Infant Mortality Essays (Examples)

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Infant & Maternal Mortality Life-Saving

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41012525



Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use can lead to birth defects, low birth weight, and premature delivery (HHS, 2006). All of these are listed as the major causes of infant mortality (CDC). Given the literature and public service announcements produced on these subjects over the past several decades, it is difficult to believe that anyone in this country is unaware of the detrimental effects these things can have on a fetus, and apparently thee communications are working to a degree; the infant mortality rate has dropped significantly, and yet such abuse is still among the leading causes of infant death (CDC; HHS, 2006). To tackle these issues, information should not be the focus of the message strategy but rather the mothers themselves should be the message's focus. Perhaps a short bulleted list of the disadvantages children with fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects of in utero abuse are likely to…… [Read More]

References

Eliminate disparities in infant mortality." Center for disease control website (CDC). Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm

Health and human services fact sheet: Preventing infant mortality." (2006). Health and human services website (HHS). Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm
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Mortality for Children There Are

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45986911



There are several different elements that should be considered and properly acted upon to facilitate a comprehensive program to reduce the mortality rates for children under five. According to the World Health Organization, "6.9 million children under the age of five died in 2011. More than half of these early child deaths are due to conditions that could be prevented or treated with access to simple, affordable interventions" (No author, 2012).

Therefore, the comprehensive program to address this issue will consist of three different parts. The first is to provide interventions for mothers prior to childbirth, the second is to provide interventions during childbirth, and the third is to provide interventions during the first five years after childbirth. For the first of these interventions, it is crucial that mothers receive immunizations against common child-bearing diseases such as tetanus, receive regular visits from antenatal consultants, and refrain from intoxicants such as…… [Read More]

References

Moody, S. (2011). "Ready-to-use therapeutic food." USAID from the American People. Retrieved from http://blog.usaid.gov/2011/10/ready-to-use-therapeutic-food/

No author (2012). "Children: reducing mortality." World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs178/en/index.html
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Infant Feeding Practices in Africa

Words: 2718 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62766667



There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm 

Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at  http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html
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Health Plans Saving Infants

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17503767

Infant Mortality

In today's day and age with the massive amount of resources to humanity, it is a wonder as to why infant mortality is still a problem. The impact of the healthcare system has made improvements in this area, but there are still issues that lack clarity. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the need for free basic health insurance for new born babies to prevent illness and suffering. This essay will first summarize the problem before offering solutions on how best to address the problem.

The Centers for Disease Conrol (CDC) defined infant mortality as "the death of an infant before his or her first birthday." In this first year of life, the child is especially vulnerable to the threats of his or her environment and the risk of an infant dying is especially strong. Through medical and social evolution, infant mortality has generally gone down…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Public Health Approaches to Reducing U.S. Infant Mortality. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6231a3.htm

Chapman, S. (2009). Health Care and Infant Mortality: The Real Story. Creators.com 2009.

Dizikes, P. (2014). How a health care plan quickly lowered infant mortality. MIT News, 30 April 2014. Retrieved from http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/how-health-care-plan-quickly-lowered-infant-mortality-0430

Morman, E. (2011). Infant Mortality in Detroit: Finding Solutions. Metro Parent, Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://www.metroparent.com/Metro-Parent/October-2011/Infant-Mortality-in-Detroit-Finding-Solutions/
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Message Strategy Maternal and Infant

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91130136

Indeed, the Model is an appropriate way to gain a better understanding of what causes people to make certain health behavior decisions, such as those which are likely to have caused pregnant women to bypass regular medical attention or to have failed to take the necessary lifestyle precautions during pregnancy to protect her health and that of her unborn child. ithout question, issues of poverty and a shortfall of necessary resources will be relevant causes. However, the premise of the message campaign will be to disseminate information about self-care that can help those lacking access. Additionally, we act from the presumption that the scarcity of resources also means that where such are available, there may be a dearth of distributed information to make women aware of these options.

Therefore, it seems reasonable to deduce that a perspective through this model might help to reveal such possible causes for maternal and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ell, K.; Vourlekis, B.; Muderspach, L.; Nissly, J.; Padget, D.; Pineda, D.; Sarabia, O. & Lee, P. (2002). Abnormal Cervical Screen Follow-Up Among Low-Income Latina: Project SAFe. Journal of Women's Health & Gender Medicine, 11(7), 639-651.

Kotch, J. (2005). Maternal and Child Health: Programs, Problems, and Policy in Public Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
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Achieving Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation Baby-Friendly

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26970491

496).

Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…… [Read More]

Resources needed for the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital designation are relatively limited, due in large part to the extensive work the Brookdale Hospital has recently done to begin to implement better breastfeeding and maternal practices, as noted at the close of the Problem statement section of this work. The hospital must implement additional changes, file the proper application for assessment and designation and prove and justify implementation of the 10 steps associated with the designation over a period of five years. The resources needed for this process will include participation by existing staff including nurses, nurse managers and the hiring of a certified lactation specialist. The most costly of all the implementation strategies will be hiring of a certified lactation specialist, other costs will be further detailed in the budget section of this work and will include administrative, office supplies, additional signage and support training of nursing and support staff.

Barriers to Change

Barriers to change must begin with a clear understanding and elimination of the kinds of hospital practices that are shown in evidence-based research to be particularly contraindicative of early, long-duration and successful breastfeeding including the; use of artificial nipples (pacifiers), bottles, and even nipple shields in mainly healthy newborns (McKechnie & Eglash, 2010) supplementation that is unneeded for natal nutrition, limitations in the practice of rooming in (infant stays with mother as much as possible over the first 24 hours after birth to ensure on demand nursing opportunities), limitations in skin to skin contact of infant with both mother and father, and other institutionally practiced barriers are not only common but traditionally accepted as standards of practice in most hospitals and birthing centers ("Breastfeeding-related maternity practices…" 2008 ). The Baby-Friendly Hospital Designation, and all the steps to prepare and implement it will go far to demonstrate change in hospitals including but not limited to Brookdale Hospital in NYC.

