understanding how attachment styles affect marital relationships is also essential. These beliefs and attachment styles contribute to the marital…
Eggerichs, E. (2004). Love and Respect: The Love She Desires, The Respect He Desperately
Needs. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Gottman, J. (1993). A Theory of Marital Dissolution and Stability. Journal of Family
Psychology, 7(1), p. 57-75.
Children cope with Divorce
In today's world, people are increasingly becoming independent as well as less compromising. There was a time when people used to value marriage, children and were understanding towards each other and had the capacity to work their differences in order to live together in harmony and peace. The case today is quite the opposite. We see a hike in the statistics of divorce and separations for various reasons.
People tend to argue that women are now more independent and do not need a man to complete them. This may be so but this freedom is definitely making them more focused on themselves which sometimes leads to a stubborn, uptight attitude and leads to a divorce. Men on the other hand, tend to still have those dominating attitudes where they want to be the head of the household and can simply not tolerate any interference towards that…
Butler, Ian. Divorcing Children: Children's experience of their parent's divorce. Jessica Kingsley Publications, 2003.
Hetherington, E. Mavis. Coping with Divorce, Single Parenting, and Remarriage: A Risk and Resiliency Perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum Associations, 1999.
Isaacs, Marla Beth. The Difficult Divorce: Therapy for Children and Family. Basic Books, 1986.
Kelly, Joan B. Surviving the Breakup: How children and parents cope with divroce. Basic Books, 1996.
In the Bible, it talks about divorce, marriage and birth. This is designed to provide humankind with a blueprint as to areas that should be respected and those tactics which are most effective in the process. To fully understand what is taking place requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by looking at these concepts in order to gain a greater understanding of them. Together, these elements will highlight theological principles and their impact on stakeholders.
In the Bible, divorce is designed as an avenue to prevent couples from effectively running away from their problems and not respecting the institution of marriage. This is occurring with God discouraging these practices and associating them with adultery. Evidence of this can be seen in Deuteronomy 24: 1 -- 4 which says, "If a man marries a woman who becomes displeasing to him because he finds something indecent about…
Holly Bible New International Version. (2007). Lebanon, TN: The Gideon's
The novelty of the work related directly to both the issue and the population used. The choice of sample design and the method of mailing in the questionnaire present some clear areas of weakness for the work. Mail-in questionnaires have a high non-return rate and this study demonstrates this clearly. The authors however noted that this limitation of the work suggests that the findings should be related to with a measure of caution. It is definitely possible that the persons who failed to respond have an underlying characteristic that may have changed the findings. Despite this clear impediment the work is valuable because it opens a new vista of inquiry for future researchers.
The study also has issues with generalizability. The amount of error in a sample that size may be beyond what is an acceptable limit. No confidence intervals were produced for the descriptive results of the study so…
visual depiction of 5 personal impact groups to which you belong.
My five impact groups.
This has its own culture, history, language (e.g. AAVE) and way of looking at the world. It supports me in difficulties and provides with a social support group that is easily recognizable in any state and all over the world. Our color binds us together. It has impacted the way I grew up, and accordingly my experiences and therefore the way I perceive the world as well as what I like to read, watch, study, and think about. It has certainly too influenced the way that I feel on race and racism and also the way that I feel towards other minority groups and to people who are 'outsiders', scapegoats of society, or oppressed by so-called more powerful, influential others. It drives my desire for justice. This is important for a social worker, and…
One study examined the impact that spiritual or religious faith had on families with autistic children. In this study 49 families of autistic children were examined for signs of stress either psychologically, emotionally or health wise. The study looked at participants who had autistic children between the ages of 4 and 20 years old. The study concluded that parents who have a strong religious or spiritual faith and support from religious groups showed a stress level that was no higher than families that do not have an autistic child (Pargament, 2001). The study attributed part of this contentment to the belief by parents that a higher power placed the autistic child in their life for a reason and he or she was one of God's gifts designed for that family. In addition, the support socially and emotionally that the parents derived from religious belonging helped the parents feel less alone…
Religious coping in families of children with autism.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; 12/22/2001; Pargament, Kenneth I.
