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Individual Project Letter to Client the Consulting
Words: 4989 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29737831
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Individual Project

Letter to Client

The consulting project was a tremendous success, and it was wonderful working with you. I can only hope that you are continuing with the great work that we started. This report will discuss the project from my perspective, and provide you with valuable insights and context into the work that we have done over the past several months.

The first section of the report describes the company and the sector in which it operates. The second section describes how I entered into the project and conveys my opening impressions and the information that I was able to gather through our initial discussions. This information was essential to framing the project.

The next section is about the diagnosis and the objectives. This section describes the grand objective that we talked about, the sub-objectives, as well as the structure of the multiple iterations.

After a note about…


Cooperrider, D. & Whitney, D. (2014). What is appreciative inquiry? Appreciative Inquiry; Retrieved July 15, 2014 from 

Hill, R. (2014). Appreciative inquiry; Retrieved July 15, 2014 from 

O'Brien, R. (1998). An overview of the methodological approach of action research; University of Toronto. Retrieved July 15, 2014 from

Schein, E. (1995). Process consultation, action research and clinical inquiry: Are they the same? Working Paper No. 3833.

History of Health Care Mandate the Signing
Words: 1751 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48881351
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History Of Health Care Mandate

The signing of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) by President Obama must be considered a landmark event in the history of the nation regardless of how one views the constitutionality of the legislation. Passage of the legislation marked the end of a long and acrimonious debate and brought the United States in line with the rest of the developed world in terms of providing universal health coverage to its citizens (Orszag, 2010). Unfortunately, the debate over the constitutionality of the ACA did not end with Obama's signing of the legislation as within days several different states filed suit against the law's requirement that most Americans purchase health; against the health care mandate.

The health care mandate was first offered as an option by the conservative think tank, the Heritage Foundation, as an option to the single-payer system that had been historically supported by Democrats and…


Block, S. (2010, April 29). IRS Lacks Clout to Enforce Mandatory Health Insurance. USA Today, pp. healthirs28_CV_N.htm?loc=interstitialskip.

Jost, T.S. (2010). Health Insurance Exchanges and the Affordable Care Act: Eight Difficult Issues. Lexington, VA: Washington and Lee University School of Law.

Orszag, P.R. (2010, August 12). Health Care Reform and Cost Control. New England Journal of Medicine, pp. 601-603.

Ponnuru, R. (2012, March 27). The History of the Individual Mandate. Retrieved from National Review Online:

Lawsuits and Legislation Involved Against the Mandate to Buy Health Insurance
Words: 3381 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69942056
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Health insurance coverage is one of the major issues at the core of initiatives to reform the United States health sector. This issue has attracted considerable attention in health reform initiatives because of the relatively high number of uninsured and underinsured people in the country. The United States has a high number of uninsured and underinsured populations despite the increased federal expenditures on health. Recent healthcare reform legislation has sought to address this issue through various ways including the introduction of the mandate to buy health insurance. The mandate is essentially an individual or employer mandate to obtain private health insurance coverage. However, the individual mandate is one of the controversial provisions of the Affordable Care Act and has been the subject of numerous lawsuits. In addition, legislation has been enacted against the mandate to buy health insurance. This paper discusses lawsuits and legislation involved against the mandate to purchase…

Blake, V. (2012, November). The Constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act: An Update. AMA Journal of Ethics. Retrieved from 
Campbell, A.L. & Shore-Sheppard, L. (2020, July). The Social, Political, and Economic Effects of the Affordable Care Act: Introduction to the Issue. The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 6(2), 1-40.
Geruso, M. & Layton, T.J. (2017). Selection in Health Insurance Markets and Its Policy Remedies. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(4), 23-50.
Goldstein, A. (2019, December 19). Individual Mandate Ruled Unconstitutional, ACA in Limbo. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2021, from 
Hackmann, M.B., Kolstad, J.T. & Kowalski, A.E. (2015, March). Adverse Selection and an Individual Mandate: When Theory Meets Practice. American Economic Review, 105(3), 1030-1066.
Keith, K. (2018, February 28). State Lawsuit Claims That Individual Mandate Penalty Repeal Should Topple Entire ACA. Health Affairs. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from 
Roy, A. (2012). The Tortuous History of Conservatives and the Individual Mandate. Forbes. Retrieved February 12, 2021, from 
Sheikh, S.A. (2007, January). The Importance of Ethics in Health Care System. Journal of the Dow University of Health Sciences, 1(1), 46-48.

obamacare pros and cons and mandated insurance
Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33748105
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In an ideal world, every single person would be able to afford the medical care and attention they need throughout their lifespan. The Affordable Care Act, colloquially called Obamacare, set as its goal eventual universal healthcare coverage. Unfortunately, Obamacare has not promoted the ultimate goal of providing affordable healthcare for all Americans. Mandating healthcare insurance does help reduce disparities in access to affordable and necessary interventions, tests, and treatments. As idealistic as Obamacare is, the policy has not reduced the costs of healthcare but it does represent a step in the right direction towards distinguishing between the profit motive in healthcare insurance and the ethical obligation to create a more caring and egalitarian society.
The Affordable Care Act used mandated insurance coverage as its main policy initiative for several reasons, both fiscal and humanitarian. As Gruber (2012) points out, about 12 million employed Americans were not receiving coverage from their…

Elements and Funding of Mandate Laws
Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22011611
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United States, the federal government attempts only to step in on state regulation of civil matters when the issue is ubiquitous enough to cover national importance. In such cases, the federal government issues mandate laws, that force states to adhere to federal regulations on certain matters, which are often required to be funded by the federal government in order to take the burden off of the state itself. There are a number of mandate laws here in the United States, including the Wages and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which impact not only the way citizens experience their daily lives but also the fiscal and budgetary operations of public organizations.

First, the Fair Labor and Standards Act was passed by the federal government in order to assure employees in the United States received a fair wage and were not exploited by their employers.…


Congressional Budget Justification. (2015). Wage and Hour Division. United States Department of Labor. Web. 

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2013). Federal funding under the Affordable Care Act. Focus on Health Reform. Web.

Obamacare Facts. (2015). Obamacare: Employer mandate. Small Businesses. Web. 

United States Department of Labor. (2013). Fact sheet: Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act. Final Rule. Web.

Individual Growth in This Particular
Words: 1538 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74824329
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There were also notable evaluation pointers, with a constant feedback mechanism used in order to further improve the learning process and the teaching skills.

One should, however, note, among issues to be improved in the future, the inability to uniformly distribute teaching attention among different areas of study. The example with Jenna is eloquent in this sense. The excitement over an obviously gifted child in certain areas led to the neglect in other important educational areas, even in terms of writing, a preferred subject otherwise. It seems sensible to suggest, in this case, that the encouragement of certain obvious capacities should be doubled by a uniform for of teaching, covering all relevant areas. The teaching portfolio may be improved with relevant experiences at reactions when attempting to modify negative reactions towards certain areas of study.


1. Centra, John A. (1993) Reflective Faculty Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-ass Publishers, Inc.



1. Centra, John A. (1993) Reflective Faculty Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc.

2. Seldin, Peter and Associates (1993) Successful Use of Teaching Portfolios. Belton, MA: Anker Publishing.

3. The Teaching Portfolio at Washington University. Last updated in December 2000. On the Internet at 

The Teaching Portfolio at Washington University. Last updated in December 2000. On the Internet at

Individuals Who Suffer or Are Harmed by
Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8558170
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individuals who suffer or are harmed by juvenile crime have, in the past, been excluded or minimally involved in the adjudication (specifically the sentencing) of their cases for reasons of confidentiality rights accorded to accused juvenile offenders. However, this trend in recent years has changed. As the public has become more aware of the frequency and effects of juvenile crime, there has been a call from the citizenry to develop policies and practices that will not only prosecute those juveniles who have committed offences, but to include those who have been victimised in the court procedures. This move towards the establishment of victims' rights has made a fundamental modification to the juvenile justice system - victims are no longer viewed as passive onlookers, but involved participants in the system.