Barriers to change, that are specific to Brookdale hospital have been briefly developed in the problem statement of this work and demonstrate mostly institutional practices that are not only accepted but supported by the hospital and L&D and neonatal staff. Rooming in, where the newborn infant spends as much time as possible with the mother during the first 24-48 hours of life, leaving the bedside of the mother only when absolutely necessary is essential to change. The existence of a highly staffed and large newborn nursery, where infants spend a good deal of time and receive a great deal of care from staff rather than the mother is one of the first institutional issues that needs to change. This reduction of reliance on the newborn nursery may offset some of the costs of implementing change, as stricter rooming in policies and practices would indicate the need for fewer staff resources in the newborn nursery. Skin-to-skin contact of mother to infant should begin at the moment of birth, as is indicated by the hospital's new policies and procedures for breastfeeding support. Newborns should be given screening tests in the presence of the mother, and if at all possible while the mother is holding and/or nursing the child during skin to skin contact. Breastfeeding education should be continuous, beginning in prenatal clinics, extending throughout the hospital stay and supported and supplemented by follow up care with a certified lactation specialist and/or nursing staff that has taken CEC courses in breastfeeding support, and the number class offerings per week should be increased to every other day to support the usual uncomplicated discharge of mother and baby at 48-72 hours post delivery and the course for mothers should be a condition for discharge. L&D and nursery nurses should continue to be encouraged to take the available course with a first year goal of 100% completion. Lastly, cultural barriers to breastfeeding in the patient population should be mitigated with culturally sensitive training and breastfeeding support, long-term breastfeeding follow up and a sensitive but essential reiteration of the many benefits of breastfeeding for both child and mother, reiteration, for those who qualify, of the benefits of the Women Infant Children program which supports breastfeeding mothers with additional food and benefits for the mother not just by supplying formula or food for the infant after birth.

Role of Nurse Executive
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Advanced Education BSN Required for RN Degree

Words: 3772 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85016391

Infant Mortality

Health Care Disparities in Infant Mortality

Numerous empirical studies have demonstrated a significant discrepancy in survival rates of newborns of different race. It has been shown that black infants are two times more likely to die within the first month of life than their white counterparts. Identification of these disparaged findings has prompted analysis of health care offered from a demographic perspective, considering racial treatment and socioeconomic conditions. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has examined race-specific mortality information on newborns, and reported a series of noted and persistent trends coinciding with the data differences. It is necessary to address this inconsistency in survival rates between the black and white races to identify potential changes in health care delivery systems and eliminate racial factors in infant mortality.

The U.S. government has identified six classes of racial and ethnic minority discrepancies in health care access, experience, and outcomes. In…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Homepage. Retrieved March 23, 2004, at http://www.aap.org/default.htm

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (2004). Homepage. Retrieved March 23, 2004, at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/schip/default.asp?

Iyasu, S, & Tomashek, K. (2002, July 12). Infant Mortality and Low Birth Weight Among Black and White Infants -- "United States, 1980-2000. Weekly, 51(27), 589-592. Retrieved March 23, 2004, from Center for Disease Control, Full Text Database,  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5127a1.htm 

Health and Human Services. (2000). Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health.
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Safe Sleep and Sleep Patterns for Children Under 18 Months

Words: 2311 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79125388

Infant Sleep Patterns

People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…… [Read More]

References

Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E.A., Tappin, D.M., Vennemann, M.M., Smuk, M.,

Carpenter, J.R. (2013). Bedsharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS?

An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. British Medical Journal Open, BMJ Open 2013;3:e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299

Franken, P., Kopp, C., Landolt, H.P., & Luthi, A. (2009). The functions of sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(9), 1739-1740.
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Healthy Mothers and Babies Recent Research

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20429830

Maternal Risk Entity

Is there anything more important to a family -- and to the community of interest around that family -- than the safe and healthy delivery of the brand new baby and its mother? Modern medicine has provided technologies and training to alleviate many of the risks vis-a-vis mother and infant, however there is never going to be a situation absolutely free of potential risks surrounding pregnancy, childbirth, and the post-pregnancy period. Hence, nurses and physicians and other healthcare professionals must stay informed and be fully prepared to come up with solutions when risky situations occur. This paper presents the peer-reviewed literature on several maternal risks and there possible remedies.

Infants' Risks in Late Preterm Births

In the peer-reviewed journal Birth, the authors point out that the preterm birth rate has risen from 10.6 births in 1990 to 12.8% in 2006 -- a twenty percent increase (Kirby, et…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooker, L., Ward, B., and Verrinder, G. (2012). Domestic violence screening in maternal and child health nursing practice: A scoping review. Contemporary Nurse, 42(3), 198-215.

Kirby, R.S., and Wingate, M.S. (2010). Late Preterm Birth and Neonatal Outcome: Is 37 Weeks'

Gestation a Threshold Level or a Road Market on the Highway of Perinatal Risk? Birth, 37(2)

169-171.
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Feeding Baby Motherhood Conjures Up Images of

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71593401

Feeding Baby

Motherhood conjures up images of a plump round female body surrounded by plump round babes playing about at feet while another suckles at breast, much as one sees in Victorian paintings. It is a common belief that bottle-feeding is a modern phenomenon, and although most images of motherhood do depict breastfeeding, it seems even in the Victorian era and earlier, substitutes for nursing babies was not uncommon.

