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Industrial elations and HM
Globalization and Industrial elations
Industrial elations in United States of America
Current esponse to Globalization
The paper critically examines the effects of global trade expansion on national industrial relations and how USA has responded to the changing business environment to meet its economic targets.
In order to understand the impact on the national industrial relations from the rise in global trade we need to study the historical factors and the future projections that are shaping up the change in the industrial shift. 1990s saw an increasing demand for high technology goods and gave rise to an international competition which changed the nature and operations of the industries substantially. The production processes were altered in order to cater to this new demand across the world. The individual firms with low budgets had to increase their competitiveness in order to meet up with the…
Befort, Stephen F. And Budd, John W. (2009) Invisible Hands, Invisible Objectives: Bringing Workplace Law and Public Policy Into Focus, Stanford University Press.
Blyton, Paul; Bacon, Nicolas; Fiorito, Jack; Heery, Edmund (2008). Sage Handbook of Industrial Relations. Sage.
Bruce E. Kaufman (1993). The Origins & Evolution of the Field of Industrial Relations in the United States. Cornell University Pres
Clarke, T.; Clements, L. (1978). Trade Unions under Capitalism. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
(2000) "in today's business world, no company is likely to stay on top for too long that doesn't rethink at least some key processes on a regular basis." (p. 33) This is especially true in industrial relations, where the new intersection of previously unaffiliated cultures is leading to opportunities for shared advancement. ith effective change management, it may be possible to achieve the optimal integration of the UAE's domestic culture and global best-practices in labor equality and fairness.
Ethical Industrial Relations with Multinational Corporations:
The implications of this change are quite significant given the proclivity of many developing nations to allow for the deep exploitation of their laborers. According to Shaiken (2004), "fierce world-wide competition for jobs threatens to undercut wages and working conditions." (Shaiken, 1) This means that there is a distinct ethical need in the field of industrial relations for the introduction of fair wages, safe working conditions…
India News Portal (INP). (2006). Indian Expats in UAE facing Depression. SIFY.
Pande, PS, Neuman, RP & Cavanagh, RR (2000). The Six Sigma way. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Reh, F.J. (2006). Plan is Not a Four Letter Word. About Management.
Shaiken, H. (2004). Work, Development and Globalization. Center for Latin American Studies.
You can approach your local magistrate for assistance and the standard Notices to use in a claim. hile this is certainly an advantage the factor that is most treasured by the subcontractor is that the contractor is responsible for all the work as well as other aspects in terms of the sub-contractors employers. Furthermore, the contractor is the individual which may be held liable in terms of a lawsuit while the subcontractor would be considered that of hire helped according to the Code enactment.
Andrews, Kevin (2003) Australian Government Implementation Guidelines for the National Code of Practice for the Construction Industry 2003 December: Department of Employment and orkplace Relations, Australian Government, Commonwealth of Australia 2003 available online at: www.workplace.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/D73FB037-9546-4517-AE5B-BEB6BF3047CD/0/AustralianGovernmen t_Impleme ntation_Guidelines.pdf
Industrial Relations principles of the National Code Online available at the Australian Government ebsite: http://www.workplace.gov.au/workpla ce / Categor y/PolicyReviews/BuildingConstruction / NationalCodeGuidelines/in dustrialRelationsprinciplesoftheNationalCode.htm
NS Department of Commerce, Office…
Andrews, Kevin (2003) Australian Government Implementation Guidelines for the National Code of Practice for the Construction Industry 2003 December: Department of Employment and Workplace Relations, Australian Government, Commonwealth of Australia 2003 available online at: www.workplace.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/D73FB037-9546-4517-AE5B-BEB6BF3047CD/0/AustralianGovernmen t_Impleme ntation_Guidelines.pdf
Industrial Relations principles of the National Code Online available at the Australian Government Website: http://www.workplace.gov.au/workpla ce / Categor y/PolicyReviews/BuildingConstruction / NationalCodeGuidelines/in dustrialRelationsprinciplesoftheNationalCode.htm
NSW Department of Commerce, Office of Industrial Relations
Oxford Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010
" (Spangler, 2003) In this sort of positioning, "the gains and losses will all add up to less than zero," or the original position. For example, in the case of General Motors, the entire company had to be steeply cut, in all of its departments, and in the case of the New York Transit workers, there had to be budget cuts across the board in the New York City government. In this view, it is a question of how to distribute everyone's share of the losses evenly. The unfortunate aspect of this form of negotiation is that no one will ever be really happy by the settlement, and thus there is likely to be a perception of unfairness, rather than actual unfairness.
In all of these instances, whether fighting over a finite pie, arriving at a mutually agreed upon solution, or cutting one's losses, there are still certain ethical practices…
Black, Boyd. (2006) "National Culture and Comparative Industrial Relations Theory" School of Management and Economics." Working paper published by The Queen's University of Belfast. Retrieved 26 May 2006 at http://www.qub-efrg.com/uploads/B.Black_Working_Paper.pdf
Spangler, Brad. (2003) "Positive-Sum, Zero-Sum, and Negative-Sum Situations." Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: October 2003. Retrieved 26 May 2006 at http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/sum/ .
(Post-socialist trade unions: China and Russia)
China's practice and history of managerial practices
All the attributes pertaining to the human resources management inclusive of the personnel recruitment, training, labor relations and also the reimbursements and advantages not only vary from the United States but also differ among the regions of China. (Performance-Enhancing Strategies for China: Lessons from Japanese and American Companies) the pressure of the Chinese cultural values on managerial and leadership practices is considerably important so as to generate a Chinese managerial approach more specific and quite differentiated from that of the West. (Contemporary Chinese Leadership: Lessons from the Classics) the conventional Chinese theories of managerial regulation were associated with the way the superiors and subordinates are related and the way to regulate, lead and persuade people. The Chinese tradition conventionally, applied duties and ceremonial etiquette to enhance the social integration. They also devised well-articulated administrative set up with…
Just as employees need to take criticism constructively, management needs to do the same. When used constructively, criticism is the strongest building block of improvement.
This brings up another important part of keeping employees happy, which is making sure that they feel secure. Employees need to know that they can come to management with a complaint, or even to blow the whistle on another employee's misconduct, without fear of being fired or punished in some other way. According to Wiscomble (2002) some of the most successful companies in the world, including Fed Ex and TWA have these types of "open door policies" which allow employees to speak with any manager in the company about problems they may be experiencing, instead of just being limited to interactions with their immediate supervisor. This is particularly important when the immediate supervisor is the one that the employee needs to complain about or blow…
Burke, R.J. & Cooper, C.L. (2005) Reinventing human resources management: Challenges and new directions. London: Routledge.
Cottringer, W. & Kirby, J. (2005) Light their fires: find out how to improve employee motivation and increase overall company production. Security Management. 49(6). 90-95.
Goering, E. (1997, October 1) Integration vs. distribution in contract negotiations: An interaction analysis of strategy use. Journal of Business Communication, 34(4), 383-400.
Wiscomble, J. (2002, July) Don't fear whistle-blowers. Workforce. 81 (7), 26-32
Factors affecting 'Fairness' in the Determination of Salaries
Perhaps the first point to discuss is: What is 'fairness'? While historical roots of the word 'fair' mean 'beautiful' in German and Old English, with respect to salaries, the definition 'treating people in a way that does not favor some over others' (Merriam- Webster 2010) would be more consistent with the mental definition of fairness that most of us have. Further points would include 'marked by impartiality and honesty; free from self-interest, prejudice, or favoritism; conforming to the established rules; allowed; consonant with merit or importance' (Merriam-Webster 2010).
Thus, an employee's perception of fairness on the job is simultaneously objective (correlating with the pay given to others for a similar and/or analogous task) and subjective (the desire to earn more, and other personal considerations). If we change focus from the employee's purview to that of the employer, the employer is…
Bowers, J. & Whittlesey, F., 2010. Understanding Executive Pay Equity and Fairness: Ratios and Rationality. World at Work, pp. 6-15. Retrieved from: http://compensationventuregroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/WorldatWork-Pay-Ratio-Article.pdf
Beugre, C. (1998). Managing fairness in organizations. Westport, CT: Quorum Books
Drucker, P. "Is Executive Pay Excessive?" Wall Street Journal, May 23, 1977.