According to a joint project commissioned by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and the U.S. Department of…


National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges & Office for Victims of Crime Resource Center, How to be Victim Friendly in Juvenile Court (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 1997)]

Individual Select a Contemporary Political
Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99475450
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Once this occurs, it means that many rouge nations will attempt to exert their influence in these areas. This is the point that the chances of any kind of hostilities will increase.

As a result, Penetta thinks that Congress should spare the Department of Defense any kind of severe budgetary cuts. Evidence of this can be seen with him saying, "The Defense Department is already shouldering its share of the deficit-reduction burden, including $350 billion in cuts over the next decade mandated by the udget Control Act. Those cuts are tough but manageable and do not pose any insurmountable national-security risks. ut any additional reductions in the Defense Department's budget would serious damage to our ability to be able to make the kind of changes in our defense structure that are responsible and that do protect this country for the future." (Scully) This is significant, because it is showing how…


Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. New York: Forgotten Books, 1997. Print.

Scully, Megan. "Penetta Urges Lawmakers." Gov Exec, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 32161801
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No Child Left Behind Act

Both the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are fairly controversial pieces of legislation, particularly in the varying realms of public education that they affect. The former of these acts mandates that public schools must give yearly, standardized assessments of their students. The results of these assessments is largely the basis for federal funding to these schools. IDEA mandates assessments for students with learning differences and calls for the issuance of alternative assessments for those students who cannot complete the standardized assessments (Towles-eeves et al., 2009, p. 233). The problem is that critics of these pieces of legislation have alleged that all they do is shift the emphasis of education on testing and subsequent funding, rather than on comprehensive education.

Problem Statement

There are actually several different ways in which these two pieces of legislation are negatively impacting…


Demma, R. (2010). Building ready states: A governor's guide to supporting a comprehensive, high-quality early childhood state systems. NGA Center for Best Practices. Retrieved from: 

Kagan, S. L., & Kauerz, K. (2012). (4th ed.). Early childhood systems: transforming early learning. Teachers College.

Towles-Reeves, E., Kleinert, H., Muhomba, M. (2009). Alternate assessment: have we learned anything yet? Concerned for Exceptional Children. 75(2), 233-252.

Domestic Policy
Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15025636
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Individual Mandate in PPACA

On March 23, 2010 the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama. Along with the Health Care Reconciliation Act of 2010, the PPACA became part of the overall Health Care Reform concept of 2010; a reform process that was promoted as a way to completely transform the health care industry and ensure that there is "more openness to the insurance marketplace…." ("") hile supporters praise the legislation as a revolutionary law which will benefit ordinary Americans, critics claim that the Obama Administration used the health care reform process as a means of gaining control over the entire health care system. In order to provide the necessary funding for this reform process, the PPACA contains a requirement that all American citizens either join a healthcare program, or pay a penalty. This has been identified as not only constitutional, but…

Works Cited

"PPACA: Detailed Summary." Responsible Reform for the Middle Class. Web. 25

Oct. 2012. 

"PPACA: Executive Summary of the Government Expansions, Vast New Taxes,

Damaging Medicare Cuts, and Increased Health Costs and Premium."

Government-Mandated Microchip Implantation

Government-Mandated Chip Implantation in Citizens:

Technological Breakthrough or Privacy Disaster?

Government-Mandated Chip Implantation in Citizens:

Technological Breakthrough or Privacy Disaster?

In a world in which new technology turns over nearly every day, individuals around the world, and particularly in the United States, continually jump at the chance to integrate these new technologies into their own lives. Generally, we as Americans view technology as a convenience, created to make our lives easier. From GPS systems in our cars to GPS systems on our children, it seems that no technology is off-limits. Perhaps, though, our continual interest in these technologies lies in our ability to take them or leave them. Some may view the placement of a GPS tracking chip in a child's coat as a dream come true, while others may find it excessive. How then, would a technologically-obsessed nation react if our choice to consume was taken…


Herbert, W. (2006). No direction home: will the law keep pace with human tracking technology to protect individual privacy and stop geoslavery? IIS: A Journal of Law and Policy. 2.2: pp. 417. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.

Miliard, M. (2011 March 22). Barcoding is simple, but effective. Healthcare IT News.

Web. Retrieved from: . [Accessed on 19 January 2012].

Westin, A. (1967). Privacy and Freedom. New York, NY: Atheneum. Print.

Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones There Should Be
Words: 1627 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 81922371
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Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones


Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.

There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…


First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearms Laws. 2003. Web. Retrieved from 

Horner, William T. Showdown in the Show-Me State: The Fight over Conceal-and-Carry Gun Laws in Missouri. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2005.Questia. Web. 26 Apr. 2012.

Patrick, Ryan. Ron Paul Introduces Bill to Abolish 'Gun-Free Zones'. August 2011. Web.

Legislatively Mandated Staffing Ratios in the Nursing
Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76836971
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Legislatively Mandated Staffing Ratios

In the nursing profession, the first job is to care for patients and that is both their physical and mental pain. The job of a nurse is to heal and care for individuals in their times of most vulnerability, when they are at their physically weakest position. Nurses and other medical professionals are tasked with taking care of their patients, of healing the body and the mind, and of saving the lives of their patients. They are life givers and life savers, often the last hope for a person's survival. Every day, nurses and doctors have to go to work knowing that they will witness some sort of despair and trauma. A nurse must be both compassionate and competent. They must feel for the patient, but they must also remain emotionally distant enough that they can still do their job accurately and efficiently, otherwise the staff…

Works Cited

Hale, S. & Grogan, S. (2010). Male GPs' views on men seeking medical help: a qualitative study. British Journal of Health Psychology. The British Psychological Society. 15. 697-713.

Lupton, Deborah. (2009). Toward the development of critical health communication praxis.

Health Communication. 6:1.

Shi, Leiyu (2010). Vulnerable Populations in the United States. John Wiley: San Francisco, CA.

Individuality Individual Identity Is Almost
Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98260647
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Social conformity inhibits the individuals' referentiality that was an intrinsic governance of the self. Although neither Durkheim nor Giddens arguments are without merit, it would seem, therefore, as Elias argued, neither society nor the individual can exist in total isolation from the other. In many ways they are defined by each other and the actions of the collective. Society can serve as the barometer by which individual identity is measured, and the converse is true. Interdependencies exist between individuals and society.


Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cleaver, F 2007, 'Understanding Agency in Collection Action' Journal of Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 223.

Cuff, E, Sharrock, W, & Francis, D 1984, Perspectives in Sociology, 3rd edition, London,


Elias, N 1995, 'Introduction: Figuration and Process Sociology' Culture

and Economics, vol. 34.

Elias, N 1996, 'Problems of Involvement and Detachment', British…


Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cleaver, F 2007, 'Understanding Agency in Collection Action' Journal of Human Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 223.

Cuff, E, Sharrock, W, & Francis, D 1984, Perspectives in Sociology, 3rd edition, London,


Unfunded Mandates
Words: 1395 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54549037
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Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 was designed to keep the federal government from imposing expensive mandates on states and local governments without paying for them. In part, it requires federal agencies to prepare a written analysis of any especially costly mandates handed down to State, local or tribal governments.

Unfunded mandates or regulatory burdens.

Unfunded mandates are handed down from the federal Government to states. More often than not the mandate is not what the state needs or wants. An example of an unfunded mandate regards a general aviation airport in Morristown, New Jersey. The airport tried to get permission to trim or remove trees, which were blocking the air traffic controller's view of the taxiways and the final approach. Of course, this was impacting safety at the airport.