The horn, which was commonly used as a drinking vessel for adults during the Middle Ages, was used to feed infants by tying a soft leather scrap to it to make a teat (History pp). In 17th Century Europe, leather or wood feeding bottles were used, then later pewter bottles and pap boats, most of which were flask shaped with screw on tops to form a hard round nipple (History pp).

Over the next four hundred years, the materials and design…… [Read More]

Work Cited

The History of Baby Feeding

http://www.babybottle-museum.co.uk/main%20intro.html

Breast Feeding

http://www.babymd.net/breastfeeding.html
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Utero Development on the Health

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10393552

The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)

The FIMR Process

FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death

Family Support

Data Collection/Record Review

Maternal Interview

Records Review

Case Review

Community Action

Improved Maternal & Infant Health

(FIMR)

Conclusion

Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html

2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)

3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons

4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102
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Nursing in an Attempt to

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62722043

Another service the clinic should provide involves remote access. For example, the clinic should assess the feasibility of home visits by doctors and nurses. egular phone calls to clients or potential clients would also help encourage pregnant women to avail themselves of the clinic's services. The clinic should also establish a solid Web site that allows women to access information from home and possibly, interact in a live chat with staff.

2. What incentives would you provide to keep them coming to the clinic before and after they give birth? Why did you choose to use this as an incentive?

Incentives will help clients trust the clinic and seek care as a matter of course. Free or discounted services would be a good incentive in any community regardless of demographic. Financial incentives would also entail working with insurance providers to make sure that preventative care is a priority.

However, the…… [Read More]

References

Peck, J. & Alexander, K. (nd). Maternal, infant, and child health in rural areas. Retrieved Mar 9, 2009 at http://srph.tamhsc.edu/centers/rhp2010/07Volume1MIC.htm
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Health Care Systems Management as

Words: 9550 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98461776

The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.

In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.

Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…… [Read More]

References:

Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .

Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.

Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.

Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
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Sierra Leone Over the Last

Words: 2134 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77811506

With the assistance of world organizations, however, and with the health services offered to Guinea refugee camps, many individuals have or are learning simple and inexpensive ways to reduce these deaths. Rehydration salts, trained birth attendants, improved sanitation, increases in the number of health facilities, immunization, vitamins, insecticide, and other basic health care is expected to drastically increase the population by reducing infant and child mortality.

For nearly two decades, Sierra Leone's population has been deprived due to war, poverty, poor education, and a host of other problems. In most cases, corrupt political officials and rampant rebel forces have been the cause of the problem. In recent times, however, with the assistance of world organizations, foreign investment, and a more stable political structure, the population of Sierra Leone has seen resounding increases in both population as well as standard of living. There can be no question there is still much…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Amnesty International. Sierra Leone (2001), http://web.amnesty.org/web/ar2001.nsf/e115d4d1bde7ce3780256a4d006a5000/4106fa35bee2b4aa80256a53004d73a4/$FILE/ATTVNAHF/sierra%20leone.pdf (Accessed November 20, 2007).

Archibald, Steven. "Converts to Human Rights? Popular Debate about War and Justice in Rural Central Sierra Leone." Africa 72 (2002): 339-445.

Central Intelligence Agency. "Sierra Leone." World Factbook (2007),   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/sl.html  (Accessed November 30, 2007).

Haxall, Katharine. "Sierra Leone: Health and Hope After the Conflict," Global Health Council Report (2007), http://www.globalhealth.org/reports/text.php3?id=231 (Accessed November 30, 2007).
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Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Reach 2010 Program

Words: 3356 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11181704

acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)

The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.

This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…… [Read More]

References

Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003

Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at  http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003

Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003

Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
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Foreign Health Care Policy

Words: 975 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27598287

Foreign Health Care Policy

Over the last several years, issues affecting the U.S. health care system have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because rising costs are impacting demand for different services. What has been happening is these increases are forcing insurance companies, employers and providers to pass on more of these fees to the individual. This is problematic, as they are unable to afford these costs and premiums for coverage. When this happens, the total number of people who are uninsured will increase exponentially. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that there are 48 million Americans who have no form of health care coverage. (Johnson, 2010) (Harrington, 2009)

While in Germany, the costs of care are lower and 90% of the population is insured. This is because they are using a different model. To fully understand which system is better requires comparing the two…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, E. (2011). The Health Care Dilemma. Singapore: World Scientific.

Greenwald, H. (2010). Health Care in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Harrington, C. (2009). Health Policy. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Johnson, J. (2010). Comparative Health Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
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Healthcare Health Care Research Health

Words: 1017 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86002963

Canada is even further behind in its access to high tech equipment, including machines used for MRI's and CAT scans. This shortage of equipment affects wait time for diagnostic tests, which in some provinces can run well over three months (Beaudan, 2002).

According to Michael Decter, chair of the national board of Canadian Institute for Health Information, the Canadian health care system is dazed but he still believes that modernized public healthcare is the answer. "e do well on life expectancy and immunization of children compared to the U.S.," he says, noting that the United States spends 40% more on healthcare than Canada does (Beaudan, 2002).

Americans who go to Canada for cheap flu shots often come away impressed at how Canada offers free and first class medical care to everyone. But hospital administrators will tell a different story about having to cut staff for lack of funds or about…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beaudan, Eric. "Canadian model of healthcare ails." Christian Science Monitor. 28 Aug. 2002: 1.