Drucker, P. "Reform Executive Pay or Congress Will." Wall Street Journal, April 24, 1984.
Memorandum e: Individual Workplace Agreements
The members of the board of Lutece Academy, a secondary school that serves approximately 700 hundred students and has a tradition of excellence in education, has been considering the merits of making a fundamental change in the nature of the relationship that exists between the school and its staff. That current relationship (with the exception of the administration) consists of traditional collective bargaining rights that are negotiated with the heads of each union's representatives at the school. This is the norm for schools in the region and indeed in the country, which has a highly unionized school workforce.
However, again like other schools in the region and the country, Lutece Academy has been considering a change in the nature of the relations between staff and administration by instituting individual workplace agreements between each member of the staff and the administration (and thus the…
Karmel, P. (Ed.) (2000). School resourcing: Models and practices in changing times. Melbourne: Australian College of Education.
Knight, B. (1993). Financial management for schools: The thinking manager's guide. Oxford: Heinemann.
Levacic, R. (1995). Local management of schools: Analysis and practice. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Three concepts presented by Palmer (2012) that can be used to help explain the type of culture that contributed to the Columbia disaster are: 1) general endorsement of wrongdoing (Palmer, 2012, p. 69); 2) the stipulation of extenuating circumstances (Palmer, 2012, p. 72); and 3) denial of responsibility (Palmer, 2012, p. 73). In the Columbia disaster, the shuttle had been shedding foam which damaged the craft and led to its breaking apart. Engineers were aware of the issue and expressed concern to their superiors; however, the superiors let it be known that they believed the project to be in a good state overall—so the engineers accepted the opinion of the superiors and did nothing to prevent the launch. It was an example of collective rationalization and self-censorship with engineers trusting that their superiors knew what was best. Instead of blowing the whistle on the program, the concerned engineers…
Palmer, D. (2012). Normal organizational wrongdoing. UK: Oxford University Press.
Upper Big Branch Mining Disaster
Industrial Calamities Can Be Avoided if Companies espected the Law
Abiding by federal or state industrial laws is necessary since genuine minded legislators have processed the laws and not the profit-minded shark operating as a company executive. Laws provide a framework at which companies should follow. In most cases, laws specify the necessity of appreciating human life. Furthermore, laws provide an equal balancing of social expectations and company objectives. However, some companies have broken the laws. From their illegal actions, different calamities have been experienced in an industrial situation. The commencing research will highlight an example of this company, Massey Energy and its 2010 incidence that led to the perishing of 29 industrial workers. The research will prove that the self-regulation is not ethical as compared to industrial laws set by the government.
What Massey Energy could have done to avoid this tragedy?
Blindheim, B., & Langhelle, O. (2010). A reinterpretation of the principles of CSR: a pragmatic approach. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 2, n/a-n/a.
Brenner, F.J., Brenner, E.K., Brenner, P.E., & Steiner, R.P. (1994). Evaluation of procedures to estimate biomass on surface coalmine lands reclaimed under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Environmental Management, 18(2), 307-315.
Jenkins, H. (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility And The Mining Industry: Conflicts And Constructs. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 11(1), 23-34.
Long, L.A. (2009). History of process safety at OSHA. Process Safety Progress, 28(2), 128-130.
Industrial Organization vs. esource-Based View of Management
Analyzing the Differences Between esource-Based and Industrial Organization-Based Views of Strategy
In identifying the common and differing aspects or themes of the industrial organization (I/O)-based strategy which is also often referred to as the Competitive Forces Approach (CFA) (Porter, Stern, 2001) versus the esource-Based View (BV) (Barney, Ketchen Jr., Wright, 2011) this analysis identifies the differences and similarities between the two views. A major factor that previous analysis of these two views of strategies have either not covered at all or have only partially mentioned is how knowledge creation and its speed of transformation into a competitive asset, predicated on external conditions, is actually an asset (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000).
Most relevant to managing a 21st century enterprise is the ability to respond intelligently and quickly to unforeseen events, capitalizing on opportunities and mitigating risks. Organizations are having to find a middle ground or…
Jay B. Barney, David J. Ketchen Jr., & Mike Wright. (2011). The Future of Resource-Based Theory: Revitalization or Decline? Journal of Management, 37(5), 1299-1315.
Cao, G., Wiengarten, F., & Humphreys, P.. (2011). Towards a Contingency Resource-Based View of IT Business Value. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 24(1), 85-106.
Conner, Kathleen R.. (1991). A Historical Comparison of Resource-Based Theory and Five Schools of Thought Within Industrial Organization Economics: Do We Have a New Theory of the Firm? Journal of Management, 17(1), 121.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) defines economic regulations (industrial regulations) as "intervening directly in market decisions such as pricing, competition, market entry, or exit ("Economic regulations," 2002). The main reason for economic regulation is because it is permits the straightforward businessman to succeed in the economy and decrease business relations within the economy from being broken by the illegal activity that takes place (Black, 2010). However, within the economy the market has four different structures that industries are classified under that the government uses to help control the advantages and limitations of supply and demand. The goal of the four structures is to look at how it "affects the outcomes in the market with impacts on the motivations, opportunities, and decisions of economic buyers and sellers through their behaviors within market competition" states Fischer (n.d.). The OECD defines social regulations as an impact…
Black, W. (2010, January 11). Inside the fed's secret war on good regulation. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23879_Page_1_19.pdf
Boyer, P. (2001). Federal regulatory agencies. The oxford companion to United States history. Retrieved May 18, 2011 from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119FederalRegulatoryAgencies.html
Department of Trade, Federal Trade Commission. (2011). Ftc guide to the antitrust laws. Washington, DC: Government Website. Retrieved from http://www.ftc.gov/bc/antitrust/antitrust_laws.shtm
Economic regulations. (2002, July 31). Retrieved from http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=4639
In Hartlieb and Jones' study, a company's ethical practices in the workplace are projected onto its products/services, making the products "ethical," resulting to the concept of ethical labeling (583).
Further into the 'trend' of promoting ethical work practices in the company, companies are also promoting their corporate image and improving their relevance to their communities by developing corporate social responsibility (CS) programs. Secchi (2009) explored the 'cognitive side' of CSs, and argued that CS programs act as a "reinforcement mechanism…that, when exercised…works as a social tie between user (communities, recipients) and provider (companies)" (578).
These trends in industrial/organizational psychology are reflected in P&G's corporate practices, through its branding, corporate governance, and CS programs. P&G's corporate governance promotes ethical work behavior by allowing its employees to have a stake in the company -- that is, P&G employees are also its stakeholders. P&G's ethical corporate practices are reflected in its branding efforts,…
Hartlieb, S. And B. Jones. (2009). "Humanising business through ethical labelling: Progress and paradoxes in the UK." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Pastorizo, D., M. Arino, and J. Ricart. (2009). "Creating an Ethical Work Context: A pathway to generate social capital in the firm." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Secchi, D. (2009). "The cognitive side of social responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Procter & Gamble official website: www.pg.com.
" (Ivin, 2005)
The notion of utilizing sevant leadeship to enhance team wokgoups to pefom such as in the case study scenaio is a contempoay viewpoint with empiical evidence to show thee is effectiveness in implementing this fom of leadeship within the oganizational development famewok.
Poblem solving within the oganizational hieachy is often elegated to job specific activity to which one may o may not actual solve the poblem inheently active in thei domain. Often, poblem solving becomes a function of the goup think to which individual identities in the poblem solving pocess ae meged into a collective membane fo joint analysis. The use of motivational methods (Dubin, 2004) to incease the motivation to poblem solve has yielded meitocatic oganizations that focus on delivey of pefomance above all othe vaiables.