The State environmental people said the airport was not allowed to trim the trees because the trees were located in…


Eliza Newlin Carney, National Journal, Counter devolution, April 13, 1998

Special to The Washington Post, Wednesday, March 27, 2002; Page C01

Heritage Compilation

Ontario Property Assessment Corporation Individual Municipalities in
Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48811560
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Ontario Property Assessment Corporation:

Individual municipalities in Ontario, Canada were responsible for the provision of assessment services before 1970. However, the introduction of the Ontario Property Assessment Corporation Act resulted in significant changes in tax assessment in the province. The legislation paved way for the establishment of the Ontario Property Assessment Corporation, which has continued to evolve since its inception. One of the main reasons for the creation and introduction of this organization was to enable the province to take over tax assessment, which was traditionally the responsibility of individual municipalities. The province would take over tax assessment in attempts to return the function to the local government after the development of a consistent and province-wide framework of assessment. Moreover, the organization was created following calls for greater control over the management of major elements of local property tax system by individual municipalities.

History of Ontario Property Assessment Corporation:


Works Cited:

City of Brampton, Canada. Flower City for Residents. Property Assessment. City of Brampton, 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. .

Ontario, Canada. Ministry of Finance. Email Print Share Ontario Budget Update 1997 Ontario Property Assessment Corporation. Queen's Printer for Ontario, 7 Oct. 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. .

Ontario, Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Ontario. Municipal Property Assessment Corporation. Office of the Auditor General of Ontario, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. .

Slack, Enid. The Never-Ending Story of Property Tax Reform in Ontario, Canada: Lessons for Other Countries? Munk Centre for International Studies. University of Toronto, 26 Jan. 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. .

Change Individual Response
Words: 486 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62783526
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Organizational Behavior

How I Respond to Change

In some instances, change is largely inevitable. Just as we experience change in the various facets of lives, so do organizations. The relevance of effective change management cannot, therefore, be overstated. There are many factors that may bring about organizational change. While some of these factors are internal, others could be external. External factors include, but they are not limited to, technological, social, or even economic stimuli. On the other hand, internal factors include managerial policies, changes in strategy, etc.

It is important to note that different people react differently to change. My reaction to change largely depends on how I perceive the said change -- i.e. whether I perceive it as being positive or negative. Generally, I tend to be appreciative of 'positive' change and hostile to 'negative' change. For clarity's sake, positive change, in my view, is that change whose effects…

Landlord Green Mandating Green Retrograding Among Income
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82746182
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Landlord Green

Mandating Green Retrograding Among Income Property Owners

The movement for improved environmental sustainability starts with individual property owners. However, property ownership remains one of the most significant and determinant socioeconomic dividing lines in American society. The result is a clear socioeconomic dividing line where sustainability and conservation are concerned. In spite of the critical importance of adapting our consumption habits, lifestyle orientation and energy usage to meet changing needs, many Americans lack the basic ownership rights to participate in some key initiatives. Central among them is the impetus for Green building practices. As the research and discussion presented hereafter with show, this is an impetus to which most home-renters are unable to respond. As the research will note, the need to account for the significant population of Americans who rent when imposing regulatory policies effecting green building standards is today a central element of any plan to reduce…

Unfortunately, substantial evidence persists to suggest that these programs do not go far enough to address the renter/owner conundrum. Many tax incentive options are available only to property owners in their primary dwelling. Though some owners may see breaks on insurance of income properties for certain upgrades there is no significant program that aides property owners in upgrading income properties for energy efficiency. The owner of the property has a conflict of interest in that their desire is to have the home occupied, with the least possible out of pocket expense for the property. Therefore installing energy efficient appliances is often far from the top of the priority list, as the cost of running appliances falls on the occupier (Gardner & Stern, 2008).

Additionally, the value of properties from which owners collect rent is often viewed as profitable in the short-term. This differs from the property owner with intent to maintain, improve and eventually resell a property for profit. In today's particularly anemic housing market, collecting a monthly rent check stands as a much sturdier priority than such interests as either environmental sustainability or cost-controls for the long-term posterity of the structure. The result is a reluctance on the part of many property owners to install additional insulation, to replace older windows with high efficiency windows, to purchase weather-resistant doors and to upgrade older, energy-consuming appliances and temperature-control units. While this may improve property value in the long-term and raise eventual resale or even rental value, if the intention is lacking in the immediate future to make such a sale or a change in lessees, any such changes would cost more in the short-term and would therefore be unattractive to many income property owners. Moreover, these types of big ticket efficiency upgrades are very unlikely to be performed by a renter, who will be unlikely to see significant long-term financial gain from this type of overall improvement to the owner's property.

This dynamic helps point to the critical importance of providing meaningful financial incentives for the income property owner to make the types of changes and upgrades cited here above. First, some consideration should be given to existing programs designed to bring about change for property owners. Tax incentive programs carry merit but are neither substantial or widespread enough to stimulate the type of change called for here. According to the text by Moreno (2011) "income tax credits for going green are available in 22 states. Michigan has a refundable credit for

Complaints From Individuals Under the
Words: 4646 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73436908
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Human rights according to the practice of the UN also imply "the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food" (UNESCO, 2004). Therefore, given this example one of the means used by the UN in its attempt to offer the possibility for the respect of this right has been to give "the mandate to the High Commissioner for Human Rights to better define the body of rights related to food. In 2000 a UN Special Rapporteur for Right to Food was appointed and in 2003 an intergovernmental working group was formed to establish guidelines to promote the progressive realization of the right to food" (UNESCO, 2004).

Indeed there are several types of responses that can be given to the breach of human rights throughout the world. Depending on the type of rights being placed under discussion, there can be several mechanisms set in place. Thus, when there…


General Assembly. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on the Human Rights Council. (2006)

Human Rights Education Association. The European Human Rights System. (n.d). 

International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. Submitting Complaints to the Individual Complaint Procedure of United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies. (N.d). .

Jane Hearn, "Individual communications under international human rights treaties: an Australian Government perspective." Australian Journal for Human Rights. (1999)

Outsourcing Clinical Trials That Individuals and Organizations
Words: 323 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88495179
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outsourcing clinical trials that individuals and organizations looking to do so need to consider. Many of these different facets pertain to the contracts provided for this particular process. The principle services that one will need to procure, of course, are those of the research company that will be utilized to outsource the clinical trials. In the situation presented in this assignment, there are two individuals, one of which has the patent for a potential Alzheimer's compound and another that has the research skills. The first thing that this fledgling company needs to do is outline exactly what will be tested and how it will be done. This information itself must go into the contract that the party that is going to actually conduct the clinical trials needs to see. It is pertinent for the pharmaceutical company to be very specific about what sorts of these things it is testing for…