David, Guy. "The Convergence between for-Profit and Nonprofit Hospitals in the United

States." (2005). The Wharton School of Business University of Pennsylvania. 13 April 2009

http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0106_0800_0204.pdf
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Healthcare in Finland Norway or Sweden or Switzerland

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45622070

Healthcare in Sweden

The healthcare system in Sweden is used as one of the model systems in the world. hen Johan Hjertoqvist from the Timbro Policy Group spoke before the Montreal Economic Institute in 2002, he said, "...you refuse to accept the consumer as an equal partner, you still look upon the client, the patient, as an inferior partner in the relation" and "you deny the need for good working condition when it comes to the staff, etc." (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Moreover, he stressed the need to move interests and priorities away from the processes and production organization to "the quality of the outcome for the consumer" (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Quality seems to be synonymous with healthcare in Sweden.

Two important characteristics of the Swedish healthcare system are that it is "decentralized and it is run on democratic principles" (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).All residents of Sweden are covered by the national health insurance system which covers medical care, pharmaceuticals,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fact Sheets on Sweden: The Health Care System in Sweden. Swedish Institute. May 1999. http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf.(accessed 06-27-2003).

Gennser, Margit. "Sweden's Health Care System."  http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/books/health_reform/sweden.html .

A accessed 06-27-2003).

Hadenius, Stig; Lindgren, Ann. "Sweden: On Sweden Health care." Countries of the World. January 01, 1991.
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Turkey Textiles Turkey Is a

Words: 2122 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41597948

As a consequence, Turkey is uniquely positioned to sell to all of these different customers, as its position on the map indicates.

Market Research

The market research process can be different in the international context. The first issue is that the purpose of the market entry has to be defined. Once this has been established -- suppose the objective is to set up textile manufacturing in Turkey -- then the research can focus on how. There are significant differences that might arise with respect to the access to information in foreign markets, however. hile Turkey is relatively transparent, some other markets are not. Turkish firms are exporting to Iraq, for example, but there are no real market statistics for that market. Such firms may be run by Kurds and trading mainly with Iraqi Kurdistan, for example, using connections to bridge the knowledge gap. In addition, where at home one can…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Osakwe, E. (2009). Cotton fact sheet, Turkey. International Cotton Advisory Committee. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from http://www.icac.org/econ_stats/country_facts/e_turkey.pdf

CIA World Factbook. (2013). Turkey. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/tu.html 

Oanda. (2013). Currency converter. OANDA. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from http://www.oanda.com/currency/converter/

Hurriyet. (2012). India's decision pleases Turkish cotton producers. Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/indias-decision-pleases-turkish-cotton-producers.aspx?pageID=238&nid=15484
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Message Strategies for Getting the

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26472784

Number 5 is a cue to action, incenting the mother by reminding her that either she or her baby could be a victim with out proper medical care.

Informed Decision-Making Messaging Strategy

Informed decision-making interventions should be used when persuasion would be inappropriate (Communication for health. Examples include when the evidence is not sufficiently clear to support one behavior over another (e.g., surgical removal vs. watchful waiting for men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer), when an individual's values must be taken into consideration to determine the optimal behavior (prevention of sexual assault), or when society has been unable to reach consensus about the optimal recommended behavior (e.g., prevention of teen pregnancy) (Communication for health). Instead of providing evidence that prenatal care can save lives, it relies on the mother wanting to do the right thing and uses a woman who has lost her child to convince her.

You need…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Communication for health. Encyclopedia of public health. http://www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/communication-health

Evans W.D. And McCormack, L. (2006, September 13). Marketing "evidence" to healthcare consumers: Applying social marketing to evidence about the harms and benefits of pharmaceuticals. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Conference. http://209.85.173.132/search?q=cache:mTQf4SGTS2gJ:effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/documents/Marketing_Evidence_Evans.ppt+social+marketing+%22Informed+decision+making%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us

Health Belief Model. University of Twente. http://www.cw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model.doc/

Gosik. A. (2007, October 12). U.S. ranks 41st in maternal mortality. Seattle Post-Intelligencer
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child development

Words: 2081 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19470962

Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).

Physical Changes

Reflexes (automatic…… [Read More]

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Use of U S Technology in Thai Hospitals

Words: 4145 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35270598

U.S. technology in Thai hospitals will have a positive, negative or neutral effect on the mortality rate of patients in Thailand. U.S. hospitals currently offer patients some of the most modern and complex technology available. Patients whether at private or public facilities are very often afforded modern urgent care that reduces the likelihood of mortality from common and less common illness. The mortality ratio, or comparison of patients admitted vs. discharged in most U.S. hospitals is close to or less than 1.00 (Comaro, 2003).

In Thailand hospitals, modern technology used in community hospitals is somewhat limited and typically consists of the use of X-ay technology and ultrasound for imaging and diagnosis (Dionson, 2003). Many community hospitals currently lack the advanced technology available in U.S. hospitals that has been proven to save lives. There are several private institutions within Thailand however, that do offer more advanced technology.

However, Thai hospitals historically…… [Read More]

References

Alreck, P.L., & Settle, R.B. (1995). The survey research handbook." Chicago, Irwin.

Abbot. (2003) Abbot Laboratories Systems and Tests. Retrieved November 13, 2003, http://www.abbottdiagnostics.com/systems_tests/syscat.cfm?syscat_id=3&path=1

Andrews, Charles G. (2003). Comparative Analysis of Management. Retrieved November 16, 2003, at http://www.coe.unt.edu/allen/Dissertation-Example/CharlieAndrewsdissertation.pdf

Boyer, K.K., Olson, J.R., Calantone, R.J., & Jackson, E.C. (2002). Print vs. electronic surveys: A comparison of two data collection methodologies. Journal of Operations Management, 20 (4), 357-373.
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Demographics of Brazil There Are

Words: 1149 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48751175

un.org)." However, the CIA estimated that in 2004 there were "30.66 deaths/1,000 live births, with 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births among males, and 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births among females (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."

