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The income and wealth gap continues to grow at a faster and faster rate because there is ever more power to affect policy provided to those that have such substantial incomes.
Education and Healthcare
There are other less direct ways in which the income gap is self-perpetuating, as well, establishing a system that purports to be meritocratic -- based on merit, where everyone has an equal chance to succeed based on their own skills and efforts -- but that in reality is stacked in favor of those already endowed with financial success (the Economist, 2006). Access to education is heavily mediated by the ability to pay for this education, and this is true at all levels, from elementary school through to undergraduate and graduate schools; wealthy parents can afford to hire tutors for their children, to pay high fees for prestigious private schools that confer advantages in higher education and…
Berman, J. (2011). U.S. Income Inequality Higher Than Roman Empire's Levels. Accessed 5 March 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com /2011/12/19/us-income-inequality-ancient-rome-levels_n_1158926.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Having a free market economy is one of the things that makes growth possible, although there is also inherent risk in it. More than one company can offer services, and the competition of more than one or two companies will help to keep services competitive and prices low. Competition, however, can also have its problems. ecause of the way that some products are packaged and structured, and the multiple steps that are needed between the beginning product and the consumer, there are several areas where competition can become a problem and individual companies can get too much of the market share, thereby causing a problem for others who may want to get involved in the same type of service (Preston, 2001).
Despite these issues for the economy and the free market, having the government operate something has not always gone well, either. Social security is an example of this. It…
Ferrara, Peter J. & Tanner, Michael D. (1998). A New Deal for Social Security. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute.
Preston, P. (2001). Reshaping Communications. Sage Publications.
Various factors are taken into consideration when calculating the income distribution, out of which the nominal income is most common. Aside form this, attention should be given to consumption levels of both subsidy products (food, clothing, housing) as well as to luxury products and services. In addition, several social and demographic criteria of the population must be considered, such as the level of education, housing facilities (personal property or rental), industry in which the population activates (manufacturing, services, Information Technology or agriculture) and working and social conditions, such as access to housing or education. Also, political and economical factors must be taken into consideration, including international trade policies, governmental regulations, competition on the market or unemployment rate.
All statistical observations and analyses point out the sad fact that the American incomes are extremely unevenly distributed. "A statistical summary of U.S. family income distribution since World War II shows the following:…
Larden, J., Collins, C., Inequality, Demos - a network for Ideas and Action, 2007, http://www.demos.org/inequality/,last accessed on December 11, 2007
Bernstein, J., the Hierarchy of Income Inequality in the United States, the Multinational Monitor, Volume 24, Number 5, 2003
Income Inequality Metrics, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Income_inequality_metrics,last accessed on December 10, 2007
Measuring Inequality, World Bank, 2007, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/EXTPA/0,contentMDK:20238991~menuPK:492138~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:430367,00.html, last accessed on December 10, 2007
It is grossly inefficient not to means-test Social Security and Medicare. I would fix these programs by making them both means-tested. This would result in more efficient transfers to seniors who actually need the money, rather than giving money to seniors who do not need it. This would free up more money to other Americans -- even if just the average taxpayer by way of allowing for a balanced budget.
Lee notes that current redistribution policies have only made a marginal impact on the percent of national income that goes to the poor (from 6.4% in 1950 to 6.7% in 1970). This is not a significant improvement, unless that redistribution has become considerably more efficient over that time. There does not appear to be much evidence that supports the idea that redistribution has become more efficient. Instead, most redistribution programs are not means-tested, which means that much of the redistribution…
Lee, D. (2002). Redistribution of income. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved February 19, 2012 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc1/RedistributionofIncome.html
The Labor Market and Income Inequality
Studies of the labor market have long struggled to explain the relationship between supply and demand in the labor market with the income or wage levels the labor market offers. The volatility in both of these areas -- that is, volatility both in the demand for labor and in wages -- has made it all but impossible for an adequate model to be designed that effectively predicts or explains income based on demand in the labor market; though certain large-scale trends can be tentatively suggested they do not appear to hold up in examinations of specific periods of change (or lack thereof). One of the particular issues that has come to the fore in recent years due to increased public attention, though it has been noted by researchers for some time, is the increasing income gap, which remains unexplained by current understandings…
Black, D. & Sanders, S. (2004). Labor market performance, poverty, and income inequality in Appalachia. Population Reference Bureau. Accessed 10 May 2012. http://www.arc.gov/assets/research_reports/LaborMarketPerformancePovertyandIncomeInequality1.pdf
Calderon, C.; Chong, A. & Valdes, R. (2004). Labor market regulations and income inequality. Inter-American Development Bank. Accessed 10 May 2012. http://cdi.mecon.gov.ar/biblio/doc/bid/wp514.pdf
Doyle, J., Ahmed, E. & Horn, R. (1999). The effects of labor markets and income inequality on crime. Southern Economic Journal 65(4): 717-38.
Poverty and Income Inequality
Poverty and income inequality draw a great deal of attention from activists, scientists, and politicians who are attempting to propose a permanent solution to these two socio-economic issues. State intervention is often anticipated in this area. There is, however, no agreement regarding the most effective instruments and techniques, as well as regarding the extent of public outlay for the sole purpose of reducing inequality and poverty. Various researches have, as an outcome, been carried out to develop the efficiency of different intervention that is intended to solve the issue of income inequality and poverty that exists in most economies, both in the developing and developed countries. Given the different challenges that are posed by income inequality and poverty within the society, together with the numerous opinions on the various proposed solutions, there is no doubt that there is a need for additional research. This paper…
Social and income stratification in the United States has been a very real phenomenon over most of the history of the United States but the laser-like focus on the subject over the last couple of generations has eclipsed what has been seen previously. This is due in large part, to be sure, due to the twenty-four hour news cycle and increased ability of people to communicate and interact over the Internet and through other mediums. While there are certainly some negative aspects to social and income stratification, at least some of it is necessary and people have to be accountable for what they do or not do in life as the ability to "make it" in this country is open and waiting for at least most people. That all being said, opportunity is not infinite and it will not be just handed to people, and this is as it…
Ehrenreich, B. (2011). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York:
Macionis, J., & Benokraitis, N. (2010). Seeing ourselves: Classic, contemporary, and cross-cultural readings in sociology (8th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
Macionis, J. (2013). Society: The basics (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
How serious is the issue of income inequality in the United States? This paper delves into the factual data surrounding this issue, including polling numbers taken by Gallup and the positions taken by Democrats and Republicans.
Income Inequality -- The Statistical Picture
Journalist Larry Schwartz has done the digging into relevant data and his article in Salon shows that: a) in 81% of U.S. counties, the median income is $52,000, " ... less than it was 15 years ago"; b) the poorest half of Americans own 2.5% of the country's wealth but the top 1% own 35% of the country's wealth; c) the cash doled out in bonuses on all Street in 2014 " ... is twice the amount all minimum-wage workers earned in the country combined"; d) Italians, Belgians and Japanese ordinary citizens " ... are wealthier than Americans"; and e) four hundred Americans have more wealth,…
Devaney, T. (2015). GOP struggles on income equality. The Hill. Retrieved October 10, 2015,
from http://www.thehill.com .
Everett, B. (2014). Dems seize on income inequality. Politico. Retrieved October 10, 2015,
from http://www.politico.com .
Understanding an argument means being able to assess the argument, and evaluate the different positions of the argument effectively. In many cases, there are issues with merely accepting a proposition – it pays to critically evaluate the biases, fallacies and reasoning behind each argument you are presented with.