Harris, S.L., & Handleman, J.S. (1994). Preschool education programs for children with autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Haworth, A.M., Hill, A.E., & Glidden, A.M. (1996). Measuring religiousness of parents of children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 34(5), 271-279.
Post Modernism: A Forced Impact
The objective of this work is to describe a philosophy or philosophies that the writer of this work ascribes to and to explain why specifically incorporating values and beliefs held by the writer. As well, discussed will be the personal philosophy of the writer as it relates to the purpose of education, the student's role and the role of the school in society, locally, nationally, and internationally as well as the role of students and parents as well as teachers and administrators. Also addressed in this study is where ideals are derived from and examined will be development of curriculum and instruction, classroom management issues, school management and administration issues as well as diversity of education and how education can best cope with change. Finally, this work will examine education as an integral part of lifelong learning and who should be in receipt of an…
Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Elkind, D. (1997). Schooling and family in the postmodern world. In A. Hargreaves (Ed.), Rethinking educational change with heart and mind (pp. 27-42). ASCD Yearbook.
Giroux, & McLaren, (1992). Media hegemony: Towards a critical pedagogy of Representation." In Schwoch, White and Reily: xv-xxxiv.
Giroux, H. (1996). Living dangerously: Multiculturalism and the politics of difference. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Coaching Divorce Couples
One of the most fundamental issues in America today is divorce. With exponentially rising divorce statistics this culture has become known as the culture of divorce. (iley, 1991) With these changes in the social fiber of our culture come many problems and concerns for individuals, both the children of divorced couples and the individual partners themselves, as well as their extended families. Divorce is an often avoided subject of research simply because so many people are afraid of the changes that divorce has had and will continue to have on the fiber of our society.
The challenge is then to develop useful and structured plans for easing divorce's impact upon the individuals who comprise that society. Divorce can not be avoided, as either a social concept in need of expert research or as a real social phenomena that is the end of nearly half of all marriages.…
The Coalition for Collaborative Divorce. (2001) "Divorce Coaches Help Couples
Through Emotional Process: June 28, 2001." retrieved January 1, 2004 at http://www.nocourtdivorce.com/news_text.phtml?pressID=30 .
Collins V.F. & Wall G. (2004) "Keeping Legal Fees Down." Retrieved at http://www.lectlaw.com/files/fam09.htm .
DivorceInfo.com, (2003) "Coaching In Divorce." Retrieved January 1, 2004 at http://www.divorceinfo.com/coaching.htm .
According to Stevensen and Wolfers, marriage is far from a static phenomena, and in subsequent research they contend that this specialization is far less likely, that women and men both work outside the home, marry later marriages are formed without the specific purpose of procreation. (Stevensen & Wolfers, 2007, p. 27)
Lastly, this work looked at another issue, associated with marriage and divorce, which looked at the period between 1980 and 2000 and determined that several basic trends are true of marital quality, between 1980 and 2000; marital interaction declined significantly. A decomposition analysis suggested that offsetting trends affected marital quality. Increases in marital heterogamy, premarital cohabitation, wives' extended hours of employment, and wives' job demands were associated with declines in multiple dimensions of marital quality. In contrast, increases in economic resources, decision-making equality, nontraditional attitudes toward gender, and support for the norm of lifelong marriage were associated with improvements…
Amato, P.R., Johnson, D.R., Booth, A., & Rogers, S.J. (2004). Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65 (1), 1-22.
Isen, A., & Stevensen, B. (2008, February). Women's education and family behavior: Trends in marriage, divorce and fertitlity. Topics in Demography and the Economy National Bureau of Economic Research, *-22.
Stevensen, B., & Wolfers, J. (2007). Marriage and Divorce: Changes and their driving forces. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21 (2), 27-52.
distance relationships are leading to increased divorce statistics.