AIDS

AIDS plays a role in the demographics of the Brazilian population. In 2003, the CIA estimated that the "adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS was 0.7%, the number of people living with HIV / AIDS was 660,000 and the number of deaths that year from HIV / AIDS was 15,000 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."

One important point about the population data is that when Brazil performed its census in August 2000, it "reported a population of 169,799,170. That figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, and is close to the implied undernumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS, and this can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Country at a Glance. Brazil: Health. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.un.org/).

D'allegro, Joseph. "Brazil Attracting U.S. Insurers' Interest." National Underwriter Life & Health-Financial Services Edition. (1999): 25 October.

Encyclopedia: Demographics of Brazil. (accessed 22 April 2005). http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Demographics-of-Brazil).

Migration and Urbanization. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/brazil/29.html).
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Health Economics A How Does

Words: 2057 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91179011

As a result, the Govt. has been eager to encourage self-medication, where probable, in an endeavor to save money and time as optimizing convenience for the consumer. (the UK OTC Pharmaceuticals Market: UK pharmaceutical market report)

E) Is there any one burning issue related to health care in this country that is undergoing extensive debate? What do you know about it?

Although Britain NHS has been a model for the rest of the world to emulate, however over the years, a persistent concern with cost constraints and market-defined efficiencies since the bygone twenty years has radically battered the core principles of universal healthcare in UK. The discouragement of proceeds of central taxation as the funding base has been coupled with Govt. passing the costs and dangers to patients and their families. The internal market launched by the Thatcher Govt. In 1980s showed the most prominent features of these modifications, however,…… [Read More]

References

Bad Medicine. New Internationalist. Vol: 355. April 2003.

Retrieved at http://www.newint.org/issue355/bad.htm. Accessed on 21 March, 2005

Bio-Pharmaceutical Study Finds Significant Link between Innovation and Market-based Drug Pricing. May 9, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.tiax.biz/aboutus/pdfs/press_releases/pharma_may.htm. Accessed on 21 March, 2005

Donelan, Karen; Blendon, Robert J; Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen; Binns, Katherine.
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Somali Civil War on the

Words: 2138 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31970020

In 1991 a short-lived coalition of opposition groups seized the capital Mogadishu and ousted aid Barre. By 1992 it is estimated that over half a million people had died through war or from starvation. Between 800,000-1.5m people fled the country to refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen and Djibouti. From there many moved to Nairobi or Addis Ababa before embarking on a journey to the 'West'.

In May 1991, the people of north-west omalia broke away to form the Republic of omaliland.

Although not recognised by the international community, its creation has resulted in relative political stability. Elsewhere, the ruling coalition collapsed resulting in a state of anarchy and civil war that exists today with rival warlords vying for power. ince 1991 most asylum seekers have come from these central and southern regions. In omaliland the voluntary repatriation of refugees from neighbouring countries is now taking place. Return visits to,…… [Read More]

Sources:

Post-Conflict Identities: Practices and Affiliations of Somali Refugee Children - Briefing Notes, E.S.R.C Economic and Social Research Council, University of Leeds, the University of Sheffield; August 2005 http://www.identities.group.shef.ac.uk/pdfs/briefing%20'Somalia'%20and%20the%20Roots%20of%20the%20Diaspora.pdf

World Bank Org., 'Cry Havoc: Why Civil War Matters';

 http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2003/06/30/000094946_0306190405396/additional/310436360_200500070100004.pdf 

Causes and consequences of forced migration' http://www.forcedmigration.org/guides/fmo016/fmo016-6.htm
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Parenting Co-Sleeping Has More Advantage

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52363471



More Care Giving to Babies:

One of the biggest advantages of co sleeping is increase in breast feeding (McKenna, 1994; Richard et al., 1996). This is admitted even by the most conventional American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that co-sleeping has the most advantage of breast feeding. According to the research, mothers who co-sleep breast feed an average of twice as long as non-co-sleeping mothers. Moreover, the act of sucking in breast feeding increases oxygen flow, which is useful for both baby's growth and immune functions (McKenna, 1994).

In addition, co-sleeping infants also get more notice and protective care. The studies have shown that mothers who co-sleep provides five times the number of care like as adjusting the baby's blanket, stroking or cuddling as compared to those mothers who were non-co sleepers (Mosko, 1997).

Long-Term Benefits of Co- Sleeping in Children as adults

Higher self-esteem:

Those boys who co-slept with their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

La Leche League International, Inc. (1997). The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding. (6th rev. ed.)

Schaumberg, IL: Author

Davies, L. (1995). Babies Co-sleeping with Parents. Midwives: Official Journal of the Royal

Heinig, M.J. (2000). Bed sharing and infant mortality: Guilt by association? Journal of Human
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Strategic Marketing Plan for Earth's

Words: 2659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89746888



2. SWOT Analysis

2.1. Strengths and Weaknesses

The most important strong point of Earth's Best is its wide range of products. The company's extremely diversified products satisfy all types of customers. Earth's Best has lines of products for each age group: the Infant Line, based on iron-fortified cereals and single ingredient foods. The product line for children aged 18 months and older is consisted of Arrowroot Squares, Cereal Bars, Crunchin' Blocks, and Organic Juices. There is also a line for older children, consisting of Organic 2% Milk, Apple Sauces, and Whole Grain Bars. In addition to this, Earth's Best has launched a body care products line.

Another strength refers to the quality of Earth's Best's products. The company's products benefit from a lot of credit from its customers, which become loyal clients. The company's web site presents a series of testimonies from customers that appreciate the quality of the company's…… [Read More]

Reference List

Canada (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved November 29, 2007 from   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/ca.html#Econ .

Baby Foods Market Assessment (2001). Research and Markets. Retrieved November 29, 2007 at http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/3492.