Additionally, the use of meta-communication (Dubin, 2004) evolves aound impoving oganizational communication such as teamwok communication and infomal netwok communication.…
references. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(09631798), 315-315-337. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/199345870?accountid=13044
Irving, J.A. (2005). Servant leadership and the effectiveness of teams. Regent University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305356267?accountid=13044
Moliver, N. (2010). Psychological wellness, physical wellness, and subjective vitality in long-term yoginis over 45.Northcentral University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/506140189?accountid=13044
Petison, P. (2010). Intercultural communication and relationship marketing: A conceptual perspective. The Business Review, Cambridge, 16(2), 127-127-133. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/818338248?accountid=13044
Industrial Expansion and Dispered Racial Conflict
The major theme of chapter four (Industrial Expansion and Dispersed Racial Conflict) in illiam Julius ilson's book entitled The Declining Significance of Race is the fact that racial migration in the U.S. was directly related to its industrial expansion. This industrial expansion included the usage of new technologies for agriculture in the south, and expanded opportunities for factory work in the north and in the western portion of the country. The primary migration involved African-Americans moving from the south to areas in the north and the west. Doing so resulted in increased racial tension, which really was a result of class conflict in the scheme of labor relations.
The author cites numerous facets of historical evidence to successfully marshal his support for this theme. The migration of African-Americans was generally attributed to a series of push and pull factors (ilson 66) that led them…
Wilson, William Julius. The Declining Significance of Race. Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2012. Print.
Industrial Conflicts and Collective Disputes:
Efficient and good industrial relations are usually dependent on the consistent, just and reasonable treatment as well as participation of the staff in issues and decisions that have an impact on them. The ideological framework of industrial relations involves the maintenance and enhancement of human resources procedures and policies. This framework of industrial relations also ensures that there is unbiased and consistent application of joint and consultative agreements. In this case, it includes the approved procedures of tackling disputes, grievances and issues regarding discipline. Industrial conflict basically refers to all the expressions of displeasure in the employment relationship particularly those that are related to employment contract and the effort bargain.
This type of conflict can also be defined as a pulling out from work by a group of employees or the rejection by employers to permit employees to work (Prit, 2008). The major…
Gernigon, B, Odero, A & Guido, H (2000), 'ILO Principles Concerning Collective Bargaining,'
International Labour Review, vol. 139, no. 1, viewed 4 June 2011,
Industrial Relations -- Naukrihub.com (n.d.), Collective Bargaining Process, Industrial Relations
-- Naukrihub.com, viewed 4 June 2011,
At the same time, this strategy undermined the ability of workers to gain collective power.
All these factors resulted in increased insecurity in terms of the job market and in terms of the relationship between employers and employees. Auer (2005: 6) addresses Kalleberg's point in this regard with an assertion that the common assumption is that the twin factors of globalization and technological advance would fundamentally change the employment relationship and its expectation of longevity.
Auer's view is somewhat less gloomy than that of Kalleberg in terms of the possibility of flexible, non-standard jobs not only supplementing the more standard, full-time variety, but also becoming standard themselves. In addition to providing greater employee satisfaction, standard, long-term jobs also influence the desire of employees to begin families, which in turn has a significant impact upon the economy. Individuals with greater certainty regarding the future of their income tend to be better…
Auer, P. (2005). Protected Mobility for Employment and Decent Work: Labour market security in a globalised world. International Labour Office. Retrieved from http://ilo-mirror.library.cornell.edu/public/english/employment/strat/download/esp2005-1.pdf
Dickens, L. (2003). Changing Contours of the Employment Relationship and New Modes of Labour Regulation. Retrieved from http://www.oit.org/public/english/iira/pdf/congresses/world_13/track_2_dickens.pdf
Frenkel, S. And Kuruvilla, S. (2002). Logics of Action, Globalization, and Employment Relations Change in China, India, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=cbpubs
Kalleberg, A.L. (2009, Feb). Precarious Work, Insecure Workers: Employment Relations in Transition. American Sociological Review. Vo. 74. Retrieved from http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/brines/kalleberg.pdf
5. How have the trade unions in the industry responded to the changes in employment relations in the industry?
Since 1991, both Labor and Liberal-National governments have encouraged enterprise bargaining, marking a major shift away from a more centralized approach to employment relations. On the other hand, there is still an aspect of external regulation in the automotive sector and more generally, across the industrial relations system. The AIC, a tribunal established by the Commonwealth Government at the turn of the twentieth century continues to have the power to settle disputes through conciliation and arbitration, to certify enterprise agreements and to establish minimum standards across the workforce. The ongoing role of the AIC has meant that the legacy of external directive continues to have an influence in the automotive assembly division, as do other third parties such as trade unions (Lansbury, Wright and Bairdi, 2006).
Over the last two decades,…
Lansbury, Russell D., Wright, Chris F. And Bairdi, Marian. (2006). Decentralized Bargaining
in a Globalizing Industry The Automotive Assembly Industry in Australia. Industrial Relations, 61(1), 70-92.
Riemen, Wendy and Marceau, Jane. (n.d.). Running on Empty? Innovation in the Australian
Automotive Industry. Retrieved September 2, 2010, from Web site:
In 1981, President onald eagan fired many striking air traffic controllers employed by Federal Aviation Administration. In the face of various challenges confronting labor unions, the union membership drastically, continue to decline. Since support from political party has declined, many workers believe that union's ability to protect their interests has drastically declined, and thus, many private workers belief that it is no longer necessary to be union members.
oberts, (1997) argue that labor unions have faced hard times and sustained membership loss. The hard times ranging from diminishing influence of bargaining to the intense of global competition and technological changes.
Added to the political influence that contributes to the decline of the union, there are other external dynamics affecting labor unions. Globalization has been identified as the one of the external dynamic that has impact on the unions' strategies.
External Dynamics affecting the Labor Unions
One of the external dynamics…
ASHHRA (2010). The Workplace Multigenerational Strategies & Solutions for healthcare employers. American Society for the Administration of Healthcare Human Resources (ASHHRA)
Devinatz V.G.(2011). U.S. Trade Unionism Under Globalization: The death of Voluntarism and the Turn to Politics. Labor Law Journal. 62 (1).
Estreicher, S. (2010). Trade Unionism Under Globalization: The Demise of Voluntarism. Saint Louis University Law Journal .54: 415-426.
Griswold, D. (2010). Unions, Protectionism, and U.S. Competitiveness. CATO Journal. 30 (1): 181-196.
Integrate the elevant Information Found Both In Organizations Today and in esearch
Human resource management HM is considered to be an integral part of any organization to make it run effectively and efficiently. Fundamentally, the principal objective of HM is to upsurge the economic profitability from employees through making them organized in a productive, inventive and powered force (Price 2007, p.31).
H function includes many activities like planning, recruitment and appraisal (Pulignano, 2010). But this paper will only focus on the employee relations, with certain details about conflict resolution. The objective of this paper is to familiarize the reader to the critical concerns in conflict management. To attain this objective, employees' relations will be highlighted from H point-of-view, which will eventually reveal various levels of conflicts taking place in an organization. Different methods and disputes will be discussed which are adopted by H managers to solve employee alterations. The role…
Alasheev, S., 2005. Informal Relations in the Process of Production, in CLARKE, S., ed. "Management and Industry in Russia: Formal and Informal Relations in the Russian Industrial Enterprise." Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Demirbas, D., and Yukhanaev, A. (2011). Independence of board of directors, employee relation and harmonisation of corporate governance: Empirical evidence from Russian listed companies. Volume 33 issue 4, (pp. 444-471)
Gospel, H. And palmer, G., 1993. British Industrial Relations. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Hardy, J. And Kozek, W. 2011.Changing workplace relations in foreign investment firms in Poland, Volume 33 issue 4, (pp. 375-394)
Exploring the elationship between the State and Employee elations
Employee relations encompass a wide scope of workplace environment aspects so that employees are protected and provided for. Essentially, employee relations involve all aspects of dealing with people within the workplace. This can include job regulation, hiring, discipline, but also managing employee relations so that the organization flows smoothly with competent employees (Bray et al., 2005). I, as stemming from a pluralist approach, deems that state involvement only restricts the natural power struggle in employee relations that allows the changing needs of employees to be best represented. On the other hand, a unitarist approach can help secure protection from exploitation for developing nations or countries trying to recover from economic hardships. Thus, it is ultimately appropriate to take on a blended approach regarding state involvement; one which is flexible enough to work with both approaches when necessary as it…
Ackers, Peter & Wilkinson, Adrian. (2005). British industrial relations paradigm: A critical outline history and prognosis. The Journal of Industrial Relations, 47(4), 443-456.