Abstract When an Individual Does
Words: 3127 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38306397
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Bouncken and Winke (2008) explain that challenges include global innovation teams being confonted with the team membes' vaious national cultues.
National cultues, Bouncken and Winke point out (2008), influence the behavio, cognitive models and values of the individual. These same cultues, albeit may also contibute to challenges elating to the individual's undestanding, along with his/he woking elationship. Divesity on team membes' backgounds may incease ceativity. Nevetheless, team functioning and team pocesses constant significant factos that fom the outcome: Innovation. On the othe hand, when divesity stats to theaten goup pocesses, the ensuing actions may, in tun, spoil ceativity and the intended implementation of innovation. A manage who does not include all team membes in the decision making pocess o allows paticula individuals on a team to dominate discussions inceases the potential fo challenges with/in a multi-cultual team to incease. The cohesion connecting the team membes, as well as thei commitment…

references pertinent to those in the team and find the best fit for the group" (Mulkeen, 2008, ? 6). This process involves the manager identifying and understanding the impact individual's communication style makes. Mulkeen points out:
A principal difference in communication style is whether a culture is 'high' or 'low' context. Cultures vary in the extent to which the context of their communication is implicit or explicit, which also influences the value they place on their relationships or on rules. In a high-context culture (found in countries such as Spain, Mexico and France), communication relies on body language and assumed knowledge, and the context is left unsaid. Conversely, in a low-context culture (found in countries such as Germany, Canada, the UK and the USA), communication is much more direct and words are used to explain the context explicitly (Mulkeen, 2008, ?? 7- 8).
To avoid causing offence or misunderstanding when a person from a high-context culture communicates with another individual from a low-context culture, he/she needs a particular amount of accommodation or adaptation. A person from a low-context culture may feel he/she is not being caught up to speed by a team member from a high-context culture, who assumes all members share the same knowledge. A high-context individual, on the other hand, may feel he/she is being patronized or perhaps feel bored by the level of detail given his/her low-context counterpart give him/her. An international team manager needs to be cognizant of these and other challenges and also secure salient solutions to minimize conflict in the team and maximize successful group communication within the group (Mulkeen, 2008).
One primary difference in business practices across cultures involves the amount of emphasis the individual or the group or team as a whole merits. This type tension between individualism (noted in countries like the USA, the UK, Australia and Germany) and collectivism (noted in countries in the Middle East as well as Singapore and Mexico) may impact the way individuals perceive their roles in the team. To effectively counter this challenge, expectations regarding the team member needs to be mutually understood from the start (Mulkeen, 2008).
Mulkeen (2008) asserts that attitudes towards risk, hierarchy, collectivism and individualism, as well as communication styles, represent a few vital areas the competent multicultural team manager regularly addresses to counter the development or friction within the team and/or permitting it to flourish. Cross-cultural competency proves to be an essential characteristic for managers in multinational companies. Whether or not a manager possess this trait may make the difference between an organization succeeding or failing in today's global economy. With a myriad differences to consider in managing a multicultural team, the manager also has to determine which strategy for managing the diverse individuals works best, yet simultaneously creates an effective framework for running the team so each person feels comfortable in his/her environment.
Multi-Cultural Team Cohesion Benefits.
Luo & Shenkar point out a number of ways global language design benefits performance in an organization:
Global language design affects corporate performance via several channels. First, it improves inter-unit and intra-network communication, enhancing the accuracy, speed and effectiveness of intra-corporate information exchange. Second, global language design improves coordination and integration, which are compounded by the use of multiple languages and their cultural correlates When a language system is incorporated into a global information system, headquarters can better calibrate local feedback and integrate globally allocated activities. Coordination costs are reduced directly as a result of lower translation requirements and indirectly via minimization of the misinterpretations associated with linguistic barriers. Third, global language design improves inter-unit learning, which is essential to capturing synergies from inter-unit collaboration and knowledge transfer (Luo & Shenkar, 2006, Theory development section, ? 8).
Mulkeen (2008) concludes that currently, a number of significant opportunities exist for international collaboration between organizations. Along with the increasing number of individuals with international responsibility, cross-cultural teams will become more common throughout the world. Training help participants, particularly team members, understand both their own and their international counterparts' cultures prove vital. To develop strategies that will enable team members to work more effectively across cultures, managers must maximize teamwork, while they also strengthen the group's performance. When for

Health Care ACA
Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46626425
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The Affordable Care Act works on the premise that all Americans should have access to health care insurance. Because this is provided through insurance companies, the system is only enforceable under certain conditions. One of the key tenets of health care reform is the idea that those with pre-existing conditions cannot be denied insurance coverage. This group of people has long had problems getting insurance, and insurance companies spend tens of millions to invent pre-existing conditions that would then be used to deny coverage. Even insurance commissioners have been known to take offensive and absurd stances on pre-existing conditions, arguing that insurance companies should not have to take customers with such conditions because the person is to blame for their pre-existing condition (Ferguson, 2013). With attitudes like this from people connected to the insurance industry, the only way that the Obama Administration was going to achieve universal health care…


Ferguson, D. (2013). Georgia insurance commissioner: It's your fault if you have a pre-existing commission. Raw Story Retrieved December 6, 2013 from 

Klein, E. (2012). Unpopular mandate. The New Yorker. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from 

Kliff, S. (2013). Washington State provides case study on effects of health care reform. Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from

AARP. (2013). For people 65+. American Association of Retired People. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from

Rise of Federalism in the U S
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As Cuccinelli and Getchell point out that, "The police power is the antithesis of limited, enumerated powers. Given the breadth of that power, it cannot be exercised by the federal government without overwhelming the limitations intended by the Constitution's scheme of enumerated powers" (2011, p. 293).


The argument can be made that the individual mandate provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act are for the greater good by making individual consumers accountable for their own healthcare. Even though the purpose of the PPACA may be laudable, the research was consistent in showing that many constitutional scholars believe that the individual mandate oversteps the authority of the U.S. Congress under the Commerce Clause. Although the PPACA is currently the law of the land, it is reasonable to conclude that it will continue to face legal challenges from the attorneys general of the several states due to its individual…


Cuccinelli, K.T. & Getchell, E.D. (2011, Spring). Why the debate over the constitutionality of the federal health care law is about much more than health care. Texas Review of Law & Politics, 15(2), 292-301.

Loyola, M. (2011, Fall). Trojan horse: Federal manipulation of state governments and the Supreme Court's emerging doctrine of federalism. Texas Review of Law & Politics, 16(1),


May, J.R. (2013, Spring). Healthcare, environmental law, and the Supreme Court: An analysis

Impact of Healthcare Reform Quality on Nursing Care
Words: 1386 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32284682
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Unintended Consequences of Health Care Reform

Consequences of Health Care Reform

My discussion is related to the individual mandate of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010.

The policy problems addressed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 are the high cost of health insurance that is untenable for low and middle income earners and the discretionary criteria for enrollment and coverage exercised by medical and health insurance carriers. The PPACA is an excellent policy solution to these issues in the United States and, absent socialized medicine, is a robust response to what has been an intractable and escalating problem in the U.S. Many people who have unable to obtain medical insurance are now able to do so.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was designed to significantly reduce the number of people who are uninsured through the provision of a continuum…

Present American Healthcare System Is in Need of Reform
Words: 1126 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28822647
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Healthcare Reform

The subject of healthcare reform set the country ablaze last year, proving to be one of the most contentious issues that has swept through American political discourse in recent decades. One reason that healthcare reform might have proven to be such a contentious issue -- bringing out the worst and shrillest elements of the American public -- was that healthcare is one of the most important issues in the lives of many and even most Americans (Christensen and Jason, 2009).

All of us will face serious illness at some point in our lives, whether our own or that of a loved one. The fact that so many Americans do not have any healthcare at all or have very limited access to healthcare makes the issue a personal one, and this alone should have made it central to the public discourse. However, while the above was no doubt the…

Works Cited

Christensen, Clayton and Jason, Grossman. The Innovator's Prescription, New York: McGraw Hill, 2009.

Mahar, Maggie. Money-Driven Medicine: The Real Reason Health Care Costs So Much. New York:Harper/Collins, 2006.

Reid, T.R. The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penquin Books, 2009.

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 1543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array
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life experiences. It include explanation examples previous experiences implications future applications.

Universal Healthcare: Averting Crisis in the United States

A crisis is a unique moment of extreme pressure, exceptional in character and high in significance. Decisions made at the time of a crisis are qualified by the multiplicity of factors all demanding solutions at the same time. One mark of a good leader is the ability to make the right decisions during moments of crisis as well as in placid reflection. The political system of democracy is not well-suited to crises. Many voices piping up and arguing fail to develop consensus, and in spite of the good arguments of some, democratic politics cannot survive a crisis. In a crisis, only a few make the grade and emerge as leaders. The decisions facing leaders in the United States take into account the long-term goals of the world's largest economy, and also…


Dean, Howard. Howard Dean's Prescription for Real Healthcare Reform: How We Can Achieve Affordable Medical Care for Every American and Make Our Jobs Safer. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2009: White River Junction, VT.