The pro argument that is the most convincing is the first one, Pro 1, that UBI reduces poverty and income inequality, and improves health. There are three different hypotheses here. The evidence presented appears to be reliable. The Alaska case supports the income inequality hypothesis. The Namibia case supports the poverty reduction hypothesis. The India and Manitoba examples specifically support the improvement of health argument. So this argument is the most convincing because it starts with a clear, logical hypothesis and empirical evidence is provided to support each of the three clauses in the original argument.
Income Disparity and Development in Latin American Countries
The income disparity in the Latin American countries is the largest in the world and has a dramatic and complex impact on the development of these countries on many related levels. As one commentator states, "Inequality is as Latin American as good dance music and magical-realist fiction. Like those other regional products, it thrives." (Inequality in Latin America. A stubborn curse.)
Statistics from the World ank indicate that the richest tenth among Latin Americans earn 48% of total income, while the poorest tenth earn just 1.6%. The equivalent figures for rich countries are 29.1% and 2.5%. (Inequality in Latin America). While fifteen years of market reforms have resulted in income levels that are above those of Africa, yet " ... income disparity is the largest in the world and 222 million people live in poverty." (SANCHEZ M. 2005) Numerous studies and reports…
Barro, R. "Democracy and Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, 1, 1-27. 1996
CONSTANCE P. A yardstick for misfortune. November 6, 2005.
Economics A-Z. November 6, 2005. November 6, 2005. http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?TERM=GNP
Income disparity does not allow those living in poverty to climb out and join the middle class, and keeps the most wealth, power, and privilege in the hands of a select few.
Topic Sentences to introduce references
Census Income Data
Worsening American Income Inequality: Is World Trade to Blame?
Income and Wealth Inequality in the United States
A Tool for Measuring Income Inequality
The Two Nations
This paper analyzes income levels in the United States. Specifically, it discusses how there are two distinct nations in the United States, one with people who have income levels in the top 20%, and those with income levels in the bottom 20%.
As the disparity grows between rich and poor in America, so does the inequality in our country, which threatens the very fabric of our lives. Income disparity does not allow those living in poverty to climb out and join the…
Author not Available. "Income and Wealth Inequality in the United States." Americans for Democratic Action. 2002. 27 April 2004. http://www.adaction.org/pubs/304inequality.html
Blank, Rebecca M. "Selecting among Anti-Poverty Policies: Can an Economist Be Both Critical and Caring?" Review of Social Economy 61.4 (2003): 447+.
Burtless, Gary. "Worsening American Income Inequality: Is World Trade to Blame?" Brookings Review Spring 1996: 26+.
DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Robert W. Cleveland, and Bruce H. Webster, Jr. "Income in the United States: 2002." Census.gov. Sept. 2003. 27 April 2004. http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p60-221.pdf
For instance we can take the examples of African-Americans, the events and issues show that some ethnic groups had to struggle hard to stay ahead in the social fabric of American society.
The living conditions of poor and middle segment of the society are main indicators of the health of economy and income distribution. While in developing nations the plight of the poor and even middle segments of society is well-known. Developed nation like United States have not been associated with poverty and the poor treatment of certain segments of society. Recent event have made people argue that over the years issues of poverty and unequal income distribution have hit America in a big way. These issues now can not be brushed under the carpet as the issues are being debated at all forums. People have accepted the grim fact that Income gap exists in American Society and these…
Dovring, F. Inequality: The Political Economy of Income Distribution. Praeger Publishers. New York. 1991.
Kristof. N. The Larger Shame. New York Times. Sep 6,2005 http://cygnus.lcc.edu:2051/pqdweb?did=892078491&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=9230&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Ryscavage, P. Sharpe. Income Inequality in America: An Analysis of Trends M.E. Sharpe. New York, 1999.
Scott, J. & Leonhardt, D. Class in America: Shadowy Lines That Still Divide; CLASS MATTERS. New York Times. May 15, 2005. http://cygnus.lcc.edu:2051/pqdweb?did=839712251&sid=8&Fmt=3&clientId=9230&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Income Distribution Gap
The global fiscal crisis will be borne by the millions of people who do not have a share in the benefits that were derived from the global economic expansions that occurred previously. Not only has the gap widened between low wage earners and high wage earners in nations across the globe, the world's income gap distribution has widened. Economists have long concluded that a limited degree of income inequality contributes to worker motivation, promotes innovation, and rewards talent and effort. Nevertheless, when income differences become too great, the dynamics become counter-productive. unaway income inequality is considered to be a destructive force, such that "rising income inequality represents a danger to the social fabric" ("Board of Canada," 2012). The repercussions from excessive income inequalities include children not attending school so they can contribute to household earnings by going to work, increased crime rates, lower life-expectancies, and malnutrition.
Acemoglu D (2009) Introduction to modern economic growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Card D. And DiNardo JE (2002). Skill biased technological change and rising wage inequality: Some problems and puzzles. Journal of Labor Economics, 20(4), 735.
Jones CI (2002) Introduction to economic growth (2nd ed.). New York, NY W.W. Norton.
Milanovic, B (2005) Worlds apart: Measuring international and global inequality, 180 -- 81. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Social Stratification and Social Mobility
Systems of social stratification
The systems refer to the manner that the society utilizes in ranking individuals in a hierarchy. Undeniably, the classifications suffice the reality that some groups of individuals possess greater wealth, power, and status compared to others. Differences in the groups of individuals describe the nature of social stratification. Social inequality occurs as a significant aspect of the society as it facilitates the smooth operation of the society. For example, high rewards lure and motivate highly talented individuals to perform involving tasks such as brain surgery. On the other, most individuals can perform blue-collar jobs such as cleaning toilets and mowing grass thereby limiting its level of returns.
The open class system allows social interactions between classes that rely on achievements, prevalent in industrialized nations. On the other hand, the closed class system confirms on the social status of individuals and ancestral…
Gane, Nicholas (2005). Max Weber as Social Theorist 'Class, Status, Party'. European Journal of Social Theory, 8(2):211-226
Resnikoff, Ned (2014, November 11). Global inequality is a rising concern for elites. Aljazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/11/11/global-inequalityisarisingconcernforelites.html
Income Inequality and Education
A Human Capital Inequality and the Composition of Education Expenditure
Hwang, Jinyoung. (2011). A cross-country analysis of human capital inequality and the composition of education expenditure. European Journal of Social Sciences, 24 (1):
According to Hwang (2011), it has been observed in previous literature that substantially inequitable societies in terms of income distribution tend to spend more on tertiary education (university-level education) than lower-level education. "Wealth distribution is a plausible explanation for the distributional bias of government expenditure on education, as long as the distribution of wealth determines the existence and number of organized group[s] in an economy" (Hwang 2011: 97). This discrepancy could be explained by the fact that the rich tend to send their children to private schools not subsidized by the state for lower-level education, or to better-funded, locally funded secondary institutions and thus only need substantial federal support for education at the…
This is mainly through lessening the marginal propensity to consume and through magnifying the political polarization that has already resulted in poor economic policing within the country.
The other consequence of increase inequality in the distribution of income in the country is that the government's response to the financial crisis worsens the situation through shifting liabilities from private banks to taxpayers (Lynch par, 45). The shift in liabilities in turn contributes to the increase in the total domestic non-financial sector debt, which leaves the economy to increased vulnerability to future shocks. The probability of future financial crises is worsened by the fact that income inequality may contribute to recurring crises as leverage is yet to improve significantly.