Bray, D. & Walsh, W. (2005). The study of industrial relations. Industrial Relations. McGraw-Hill. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEkQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fhighered.mcgraw-hill.com%2Fsites%2Fdl%2Ffree%2F007471550x%2F226849%2Fppt_ch01.ppt&ei=CsdjU_6CGNLqoATCmIL4Dw&usg=AFQjCNG7PDNy-Jk9AQpLRNRHnPFryeHjjQ&sig2=sn-AgL8NDtQIwe9DQBVKBw&bvm=bv.65636070,d.cGU
Cradden, Conor. (2011). Unitarism, pluralism, radicalism, and the rest? Sociograph Working Paper. No, 2. Web. http://www.unige.ch/ses/socio/publications/dernierespublications/sociograph10-1/sociograph_working_paper_7.pdf
De Silva, S.R. (2013). Human resource management, industrial relations and achieving management objectives. International Labour Organisation. ACT/EMO Publications. Web. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/downloads/publications/srshrm.pdf
interview that they conducted with Labor Relations Ms. Sheila Brown, a Labor Relations Specialist who works with the U.S. government in Columbia, SC. The interview paper involved an interview where she answered questions and answers about her job so that the author could get a better understanding of her type of work. In addition to the interview, the project essay will begin with a literature review that will relate labor relations theory application that links to the actual job processes and/or functions. Then, we will relate the results of Ms. Brown's interview to gain real world insights into her profession and how it functions in the U.S. government. The literature review will give us an idea of how the discipline is different in the private sector.
Ms. Brown is officially known as a Labor Relations Officer/Manager (LROs) or Chief Human Relations Officer (CHRO). These terms can and are…
Ciccarelli, M.C. (2011). Trust at the top . Retrieved from http://www.hreonline.com/HRE/story.jsp?
Conaty, B., & Charan, R. (2010). The talent masters: Why smart leaders put people before numbers.
(1st ed.). New York, NY: Crown Business.
Dunlop's Web ules
The topic of industrial relations has been considerably important for both the employers as well as the employees. The topic is generally discussed in terms of relationship between both employer and the employees and moderating factors that govern outcomes of this relationship. John Dunlop was an eminent British economist who published his famous book called 'Industrial elation System' in 1958. In this book, Dunlop presented the theory called systems theory of industrial relations. Briefly, Dunlop's systems theory observed that industrial relation/s is a system composed of four main elements. Thus, industrial relation system is composed of certain actors, ideology that bonds the industrial system, contexts of the relationships, and certain rules that govern and moderate the relationship of governance of these actors. This also implied that an industrial relation system can be having distinct subsystem from economic or societal system in which the employer operates. Thus, four…
Australian Government. (2010). Overview: Fair Work Act 2009. Australian Government: Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations. Accessed 3 Sep 2013, < http://www.rcsa.com.au/documents/Fair_Work/DM2-552754%20-%20Final%20-%20Overview%20of%20the%20FW%20Act%20module.pdf >
Bisom-Rapp, S 2009. 'What We Learn in Troubled Times: Deregulation and Safe Work in the New Economy'. Wayne L. Rev., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1197-1250.
Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations. 2013. 'Fair Work Fact Sheets'. Australian Government. Accessed 3 Sep 2013,
Dunlop, JT 1984. Dispute resolution: Negotiation and consensus building'. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Occupational Health Law Analysis
Occupational safety would seem to be simple to many but it is actually a quite complex subject and takes on many forms and levels of responsibility. Indeed, both the employees and employer alike have their burdens to meet in terms of preparation, procurement and safety of resources and when they must or must act in a certain way so as to uphold the security and safety of everyone in the company with people directly in harm's way being the ones that must be protected the most vigilantly. This report focuses in large part on an occupational health and safety legal case, that being Kirk v, Industrial elations Commission of New South Wales (NSW). While employees bear a strong burden to protect themselves as well as others in the workplace, there are several dimensions that ultimately fall on the employer without fail at some level or another…
Foster, N. (2010). General risks or specific measures? The High Court decision in Kirk.
Australian Journal of Labour Law, 23(3), pp.230-239.
Kirk v. Industrial Relations Commission of New South Wales. (2014). Bourke's Criminal
Law News Victoria, 10(2), pp.1-10.
Future of Unions in Labor Relations
Unions came about from the struggles and pain that individuals had to go through early on in history. Unions were something that did not spring up overnight, but rather took a great deal of time to develop as individuals began working out for themselves what types of organizations would be the best to protect their rights and ensure that they could not be treated cruelly or unfairly by those that they worked for (Kearney, 2001). The right to collective bargaining took almost 200 years in the United States but today these rights are held in almost every country (Kearney, 2001).
For many years unions were thought to be very important in labor relations. At least, employees have thought so. Much of the opinions had by those who have had to deal with unions in a dispute situation have been less than tolerant of unions…
BBC News. (2004, March 1). U.S. grocery strike is finally over. Retrieved 7 March 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3521601.stm
Bell, S. (1999, April 1). Union strategy, member orientation and union effectiveness: an exploratory analysis. Labour & Industry.
Kearney, R.C. (2001). Labor relations in the public sector. 3rd Ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Pritchard, J. (2002, September 30). As ships idle, longshoremen and shippers exchange threats. Ledger-Enquirer/Associated Press. Retrieved 8 March 2004 at http://www.ledger-enquirer.com/mld/ledgerenquirer/4181155.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
Essentially, parenting styles changed dramatically and began to allow children for relative independence vs. relative inter-dependence that was seen before the implementation of industrial capitalism. This move far from traditional agricultural-based family structures lessened the degree of inter-dependence within the family and more towards individual independence within the larger family structure. Mothers and fathers were off working in the factories, leaving them as much less a part of every element of their children's lives. This left children home alone more often, forcing them to find their own relative independence outside the realm of their parents' supervision. Additionally, when children, when required to work, would work outside the context of the home in factories, where there was less supervision from parents. Thus, there was a greater focus on individual needs and individual lives, rather than the more familial unit thinking that was so prevalent before the Industrial Revolution took place.
For A, expansion to the east was logical given the global nature of its activities. Tesco has successfully pioneered expansion to CEE in the retail business where such expansions are fraught with numerous risks. For them, EU accession does not seem to alter much in terms of strategic orientation and perceived benefits from their CEE presence. For Soufflet, accession may open up the opportunity to export to the EU (Gligorov & Podkaminer, 2007). However, despite the seemingly secondary importance of EU and EU accession in network alignment in all cases they give a clear focus and long-term orientation to company strategies and coherence to network alignment (Timmer, et al. 2007). This conclusion as to the secondary but nonetheless strategic importance of EU accession in building industrial networks may be due to bias in our case studies which do not involve industries (with the partial exception of Elektrim) where regulatory aspects…
Foster, N. And Stehrer, R. 2007, Modeling transformation in CEECs using smooth transitions, Journal of Comparative Economics forthcoming.
Gligorov, V. And Podkaminer, L. 2007, Private Consumption and Flourishing Exports Keep the Region on High Growth Track, wiiw Research Report, No. 335, special issue on economic prospects for Central, East and Southeast Europe, Vienna, wiiw.
Peneder, M. 2004, High growth with old industries? The Austrian paradox revisited, in Foster, J. And Hoelzl, W. eds, Applied Evolutionary Economics and Complex Systems, Chelten ham, Edward Elgar, pp. 197-219.
Peneder, M. 2005, Creating industry classifications by statistical cluster analysis, Estudios de Economica Aplicada, 23 2, pp. 451-63.
The most important objectives proposed by the ICGN refer to shareholders. Therefore, it is recommended to optimize return to shareholders, which should become the most important objective for a company. In other words, "corporate governance practices should focus board attention on this objective. In particular, the company should thrive to excel in comparison with the specific equity sector peer group benchmark" (ECGI, 2005). Another objective refers to the long-term prosperity of the business. This requires the development and implementation of a corporate strategy that focuses on increasing the equity value on a long-term.