Reid, T.E. The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Healthcare. Penguin Books, 2010: New York.

Changes in Supreme Court Philosophies
Words: 2132 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46065403
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Supreme Court Chief Justices Warren and ehnquist

Compare and contrast approaches to criminal procedures by U.S. Supreme Courts:

The Warren vs. The ehnquist Court

A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices (often called strict constructionism) is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren. "Following his appointment in 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…


Byellin, J. (2013). John G. Roberts: Conservative yet apolitical consensus building chief justice.

Legal Solutions. Retrieved from: 

Liptak, A. (2012). Supreme Court upholds healthcare law 5-4, in a victory for Obama.

How Do Taxes Affect Taxpayers
Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 62020320
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Tax laws affect taxpayers because they create the taxpayer and govern all aspects of the taxpayer's obligation to the state. Without tax law, there would be no taxpayer; it is the tax laws that create the obligation to pay taxes, and the punishments for non-payment. Tax laws establish who pays taxes, at what rate they pay taxes, the punishments for late or non-payment, and the establish the tax collection body (IRS) and grant that body the authority to run the tax system. Taxation is one of the major ways in which the state can influence behavior in a democratic country. States have long reserved the right to taxation, and the exclusivity of this right has been a feature of government for centuries. Today, there are usually specific rules regarding what layer of government can levy taxes for what purpose. Taxes have different names, too, including excise taxes, income taxes,…

Looking at Psychology of Violence
Words: 1852 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44520401
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MFT: Psychology of Violence- Domestic Violence, Abuse and Legal Mandates

Violence has been described as any form of aggression that could result in either psychological or physical injury. From the early beginning of the current century, violence has increasingly become a pressing issue for behavioural experts. Despite the increased focus on violence in the last two decades, most of the studies tend to investigate effects on victims or risk factors with only a handful looking into the underlying causes of violence and the psychology behind it. Moreover, spousal battering or domestic violence as it is more commonly known, has received lesser attention despite the increase in such kind of violence. This study aims to investigate the main theories that explain the root causes of violence, distinguish cultural, gender and psychological dimensions of violence and also highlight the treatment and violence prevention methods. Lastly, this paper aims to look into the…


Cavanaugh. M, Gelles. R (2015) The Utility of Male Domestic Violence Offender Typologies, Journal of Interpersonal Violence,  {Retrieved; 9/11/2015}

Weithorn .L (2001) Protecting Children from Exposure to Domestic: The Use and Abuse of Child Maltreatment Statutes, Social Science Research Network,  {Retrieved; 9/11/2015}

Widom. C, Hiller-Sturmhofel. S, (2001) Alcohol Abuse as a Risk Factor for and Consequence of Child Abuse, PDF,  [Retrieved;9/11/2015}

Mazarin. J. (2015) Child Abuse and Neglect:4 Major Types, Characteristics and Effects,,  {Retrieved:9/11/2015}

Sky v Holder Susan Seven-Sky v Eric
Words: 1675 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70759298
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Sky v. Holder

Susan Seven-Sky v. Eric H. Holder, 661 F.3d 1 (2011).


The Appellants in the case are four United States citizens and taxpayers who are seeking a declaratory and injunctive relief to prevent the enforcement of the minimum essential coverage provision of the Affordable Care Act. The minimum essential coverage provision of said Act requires all U.S. citizens to purchase and maintain certain minimal levels of health insurance coverage beginning in calendar year 2014 or face sanctions. On the trial level, the U.S. District Court dismissed the Appellant's request by granting the government's Motion to Dismiss. The substance of the District Court's ruling was that the U.S. Congress had authority under the Commerce Clause and the Necessary and Proper Clause. The Court ruled that Congress had the power and authority to regulate any activity that substantially affects the health insurance and health care market place and that…


Bogen, D.S. (1972). The Hunting of the Shark: An Inquiry into the Limits of Congressional Power Under the Commerce Clause. Wake Forest Law Review, 187-200.

Key v. Holder, 661 F.3d 1 (D.C. Circuit November 8, 2011).

Liptak, A. (2011, November 14). Justices to Hear Health Care Case as Race Heats Up. New York Times, p. A1.

Manchikanti, L. (2011). Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Reforming the Health Care Reform for the New Decade. Pain Physician, 35-67.

Constitutionality of the PPACA
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Healthcare in U.S. / Constitutionality of PPACA

Meaning of Quote

Constitutionality of the individual mandate PPACA

Meaning of Quote

The meaning of the quote "deviance is in the eye of the beholder" is that whatever is deviant to one may not be to another. The differences in cultures, environments and traditions in the world mean that whatever one society may view as deviant may be the convention or the norm in another. Similarly, at the individual level, what one may view as deviant, another individual may not (Samara, 2012).

Many organizations, political parties, societies and individuals all struggle to be the ultimate judge of what behavior can or cannot be classified as deviant in correlation with social, religious, political, and or moral positions of these entities. Instances of this social struggle include situations where organizations such the anti-abortion movement, the creationist movement or animal rights groups fight for or against…


Kamiat, J.L. (2012). PPACA and the Individual Mandate: A Healthy Approach to Severability. Fordham Law Review. 80 (5). Available at: 

Miller, T. (2012). The Individual Mandate: Ineffective, Overreaching, Unsustainable, Unconstitutional, and Unnecessary. SAGE Publications Inc.

Samara, S. (2012). ESSAY: "Deviance is in the eye of the beholder. Blogspot. Retrieved on 1st October, 2015 from ?

Obamacare Essay
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The Affordable Care Act: Can It Be Fixed?

The Future of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

The Pros and Cons of Obamacare

The Effects of Obamacare on American Small Businesses


What are the main arguments for and against Obamacare?

How much should Americans pay for healthcare insurance?

Why do Americans pay more for their healthcare than consumers in some other countries?

Is Obamacare’s individual mandate unconstitutional?


I.  Abstract

II.  Introduction

III.  Body

     A.  Background and Overview

     B.  Pros of Obamacare / Advantages

     C.  Cons of Obamacare / Disadvantages

IV.  Conclusion

The Future of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act also known as Obamacare


The future of Obamacare? Probably the same as its past:
A bit of a mess. – Ben Boychuk, 2014


Signed into law by former President Barack Obama in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable…

National Health Care Plan in
Words: 1957 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71453293
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.. maybe finally it has come the time to be put into practice and not only be debated in Talk Shows and News Papers

One thing remains certain... The larger the number of citizens covered by the health care plan, better for the nation itself, for its tax payers and for the health of its present and future generations.

Annex 1

Source:, retrievedonline April 17, 2008.