Reduces Life Expectancy:
The third consequence of the increase in income inequality in the United States is that the country can no longer boast of longest life expectancy like other countries…
Babones, Salvatore. "U.S. Income Distribution: Just How Unequal?" Inequality.org. Program on Inequality and the Common Good, 14 Feb. 2012. Web. 08 Dec. 2012. .
BLANCHFLOWER, DAVID G., and MATTHEW J. SLAUGHTER. "The Causes and Consequences of Changing Income Inequality." Dartmouth. Dartmouth College, n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. .
Gudrais, Elizabeth. "Unequal America." Harvard Magazine. Harvard Magazine Inc., July-Aug. 2008. Web. 08 Dec. 2012. .
Lynch, David J. "Growing Income Gap May Leave U.S. Vulnerable." Bloomberg. BLOOMBERG L.P., 13 Oct. 2011. Web. 08 Dec. 2012. .
Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).
In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…
1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307
2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C )%3B2-L
3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm
4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
New Inequality by Richard B. Freeman whereby he has given certain viewpoints about the income inequality problems in the United States.
Richard B. Freeman in his book The New Inequality has discussed about the income inequality problems that are prevalent in the United States. The same has risen to unexpectedly high levels. He has told one and all about the unfathomable experiences attached with earnings of low-paid Americans as well as income recession that has hit these people consisting of nearly 80% of all American families. This paper discusses the issues attached with inequality with respect to incomes of the Americans.
Argument of the Author
The argument provided by Freeman in his book is pretty solid and conclusive in stating what is the current problem with the American families in the times of today as well as what needs to be done in order to plug the gap between the…
Author Unknown, Solving The New Inequality Boston Review: A Political and Literary Forum
ecent proposals to privatize Social Security and cut Medicaid funding would thus exacerbate the equity gaps that already exist." (Center for American Progress, 2004)
When a young black man is accepted into a university-based wholly on quota requirements even though he may have had less success in High School compared to a young white man, then we must again redefine our word - inequality. Who is worse off in this case? Consider that in this scenario, it may in fact be an advantage for a person to be young and black but as the scale tips with age, that same advantage becomes a liability. The answer to our question then, at least for this example, is maybe.
Economic independence may be the outcome when wage work is an option. but, there are many scenarios where wage work puts people into an even worse economic setting. Consider that minorities…
Carden, William Art (2003). What is Wealth Inequality? Ludwig von Mises Institute, May 22, 2003,. Retrieved March 16, 2005, from Ludwig von Mises Institute Web Site: http://www.mises.org/fullstory.aspx?control=1229
Center for American Progress. (2004, March 26). Inequality in America. Retrieved March 16, 2005, at http://www.americanprogress.org/site/pp.asp?c=biJRJ8OVF&b=40526
In a 2003 issue of Monthly Review, Tony Platt writes that the U.S. has the most regressive system of welfare for the poor among developed nations and in recent years it has become even more punitive (Platt pp).
The New Yorker Fact eb site is a site that contains the latest issue of the New Yorker magazine. The essay for October 21, 2005 was titled "Day Stripper: Clothing-optional swimmers get into trouble with the natives" by Mark Singer, discussing nudist in New England.
Birdsall, Nancy. "hy inequality matters: some economic issues."
Ethics and International Affairs. October 01, 2001. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Bradbury, Katharine L. "The growing inequality of family income: changing families and changing wages." New England Economic Review. July 01, 1996. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Malamud, Deborah C. "ho they are - or were:…
Birdsall, Nancy. "Why inequality matters: some economic issues."
Ethics and International Affairs. October 01, 2001. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Bradbury, Katharine L. "The growing inequality of family income: changing families and changing wages." New England Economic Review. July 01, 1996. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Malamud, Deborah C. "Who they are - or were: middle-class welfare in the early New
S. income inequality has a significant effect on U.S. demand for imports. They chose vertically differentiated products to study trade and income. They found that U.S. income disparities do have a significant effect on U.S. imports using their trade model but also could offer alternative explanations for the finding.
Their main argument surrounds around the assumption that the country can domestically produce very high quality of the differentiated product while it imports low quality version of the item from other countries due to the demand in lower income groups. When we say differentiated products, it means that while the product is the same, different income groups would demand different qualities of the same item. In other words income determines quality demanded. So while the country itself has enough of the high quality version, it doesn't have the same item available in low quality and hence needs to import.
Bela Balassa. TRADE BETWEEN DEVELOPED and DEVELOPING COUNTRIES': THE DECADE AHEAD. Accessed online http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/62/19/2501905.pdf
OECD Economic Outlook 2004/1 No. 75, June by Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (Jun 30, 2004)
Houthakker, H.S. And Stephen Magee, "Income and Price Elasticities in World Trade,." Review of Economics and Statistics, 51: pp. 111-125, 1969.
Houthhaker and Magee 1969
In other words, the number by which the bottom and middle thirds' incomes would need to be multiplied to reach those of the top one percent of earners in the country tripled, from ten to thirty in the case of the middle third (meaning the top one percent makes thirty times more, on average, than do the middle third of earners in the country) (CBPP 2010). As income gaps like this widen, more people are pushed towards the bottom fractions of the income distribution charts, and this can lead to a lowering of the poverty line in keeping with the proportions of the graph rather than with a true acknowledgement of the real cost of basic goods like food, utilities, clothing, and rent (Wolf 2009).
The Gini coefficient is another common calculation based on income distribution that can affect the poverty line. Graphing the line of income distribution with the…
CBPP. (2010). "Poverty and income." Center on budget and policy priorities. Accessed 30 July 2010. http://www.cbpp.org/research/?fa=topic&id=36
McEachern, W. (2008). Economics. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Thinkquest. (2005). "Poverty overview." Accessed 30 July 2010. http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00282/over_measure1.htm
Wolf, E. (2009). Poverty and income distribution. New York: Wiley.
Inequalities Are Made and emade South Wales
The objective of this work is to examine the way that inequalities are made and remade in South Wales. As this study will relate, there are inherent inequalities in South Wales both historically and traditionally. The work of Winckler (2009) entitled "Equality Issues in Wales: A esearch eview" that statistics on equality in Wales is based on measurements relating to race, gender, disability, age, sexual orientation, and religion. The report states that there are 10,000 refugees and 2,500 asylum seeker in Wales, in addition to 2,000 Gypsy Travelers. Men are outnumbered by women. 29% of the population is 60 years old or older. An approximate 27% of the adult population is disabled.
Poverty and Social Exclusion
Winckler states that sufficient evidence exists to make the conclusion that ethnic minority groups along with individuals who are disabled and children and young people as well…
Moore, H. And Jorm, L. (nd) Measuring Health Inequalities in New South Wales. NSW Public Health Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4.
Regional Inequalities in Wales (2011) Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research. Data and Methods. WISERD. Retrieved from: http://www.wiserd.ac.uk/research/quantitative/regional-inequalities-in-wales/
Winckler, V. (2009) Equality Issues in Wales: A Research Review. Equality and Human Rights Commission. Spring 2009. Research Report 11. The Bevan Foundation.
Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.
Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:
"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."
Both of these…
Bluestone, B. (2001, December 10). The inequality express. The American Prospect. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://prospect.org/article/inequality-express
Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (1976). Education and inequality. In Schooling in capitalistic America: Educational reform and contraditions of economic life. New York: Basic Books Inc., 347-352. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://homepage.smc.edu/delpiccolo_guido/Soc1/soc1readings/education%20and%20inequality_final.pdf
Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York: Random House.