Another recommendation refers to facilitating the exercise of ownership rights by all shareholders. In relation to this, all shareholders must be treated equitably. One of the most important recommendations refers to increasing the shareholders' possibility to be a part in the decision making process for matters of extreme importance to the company's activity.
The importance of corporate…
Sapovadia, V.K. (2003). Good Corporate Governance: An Instrument for Wealth Maximization. MBA Department of Saurashtra University Conference, India. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=955289 . Accessed January 18, 2008.
Corporate governance (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_governance . Accessed January 19, 2008.
ICGN Statement on Global Corporate Governance Principles (2005). International Corporate Governance Network. European Corporate Governance Institute. www.ecgi.org/codes/documents/revised_principles_jul2005.pdf. Accessed January 19.
La Porta, R. et al. (1999). Investor Protection and Corporate Governance. Social Science Research Network. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=183908#PaperDownload . Accessed January 19, 2008.
Fern and Brown (1984) claimed that the distinction between industrial and consumer marketing lacked any clear foundation, while more recently Vargo and Lusch (2011) argued that business-business markets underpin the most recent developments in marketing theory overall. In your opinion, is business- to-business marketing distinct from or, the same as consumer marketing?
Industrial and Consumer Marketing Distinctions
The issue regarding a distinction between business to business and consumer marketing is an important aspect that marketing specialists have tried to clear in the attempt of developing more efficient marketing theories. The importance of determining whether or not there is a distinction between these types of marketing relies on the fact that this information would contribute to developing efficient strategies for companies to use when addressing different markets. In order to develop efficient marketing strategies, companies must identify the principles that rule their type of industry. Therefore, it is important to understand…
1. Zimmerman, A. & Blythe, J. (2013). Business to Business Marketing Management: A Global Perspective. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=pqBag4CzgwwC&pg=PA65&dq=business+to+business+marketing+principles&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=4uhQU6XrLqSQ5ASUn4GAAQ&ved=0CEYQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=business%20to%20business%20marketing%20principles&f=false .
2. Hutt, M. & Speh, T. (2013). Business Marketing Management: B2B. Cengage Learning. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=8lMAWJXtf6QC&pg=PA14&dq=differences+in+business+to+business+and+consumer+marketing+principles&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=XDhRU6CiJMTiywOfmIHIDQ&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=differences%20in%20business%20to%20business%20and%20consumer%20marketing%20principles&f=false .
3. Donovan, R. & Henley, N. (2010). Principles and Practice of Social Marketing: An International Perspective. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=pM42Oqz8BuUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=marketing+principles&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=aUlRU42-JamCyQOj9oG4Cg&ved=0CEYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=marketing%20principles&f=false .
Human Factors and Interior Space Design
The objective of this work in writing is to summarize the article entitled "The Relation of Human Factors and Interior Space Design." This article begins by noting the importance of the human having tools that fit them well and that this was realized early in the development of the human species. Specifically, this article notes that Australopithecus Prometheus "selected pebble tools and made scoops from antelope bones in a clear display of selecting/creating objects to make tasks easier to accomplish." (p.3) Over the centuries there was improvement in the effectiveness of the tools as discovered by anthropologists and archaeologists including tools such as hammers, plows and axes. During the Industrial Revolution, more advanced machines were developed that assisted man with his work including such as the spinning Jenny and the rolling mills.
The methodology utilized in the study under review is reported to have…
CarMax and Amazon.com with an Emphasis on Mergers and Acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions are the means of business expansion on the positive side, but the company can use these methods in order to ensure their long-term survival on the negative side too. Struggling companies can also request other organizations to acquire them because they cannot operate in isolation. The poor liquidity situation and unmanageable debt are leading causes of mostly completed acquisitions (Cartwright & Schoenberg, 2006). Companies create mergers in order to reap synergistic effects, and a marked difference between merger and acquisition is present because a former approach results in the death of all the companies involved in the deal. Merger results in the birth of a new company that can collectively use resources of all the parties. Acquisition is a sophisticated name for a buyout deal that results the company to become a subpart of another organization. A…
Cartwright, S., & Schoenberg, R. (2006). Thirty Years of Mergers and Acquisitions Research: Recent Advances and Future Opportunities. British Journal of Management Vol 17 (1), 1-5.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Concept and Cases: Competiveness and Globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Palmatier, R.W., Miao, C.F., & Fang, E. (2007). Sales channel integration after mergers and acquisitions: A methodological approach for avoiding common pitfalls. Industrial Marketing Management Vol 36 (5), 589 -- 603.
History Industrial Revolution
What impact did the Industrial Revolution in England have on the American colonies?
During the mid-eighteenth century, the Great ritain had started the Industrial Revolution; meanwhile the American colonies had not yet begun their journey towards industrialization. The main reason why the American colonies lagged behind the ritish was that the former had abundance of land and at the same time scarcity of labor. However, it should be note here that the Industrial Revolution in England impacted the American colonies in terms of economy and society; both positively and adversely.
In this paper, we shall discuss the positive as well as the negative effects of Industrial Revolution on America.
It should be noted here that the framework of Industrial Revolution that was implemented in the American colonies was borrowed from England after the American industrialists saw that the Great ritain's economic position improved significantly after…
Bianchetti, Ann, "Teaching History in a Post-Industrial Age," Academic journal article from Social Education, 68 (2002): 5.
Welsh, Jim, "The Machine in America: A Social History of Technology," Journal of American Culture, 31 (2007): 1.
Functions of labor relations office
The responsibilities of the labor relations manager
In this paper, I present an interview that I conducted with the Labor elations Officer/Manager within the Human esource department of our company. The aim of this interview is to reveal the real world the functions performed by labor relations.
Summary of the interview
My interview with the labor relations officer revealed to me several things on the functions of the labor relations department. Good labor relations are a recognizable as well as a legitimate part of a given organization. A good labor relation involves a rather complex relationship between several people, organizations as well as other organizational variables.
Functions of labor relations office
According to the interview the labor relations office is mandated with the coordination of activities with workers in their formal as well as informal groupings. This includes aspects such as trade unions, representatives…
Frederickson, GH (1969).Conflict within and between Organizations . Administrative Science Quarterly
Vol. 14, No. 4, (Dec., 1969), pp. 595-606
Forbath, WE (1994)The Presence of the Past: Voluntarism, Producerism, and the Fate of Economic Democracy: [Commentary]Law & Social Inquiry Vol. 19, No. 1 (Winter, 1994), pp. 201-215
Kathleen A. Curran, KA (1990)The National Labor Relations Board's Proposed Rules on Health Care Bargaining Units Virginia Law Review Vol. (76) 1, pp. 115-164
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…
Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. irthebest.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html
Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Irish.jsp
"Industrial revolution: The industrial revolution in Great Britain." (2006) The Columbia electronic encyclopedia. Pearson Education Publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858818.html
Kreis, S. (2001). The origins of the industrial revolution in England. The history guide. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Technology and Social Change
The Industrial evolution completely changed the way that human beings live and work. Before the Industrial evolution, society was dominated by agrarian economies. The Industrial evolution created a new way of life in which an increasingly large percentage of the population either owned or worked in factories involved in mass production. Populations became increasingly concentrated in urban areas; fewer people worked on farms or owned farms. Instead of making their own goods and services, people now bought the majority of the items they needed in stores.
The current Knowledge evolution is technologically driven, just like the Industrial evolution. It is fueled by the Internet and radically expanded accessibility of information to everyone who has an Internet connection. In some ways, like the Industrial evolution, it is extremely democratic -- just as many people made their fortune through capitalism, the knowledge economy of World Wide Web has…
Gouras, M. (2003). Bulking up for a hardware battle. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved:
How women use the web. (2013). Mashable. Retrieved:
Employee elation Plan
The first question that has to be considered is the objective of any employee relations program. This is generally listed out in a document that is circulated among all the staff as they are supposed to follow it. This involves certain laws, regulations and case laws, and has to be viewed as governing the policy of the organization including the required management delegations for the administration of the employee relations program. In general this defines the policy through which management officials along with the employee relations staff are expected to follow and the actions they are expected to take for ensuring the correct performance or resolve conduct problems among the employees. (Employee elations Program) One of the biggest problems of today is regarding harassing, violent and/or threatening behavior in the work environment. This has become a major problem in the American workplace today.