In the past, when a person married, it was a lifelong commitment. This was partly because the laws regarding divorce were very strict and it was nearly impossible to get a divorce without some very strong cause. omen in particular had difficulty filing for divorce from their husbands, even if he were an adulterer or perhaps physically abusive. This has all changed over time, beginning in the United States with the state of Nevada where a short residency could get you a quick divorce with little regard to reasoning. In the present time, getting a divorce is a regular occurrence. At present more than half of all marriages end in divorce. Three-quarters of people who marry for the first time will likely be divorced. Among the most common of divorce reasons is the citing of virtual abandonment by one or more of…
"Experiencing Difficulties Because of Business Travel" (2011). Retrieved from http://divorce-
Glass, Shirley. (2003). Not 'Just Friends': Rebuilding Trust and Recovering Your Sanity After
Infidelity. Free: New York, NY.
Media on the U.S. Society
Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).
Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…
Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).
Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.
Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.
Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
Five years would be the period selected, given that the only other long-term study of such couples, that of Johansoon's et al. (2009), was selected. These questionnaires would solicit information regarding fertility treatments the couple sought, what kinds of treatment, if the treatment was successful, and the relative health of the participants' marriage.
The longitudinal nature of this study would examine the relative long-term impact of infertility upon marriage, and use a cross-comparison of different subgroups. The main groupings would be individuals in what would be called 'happy' or 'healthy' marriages. For the purposes of this study, happiness would be defined as marriages in which the participants answered similarly for their single responses for the questionnaire, had not sought counseling for their marriage, had not contemplated divorce or separation, and expressed realistic attitudes about the prospect of having a child and its role in making their marriage more or less…
Benasutti, R.D. (2003). Infertility: Experiences and Meanings. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy: Innovations in Clinical and Educational Interventions, 2 (4), 51-72. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from
Chou, K.L, & I. Chi. (2004, May). Childlessness and psychological well-being in Chinese older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19 (5), 449-457.
H. Holter, L. Anderheim, C. Bergh, et al. (2006). First IVF treatment-short-term impact on psychological well- being and the marital relationship, Human Reproduction, 21 (12),
With the current national divorce rate stubbornly at 50%, the phenomenon of single parenthood, notably single mothers, definitely isn't going anywhere. The single parents which are at the greatest disadvantage are those who are of a lower socioeconomic class, as they're unable to offer the best education, healthcare, basic provisions and other items to their children. They often work two jobs and don't get to spend enough times with their children, as current and past research reflects.
The ultimate focus of the research that this dissertation is centered around seeks to identify the most compelling and effective interventions which can minimize the likelihood of negative outcomes for high-risk children, such as those born to low-income single parents. For this reason, I have created an annotated bibliography that addresses this body of research. An example of a title for the literature review would be: Modulators of Child Development Outcomes…
Perlmutter, D. & . (2013). Thinking Beyond the Dissertation. Retrieved from wmich.edu: http://wmich.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/u224/2013/psci-phd-beyond-dissertation_0.pdf
Stavrovra, O., & Fetchenhauer, D. (2014). Single Parents, Unhappy Parents? Parenthood, Partnership, and the Cultural Normative Context. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
Zaslow, M., & Emig, C. (1997). When Low-Income Mothers Go to Work. The Future of Children, 110-115.
Crime and Its Impact on Youth
Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks in particularly at the multiple theories that can be used to explain these impacts, such as Strain Theory and Social Control Theory. It also identifies the unique challenges that children and adults face as they struggle to cope both with the environments in which they live and the criminal justice systems that confront them. The paper concludes that children are uniquely impacted by crime because they are still in their developmental stage, wherein their psychology and physicality are still highly susceptible to external influences.
Children suffer from the effects of crime in different ways from adults. This is primarily due to the fact that children are still developing, both cognitively and physically, whereas adults are already developed. Crime thus…
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems.
(pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.
Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/prison-labor-in-america/406177/
ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making
Processes Impacting Financial Markets
Understanding the Stock Market
Contrasting Financial Theories
Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis
Financial ubbles and Chaos
The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.
Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.
Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.
This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…
Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.
Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.
Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
Economic factors as Mclanahan et al. demonstrates or other variables such as mother's separation from community or maternal depression may also effect children causing the impact that the researchers saw rather than the divorce / separation factor being the determining variable.
In effect, what the authors demonstrate is that both gender are negatively influenced by divorce and separation, although they had been negatively affected by adverse conditions before divorce / separation had occurred.