Murray, C. (2008). The age of educational romanticism. The New Criterion, Vol. 26, Issue 9, 35-42. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=c1982738-7db5-4e79-a111-f63982ce3e61%40sessionmgr111&hid=106
self-Perpetuating causes of the poverty gap in the U.S.
This paper considers the existence and the causes of the poverty gap in the U.S. And puts forward the hypothesis that it is a self-perpetuating problem. Issues considered include education, health and government policy. The bibliography cites 4 sources.
The Income Gap
There is a well-known saying: "The rich get richer and the poor get poorer." This appears to be true in the United States. In the "land of opportunity" the income gap is larger than any other industrialized nation (Stille), and its continued existence is a self-perpetuating, negative cycle.
The evidence for an increasing income gap is clear, whilst the richest 10$% of the U.S. have seen their income increase by 34% since 1989, the equivalent increase for the poorest 10% is only 1.3% (Stille). However, there is not total agreement regarding the manifestation and current trend of this poverty…
Michael M (2001, Jan/Feb), The "other America" revisited: The war on poverty: gains and losses, Dollars and Sense. i223, 42-43
Stille A, (2001, Dec 15), Grounded by an income gap, New York Times, p7.
Wolf EN, (2001, Feb 12), The rich get richer....and why the poorer don't, The American Prospect, v12, i3, p1516
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
.. when every citizen is given the full chance to reach his or her potential." (Celimene and riys)
This understanding of equality remains true "... As long as we do not remain unequal in residual (unwanted) risks. That is as long as inequality is not rooted in pure random events. Otherwise this inequality is bad, a true divide indeed!" (Celimene and riys).
What Dornbusch is saying in effect is that inequality is a positive aspect that flows from the different talents, motivational elements and market forces that normally occur in a free market economy. He does not view inequality that is a result of outside factors that are imposed, such as discrimination and oppression, in a positive light. Only inequality that results from natural differences and different degrees of individual effort and motivation is considered to be "good." In this regard I would tend to agree with his views.
Dornbusch R. (1999) a CENTURY of UNRIVALLED PROSPERITY. Retrieved August 4, 2007, at http://www.esi2.us.es/~mbilbao/pdffiles/dornbus2.pdf .
Celimene F. And Briys E. Globalisation and Risk Sharing: Debunking Some
Common Pitfalls. Retrieved August 3, 2007 at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:tgVua2zoKeEJ:cyberlibris.typepad.com/blog/files/Haiti2.doc+DORNBUSCH+STATES+POVERTY+IS+BAD,+but+INEQUALITY+IS+NOT%22&l=en&t=clnk&d=2&l=u
ichard Mitchell and Professor Daniel Dorling from the University of Leeds and Dr. Mary Shaw from the University of Bristol on the parliamentary constituencies of Britain revealed a number of social policy scenarios. The study traced the impact of the variations to society that might be brought through the effective execution of three social and economic policies. Firstly, they examined the efficacy of the policy of modest redistribution of wealth to counteract the health inequalities. During the decades 1980s and 1990s there were a considerable variation in the wealth possessions of rich and poor reflected in the major variations in their health enumerated by mortality rates. The study revealed that by returning to the inequalities in wealth of 1983 about 7500 deaths annually could have been prevented. (educing health inequalities in Britain)
The study assessed the impact of such policy to be most effective in the Birmingham Ladywood constituency in…
Health inequalities kill thousands" (27 September, 1999) Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/456807.stm . Accessed 3 September, 2005
Introduction to health inequalities" Retrieved at http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/HealthInequalities/HealthInequalitiesGeneralInformation/HealthInequalitiesGeneralArticle/fs/en-CONTENT_ID=4079644&chk=8WiiZg. Accessed 3 September, 2005
Link BG; Phelan JC. (May, 2005) "Fundamental Sources of Health Inequalities" Policy
Challenges in Modern Health Care. pp: 71-84. Retrieved at http://www.rwjf.org/research/researchdetail.jsp?id=1944&ia=141 . Accessed 4 September, 2005
nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it's not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.
According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don't possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as…
Angloplat Goes the Extra Mile to Pioneer Black Empowerment. Sunday Times; November 10th 2002.
Immanuel Wallerstein, The Eagle Has Crash Landed. Foreign Policy, July, 2002.
Between Here and There. The Economist, July 5, 2001.
Does Population Matter? The Economist, December 5, 2002.
race and racial inequality are structured in the United States of America. It explains the concepts of oppression and privilege, describing ways in which various social institutions (educational system, the media, the economy, politics and the state, criminal justice system, etc.) intersect to construct categories of difference in society. It concludes with a policy suggestions that would help to decrease racial and ethnic inequality in U.S. society.
Institutional Structures and acial Inequality
The manifestation of racism in social institutions are major impediment in the struggle against rampant prejudice in the country. Specific example is shown by Simon (2008), in the television drama series, The Wire created and written by a former police reporter. The series depicts institutional dysfunction in the police department, City Hall, the public school system. It reveals how the characters are betrayed by the same institutions that are important to them in provision of education, protection and…
Catholic Charities USA. (2008). Poverty and Racism: Overlapping Threats to the Common Good. Alexandria: Larry Snyder.
Kuznia, R. (2009, April 8). Racism in Schools: Unintentional But No Less Damaging. Retrieved from www.miller-mccune.com: http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/racism-in-schools-unintentional-3821/
Mauer, M. (2010 ). Statement of Marc Mauer Executive Director The Sentencing Project . Prepared for the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Washington DC.
Quigley, B. (2010, July 26). Rampant Racism in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from www.counterpunch.org: http://www.counterpunch.org/2010/07/26/rampant-racism-in-the-criminal-justice-system/
Education Inequality: A Sociological Perspective
One of the most important aspects of life today is probably education. Without a high quality of education, especially on the tertiary level, it is very difficult to find gainful employment or to advance in one's chosen career. For this reason, one of the great tragedies in the world today is social inequality and the educational inequality that goes along with it. Even if "jobs" were provided for every single homeless or unemployed individual in the country, this would be little more than a band aid; it would be hopeless inadequate to address the larger and longer-term problem, which is a basic inequality in education. Starting at the primary level, children whose parents can afford to place them in private schools receive a far better education than those in the public school system. When they have completed primary and secondary education, there is again income-related…
Sociological Perspectives on Education. (2015). Retrieved from: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_sociology-understanding-and-changing-the-social-world-comprehensive-edition/s19-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
From a very young age, I came to understand what it means to be poor and underprivileged. I recognize so much more regarding the manner in which paucity touches numerous Canadians as well as the tussles they endure. As I am from a tiny out port municipality that earns their livelihood from fishing, I have seen numerous people with tiniest pay occupations, getting communal help, or Employment Insurance (EI) benefits. It was clear to me that my blood relations are engaged within the Fishing industry as well as claiming EI benefits throughout the winter season, I was aware just how difficult it often was to not have sufficient money on hand. Although we have always remained above the scarcity line and me along with my brothers and sisters have got used to receiving all that we ever needed, to some degree, we are aware about what happens when a…
Bowles, S., Durlauf, S.N. & Hoff, K.R. (2006). Poverty Traps. Russell Sage Foundation and Princeton University Press, New York.
Levitas, R. (2005). The Inclusive Society? Social Exclusion and New Labor, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
MacKinnon, S. (2011). The Effectiveness of Neo-Liberal Labor Market Policy as a Response to the Poverty and Social Exclusion of Aboriginal Second-Chance Learners, PhD Dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
Osberg, L. (2008) A Quarter Century of Economic Inequality in Canada: 1981-2006, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Ottawa.