Reyes, Sonia (2006). Organic Baby Formula Segment Growing Fast. Brandweek online. Retrieved November 29, 2007 at http://www.brandweek.com/bw/news/recent_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003189679.

Duggan, Tara (2006). Health Minded Parents Fuel Boom in Organic Baby Foods. Organic options abound for parents' fledgling gourmets. Organic Consumers Association. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 29, 2007 at http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_3248.cfm.
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Women's Issues in Ethiopia the

Words: 1724 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60687433



World-ank-assisted Women-in-Development project for Ethiopia proposes to socially and economically help vulnerable women participate and benefit from its increasingly expanding economy and opportunities in the private sector. It hopes to raise the standard of living of these women and contribute to alleviating poverty. On the whole, addressing all the constraints to the effective and realistic implementation of the National Policy on Women and forming grassroots women's organization would work towards building women's capability. This would then enable them to effectively verbalize their situation, aspirations and problems or sentiments about their economic, social and civic rights.

ibliography

1. C (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. C.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm

2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World ank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm

3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm

US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. BBC (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. BBC.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm

2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World Bank.  http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm 

3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm

US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
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Country Profile Hungry

Words: 1936 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98840944

Hungary

Geography

Hungary is located in Central Europe, northwest of Romania (CIA 2012, EEA 2012). It measures 93,000 square kilometers. It is bordered by Romania, Croatia, Austria, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. Its capital is udapest (CIA, EEA).

Government

Hungary has a Republican form of government (FCO 2012). Its Constitution was adopted on April 18 last year and took effect in January this year. Its four branches of government are the executive, legislative, judicial and a Constitutional court. The President is the head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government. A cabinet is also part of the executive branch. The legislative branch consists of a National Assembly of 386 members with a four-year term. The judicial branch is a Curia or a Supreme Court. The President since August 6, 2010 is Pal Schmitt and the Prime Minister since May 29, 2010 is Viktor Orban. Hungary has 19…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEEA. Hungary. Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs: U.S. Department of State,

2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.sate.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/36566.htm

CIA. Hungary. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hu.html

EOE. Hungary. The Encyclopedia of Earth: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved
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India's Health Care Compared to the U S

Words: 1881 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37001564

Healthcare in the United States and India

The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…… [Read More]

References

Arora, N., Banerjee, A.K., (2010) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Prospects in Healthcare in India. Electronic Journal of Biology, 6(2), 24-25

Berman, P., Ahuja, R., Bhandari, L. (2010) The Impoverishing Effect of Healthcare Payments in India: New Methodology and Findings. Economic & Political Weekly, 45(16), 65-71.

Ma, S., & Neeraj, S. (2008) A Comparison of the Health Systems of China and India. RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy. Retrieved from  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2008/RAND_OP212.pdf 

Manchikanti, L., Caraway, D.L., Parr, A.T., Fellows, B., Hirsch, J.A. (2011) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade. Pain Physician, 14(1), 35-67.
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Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System PRAMS

Words: 3864 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11384309

Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is a project involving examination of health departments and CDC (Center for Disease Control) of a given State. PRAMS was unveiled in 1987. This project gathers data relating to the experience and attitudes prior to, in the cause of and period immediately following a pregnancy. Data collected is always specific to a given State. The surveillance expedition takes care of up to 83% of Infant births in U.S.A (CDC, 2017).

When PRAMS was unveiled there was a serious national and statewide curiosity around infant mortality, reduction, and disparities. Prenatal care with State support had my interest as well. At the time there was no information in relation to States that would enlighten State or local program evaluation and development. PRAMS structure makes it possible for deep inquiry into topics of reproductive health compared to the extensive but limited information contained in birth certificates (CDC,…… [Read More]

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Health Transitions More Disease or Sustained Health

Words: 6545 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90103490

There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.

Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.

U.S. hospitals keep more details of…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8

Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133

Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030

Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
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The Use of Cpap and Surfactant Therapy

Words: 1484 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95338758

espiratory distress syndrome (DS) in preterm infants/Neonates

Prophylactic and early surfactant administration

Later surfactant administration

O: educed mortality and pulmonary complications (Bronchopulmonary dysplasia-BPD and other)

Surfactant therapy involves intervention via various methods like oxygen, CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and surfactant. Many ask if surfactant therapy works. They also ask what is the ideal dose and when to administer the dose. Too much and too late could cause problems versus early with a low dose. When surfactant was introduced in neonatology, it reduced VLBW infant deaths by 30%. Surfactant use two decades ago also led to an 80% decline in neonatal mortality in the United States.

However, surfactant can fail and normally does so because of certain factors like when infants are extremely preterm and developed poorly structured longs and when there an infant develops perinatal asphyxia. When those factors are not present, surfactant reduces incidence of PDA, sepsis pneumonia, and most…… [Read More]

References

Stevens, T., Blennow, M., Myers, E., & Soll, R. (2010). Cochrane review: Early surfactant administration with brief ventilation vs. selective surfactant and continued mechanical ventilation for preterm infants with or at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Evid.-Based Child Health, 5(1), 82-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ebch.519
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Reducing Health Disparities Among African-American

Words: 3600 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98653924

Community resources must be identified and brought together to meet needs. Actions can be developed to prevent poor health outcomes by: appropriately identifying, collecting, and reporting racial/ethnic group-specific data; identifying where data are lacking and developing appropriate tools to collect those data; and linking poor health status indicators to social conditions and influences, as well as personal behaviors and genetics.