To Amato et al. (1995), the situation is not so simple. Reviewing cross-sectional studies between children who remain in conflict-ridden two-parent homes and products of divorced parents who experienced conflict prior to divorce, he discovers that all children are adversely impacted by parental conflict, but that children who remain in the conflict-ridden environment are apt to suffer more than those whose parents are divorced. Much also, however, depended on the intensity of the conflict. In other words,…
Amato, P. et al. (1995). Parental divorce, marital conflict, and offspring well-being.. Social Forces, 73, 895-915
Cherlin, A. et al. (2007) Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce in children in Great Britain and the U.S.A. Science, 252
McLanahan, Sara S., and Gary Sandefur. Growing Up with a Single Parent.
divorce rate in the United States is rising at an alarming rate. Just after the Civil War, approximately 5% of marriages in the United States ended in divorce. The divorce rate increased to approximately 10% by the 1920s and approximately 35% by the mid-1960's. y 1990, the divorce rate in the United States had risen to 50%. In a span of 125 years, the divorce rate in the United States increased by 900%. These rising divorce rates have undoubtedly had a profound effect on children. In 1988, 15% of all chil-dren lived with a divorced or separated parent. Presently, more than one mil-lion children per year experience a parental divorce. In the 1960's, almost 90% of children lived in homes with two biological parents. y 1995, approximately 18.9 million children under the age of 18 lived with one. With the rising divorce rate it is important to look at how…
Ham, B. (2003). The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 38(3/4), 167-185.
Jeynes, W.H. (1999). The Effects of Children of Divorce Living with Neither Parent on the Academic Acheivement of Those Children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 30(3/4), 103-120.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002a). Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents? Journal of ivorce and Remarriage, 37(1/2), 101-115.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002b). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23(2), 189-210.
Co-parental relationship with both parents planning together for the future of the children and engaging in corroboration of schedules and activities may prevent many, if not all, of the harmful results detailed by McClanahan and Cherlin et al. (1996). In fact, as Buchanan et al. (2007) illustrate, those deterrents together with timely interventions may help adolescents from divorced homes proceed with their lives and help parents and social workers succeed in their strategies formulated to ease children's adjustment to divorce.
In 1991, Cherlin et al. conducted national longitudinal surveys in both England and the U.S.A. Of the effects of divorce on children. In both boys and girls negative effects of divorce were apparent, particularly when compared to intact families. (This replicated the results of McClanahan's research which showed that children from divorced families also seem to have lower academic scores than children from intact families, but socioeconomic and other variables…
Buchanan, CM et al. (2007). Adolescents after divorce. UK: Harvard Univ. Press.
Cherlin, AJ et al. (1991) Longitudinal Studies of Effects of Divorce on Children in Great Britain and the United States Science, New Series, Vol. 252, No. 5011.
McClanahan Why we care about single parenthood
Popenoe, D. (1993) American family decline, 1960-1990 Journal of marriage, 527-555
Divorce on the Lives of Children
In today's society, half of all marriages end in divorce. Many of those marriages involve children. Parents who are involved in a divorce are often concerned about the effect of the divorce on their children. During the time of a divorce the parents may be preoccupied with their problems but still hold their roles as the most important people in their children's lives.
While a divorce may be devastating or relieving to a couple, children are frightened and confused by the terrible threat to their security. However, if a child feels secure and loved throughout the divorce, he or she may not be harmed by the divorce at all. Reflecting on these concerns, this paper aims to determine the effects of divorce on the lives of children.
etween the years 1950 to 1983, divorce broke up more families than parental death did in the…
Amato, P.R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 23-38.
Brown, Alec. Young, Ellie. Allen, Melissa. The Effects of Divorce on Children (November, 2003). NASP Communique, Vol. 32, #3.
Hyatt, K. (November, 1999) Children's Adjustment to Divorce Largely in Hands of Parents, with One Exception: Dad's Departure Depresses Boys. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 44.