Analysis of the Price of Inequality
In the year 2013, issues of socioeconomic inequality are perhaps as pressing and problematic as they have ever been. This is the assertion at the crux of Joseph E. Stiglitz text, The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future (ISBN-13: 9780393345063). Released in 2012 by .. Norton & Company publishers, the 560-page text is a timely and compelling contribution to the current public discourse on our need for greater economic equality in the United States.
Understanding the orientation of the text at the center of this analysis requires a more complete understanding of its author, the economist, Columbia professor and winner of 2001's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. According to his self-composed biography at the Memorial Foundation site, Stiglitz (2001) was born in Gary Indian in 1943. By his own report, his interests as a young student would lead…
Chinni, D. (2012). 'The Price of Inequality' and 'The Betrayal of the American Dream.' Jefferson Institute.
Columbia University. (2013). Curriculum Vitae-Stiglitz. Gsb.columbia.edu.
Edsall, T.B. (2012). Separate and Unequal. The New York Times.
Stiglitz, J.E. (2001). Biographical. The Nobel Foundation.
Family Income, Parental Attitudes and Environmental Influence on Children's Well-being and Achievements
Economic theory suggests that both time and money are critical resources to the well being of family members since income is used to increase well-being of children and parents. Moreover, income is used to enjoy leisure and purchase goods and services to improve well-being of family members. Typically, " less time available to the family, income constant, thus predicts lower well-being for some or all family members" (Burton & Phipps, 2011 p 396). In the contemporary environment, family income can lead to a development of children and youth's intellectual development. In other words, family income can assist in enhancing children health, educational and intellectual outcomes. Despite the general belief about relationships of family income and children development, there is still a disagreement about the causal effects of family incomes to the positive outcomes of children since unmeasured variables…
Blau, D.M. (2006). The Effect of Income on Child Development. The Review of Economic and Statistics. 81 (2):261-276.
Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J.(1997). The Effects of Poverty on Children. The Future of Children. 7 (2): 55-71.
Burton, P. & Phipps, S. (2011). Families, Time, and Well-Being in Canada. Canadian Public Policy. 37 (3): 395-423
Dahl, G. (2005).The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion. Paper no. 1305-05.
Educational Inequality Along acial Lines
The role of education in the American society cannot be overemphasized. Education plays an important role in equipping students with knowledge and skills for transforming their life and the society at large. Also, the education system instills appropriate values, behaviors, and attitudes in students, making them useful members of the society. Nonetheless, while education is important, it tends to reinforce the existing social inequality, particularly along racial lines. Funding inequalities and learning outcomes between schools from privileged backgrounds and those from unprivileged backgrounds attest to this. This paper examines inequality in education along racial lines. The paper specifically focuses on four aspects: the role of education from two sociological perspectives; the role of funding in producing educational inequality along racial lines; America's cultural diversity (in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and class) and the educator's role in promoting cultural diversity; as well as an anti-racist…
Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2014). Restoring opportunity: the crisis of inequality and the challenge for American Education. Boston: Harvard Education Press.
Farley, J. (2012). Majority-Minority Relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
Parrillo, V. (2009). Diversity in America. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.
Community development is concerned with tackling inequities, and with understanding the interconnections and pathways between the various determinants of health for particular communities.
The effectiveness of community development in health is enhanced by partnerships between health and other sectors such as education, housing, arts or sport, or in programs such as community building and neighborhood renewal. Community development approaches to health promotion are generally poorly identified in planning and practice. Concepts such as empowerment, community engagement and participation are commonly referred to as either processes or out- comes, but often given token effort and paid only lip service. Community development is not a single track in health promotion programs. Health promotion practice entails the planning and implementation of interventions which may take many forms. Evidence about the effectiveness of health promotion demonstrates that one-off programs at a single level of intervention have little value, and that multi-level approaches delivered intensively…
Bezrucha, S. (2001). Societal hierarchy and the health Olympics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(12), 1701-3.
Bunker, S., Colquhoun, D.M., Esler, M.D., Hickie, I., Hunt, D., Jelinek, VM., Oldenburg, B.E, Peach, H.G., Ruth, D., Tennant, C.C., and Tonkin, a. (2003). Stress and coronary heart disease, psychosocial risk factors, National Heart Foundation of Australia: Position statement update. Medical Journal of Australia, 178(6), 272-76.
Bush, R. (2002). Community engagement. VicHealth Letter. Melbourne: VicHealth.
Dixon, J. (1999). A national R&D collaboration on health and socio-economic status for Australia. Canberra: NECPH, Australian National University.
HG Wells' the Time Machine reminds me of the contemporary state of the world and its problems that can actually be reduced to three attributes: environmental causes, political conditions, and economic conditions.
The Eloi seem at first sight to be a peaceful Utopian community who, although not intellectual, has used technology to control their environment and to make it work for them. Only through the duration of the book and more significantly much later, does the narrator realize that the activities of the Eloi have actually despoiled the environment. The traveler travels ahead to approximately 30 million years ahead of his own time and sees lecherous insects swarm over the country and ravage it. The further he travels, the more closely he sees the earth's rotation gradually cease, the planet become increasingly colder, and the Earth become a more forbidding, dank, and lifeless place. Eloi and similar civilizations…
Wells, HG The definitive Time machine: a critical edition of H.G. Well's scientific romance Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Schwartz-Nobel, Loretta. Poisoned nation: pollution, greed, and the rise of deadly epidemics
New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
Jenkins, M. What's gotten into us?: staying healthy in a toxic world. New York: Random House, 2011.
omen in India
Often referred to as the "motherland," the Indian subcontinent boasts millennia-old traditions and culture in which women are symbolically honored and revered. The Hindu pantheon, for instance, consists of a wide range of female deities; motherhood in India is a reverential undertaking. However, beneath this mythological and theoretical facade, women are systematically persecuted in India, denied equal access to the already impoverished health care, educational, and justice systems. Carol Coonrod's report on the status of women in India lists seven major areas of discrimination against women in India: malnutrition, poor health care, lack of education, overwork, being unskilled, blatant mistreatment, and legal powerlessness. However, the problems extend far beyond these categories alone. For example, female infanticide is not uncommon; nor is the practice of satee, either willing or coerced suicide by widows. The message these practices send are clear: women are not as worthy of being born…
Coonrod, Carol S. "Chronic Hunger and the Status of Women in India." June 1998.
Garg, Ashish. "Women in India and Human Rights." 10 Mar 2002. From BolojiClub.com.
Jones, Adam. "Case Study: Female Infanticide." Gendercide Watch.
Mijar, Nayan. "Progress and Problems of Women in India." 10 Mar 2002. From BolojiClub.com.
Pay equality has for the longest time been one of the most hotly debated topics in the corporate world. When the Equal Pay bill became law in 1963, women were averagely earning just 58.9% of what men were averagely being paid, according to the congressional committee that tabled the bill. In 2011, this percentage had increased to about 77% of what men were averagely being paid for full-time work. These statistics show that there is a somewhat entrenched mentality of paying women lower wages for a job that men would be paid higher for, despite the fact that many firms are claiming to have put in place measures to bring about gender equality in their workplaces (Dontigney, n.d.). This paper examines the issue underlying the equal pay between men and women.