World Health Organization: Core Health Indicators, retrieved online April 17, 2008 at

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, National Health Expenditure Data: NHE Fact Sheet, 2005, retrieved online April 17, 2008 at

World Health Organization: The World Health Report 2006 - Working together for health, 2007, retrieved online April 17, 2008 at

Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services: National Health Expenditures, Forecast summary and selected tables, 2008. retrieved online April 17, 2008 at…


World Health Organization: Core Health Indicators, retrieved online April 17, 2008 at 

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, National Health Expenditure Data: NHE Fact Sheet, 2005, retrieved online April 17, 2008 at 

World Health Organization: The World Health Report 2006 - Working together for health, 2007, retrieved online April 17, 2008 at 

Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services: National Health Expenditures, Forecast summary and selected tables, 2008. retrieved online April 17, 2008 at

Employer Healthcare Benefit Plans More Than Half
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Employer Healthcare Benefit Plans

More than half of the American population is covered by a comprehensive health plan of one type or another. That's approximately 160 million people. The programs that come under the above mentioned coverage include the likes of employer sponsored plans and other government initiatives for instance Medicaid and Medicare, a small proportion of health insurance which is purchased on individual basis may also be included in this. If we proceed to explain employer sponsored health programs, government initiatives and individual healthcare benefits individually, then briefly we can say that the employer benefit plans mostly comprise of group plans and are called "the employee welfare benefit plans"

Table of Contents


Literature eview


The Estimated Effects of PPACA on Coverage

The Number of Uninsured Decreases by 53%

Four Million Children Will Gain Coverage

The Individual Mandate Contributes Most to educing the Number of Uninsured

Premiums in…


Manning W. And Marquis S, "Health Insurance: The Tradeoff Between Risk Pooling and Moral Hazard," Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 15, No. 5, October 1996, pp. 609 -- 639.

Manning WG, Newhouse JP, Duan N, Keeler EB, Leibowitz A, and Marquis MS, "Health Insurance and the Demand for Medical Care: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment,"

American Economic Review, Vol. 77, No. 3, June 1987, pp. 251 -- 277.

Pauly MV and Herring BJ, "An Efficient Employer Strategy for Dealing with Adverse Selection in Multiple-Plan Offerings: An MSA Example," Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 19,

Ethics ACA
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The ACA does not by any means fully resolve this, but it makes strides towards addressing this critical issue of morality. The individual mandate is similar -- where the profit of one individual leads to the suffering of another, the suffering takes precedence -- the money is not as important. Not doing harm to others is the more important imperative, so the sacrifice for the greater good in this case would be the moral course of action according to Kant.


Locke's moral philosophy comprises two parts. The first is natural law, in that there are divine laws, they are obligatory and humans can understand these. The second is more hedonistic, that pleasures and pains serve to "provide morality with its normative force" (Sheridan, 2011). That these two views seem to contrast is well-established and indeed they lead to different interpretations of the key tenets of the Affordable Care Act.…

References (2014). About the law. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from 

Johnson, R. (2008). Kant's moral philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from 

Sheridan, P. (2011). Locke's moral philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from

Human Rights Issues With Pre Emptive Counter Terrorist Measures
Words: 4366 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11307775
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Terrorism has been a hot topic in the news for over a decade. It has impact people on an international level with countries like France, England, and the United States experiencing attacks. Currently Isis, a terrorist organization, has generated chaos in the Middle East. Government have been destabilized and peace and security jeopardized. Atrocious acts of violence have occurred from child beheadings to rapes and torture. Terrorism threatens the social and economic development of any place it affects.

Furthermore, terrorism directly affects human rights. People lose freedoms and face subjugation from regimes of terrorist organizations. All of which have negatively diminish ones enjoyment of life as well as their human rights. International, national, and regional political leaders make promises and claims that counterterrorism measures will not encroach on human rights. Former President George Bush for example, preached on preserving human rights amidst counter terrorism efforts. However, living up to these…


Ahmed, S. (2015). The 'emotionalization of the "war on terror": Counter-terrorism, fear, risk, insecurity and helplessness. Criminology And Criminal Justice,15(5), 545-560. 

Enders, W., Sandler, T., & Gaibulloev, K. (2011). Domestic versus transnational terrorism: Data, decomposition, and dynamics. Journal of Peace Research, 48(3), 319-337. doi:10.1177/0022343311398926

Feinberg, M. (2015). International counterterrorism -- national security and human rights: conflicts of norms or checks and balances?. The International Journal Of Human Rights, 19(4), 388. Retrieved from 

Fenwick, H. (2015). Counter-terror strategies, human rights and the roles of technology. International Review Of Law, Computers & Technology, 25(3), 107. Retrieved from

budget analysis of Affordable Care Act
Words: 3557 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40836351
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Affordable Care Act decreased the number of Americans without health insurance by the millions, which was its primary objective. It used three different mechanisms to achieve this goal -- the expansion of Medicaid, the insurance exchanges, and the extension of coverage to young adults up to age 26. These changes have also helped to stem the growth of health care costs, and have delivered greater health care savings throughout the system, even private insurance customers, than was originally expected. There were some initial costs to the ACA, running from 2014-2019 but after the point the Congressional Budget Office expects the ACA will have a net benefit in terms of its impact on the budget, because of the new taxes it created.

The incoming government is expected to unwind the ACA, as this has been a stated goal of Trump, and of the epublican party. What this means has been studied.…


Abbott, R. K. (2015). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Large Employers: A Retrospective. Benefits Quarterly, 31(1), 8-14.

CBO (2016) Budgetary and economic effects of repealing the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from 

CBO (2016) Payment of penalties for being uninsured under the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from (2016). The Affordable Care Act is working. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from

Repeal and Replace Obamacare Essay
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Repealing and replacing Obamacare was one of the rallying points for President Trumps presidential campaign, but has proven to be difficult even with a Republican-controlled Congress. There are a number of reasons that repeal and replace has been difficult, even though the Affordable Care Act (the ACA) was, at best, an imperfect solution to the modern healthcare crises. Public support for repealing Obamacare has lessened as people have become aware that Obamacare and the ACA are the same thing. Republicans have not been able to develop a plan that would provide better care for the American people without having an individual mandate. Finally, the for-profit medical structure currently in the United States makes it difficult, if not impossible, to provide significant reform. These barriers make it seem unlikely that Obamacare will be repealed or replaced in the near future.

Perhaps the most significant barrier to repeal and replace is the…

Health Care The Next Twelve Months Over
Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64934622
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Health Care: The Next Twelve Months

Over the next twelve months, there will be many changes to health care in the United States. The largest and most ambitious goal is to provide the majority of Americans with health insurance (Blendon & Benson, 2010). However, there will be a presidential election and a Supreme Court ruling, which means that 2012 could be the year that determines whether the health care law moves forward or whether it is shut down. It could also go forward in part, after having large pieces of it removed, and it could go forward with some fundamental changes. How the elections go will greatly affect the law - unless, of course, the Supreme Court strikes the law down before the elections arrive. It seems like that the Supreme Court will rule on the individual mandate from a constitutional standpoint, and that could lead to some of the…


Blendon R.J., Benson J.M. (2010). Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform. New England Journal of Medicine, 362 (16): e55.

Elmendorf, D.W. (2010). Additional information on the effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. Congressional Budget Office.

Peterson, C.L. & Chaikind, H. (2010), Summary of small business health insurance tax credit under PPACA. Congressional Research Service.

Economic Evaluation in Health Care
Words: 3917 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26014535
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Healthcare Economics Evaluation

This report is about a proposed healthcare economics investigation. Some early research has been done and will be described based on what was found and how it was found. The report will conclude with a proposed plan for further economic evaluation on that same topic with a great deal the expected and proper form and function of that research to be described in that section. A conclusion will wrap up the report.

Critical Appraisal of the Evidence

Topic Selected

The author of this report has chosen how to make health care affordable and have the most amount of people possible covered in the United States as this is one of the more omnipresent issues and matters in American society in the modern time. Health care being at the forefront of the American news cycle is nothing new as it is has been a huge part of the…


Berkowitz, E. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid: The Past as Prologue. Health Care Financing Review, 29(3), 80-93.

Bovbjerg, R.R., & Schoenbaum, S.C. (2004). Malpractice Reform Must Include Steps To Prevent Medical Injury. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 140(1), 51-54.

Budget problems, Medicaid expansion main topics at SAMHSA meeting. (2012). Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 24(32), 1-3.