Newberger, C. (December, 1986). The American Family in Crisis: Implications for Children. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Vol. 16: 686-688, 713.
oth death and divorce are extreme experiences in a child's life and both can have a wide range of native psychological and developmental repercussions. Divorce is seen by many experts to be a potentially extremely traumatic experience in the life of the child. This of course does not mean to say that the impact of death is not equally traumatic. However, while the very young child may not be aware enough to be impacted by the death of parent, the effects of divorce are often felt over a longer long period and can be extremely traumatic for the child's sense of identify and self-worth. As an expert states, " divorce undermines this nurturing atmosphere. Children are very much affected by the disruption and absence of a unified two-parent home environment." (Dueck)
In essence this means that any traumatic event, whether it be death or divorce, that destroys or…
Generation At Risk. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.rainbows.org/statistics.html
Dueck, Ami. DIVORCE AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD. 2004. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:fjUsSic3ZV8J:www.fotf.ca/tfn/family/PDF/Divorce_impact.pdf+%22contact+with+a+non-custodial+parent+should+not+be+taken+lightly%22%22&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en
SELF TYPES & THEIR DIFFERENCES ACROSS GENERATIONS
AND THE LIFE-CYCLE. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/socpsy-6.html
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…
Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentaries/171613511.html?refer=y
Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/health/study-examines-effect-of-having-a-gay-parent.html?_r=0
Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from Cnn.com: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-24/opinion/chrisler.gay.parents_1_adoptions-by-gay-people-anti-gay-gay-pride?_s=PM:OPINION
Narth.com. (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from Narth.com: http://www.narth.com/docs/does.html
They experienced things, such as sex and drugs, earlier than others, but their adolescence lasted longer because it was hard to break away from their single parent. Divorce affects these children most of all during adulthood. In romantic relationships, fear of abandonment can make them choose people they feel safe with, even though the partner may be abusive. She found that only 40% of those now in their 30s and 40s are married. The rest live in various kinds of relationships from cohabitation to still dating. More than 50% have chosen to not have children "because they believe they know too little about good parenting" (New 1).
Childhood is not fun for children of divorced families. They talk about logistics surrounding the holidays and the stress from two parents who vie for their love. They have memories of sadness and loneliness surrounding holidays, rather than happy memories. They were not…
Hughes, Robert, Jr. "The Effects of Divorce on Children." Menweb. 2005. http://www.menweb.org/divorcekids.htm .
New Research on Kids of Divorce: The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce." Family Education. 2007. http://life.familyeducation.com/divorce/29600.html .
Strong, Bryan; Cohen, Theodore F. And Devault, Christine. The Marriage and Family Experience. 9th Ed. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2005.
Embattled Paradise by Arlene Skolnick
Title, Author, Publication Date
Arlene S. Skolnick, Embattled Paradise: The American Family in an Age of Uncertainty, 1993
The conflation of the evolution of the family and revolutions in society are chronicled in Skolnick's book in an optimistic and realistic treatment. With deep longitudinal research of families extending from childhood years in the 1920s, the book is objective and informed. Skolnick's interpretation is both eloquent and enlightening. With a strong research base and a social scientist's eye, Skolnick reasons that the American family has not been devastated. Countering the political right, Skolnick asserts that the changes in American family life reflect and resonate with sea change in society. In her words, "Changes in our hearts and minds are responses to large-scale social change, rather than a fall from moral grace." Skolnick firmly grounds the changes she discusses in history, economics, politics,…
This is evidenced from the fact that in all the 19 studies mentioned above, children from single parent families showed a higher rate of criminal behavior. (Manning and Lamb 2004), one of the studies that used ADD Health data in the survey showed that family consolidation by remarriages has little positive impact for children. "The advantage of marriage appears to exist primarily when the child is the biological offspring of both parents.." [IMAPP] Yet another study, that analyzed 4671 eights grade students representing 35 schools from 10 cities in the nation, revealed that greater exposure to single parent children in a school setting has a negative effect on children irrespective of their own family structure while another study reported that living in an intact family "decreased gang involvement by more than 50%...." [IMAPP] This survey of research had some drawbacks to it in that there was not a uniform criteria…