Some human resource managers have argued that the difference in pay between women and men…
Andrews, K. (2015, July 14). Why the gender pay gap is a myth. Retrieved from The Spectator: http://blogs.new.spectator.co.uk/2015/07/the-gender-pay-gap-is-a-myth/
Babcock, L., & Laschever, S. (2003). Women don't ask Negotiation and the gender divide. Princeton: Princeton University.
Blau, F., & Kahn, L. (2007). The Gender Pay Gap. Academy of Management Perspectives, 7-23.
Bluestone, B., Murphy, W. M., Stevenson, M (1973). Low wages and the working poor. Policy papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 22. Ann Arbor: Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations.
It is a well acknowledged truth that memory related diseases like Alzheimer's are common in older people rather than younger ones. Memory tends to becomes less competent with age. It might take longer to learn new things or remember familiar words or names. Many measures can be adopted to reduce the increasing adverse effects of memory like eating a healthy diet, including physical exercise as a part of daily routine and by being social. Despite of adopting these measures to reduce the effects of growing age on health, these problems cannot be eradicated completely. Young people are more energetic and are less viable to diseases because of the strength of their immune system. They have a stronger defense system against diseases because of the age. There is a strong relationship between age and support of health. Aging is inevitable. It is tend to occur but applying few important measures cannot…
Annandale, E., & Hunt, K. (2000). Gender Inequalities in Health. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Athenstaedt, U. (2002). Gender Role Self-Concept, Gender Role Attitudes and the Participation in Gender-Typed Vocational and Leisure Sport Courses . Psychologische Beitrage, 33-45.
Manuck, S.B., Jennings, R., Rabin, B.S., & Baum, a. (2000). Behavior, Health, and Aging. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Norton, F.E. (1946). Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company.
Economic inequality refers to the situation whereby wealth, assets or wealth are not distributed equally among individuals within a group, among some groups within a population or even among countries. Economic inequality is also described as income inequality, gap between the rich and poor, wealth and income differences and inequitable distribution of wealth. This issue of economic inequality can imply various notions such as equality of outcome, equality and the equality of opportunities. There exist differing opinions on the importance of economic inequality and the impact it has. There are some studies which have put emphasis on inequality as being a social problem. Whereas some inequality might promote investment, when it is too much inequality can end up being destructive. Though income inequality hinders long-term growth, it can also help long-term growth. Economic inequality differs between different societies, historical periods, and the existing economic systems and structures. This paper will…
Krugman, P. (2014). Why we're in a New Gilded Age. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/may/08/thomas-piketty-new-gilded-age/
Domhoff, W. (2009). Wealth, Income and Power. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
Madrick, J. (2013). Inequality is Not the Problem. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2014/apr/24/inequality-not-problem/?insrc=
Hacker, A. (2012). We're More Unequal than you Think. Retrieved October 11, 2014 from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/feb/23/were-more-unequal-you-think/?insrc=rel
Citizens in the region's poorest countries, Paraguay and Honduras, make just above $4,000 per year, while those in the wealthiest countries, Chile and Mexico, make almost $15,000. The institutional legacy in the region is one clouded by inequality and corruption. In its brief on the region, the World Bank emphasizes the role of institutional development to alleviate poverty among vulnerable groups, a result in part of the lasting legacy of inequality due to colonial influences.
Asia. This region ranges widely from very poor nations such as Nepal (GDPpc of $1,100) to very wealthy nations like ingapore ($51,600). Because colonial dominance of this region was carried out by a relatively few European settlers, it was ultimately incomplete, leaving many of the region's own institutions intact or enhanced. The World Bank's comments on how governments across the region are reacting to the recent economic turndown are in line with an expectation that…
Sources of Economic Growth in China, 1952-1998. Issues in Political Economy, Vol 17.
World Bank. (2009). Regional Briefs. www.WorldBank.org. December 13, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/ .
Relation Between IPRI and GDP Per Capita by Region
Source: International Property Rights Index, 2009. (http://internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/UserFiles/File/ex4_9relationbtwniprigdpbyreg.pdf).
On the one hand, they represent the needs of the poor population's access to loans and, in this sense, their operations seem selfless and focused on social well-being. On the other hand however, these entities are for-profit economic agents which need to register revenues, to generate funds and to be financially self-sustainable. This need is obvious at the level of all institutions, but even more so at the level of the entities which have share owners for whom they have to increase the value of the equity investments. In this order of ideas, emphasis is often placed on the recuperation of the costs incurred.
The efficiency of the managerial act at microfinance institutions is generally measured with the aid of the operational self-sufficiency ratio, which indicates that lenders are generally able to cover their costs. Some of them are however only able to cover 60 per cent of the incurred…
Clark, B.S., Political economy: a comparative approach, 2nd edition, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998
De Aghion, B.A., Armendariz, B., Morduch, J., the economics of microfinance, MIT Press, 2007
Dichter, T.W., Harper, M., What's wrong with microfinance? Practical Action Publishing
Flannery, J.J., Redefining microfinance in the internet era, Social Innovation Conversations, 2007, http://sic.conversationsnetwork.org/shows/detail3252.html last accessed on April 6, 2011
Economics and Global Capitalism
The American Dream has always been tied to homeownership, yet homeownership has always been a prospect made possible through long-term loans made to credit-worthy applicants. For Main Street, this was mainly the case at least since the Baby Boomers came to age. For subsequent generations, predatory lending came about as the monetization of debt became another way for Wall Street to make money off Main Street. The American Dream prior to this was connected to the concept of upward mobility, but this too has been linked to the prospect of homeownership. Essentially, the American Dream has always been a dream about ownership of assets, of being at the minimum part of the middle class—a status that anyone could achieve in America so long as he was willing to work hard. Today, with globalization and the offshoring of manufacturing, the blowing of credit bubbles, the devaluation of…
It also allows the countries best suited for such activities to flourish. For example, China is proficient in manufacturing which allows the country to export far more goods than it imports. Developed nations such as Europe, Canada, America, and to a smaller extent, Japan demand these cheaper goods as they import more than they export. This trade allows both parties to subsequently flourish. China can sell its products to generate addition funding to expand its economy while Canada and Europe have access to low costs goods and services (Dessler, 2006). With the advent of globalization, Chinese manufactures are better equipped to expand overseas to expand their manufacturing competitive advantage. This expansion allows lower cost goods and services to reach otherwise inaccessible areas of the world, thus increasing their standard of living. A shirt that once cost $15 now only costs $5. Society benefits as more dollars can be allocated to…
1) Dessler, G. (2006). Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know About Human Resource Management in China Today. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11-23. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global database.
2) Fiedler, Fred E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. McGraw-Hill: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.
3) Schwartz, J., & Liakopoulos, a.. (2010, May). Talent and work: Playing to your strengths. China Staff, 16(5), 22-28. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global.
4) George, P. (2009, may 14). Cultural beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.prel.org/products/pn_/cultural-belief.htm
A true middle class would be represented as a large block of people in the center of the income growth chart when in fact the bulk of income is located toward the right of the chart. Income growth that is equitable would mean a chart that was relatively even across the boards or at least one that resembles a bell curve.