CDC. (2013, March 19). CDC Online Newsroom - Press Release: October 17, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from

Healthcare Reform
Words: 2404 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52304044
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Uninsured Population

Insurance Premiums

Budget Deficits

Healthcare Trends

Public Opinion


The topic of this research is "PPACA- Patient Protection an Affordable Care Act." PPACA has created a great impact in the healthcare industry of United States of America. The study is based on the critical analysis of the act by reviewing the performance since its inception.

Arguably the most prominent recent healthcare reform has been PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act). PPACA is also known as the Affordable care act and Obamacare. It was signed by the President Obama in the year 2010 in collaboration with the Healthcare econciliation Act. This act is considered to be one of the most major reforms passed in the healthcare system of United States; the last such major reform was passed in the year 1965 in the form of Medicaid.

When this provision Act was passed in 2010, there were 50 million…


Barr, Donald A. Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. JHU Press. 2011

Blendon RJ, Benson."Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform." N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (16): e55. 2010

Elmendorf, Douglas. "CBO's Analysis of the Major Health Care Legislation Enacted in March 2010." Congressional Budget Office. 2011

Feldman, Arthur M. Understanding Health Care Reform: Bridging the Gap between Myth and Reality. CRC Press. 2011

Newspapers Frequently Feature Stories Democratic Principles Processes
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30312525
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Newspapers frequently feature stories democratic principles processes contribute democratic governance impact a wide variety issues ranging distribution flu vaccines legal venue terrorist trials. Public policies formulated address issues result influence application democratic principles processes.

Public policy issue: Healthcare reform

The issue of healthcare

Healthcare is an extremely complex, bureaucratic public policy issue. However, it is also very emotional for many Americans given healthcare encompasses the 'hot button' issues of physical health and spending large amounts of money. The recent debate over the Affordable Care Act is only one of many national 'conversations' about healthcare that has resulted in partisan divisions even within families.

Democratic principle 1: Autonomy

Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the ACA is the individual mandate, which states that all Americans must have health insurance or pay a penalty unless this will cause them undue hardship. Many conservatives bridle at the fact that they are being 'compelled'…


Belvedere, M. (2013). Truth about Obamacare? Mandate wasn't needed. CNBC. Retrieved: 

Nelson, S. (2013). Colin Powell endorses single-payer health care. U.S. News and World Report.


Laws on Healthcare
Words: 1301 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13171090
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Health and Legislative Issues

All Americans have the desire of having a healthcare system which is capable of delivering world-class security together with financial security. The system in place should always be accessible and one that impacts the economy positively. Successful healthcare reforms will lead to a maximization of the choices available for consumers put a restrain to the ever increasing medical care costs and make healthcare accessible to more and more Americans. There are a number of organizations that have consistently urged the president and congress on building on the existing systems which strengths in order to achieve health reform solutions that are workable in a bipartisan manner. However, there are some healthcare legislative issues that come up and have effects on various stakeholders such as legislators, consumers and other healthcare professionals. This paper will look at one of the current health legislative issues, who is affected most by…


Mears, B.(2012). Health care's big four issues: What the justices are tackling. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from 

ANA.(2010). Nursing Beyond Borders: Access to Health Care for Documented and Undocumented Immigrants Living in the U.S. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from 

Goodman, J., (2012). The Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on Job Creators and the Economy. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from 

American College of Emergency Physicians, (2013). The Ethics of Health Care Reform: Issues in Emergency - Medicine - An Information Paper. Retrieved March 12, 2014 from

Leadership Issues in the Criminal Justice System
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30196461
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Leadership Issues in the Criminal Justice System

The concept of providing basic healthcare services to individuals in need has undergone an agonizing transition, from a luxury once only afforded by the affluent to a basic human right granted to citizens of every economic station, and the recently enacted Affordable Care Act (ACA) was designed to finalize this ethical evolution. eflecting perhaps the bitter political enmity currently consuming the nation's once cherished democratic process, epublican legislatures in states throughout the union have bristled at the ACA's primary provisions, threatening all manner of procedural protestation as they attempt to delay and derail the bill's eventual implementation. One of the most intriguing aspects of the sprawling, thousand page law, however, has been the stipulation that individual states will be given a choice to either accept federal funding to expand their statewide Medicaid roster, or to forfeit all federal funding for that program in…


Clark, D. (1997). The Art and Science of Leadership, Chapter 1 "Concepts of Leadership" and Chapter 8 "Leadership Styles. Retrieved from

American Healthcare Reform Debates
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62988804
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payer healthcare systems: Pros and cons

One of the most controversial concepts in American health care is the idea of single-payer health insurance, or the notion that healthcare will be supported by taxpayer dollars, versus funded by private insurance companies. In many Western industrialized nations such as the United Kingdom and Canada, the concept of single payer-health insurance is the norm and embraced by the majority of the population. In the United States, the rhetoric of socialism and state support has caused people to fear the concept. Even the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was painted by some aspects of the media as a move towards a single-payer system because it exerted somewhat greater control over individual's health-related choices, such as mandating that all American citizens have health insurance. However, the ACA was far from socialized medicine given that it continued to ensure that the majority of Americans not on Medicaid…


Cooper, E. & Taylor, L. (1994). Comparing health care systems. Good Medicine. 39: 35.

Retrieved from: 

Massachusetts Healthcare Reform: Six years later. (2013). Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved

McDonough, J. (2015). The demise of Vermont's single payer system. New England Journal of Medicine. 372: 1584-1585.

Overview Benefits and Negative Implications of PPACA
Words: 832 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30888859
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PPACA and its implications on existing health care in the United States.

The PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) overviews the following factors:

Creates an Individual Mandate: it requires the citizens of the United States to have their health insurance covered or either pay punishment for it

Establishes American Health enefit Exchange: PPACA has made new sections in order to spread the coverage and make it more affordable and accessible. It has created American Health enefit Exchanges which helps the citizens who cannot afford coverage.

Changes Private Health Insurance Coverage: This act also helps the people to gain access to coverage that are affordable so that the citizens do not lose their coverage

Expands Medicaid: Medicaid is expanded through PPACA by covering certain groups that were not previously covered by Medicare like adults without children, or low-income people.

Establishes New High -- Risk Insurance Pool: a health risk insurance…


Baribault, M., & Cloyd, C. (1999, July 26). Health Care Systems: Three International Comparisons. Retrieved from 

Heal, L. (2012, December 13). Why States Should Run From PPACA. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from 

Healthcare Reform. (2014). Retrieved September 30, 2015, from

LAO. (2010, May 13). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Overview of Its Potential Impact on State Health Programs. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from

repeal of the affordable care act
Words: 1959 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79400629
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health care industry, in terms of the economics of that business, and how it is structured. The Affordable Care Act was introduced in 2010 in order to address some of the issues that are inherent in the health care industry, namely a high rate of uninsured and skyrocketing costs that were threatening the quality of care for everybody else. The reality is that the ACA has been highly successful. While there are still too many uninsured, some 20 million Americans have gained health care. The costs have been fairly high, but they are decreasing, the from a fiscal point-of-view the Congressional Budget Office sees the ACA as actually contributing positively to the federal budget by around 2019.

So the benefits of the ACA have basically been realized, and at a fairly reasonable, and declining, cost. The law has met its primary objective, and performed fairly well. There were some issues,…


Bryan, B. (2016). The percentage of Americans without health insurance just hit an all-time low. Business Insider. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from 

CBO (2016) Budgetary and economic effects of repealing the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from 

Kaiser Family Foundation (2016) Status of action on the Medicaid expansion decision. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from 

Lorenzetti, L. (2016). Here's why you'll likely pay more for your employer-sponsored health insurance. Fortune. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from

Ultimate Terms
Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4952840
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God Terms and Devil Terms

Ultimate Terms

Within the rhetoric of persuasion, there are certain terms that carry such positive connotations, they are viewed as unquestioned 'goods.' These terms are often called 'God terms,' implying that they are given almost godlike power within the culture. A speaker who uses such terms does not need to defend them; they are part of the accepted cultural landscape as positive values. In contrast, 'devil terms' are concepts that are so demonized they are often used as bogeymen by speakers and have no positive connotations, sometimes for very arbitrary reasons.