Harassment takes various forms…
About the Program" (2004) Retrieved at http://cper.berkeley.edu/program/index.html . Accessed on 25 August, 2004
BPA Program. (2000) "Employee Relations Program" Retrieved at http://www.bpa.gov/EBR/BPAManual/chapters/400-700A.doc . Accessed on 25 August, 2004
Collins, Kathy. (April 17, 2000) "Measurement Drives Employee Relations Program at GM" PR and Marketing Network" Retrieved at http://www.prandmarketing.com/pr/prn0417measure.htm . Accessed on 25 August, 2004
Employee Relations" Retrieved at http://www.enr.state.nc.us/hr/html/employeerelations.html . Accessed on 25 August, 2004
1. Initial IBB Preparations.
2. Preparing with constituents.
3. Opening statements.
4. Identifying issues.
5. Developing a list of standards.
6. Identifying interests on each issue.
7. Identifying options for each issue.
6. Identifying the acceptable option.
8. Accepting the option as a tentative agreement. (Alfano, 1997)
During initial IBB Preparations the parties should choose a facilitators and the sharing of costs should be discussed. A plan should be laid out should an impasse occur and a schedule for meeting should be set as to time, place, and choosing someone to keep the minutes or record of the meetings. A list of standards needs to be developed for evaluation of proposed solutions for elimination of the unacceptable and toward finding the acceptable solution. The development of this list allows for the sharing of beliefs and better understanding each other
IBB Preparation Checklist
1. Employer and Union representatives meet to agree…
Alfano, John C. (1997) Maine Labor Relations Board April 1996 Revised: March 28, 1997
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service, 2000. Annual Report 1999 -- 2000. October.
Addison, J.T., and M.L. Blackburn, 1999. Minimum Wages and Poverty. Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 52 (3), April.
Osterman, P. (1994): How common is workplace transformation and who adopts it?, in Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 47(2), pp. 173-188
nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States." For Mexico does continue to seem to occupy a benighted position vis-a-vis its richer and more powerful neighbor to the north, a position that is in no small measure defined and continually recreated by the nature and mechanisms of international trade between the two nations. This paper examines the nature of the trade relations between the United States and Mexico in the light of several classical economics theories and models as well as in respect to recent developments in the wake of the 1992 signing of the NAFTA accord and the last decade's worth of increasing globalization.
Economic Theories and Models
We begin by discussing and summarizing some of the…
Danaher, K. & Burbach, R. (eds.) (2000). Globalize this!: The battle against The World Trade Organization. Los Angeles: Community Archives Publications.
Esty, D. (1994). Greening the GATT: Trade, environment, and the future. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.
factory owners during the Industrial Revolution. You are having trouble recruiting and retaining workers, and getting them to do what you want them to do. What techniques would you use to accomplish your goals of achieving efficient and profitable production?
oday, because of the apparently unjust conditions of workers during the early days of industrialization, modern sympathies tend to lie with the factory workers in their efforts to unionize and secure their rights during the early days of the Industrial Revolution. However, even from the capitalist's perspective, unmotivated employees were not as productive as loyal and motivated laborers, thus it was perhaps mistaken to be blatantly unconcerned about workers rights. In fact, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the capitalist factory owners were often frustrated by the need to impose discipline upon workers who were used to agricultural methods and rhythms of labor. his began, initially, by paying workers…
Take a look at the three organizational charts at the websites below. How do these charts represent bureaucracy? How are they similar, and how are they different?
Bureaucracy is a word that has become almost synonymous with red tape and poor and inefficient procedures based not upon reality but upon protocols. However, some bureaucracy is necessary for large organizations to function. For example, for the Argone National Laboratory ( http://www.ipd.anl.gov/anl_org_chart/ ) the organization in question demonstrates the series of bureaucratic channels, with one large organization enveloping several smaller departments of specific areas of equal expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy is technically in charge, overseeing the University of Chicago's operation of the lab in question. The university lab's official head has ultimate control over the smaller cell organizations, while each laboratory beneath the director acts as a department in and of itself, although still under official administrative control. Thus, smaller, but still crucial organizational hubs that serve different but equally necessary functions under the larger, official bureaucratic heads and within a larger bureaucracy.
The functional chart for Argone stands in contrast to the human-focused organizational chart offered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human services. Although both charts show top-down hierarchies, there is an emphasis on personality as well as function in the Heath and Human services diagram, and thus the chart is more complex -- it is both more specific, but also, because it contains more information a bit more difficult to understand for a layperson from the outside, about the many different functionaries within each individual cell of the bureaucracy. (http://www.os.dhhs.gov/about/orgchart.html)
Public relations came about as a result of the need to reach out to customers with the aim of informing me them about products and services being offered, especially after the Industrial revolution. In order to meet this need, professionals had to be involved thus giving birth to public relations. When public relations started, there were several developments that took place such as the identification of the two-way symmetric model as a form of public relations practice. This model emphasized on the evaluation of feedback from publics and then resolving the conflicts through two-way communication and eventually arriving at mutual understandings. This new approach to public relations was the most significant since it complements the earlier three approaches of publicity, public information, and two-way asymmetric (Stuart et al., 2007). This latest model is built on principles of communication as listening and on conflict resolution and the search for mutual benefits…
Geoffrey, P., (2009). Event Reports, ANA Multicultural, JCPenney builds on
180 years of history to reach the modern customer. Retrieved from: http://www.warc.com
Stuart, B.E., Sarow, M.S., and L. Stuart. (2007). Integrated business communication in a global marketplace. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Richard, E., (2002). The Art of Cause Marketing: How to Use Advertising to Change
The Japanese Government to usiness Model
The Japanese government has more direct control of private business. The difference is that it is doing so, as a partner to ensure that the business is able to maintain successful long-term economic growth. The government does not offer subsidies or any kind of bail outs. Instead, they help companies through loans, tax breaks and other forms of assistance. This helped to contribute to the success of the Japanese auto industry by allowing executives to focus on how their organization can grow in the future. (Johnson, 1985)
usiness, government and the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
The Liberal Democratic Party helped to liberalize the relationship that the government would have with the auto industry. As it would be successful in helping Japan to eliminate protectionism; this is something that would allow Japanese cars to become more competitive in markets around the world.…
Automobile Industry Introduction. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Plunkett Research website: http://www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobileTrends/tabid/89/Default.aspx
CAFE Overview. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/cafe/overview.htm
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Guidelines. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2010 from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/import/fmvss/index.html
G8's Gradual Move. (2008, January 25). Retrieved May 6, 2010, Council of Foreign Relations website: http://www.cfr.org/publication/13640/
The original inhabitants of Jamaica are long forgotten, their name barely a footnote in Caribbean history. The main legacy of the Arawak Indians has been the word "Xamayca," meaning "land of wood and water," ("A Brief History of Jamaica"). Xamayca gradually became rendered as Jamaica, an island nation with a tumultuous but vibrant history. The first non-native settlers on Jamaica were the Spaniards. Christopher Columbus included it in Spain's territorial acquisitions in 1494. Soon thereafter, a small Spanish settlement existed on the island until 1655. The Spaniards killed every last Arawak, either via use of force or exposure to disease. Moreover, the Spaniards bought African slaves and brought them to Jamaica to work on the budding sugar plantations. Growing interest in sugar was fueling the Age of Imperialism. Britain was poised to strike the Caribbean.
In May 1655, a convoy of British ships arrived and startled the Spanish settlement.…
"A Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~beckf20s/classweb/History.html
"Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Jamaica-history.htm
Draper, N. The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, compensation and British society at the end of slavery. Cambridge studies in economic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
Race and Ethnic Relations:
Giddens suggests that the central problem in this piece is climate change that is brought by the emission of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. One of the major factors that have contributed to the problem is that the three dominant energy sources across the globe i.e. gas, oil, and coal produce huge amounts of greenhouse gases. The pollution of the atmosphere through industrialization processes, which are major characteristics of today's society, has also contributed to the problem of climate change. Industrial revolution was primarily fueled by the scientific and technological advances that turned coal into a vibrant source of energy. These advancements resulted in the change from burning wood as a basic source of fuel to increased dependence on coal. The change into use of coal as a major energy source resulted in an entirely new way of life that is based on machine production.…
Giddens, Anthony. "Climate Change: Running Out, Running Down." Social Problems Related to Population and the Environment. 549-55. Print.