1)Stephen E. Gilman et.al, May 2003, "Family Disruption in Childhood and Risk of Adult Depression," the American Journal of Psychiatry, 160:939-946, 2) Robert Bauserman, 2002 "Child Adjustment in Joint-Custody vs. Sole-Custody Arrangements: A Meta-Analytic Review,"
Journal of Family Psychology," Vol 16 No 1 91-102, 3) Cynthia C. Harper and Sara S. McLanahan, (Sep 2004) "Father Absence and Youth Incarceration," Journal of Research on Adolescence Vol 14, No 3
Available Online at, http://www.aboutdads.org/reports/Father_Absence_and_Youth_Incarceration.pdf
4) IMAPP, Sep 2005, "Can Married Parents Prevent Crime: Recent Research on Family Structure and Delinquency," available at http://www.marriagedebate.com/pdf/imapp.crimefamstructure.pdf
1998 novel About a Boy addresses the gamut of human relationships within the context of post-modern life. ill and Marcus are unlikely friends. A generation gap apart, they seem to have little in common until they start to bond. ill Freeman is 36 years old, and a kid in many ways. He lies so that people will like him, and does not have a job because of his inheritance. Marcus is a 12-year-old boy whose mother is depressed and whose peers are bullied; Marcus seems destined toward stunted emotional growth and development until he meets ill. ill likely sees himself in Marcus, which is why their friendship was meaningful to both parties. The fact that their relationship becomes transformative and helps the two of them grow offers hope that all people can come to appreciate their quirks, preserving individuality while maintaining healthy relationships. About a Boy is therefore about the…
Hornby, Nick. About a Boy. New York: Riverhead, 1998.
The officials did not show any intent to allow indiscriminate use by student reporters, editors, or other students, and so were entitled to regulate the paper's contents in any reasonable manner (Hazelwood pp). The standard for determining when a school may punish student expression that occurs on school premises is not the standard for determining when a school may refuse to "lend its name and resources to the dissemination of student expression" (Hazelwood pp). Thus, educators are not offending First Amendment rights by exercising editorial control over the "style and content of student speech in school-sponsored expressive activities so long as their actions are reasonably related to legitimate pedagogical concerns," and in this case the school principal acted reasonably in requiring the deletion of the pregnancy article, the divorce article and the other articles that appeared on the same pages (Hazelwood pp). The principal acted from the need to protect…
Hazelwood School District et al. v. Kuhlmeier et al. No. 86-836. Supreme Court of the United States. 484 U.S. 260. January 13, 1988.
The Relationship between Luxury Purchase as Conspicuous Consumption and Y Generation -Take Designer rands for Example
Conspicuous consumption is a complex concept that requires a great deal of quandary. Conspicuous consumption is often thought of as unnecessary spending or the purchasing of products that are not necessities. Increases in upward mobility have increased conspicuous consumption patterns in nations around the world.
Marketing professionals are eager to find the target markets that engage in conspicuous consumption. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the conspicuous consumption of the Y Generation in Taiwan.
Our research found that there are clear differences between luxuries and necessities and that the characteristics that distinguish each can differ from country to country. The discussion also discovered that conspicuous consumption is defined as "the consumption of goods and services on a grand scale for the purpose of demonstrating pecuniary power rather than that of…
Dictionary. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
Golden boys and girls." 2004. The Economist. 27 June 2004. http://kd.mysearch.myway.com/jsp/LSmain.jsp?st=bar&ptnrS=KD&searchfor= www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000562893
Ackerman, Frank. "Consumed in Theory: Alternative Perspectives on the Economics of Consumption." Journal of Economic Issues 31.3 (1997): 651+. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000812153
Bao, Yeqing, and Alan T. Shao. "Nonconformity Advertising to Teens." Journal of Advertising Research 42.3 (2002): 56+.
At the midpoint of Act II, we find the film turning to its
central device, as Williams begins conspiring against Miranda's efforts at
hiring a made. When his brother and his brother's partner, film makeup
artists, fit him with the accouterments to portray an elderly British
woman, his talents are facilitated and the plot is fully hatched.
The ascension to this moments is met by the descending comfort of Act
II, which ultimately finds Daniel settling easily into the role of Mrs.
Doubtfire, the loving but stern housemaid, of whom the children, Miranda
and even Stuart have grown fond. A use of the musical montage device-in
this case to the pointedly relevant 'Dude Looks Like a Lady,' by Aerosmith-
helps to suggest the passage of time as Doubtfire comes to be seen as one
of the family.
This is a performance, however, which will be shattered by the events