Income disparity has tremendous implications for social justice. On a very practical level, most Americans do not and cannot wield social or political power. Ordinary employees do not make an impact on corporate decision making or on large-scale spending -- let alone how to steer political lobbying groups. Those who work hard for little pay also have little to offer their children in terms of upward social mobility. A politically disenfranchised group of working poor cannot contribute to business growth. ace and gender are also correlated with income disparity,…
Bernasek, a. (2006). Income Inequality, and Its Cost. The New York Times. Retrieved 11 Feb 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com /2006/06/25/business/yourmoney/25view.html
"Growing Income Disparity and the Middle Class Squeeze." (nd) Retrieved 11 Feb 2010 from http://www.justpeace.org/structures/squeeze.htm
Since homosexual couples are not allowed to get married, health insurance benefits are not available through these means. Additionally, gay and lesbian patients face particular prejudice from "homophobic" health care providers, and may avoid seeking health care if they suspect that they will encounter such prejudice (Quittner 2004). Furthermore, some health care practitioners may actually refuse treatment of some patients based on religious or moral objections, and in some states doctors' rights to do this may soon be protected by law. Bills have been introduced in Arkansas, Michigan, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, and est Virginia that would give health care workers, from doctors to pharmacists, the right to refuse treatment or medication to any patient based on ethical, moral, or religious reasons, while in Georgia health care professionals are already legally allowed to discriminate based on their own moral or ethical beliefs (Kuhr 2005).
The injustices within the…
Freeman, H. 1991, 'Emergency: the crisis in our health care', Essence, [Online] Available at ( http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1264/is_n5_v22/ai_11204344/print )
Henley, E. 2004, '10 steps for avoiding health disparities in your practice', Journal of Family Practice, [Online] Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_3_53/ai_n6077566/print
Kawachi, I. 1999, 'Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms', Health Services Research, [Online] Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4149/is_1_34/ai_54422460/print
Kuhr, F. 2005, 'Doctor of homophobia: some states may allow health care providers to refuse treatment to anyone, on moral grounds. Gays are a prime target', The Advocate, [Online] Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1589/is_2005_August_30/ai_n15399849/print
Pattern of Global Inequality and Globalization
The extreme inequality in distribution of global income is an issue that has attracted considerable concerns in the recent past and generated questions regarding the effectiveness of the current development model. Global inequality is a major issue for world's economies since it slows economic growth and creates social and health problems. Global inequality continues to occur despite recognition that it's a dysfunctional process with huge negative impacts on development and increased need to ensure equity is at the core of development agenda. Inequality across the globe has been highlighted by existing trends in commodity prices, employment, and government spending. Globalization has played a crucial role in increasing global inequality since it has widened the gap between the rich and the poor. Even though globalization focuses on more integration of countries across the globe, it contributes to global inequality by widening the gap between the…
Milanovic, B. (2013, May). Global Income Inequality in Numbers: in History and Now. Global Policy Volume, 4(2), 198-208.
Peet, R. (2009). Unholy trinity: the IMF, World Bank and WTO (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Zed Books Ltd.
Rodrik, D. (2011). The globalization paradox: democracy and the future of the world economy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Stiglitz, J.E. (2006). Making globalization work. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
In this sense, it is not simply a matter of theoretical approach, but also one that is accompanied by data. More precisely, for instance, in the 1960s, when, as stated previously, the afflux of the development aid had not been significant, the real GDP per capita was $1,049. Compared to the 1990s when the development aid was more consistent, the real GDP per capita fell to $1,016 and in 1991 to even $970 (Andrews, What foreign aid can and can't do in Africa, 2010). This can be interpreted as being the result of a series of development strategies that did not improve the condition of the society. Also, this period was indeed characterized by increased political distress that only contributed to the way in which development programs were constructed, managed, and implemented.
In later years, through the United Nations programs, the increased donor contributions, the GDP per capita increased substantially,…
UN Habitat. (2003). The challenge of slums - global report on human settlements 2003. United Nations Human Settlements Program.
United Nations Development Program. (2010). Human Development Report. Washington: Palgrave Macmillan.
Andrews, N. (2010).; Understanding the context of Aid and socio economic development in Ghana. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
Andrews, N. (2010). Foreign Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Ghana'S Development: The Case for "Bringing Culture Back in "to the Analysis . International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2 (5), 95-104.
absolute measure" of poverty is not an accurate measure of policy in the United States. The "absolute measure" is based on the threshold below which any family is unable to meet basic needs for living, or those having not enough income for food, shelter and clothing. The thresholds are generally based on the economy food plan, since it was determined that families spend one third of their after tax income on food, or are adjusted based on changes to the Consumer Price Index. However, this method is not realistic in terms of modern society. The "absolute method" does not account for income such as food stamps, school lunches, or public housing, nor does it account for income expenses such as taxes, child support payments, medical costs, health insurance premiums, or child care. The model for poverty in the United States should be adapted to account for disposable income, and use…
Globalization has brought tremendous benefits to human society, in terms of quality of life, but as with anything, it comes with costs. Many authors have argued that there are both positive and negative effects of globalization, and to evaluate the merits of globalization is simply to balance these effects. Do the benefits outweigh the costs? This ends up being a matter of perspective, and it also often compels one to analyze the existing state of the world vs. An imaginary non-globalized state. Globalization is cited for increasing the wealth of many -- living standards have increased for billions. It is also criticized for increased wealth inequality. This paper will demonstrate that the costs of globalization do indeed outweigh the benefits. The costs are not trivial, but they are also overstated in a few key respects. A lot of these costs reflect flaws in the system design of globalization, but since…
Calvo, G. & Mendoza, E. (1999). Rational contagion and the globalization of securities markets. NBER. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/4291/1/ciecrp6.pdf
Cook, P. & Kirkpatrick, C. (1997). Globalization, regionalization and third world development. Regional Studies. Vol. 31 (1) 55-66
D'Odorico, P., Laio, F. & Ridolfi, L. (2010). Does globalization of water reduce societal resilience to drought? Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 37 (2010) 1-5.
Epstein, P. (2005). Climate change and human health. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 353 (14) 1433-1436.
1997 in the peer-reviewed journal the American Prospect. The authors (Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E, Brady) focus their attention on the theme of political participation and the growing inequality within that participation (e.g., people with money are more involved, which has potentially dire consequences for democracy). An argument can be made that this research presents a prologue to what has become a huge issue and problem in 2014. That is, because of the Supreme Court's 2012 "Citizens United" decision, which allows those with untold millions of dollars to spend their cash on campaigns without any accountability as to who made those contributions, there is a huge participatory inequality in 2014. That said, the scholarly article by Verba, et al., presents an in-depth analysis of why some people get involved in politics -- related to their socioeconomic situations -- and why some people do not get involved in…
Confessore, Nicholas. "$122 million in 2012 Spending by Koch Group." The New York
Times. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2013.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E. "The Big Tilt: Participatory
Inequality in America." The American Prospect, Vol. 32, 74-80. 1996.
The media is often assailed for a number of failings. These failings include focusing on the wrong things, not focusing on the right things nearly enough and focusing on the proper things in the wrong overall way. While the media certainly mishandles class issues and other problems of import, their usual goal is probably not comedy but instead pushing one worldview and viewpoint over another and specifically instead of another. While media in general is largely ineffectual and problematic on a number of levels, some of their activities border on the insidious and starkly negative.
The pull quote from the test pretty much summarizes Diana Kendall's summary of American media in a nutshell. To show the quote again and in its entirety, it was "rather than providing a meaningful analysis of inequality and showing realistic portrayals of life in various social classes, the media either play…
Baum, M.A., & Groeling, T. (2008). New Media and the Polarization of American
Political Discourse. Political Communication, 25(4), 345-365.
Colombo, G. (2013). Rereading America: cultural contexts for critical thinking and writing (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins.
It is also argued that the insurance mandate is not constitutional since the government does not have the right to tell the United States citizens what products to purchase, even when these products are beneficial for them, and even less when the socio-economic impact of purchasing the respective items is questionable (Savage, 2009).