An Analysis of Relations between United Arab Emirates and Japan
In an era when American influence in the world is waning, the bipolarity of the Cold War years is being replaced by regional partnerships that are mutually beneficial for all stakeholders. Indeed, one important international partnership that has emerged over the past half century has been between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Japan, with both countries expanding their diplomatic presence in each other’s capitals and investing heavily in exports, most especially oil and gas to Japan with the UAE importing electronics, vehicles and various types of machinery from Japan. Moreover, international analysts predict that this strategic partnership will continue to expand for the foreseeable future. The purpose of this research proposal was to provide an overview of the history of the relations between Japan and the UAE. A discussion concerning the origins of this modern relationship is followed by…
National Labor elations Act of 1935, and discuss how it protects employees.
The National Labor elations Act
The conventional union law, which constitutes much of labor law, concentrates on workers and worker rights collectively. One may distinguish this from employment legislation which deals largely with matters pertaining to individual workers' rights. Of the many rules and legislations that constitute labor law, the most important would be the 1935 NLA (National Labor elations Act), codified at 29 U.S.C. § 151-169. This piece of legislation aims at serving U.S. national interests with respect to labor relations in the nation. As one may observe in times of extensive labor strikes, tense employer-workforce relations can swiftly have serious, nationwide negative impacts. Well-defined policies with regard to management and labor foster the nation's best interests of maintaining maximum economic production. Peace in the manufacturing sector is critical to a successfully operating economy. Thus, the Act…
(n.d.). HR and Employment Law Hot Topics Index. National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) - HR Topics for human resources. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http://topics.hrhero.com/national-labor-relations-act-nlra/#
(n.d.). LII / Legal Information Institute. National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) - Wex Legal Dictionary / Encyclopedia - LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/national_labor_relations_act_nlra
China and the Economy
Chinese Enterprise therefore is needed to better facilitate growth in China. In regards to China, private enterprise growth has lagged substantially behind that of State owned enterprises (SOE). Private enterprise, particularly in emerging markets will be a catalyst for future economic growth and development within the region. Free trade allows for the transfer of goods and services when demanded by specific economies. It also allows the countries best suited for such activities to flourish. Private Enterprise is important within the Chinese region as it continues to provide services to developed nations. The citizens of developed countries benefit as they have access to cheaper products and services. With the advent of globalization, Chinese manufactures are better equipped to expand overseas to expand their manufacturing competitive advantage.
The question regarding private enterprise is important as China is quickly becoming a dominant economic power. As such, private enterprise will…
1) China NBS (No.1 2012): Announcement of National Bureau of Statistics of China
2) China Statistical Yearbook 2010, 2009 figure from China NSB Statistical Data (NSB 2009-revised -China GDP figure
3) DeGlopper, Donald (1987), Chapter 9 -- Science and Technology, A Country Study: China, Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 September 2012
4) Tschang, Chi-Chu (4 February 2009). "A Tough New Year for China's Migrant Workers." Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/feb2009/gb2009024_357998.htm . Retrieved 10 September 2012
At the time of the Industrial Revolution, philosophy had already dealt substantially with the notion of "division of labour" although the terminology was slightly different. Our modern sense of the division of labour is, of course, largely derived from nineteenth century industrial capitalism, and it was based on this paradigm that sociological thinkers like Marx, Durkheim, and Simmel would analyze the phenomenon. But we might note by way of introduction that they were inheriting an earlier tradition that emerged from earlier pre-industrial forms of capitalism, what began to emerge in England in the Elizabethan period and thereafter. Thus the Elizabethan idea of a "great chain of being" -- which posited an order and hierarchy to social relationships -- would gradually come to be altered by thinkers like Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville. By the early eighteenth century, Mandeville would lay down the basic principles of an idea of division…
Coser, Lewis. Masters of Sociological Thought. Second Edition. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2003. Print.
Politics Predominate in Advanced Industrial Societies? Advanced Capitalism, Social Differentiation, and Politics
The focus of this work is to examine the question asking why it is that class politics fail to be predominant in advanced industrial societies. Towards this end, this work will review the work of Karl Marx entitled "Classes" (1867) and the work of Calhoun, et al. (2012) entitled "Contemporary Sociological Theory."
Summary of the Theories
The work of ourdieu (1976) entitled "Outline of a Theory of Practice" demonstrated the development of the core of his theory as an effort to "understand the clash between enduring ways of life and larger systems of power and capital, the ways in which cultural and social structures are reproduced even amid dramatic change, and the ways in which action and structure are not simply opposed but depend on each other." (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p.325-26) In addition, ourdieu is reported to…
Calhoun, Craig, et al. (2012) Contemporary Sociological Theory. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Marx, Karl (1867) Classes. Chapter 14.
Weber, Max (1914) The Distribution of Power within the Political Community: Class, Status, Party. Chapter 22.
Alberta province of Canada is considered one of the strongest economies in North America, being culturally diverse as well as politically and environmentally stable. Its varied landscape, sunny climate and varied geography make it a most ideal locality and provide its people an excellent quality of life. Alberta is endowed with abundant natural resources, natural sceneries, and capable manpower that altogether make it the perfect place to live and work in. These outstanding features are collectively referred to as the Alberta advantage (Government of Alberta 2002). Its people are vibrant, resourceful and productive entrepreneurs, whose goods and services rank among the most excellent in the world. This level of excellence draws from the inherent pioneering spirit of the earliest settlers of the province. The present principal industries of the province are agriculture and related industries, forestry, telecommunications, oil and gas. Its oil and gas industry, which began in the late…
Brown, Jim. 2003: Canada's Chretien Downplays Kyoto Economic Impact. CNEWS. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2003/10/20/23/511-cp.html
CBCNews, 2002: Consumers Will Feel Pinch of Kyoto, Say Opponents. CBC. http://www/cbc/ca/stories/stories/2002/09/03/ab_kyoto020903
CTV News Staff. 2003:Three-quarters of Canadians Support Kyoto: Poll. CTV.ca. http://www/ctv/ca/servlit/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/10340/4051181_29423251/:hub=Canada
Government of Alberta. 2002: Canadians Divided on Kyoto Ratification. http://www.gov.ab.ca/home/index.cfm "Page=332.
The Rise of Collective Bargaining
According to Brody (1993), the collective agreement signed between unions and employers meant that the unions were no longer pushing for activism, but rather they were running the unions as a business. The unions were mostly concerned with ensuring that employees had job security and they worked hard to quell any disturbances that might arise. With employees working as expected and employers willing to pay the employees as agreed, there was a need for the unions to honor their contractual agreements. The contracts removed the unions from management and offered the company managers leeway to run the business as deemed fit. Unions opted to have collective bargaining agreements that in the long run meant that the unions were powerless and the power of workers no longer rested with the unions (Aidt & Tzannatos, 2002). Adopting collective bargaining agreements meant that unions had to adhere to…
GOP Aacks on NLRB
Labor Movemen & Srucure of he NLRB
In his paper I explore he sae of he curren relaionship beween he Republican Pary and he Labor movemen in he Unied Saes. In par one I briefly race he hisory of he labor movemen in he Unied Saes and he passage of he Naional Labor Relaions Ac and he emergence of he Naional Labor Relaions Board. . In he paper's second secion, I discuss he GOP's sraegy a he sae level-wih special aenion paid o Wisconsin and Ohio. In par hree, I discuss he GOP's sraegy a he naional level wih respec o heir aacks on he Naional Labor Relaions Board, focusing specifically on he House's refusal o appoin and approve anymore Board Members and heir recen passage of he Proecing Jobs from Governmen Inerference Ac. Finally, I explore boh he fuure prospecs of union busing sraegies and…
to the Board's duties and mission. The site houses a copy of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and its subsequent amendments, in addition to an explanation of the duties of the NLRB, its dispute resolution process, directions regarding how to file a complaint, and the life cycle of labor law violations.