As indicated by other counties, the populations experiencing these disparities have many strengths and traditions to draw upon for solutions. In the African-American communities, churches provide connections and leadership on community issues. Other models have provided the use of community engagement principles encouraged throughout any state and local processes addressing eliminating health disparities, whether funded by this initiative or not. Such community engagement principles include fostering openness and participation in the planning process, ensuring that those representing a specific community truly represent that community's values, norms, and behaviors, and using…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alpha.org. "Racial / Ethnic Disparities." Fact Sheets. 2004. 17 May 2005. www.apha.org/NPHW/facts/RaceEth-PHW04_Facts.pdf.

Fenwick, E. et.al. "Improving the Efficiency and Relevance of Health Technology

Assessment: The Role of Iterative Decision Analytic Modeling." 2003. Che

Discussion Paper. 17 May 2005. http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/che/DP179.pdf.
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Domestic Violence in Pregnancy and

Words: 6040 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3380201

In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)

Literature Review

Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103

Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.

Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.

Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
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Health Threats in Turkey One

Words: 1390 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93689756

" ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) Other messages of the campaign were to stress the need to avoid high risk pregnancy, prior to age 18 or after age 35 and to stagger pregnancies by two years to help the maternal body recover and be strong enough to care for the developing infant and go through labor successfully. The campaign, promoting these ideas states that it has been successful in reaching its goals, and has currently reached 66% of the population in the regions where the campaign was launched. ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) There is not mention as to whether the campaign will end, or be expanded to a broader audience in Turkey.

Turkey's example program could serve as a template for other health issues that need to be expressed to the public in Turkey and in other nations with challenged health care delivery infrastructures and limited public knowledge of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brennan, Teresa. Globalization and Its Terrors. London: Routledge, 2003.

Kaul, Chandrika, and Valerie Tomaselli-Moschovitis, eds. Statistical Handbook on Poverty in the Developing World. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.

Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981.

E-Health Project in Turkey" International Telecommunications Network Website Retrieved November 15, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/e-strategies/e-applications/Turkey_E-health/index.html
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Health Maintenance Organization Impact on

Words: 13949 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80930377

" (AAF, nd)

The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)

One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]

Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html

Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512

Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
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Differences in Countries' Healthcare Systems

Words: 2074 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62190220

Healthcare Systems

healthcare system is regarded as one of the most expensive across the globe though it underperforms as compared to other developed and/or advanced countries. The states of America's healthcare system relative to its costs have attracted considerable attention from policymakers, health experts, and business leaders. These various stakeholders continue to look for viable means of improving and reforming the system in order to enhance its efficiency and improve performance. One of the major ways towards this process is comparing the U.S. healthcare system with those of other countries in terms of costs and efficiency. This article compares the American healthcare system with that of Canada and Germany with regards to costs, services provided, and outcomes like infant mortality and insurance coverage.

United States, Canada, and Germany Health Care Systems

As previously mentioned, the American healthcare system is the most expensive throughout the world though it significantly underperforms across…… [Read More]

References

Baribault, M. & Cloyd, C. (1999, July 26). Health Care Systems: Three International Comparisons. Retrieved from Stanford University website:  https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/soc_sec/health.htm 

Davis et. al. (2014, June 16). Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, 2014 Update: How the U.S. Health Care System Compares Internationally. Retrieved April 29, 2015, from  http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/fund-reports/2014/jun/mirror-mirror 

Ridic, G., Gleason, S. & Ridic, O. (2012). Comparisons of Health Care Systems in the United States, Germany and Canada. Materia Sociomedica, 24(2), 112-120.

Thomson et. al. (2013, November). International Profiles of Health Care Systems, 2013.
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Puerto Ricans - Culture and

Words: 2448 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97469000

The genetic factors were also excluded as having a major influence in the medical condition according to studies that showed that genetic factors that may influence the illness are overcome in proportion of 3:1 by environmental factors (uaranaccia, 1981, 11).

In her study, Laura onzales points out that Puerto Rican migrants are keeping in close contact with their relatives, friends and acquaintances from the islands, traveling back and forth, being engaged in what Christenson had defined as a "circulatory migration"(onzales, 2008, 2). The fact that the first language on the Puerto Rican Island is Spanish, English being widely taught in schools, but as a second language, made things harder for the older generations who migrated to the mainland. On the other hand, in a city like New York, one of the most targeted cities for the Puerto Rican migrators, Spanish is one of the languages "most commonly heard" after English,…… [Read More]

Guarnaccia, P. 1981. Puerto Ricans, Asthma, and the Health-Care System. Medical Anthropology Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Feb., 1981), pp. 9-17

Landale et al. Migration and Infant Death: Assimilation or Selective Migration among Puerto Ricans? American Sociological Review, Vol. 65, No. 6 (Dec., 2000), pp. 888-909

Zayas, L.H. Palleja, J. 1988. Puerto Rican Familism: Considerations for Family Therapy. Family Relations, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Jul., 1988), pp. 260-264
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U S Healthcare Quality to Analyze and Compare

Words: 2225 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29067337

U.S. Healthcare

[QUALITY]

To analyze and compare the U.S. healthcare, internationally, it is important to know what really constitutes a good health care system. The U.S. Institute of Medicine describes this quality as, "the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge." This system, in its broad sense, should comprise of two main branches of preventative and curative medicine, both of which should cover different aspects of health, such as travel medicine, school health, occupational health, mental health, reproductive health and so on. Furthermore, a well established health care system does not act independently but in co-ordinance with other industries, such as the agricultural industry. Therefore, since a well developed nation has better access to proper sanitation, housing and adequate nutrition, it is more likely to have a better developed health care system. Other factors,…… [Read More]

References

Atrash, H.K., Alexander, S., & Breg, C. (1993, Feburary 05). Maternal mortality in developed countries: not just a concern of the past Obstetrics and Gynecology, 15(3), Retrieved from http://www.inamay.com/?page_id=86