Arguments against changing the direction of the policy
Once again delaying any measures to restructure and resolve the two impending problems in the health care system (raising costs and insufficient coverage) does not constitute a constructive approach to resolving the impending problems
Aside the socio-economic problems it raises, the mandatory health insurance would ensure that all the U.S. citizens benefit at least from the basic health care services and this does not put tremendous strains on the federal budgets.
5. ationale of the suggestion to change the direction
Despite the benefits the mandatory health insurance would generate…
Barnett, R., 2009, Is health insurance mandate constitutional? last accessed on June 18, 2010
Berger, J., 2009, a health insurance mandate that works like auto insurance? Think again, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/09/14/health-insurance-mandate-works-like-auto-insurance-think / last accessed on June 18, 2010
Bihari, M., 2010, Mandated benefits -- understanding mandated health insurance benefits, http://healthinsurance.about.com/od/reform/a/mandated_benefits_overview.htm last accessed on June 18, 2010
Cowen, T., 2009, How an insurance mandate could leave many worse off, http://www.nytimes.com /2009/10/25/health/policy/25view.html last accessed on June 18, 2010
Democracy and Clientelism:
Political clientelism is basically considered as the distribution of discriminatory benefits to people or groups in exchange for political support. Clientelism is a form of personal exchange that is always characterized by uneven balance of power between those involved and a sense of compulsion. Throughout history, this term has continued to create confusion and controversy due to the broad and varied range of political exchanges that it contains. Since it's a way with which the uneven and hierarchical exchanges of a feudal society are described, clientelism is also a means of describing the relationships between patrons and clients. The theory of democracy explains that voters have the right of making their choices freely, particularly during political elections. This concept has created new platforms for representation and political accountability as well as the benefits for sustaining and cultivating clientelistic bonds (Szwarcberg, 2009). In places with weak democracies, clients…
De Sousa Luis. "Clientelism and the Quality(ies) of Democracy Public and Policy Aspects."
Central European University, 2008. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00004462/01/discwp-2008-02.pdf (accessed April 12, 2011).
Gallego, Jorge Andres & Raciborski, Rafal. "Clientelism, Income Inequality, and Social
Preferences: and Evolutionary Approach to Poverty Traps." Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2008. http://www.javeriana.edu.co/fcea/area_economia/inv/documents/clientelismIncomeInequalityandSocialPreferences_000.pdf (accessed April 12, 2011).
These problems can hinder the development of a high quality of life for all Americans by creating structural barriers to success. Some important steps would be to increase political participation at the roots level of all underrepresented members of society and to lend a voice to those who currently have little say in the governance of the nation.
Wk-4 DQ-1. The political-economic system is generally set up along the lines of specific economic ideology that helps to define the role of government in the development of American society. The nature of work is in part defined by economic principles as well, for example the prevailing view that low-priced labor is key to competitiveness. This ideology intends to promote maximum economic development but it differs from the reality of work, in which economic distribution fails most Americans while benefiting few.
Wk-4 DQ-2. Some of the major causes of illiteracy are inadequate…
U.S. residents want a society in which all persons live long, healthy lives (1); however, that vision is yet to be realized fully. As two of its primary goals, CDC aims to reduce preventable morbidity and mortality and to eliminate disparities in health between segments of the U.S. population. The first of its kind, this 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities eport (2011 CHDI) represents a milestone in CDC's long history of working to eliminate disparities.
Health disparities are differences in health outcomes and their determinants between segments of the population, as defined by social, demographic, environmental, and geographic attributes (7). Health inequalities, which is sometimes used interchangeably with the term health disparities, is more often used in the scientific and economic literature to refer to summary measures of population health associated with individual- or group-specific attributes (e.g., income, education, or race/ethnicity) (8). Health inequities are a subset of health…
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020. Phase I report: recommendations for the framework and format of Healthy People 2020. Rockville, MD: DHHS; 2008. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov /hp2020/advisory/PhaseI/PhaseI.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
public health with regard to the inequities that exist in the provision of health services has never been worse. esearchers have consistently and tirelessly made public health a subject of their study. The quest for a solution to these inequities is central in two spheres of public health: community based interventions and social epidemiology. The inequities in focus transcend social, economic, political and racial bounds. They are ever increasing at alarming rates. The severity of the inequities varies, but it is clearly disturbing in some countries. Some of the most notable inequities include: childhood obesity in disproportionate figures, food insecurity, and insufficient healthcare access in the various disadvantaged groups persists. Although both epidemiologists and community based intervention researchers have a long standing common interest, they have not achieved much as far as the usage of epidemiology is applied to provide solutions to health inequities.
It is typical epidemiological practice to…
Bearman, S. (2015). Oppression101. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from http://www.interchangecounseling.com/blog/oppression-101/
Cudd, A. E. (2006). Analyzing oppression. New York: Oxford University Press.
McLeod, S. (2012). Low Self-Esteem. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/self-esteem.html
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). Going for growth. Paris: OECD.
Blau and Blau believe that this fact provides one more piece of evidence in favor of their central proposition that "racial socioeconomic inequalities are a major source of much criminal violence.
There is a stereotype that poor class youth are the ones that commit crime. The fact is that many studies conclude that social class has no direct link to crime. It does on the other hand have an indirect link. To further understand the class-crime relationship, more studies are obviously necessary. There is no lack of interest in the subject, but the upper class are not likely to attract much interest in crime research. It is vital to study all aspects of crime so that a comparison can be made and help to further understand crime trends, and fully understand the relationship between socioeconomic status and criminal behavior
Blau, J.., & Blau, P.M. (1982). The cost of inequality:…
Blau, J.R., & Blau, P.M. (1982). The cost of inequality: Metropolitan structure and violent crime. American Sociological Review, 47, 114-117. Pp. 121-127
Blum, R.W., T. Beuhring, M.L. Shew, L.H. Bearinger, R.E. Sieving, and M.D. Resnick. (2000). The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors. American Journal of Public Health 90 (12): 1879-84.
Bonczar, Thomas P. (2003), Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001, Bureau of Jus tice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 197976.
Ellwood, D.T., & Jencks, C. (2002). The growing difference in family structure: What do we know? Where do we look for answers? John F. Kennedy School of Government, HarvardUniversity, Cambridge, MA.
Slow model (1992) is an economic tool used to analyze a country economic growth. The principal conclusion of Slow model is that the accumulation of capital could not only account for the growth rate per person. To address the central question of economic growth, it is critical to move beyond the Slow model. Mankiw et al. (1992) incorporate economic tools such as FDI growth rate, trade, inequality, institutional quality and other core variables such as labor and capital to analyze the growth rate across countries,.
Objective of this paper is to use the core economic variables and non-core economic variables to investigate their potential impacts on the United States growth rates.
Overview of the United States Growth ates
The United States is the largest and most powerful economy in the world. Presently, the U.S. has the highest level of output with the country GDP valued more than U.S.$14…
Andrew, W. (2007). The link between institutional quality and economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries. Master's Thesis.
Country Watch (2012).United States Economic Overview. CountryWatch, Inc.
Freckleton, M. Wright, A. & Craigwell, R.(2012). Economic growth, foreign direct investment and corruption in developed and developing countries. Journal of Economic Studies. 39 ( 6):639 -- 652.
Kornecki, L. & Borodulin, V.(2011). Foreign Direct Investment Stock Contributes to Economic Growth in the U.S. Economy. Department of Economics, Finance, and Information System.