Zieger, R.H., & Hall, G.J. (2002). American workers, american unions: The twentieth century. (pp. 13-56). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Zieger and Hall catalogue the history of the American Labor Movement by beginning with a frank look at the state of unregulated industry in the first quarter of the twentieth century. They move on to catalogue the rise and fall of the American Labor Movement including the emergence of the strikes, the legal battles, the issue of race and labor, and finally the nature of labor in the United States at the beginning of the 21st Century. Zieger and Hall provide an extensive historical and legal overview of the rise of the unions.
Union vs. Nonunion Environments Labor elations
Although non-unionized employees work in organizations, they are not members of any labor unions. The notion means that they are not represented by any work union at their workplaces. Conversely, unionized workers are engaged in certain unions that represent them at their workplaces. Such labor unions are pertinent because they serve as bargaining liaison. U.S. is among nations where both unionized and non-unionized workers are present. It is important to affirm that there are varied labor relations in these different working environments. The purpose of this paper is to compare the labor relations system in the U.S. and another country regarding union and non-union working environments. In this case, labor relations in India are compared to that of the U.S.A.
Evidently, India is among countries where labor unions are limited. There exists a difference in labor relations in both countries. As seen from the…
Holley, W., Jennings, K. & Wolters, R. (2011). The Labor Relations Process. New York: Cengage Learning
Lewin, D. & Kaufman, B. E. (2011). Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations. New York: Emerald Group Publishing
mployment and Labor Relations
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (or Wagner Act) protects the rights of most workers in the private sector of the United States to organize unions, to engage in collective bargaining over wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. The Act does not, on the other hand, cover those workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers.
The Wagner Act established a federal agency, the National Labor Relations Board, with the power to investigate and decide unfair labor practice charges and to conduct elections in which workers were given the opportunity to decide whether they wanted to be represented by a union. The NLRB was given more extensive powers than…
Effective Communication of Laws, Regulations and Organizational Policies
An employee handbook (or employee manual) details guidelines, expectations and procedures of a business or company to its employees. Employee handbooks are given to employees on one of the first days of his or her job, in order to acquaint them with their new company and its policies. While it often varies from business to business, specific areas that an employee handbook may address include a welcome statement, which may also briefly describe the company's history, reasons for its success and how the employee can contribute to future successes. It may also include a mission statement, or a statement about a business' goals and objectives.
Orientation procedures usually involves providing a human resources manager or other designated employee completed income tax withholding forms, providing proof of identity and eligibility for employment (in accordance with the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986), proof of a completed drug test (by a designated medical center) and other required forms. An area devoted to definitions of full- and part-time employment, and benefits classification also describes timekeeping procedures, such as defining a "work week." This area may also include information about daily breaks, for
Social Psychology 2nd
Morality and Group elations: Possible Bias
The article entitled "Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members" as written by Brambilla et al. is comprised of three different research studies. However, each of these studies explores different facets of the same phenomena: how morality within and outside of groups varies by type of threat, and what sort of behavior these threats elicit from these same groups (Brambilla et al., 2013, p. 813). There is an extreme amount of relevance to the research conducted within this article and the principle research question of the present author, who is attempting to ascertain the meaning of relationships with moral development and reasoning in social groups.
Prior to stratifying the analysis of this paper to the three respective studies, it is necessary to mention various salient factors regarding the…
Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: Wiley.
Tuffin, K. (2004). Understanding Critical Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Brambilla, M., Sacchi, S., Pagliaro, S., Ellemers, N. (2013). Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 49: 811-821.
The purpose of this article is to extend on previous rsearch relating the issue of group morality to the perceived threat and influential behavior within an ingroup as actuated on the part of an outgroup. The researchers studided an ingroup of Italian nationals and an outgroup of Indians who were living Italy. Therefore, there ethnic differences between these groups as well as those which may have been perceived related to nationality.
The open and free market economies proved successful from a management perspective, and government supported the primacy of the profit motive.
The consequences of these fluctuations has been a system that favors management in the United States. Labor unions have been systematically ridiculed socially, lumped together with communism and therefore derided by the American public. Similarly, labor unions have lost their political clout to a certain degree, and management has secured political power over laborers. Wages have remained deplorably low, so low that income disparity in the United States resembles that of Third World nations. Income disparity in the United States is the steepest of any other industrialized nation. Countries with strong labor laws such as the nations of northern Europe tend to be more egalitarian societies with fewer class distinctions and less of a wealth gap. The American model allows unbridled business growth at the expense of social justice.…
Freeman, R. (1996). Solving the new inequality. Boston Review. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at http://bostonreview.net/BR21.6/freeman.html
Women Participation in Marine Industry
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Women represent a considerable portion of the world's labor force. However they face the hurdles of wage discrimination, harassment, and occupational segregation which ultimately limit their economic advancement. Historically, marine industry does not tend to be a successful career path for women. However, with the passage of time women have penetrated quite deeply in this marine industry. This essay highlights the participation of women in marine industry and the role played by policy making organizations like International Transport Federation (ITF), Seafarers International Research Center (SIRC), International Labor Organization (ILO), and International Maritime Organization (IMO). It explains the extent to which these various marine bodies are addressing the issue of gender.
The Relation Ship between the Participation of Woman in Maritime Sectors and Various Policy Organizations
Traditionally marine industry has been…
Belcher, P. Sampson, H., Thomas, M., Veiga, J. & Zhao, M. (2003). Women Seafarers: Global
Employment Practices and Policies, Geneva: International Labor Organization.
Dcomm (2003). Women seafarers: Fighting against the tide? As on land, so by sea: Women join
the ranks of seafarers, World of Work Magazine, 49, Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/magazines-and-journals/world-of-work-magazine/articles/WCMS_081322/lang -- en/index.htm
Economists can demonstrate how, in the aggregate, consumers and industry benefit from free trade. In the process of creative destruction, however, some industries and workers are displaced by the changes wrought by free trade.
The measurement of benefit in the case of Volkswagen continues to reverberate today, after over 25 years. When VW entered the Chinese market, it did so over the objections of its local labour unions and politicians. Part of the objection came because the State of Lower Saxony controlled 20% of the shares, and the government was concerned about the loss of jobs in its domestic sector. The managers of VW saw it differently: by creating a successful and growing subsidiary in China, the reasoning went, the company could increase its generated cash and derive strategic benefits from finding a lower-cost supplier of parts.
There were, however, forces to overcome:
Unions threatened to strike in Germany unless…
Chase, S. (1947). A Generation of Industrial Peace: Thirty Years of Labor Relations at Standard Oil Company. New York: Standard Oil Company.
Chunli, L. a. (2003). The Chinese Automobile Industry and the Strategic Alliances of China, Japan, the U.S.'s Firms. Cambridge: MIT International Motor Vehicle Program.
Dubois, C.P.-D. (2007). Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 953-960.
Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.
company's investment success especially in relation to other companies. The paper aims at establishing how a company's competitiveness can be calculated in relation to others in the same industry and the factors that hinder the calculations or hinder a true picture of the same
Compare industry average and a main competitor
For convenient comparison of industry average, majority of companies place Industry average values next to a company's financial measures for convenient comparison. To get a clear picture, a company can obtain industry average from its competitor by carefully examining (its competitors) stock screen results. (Gray, 2004)
However it is notable that various industries have their peculiarities with some operating under very heavy debts which would companies in other industries. For instance, software companies enjoy high profit margins that other companies envy and that all software companies must attain to stay in the game.
For that case, to see whether…
Gray, A. (2004) Introduction to Marketing, 7th Edition, New York, Prentice Hall
Riahi, A. (2003) The Capital Structure Paradigm: Evolution of Debt? Equity Choices; New York, Praeger
Riahi, A. (1999) Capital Structure: Determination, Evaluation and Accounting
Titman, S (1988) Journal of Finance, Volume 43, Issue: 1, Publisher: American Finance Association; Blackwell publishing