A good example of a 'God term' in American discourse is that of 'freedom.' Despite the fact that there are other liberal, Western democracies in existence, Americans often say that they are 'proud to be free' and feel lucky to have been born in America because they are free. Americans are profoundly resistant to…


Kenen, Joanne. (2012). 5 myths about the individual mandate. Politico. Retrieved: 

Sullivan, Andrew. (2012). How Obama's long game will outsmart his critics. The Daily Beast.


Healthcare in the Coming Years
Words: 1084 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33000963
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Blue Cross Case Study

The author of this report has been asked to select a healthcare organization that has a network spans multiple state. With that in mind, the author of this report has chosen Blue Cross Blue Shield. With that organization in mind, the author of this report will engage in a few points of analysis. Those points will include an assessment of the readiness of the healthcare organization or network to address the healthcare needs of citizens over the next decade, an assessment of a strategic plan that the organization should engage in over the next ten to twenty years and an assessment on how the organization can deal with issues like network growth, nurse staffing, resource management and patient satisfaction. While Blue Cross Blue Shield has done very well for itself over the years, the healthcare landscape is ever-changing and the last five years has been a…


Benen, S. (2015). ACA scores big on customer satisfaction. MSNBC. Retrieved 29 August 2015, from 

DOL,. (2015). Affordable Care Act. Retrieved 29 August 2015, from 

Orlovsky, C. (2015). The Baby Boomers' Massive Impact on Health Care - NurseZone. Retrieved 29 August 2015, from

Financial Management Criticisms of Medical
Words: 1240 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90608063
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To demonize the concept of universal healthcare with the word 'rationing' "buys into the myth that we don't have rationing of medical services now. But we do. It takes many different forms. It is commonplace for health insurance companies and HMOs to deny patients beneficial treatment. They find a variety of excuses for doing so, and may not openly admit it, but we all know that it happens. Medicare rations drugs by requiring co-payments that many patients can't afford. Emergency rooms ration care by making people wait so long in line that some just give up and go away" (Singer 2011).

Question 3

The recent decimation of many retirement funds means that more and more members of the elderly are eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid. The elderly on fixed incomes often struggle to afford medications not currently covered within the provisions of Medicare because of the "doughnut hole" in…


Kane, Robert, Rosalie Kane, Neva Kaye, Robert Mollica, Trish Riley, Paul Saucier, Kimberly

Irvin Snow & Louise Starr. (1996). Managed care.

Retrieved August 12, 2011 at 

Leonard. Sean. (2011). How to fix Medicare. Salon. Retrieved August 12, 2011 at

Health Care Policy or Delivery System Challenge
Words: 1377 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42865594
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Healthcare Delivery System Challenges

The American healthcare system has been criticized as favoring the middle and upper classes while ignoring the lower classes. Based on these speculations, the federal government has constantly tried to institute reforms in the healthcare sector though some of the proposals have failed to overhaul the industry. With rising insurance costs, the number of citizens barred from accessing quality healthcare has increased to more than 45 million uninsured Americans. On the same note, it is hypothesized that with time, the problems currently witnessed in the industry are likely to increase and finding solutions to them will be a tall order for the government (Stolberg & Pear, 2010). Despite the advent of new technology in the sector, which is likely to improve service delivery over the years, it is speculated that the cost of new tests and treatments will outweigh the savings. With the better technology, physicians…


Stolberg, S.G. & Pear, R. (March 24, 2010). Obama signs health care overhaul bill, with a flourish. The New York Times: p. A19. Retrieved March 1, 2013.

Woolhandler, S. & Himmelstein, D.U. (1997). Costs of care and administration at for-profit and other hospitals in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine 336 (11): 769-774.

Swanson, E. (July 30, 2009). Health Care Plan: Favor / Oppose. Huffington Post.

Blumberg, L.J. & Holahan, J. (2009). The Individual Mandate: an Affordable and Fair Approach

Effects on Public Health of Health Care Reform
Words: 5200 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40260343
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Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States

Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.

The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…



Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from 


How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from

Improving the Affordable Care Act
Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72694271
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Insuring the Uninsured

The author of this report has been charged with offering solutions for the millions of Americans that are uninsured or under-insured. Some people that are under-insured or uninsured are in that situation through little to no fault of their own. However, others are able to afford insurance but simply choose not to enroll in coverage. However, everyone should be insured because accidents and illnesses do happen to everyone at some point and the cost needs to be spread evenly among everyone. Certainly, the expense should be subsidized or fully covered for those that cannot afford coverage but the need to cover everyone still remains. While some of the opinions in this report are not going to be popular with some people, the author of this report sticks by them without question.


One major provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was that people…

References (2015). Individual Mandate Penalty You Pay If You Don't Have Health Insurance Coverage. Retrieved 7 July 2015, from 

Somashekhar, S. (2015). You're already paying for some undocumented immigrants' health care. Washington Post. Retrieved 7 July 2015, from 

Tracer, Z. (2015). Employers' Shift to Private Health Exchanges May Cost Employees More. Retrieved 7 July 2015, from

Replacing Justice Roberts With Judge Napolitano
Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48493146
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Napolitano in Place of oberts

I would want Chief Justice oberts to retire. As Shapiro (2014) notes, he was the Justice who "changed the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate into a tax and thus rescued President Obama's signature legislation." For this reason alone I would want him to retire. The ACA has done nothing but benefit the health care cartel and I would want a Justice on the Supreme Court who recognizes that and would not invent ludicrous ways to re-interpret legislation that would not actually benefit the people of the U.S. but rather the cartels that are bleeding individuals dry with outrageous premiums and prices for health care. I would want a judge who was honest and fair and understood the Constitution.

For that reason, I would nominate Judge Andrew Napolitano. He understands what truth and honesty are and I always appreciate his candor and perspective on issues that…


Heine, D. (2016). Judge Napolitano: Case Against Hillary 'Overwhelming, Damning

and, from Her Perspective, Grave'. PJ Media. Retrieved from 

Shapiro, I. (2014). The Obamacare 'Tax' That Chief Justice Roberts Invented is Still

Unconstitutional. Forbes. Retrieved from

Process for Qualitative Data Collection
Words: 1058 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 70209972
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Data Collection Procedure

What do you see as the value of the IB? Why would one be needed for informal research, such as a class assignment?

IB's value to researchers in America's Universities (AU) is enablement of superior ethical standards in conducting research works (including respondent protection), while allowing students, teaching faculty and other staff members to carry out research works in an efficient and timely manner. IB aims at creating an atmosphere of awareness and respect for research subjects' welfare and rights in university campuses, along with expanding on knowledge and enabling research of the best quality (Enfield & Truwit, 2008).

Issues that the IB might be interested in reviewing regarding the research question and design for this research study

especting Involved Individuals. Mandated by a moral obligation to respect other people, the idea of informed consent comprises three components: information, voluntariness, and understanding. esearch subjects are to be…


Amdur, R.J. & Bankert, E.A. (2011). Institutional review board: member handbook. (3rd ed). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 12-15.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. (4th ed.) Pearson Education, Inc.

Enfield, K. B. & Truwit, J. D. (2008). The Purpose, Composition, and Function of an Institutional Review Board: Balancing Priorities. Respiratory Care, 53, 1330-1336.

Fowler, F. J. (2009). Survey research methods (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.