Docteur, E. & Berenson, R.A. (2009, August). How does the quality of u.s. health care compare internationally?. Timely Analysis Of Health Policy Issues, Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/411947_ushealthcare_quality.pdf

Health care for all: a frameworkfor moving to a primary care-based health care system in the United States. (2011). American Academy Of Family Physicians, Retrieved from Kurt, H. (2008). A success story in american health care: eliminating infections and saving lives in michigan. Healthreform.gov

Mark A., S., McGlynn, E.A., & Brook, R.H. (1998). How good is the quality of health care in the United States? The Millibank Quarterly, 76(4), retrieved from  http://www.milbank.org/760401.html
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Free Urgent Care Facility Marketing

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96781688

The combination of these effects can also contribute to greater economic growth in a region over time. The greatest opportunity of all is to transform these low income and poverty level regions with better medical care so they can pursue better paying jobs due to their family's health being stabilized. While urgent care facilities treat all age ranges, concentrating on infant and young adults will have an inordinately higher rate of impact across entire communities than not focusing on a given age group at all.

Threats

There is unfortunately always the threat of litigation and lawsuits. This is an unfortunate, unpleasant fact, especially in the state of California. This has led to many free urgent care facilities being closed or even sued despite their nonprofit status (Bindman, Grumbach, Bernheim, Vranizan, Cousineau, 2000). The threat of lack of partial government funding as many states and regions of the world face cutbacks…… [Read More]

References

Anthopolos, R., & Becker, C.. (2010). Global Infant Mortality: Correcting for Undercounting. World Development, 38(4), 467.

Andrew B. Bindman, Kevin Grumbach, Susannah Bernheim, Karen Vranizan, & Michael Cousineau. (2000). Medicaid managed care's impact on safety-net clinics in California. Health Affairs, 19(1), 194-202.

Fitzgerald, B.. (2010, May). Casting a wider net to attract donations. NJBIZ, 23(18), 10.

Maureen Lewis. (2007). Informal Payments And The Financing Of Health Care In Developing And Transition Countries. Health Affairs, 26(4), 984-97.
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America Should Provide Free Health

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58212197

"

High health care costs are another problem associated with American health care. eporter Curl continues, "Mr. Bush said competitive forces in the marketplace - primarily by giving Americans more choice - is the best method for bringing down health care costs. Another way is to give people who can't afford health care access to facilities other than emergency rooms and hospitals" (Curl A04). However, if the government does provide other facilities, ultimately these costs will be born by the taxpayers. As a health care crisis continues among the elderly, the poor, and the uninsured, the government will continue to create more of these facilities, and costs will continue to mount. If that is the case, it seems simpler to nationalize the entire system, allowing everyone to enjoy the same, high level of care, rather than creating special facilities dedicated to the poor and the uninsured who cannot afford health…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. "Health Care is a Human Right." Physicians for a National Health Program. 2005. 25 Oct. 2005.  http://www.pnhp.org/ 

Clark, Cal, and Rene McEldowney. "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A 'Good News, Bad News' Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review 17.4 (2000): 133.

Curl, Joseph. "Bush Decries National Health Care; Touts Creation of 1, 200 Centers in Needy Areas." The Washington Times 29 Jan. 2004: A04.

Felice, Clara, and Lambkros, Lista. "Medical Liability in Three Single-Payer Countries." Physicians for a National Health Program. 27 Sept. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005.
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Craven County North Carolina Obesity Epidemic Craven

Words: 1345 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58795106

Craven County North Carolina Obesity Epidemic

Craven County, North Carolina is located in the Coastal Plains section of North Carolina and is situated halfway between New York and Florida. Craven County is reported to cover 708.43 square miles of land area and is characterized by flat land to gently rolling hills. Craven County is topographically flat with the average elevation approximately 17.5 feet above sea level. Craven County is reported as rural with no metropolitan areas and to be comprised of two cities: (1) New Bern; and (2) Havelock and six other towns that are incorporated. ecreational activities in Craven County are reported to include easy access to water with the terrain, temperature, and climate being conducive to many outdoor recreational activities including sailing, boating, fishing, hunting, golf and other activities.

Demographics

Craven County, North Carolina has a population of 96,892 and the median household income is $38,473. The hardship…… [Read More]

References

Craven County, NC (2013) PBS Newshour. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/interactive/patchworknation/nc/craven-county/

Craven County, North Carolina (2011) Community Health Assessment. Retrieved from:  http://www.cravencounty.com/departments/hth/documents/2011/2011_CravenCountyCommunityHealthAssessment_Final.pdf 

Craven County, North Carolina (2012) County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. Retrieved from: http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/app/north-carolina/2012/craven/county/1/overall

Craven County, North Carolina (2013) County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. Retrieved from: http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/app/north-carolina/2012/craven/county/1/overall
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Healthcare Systems Across the World

Words: 2794 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67937246



Access and Availability

The biggest problem in terms of access to healthcare is in rural areas. Our investigation found that there are very few if any rural clinics or healthcare facilities.

Access to healthcare is also limited to those that can afford insurance or qualify for Medicare or Medicaid. The unemployed and the poor are at a major disadvantage when it comes to gaining access to healthcare. The location of healthcare facilities is limited to the larger municipalities.

Accountability

The entity that is responsible for the healthcare system is the United States Government. In addition, Puerto ico has a governor and a cabinet in place to ensure that the appropriate laws are carried out. The entity that makes laws concerning healthcare is outside of the country but the entity that enforces these laws is inside the country. Services are evaluated by state run entities and agencies of the United States…… [Read More]

References

The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rq.html#People

Puerto Rico: Estimated Number of Persons Living with AIDS at the End of 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.statehealthfacts.kff.org/cgi-bin/healthfacts.cgi?action=profile&area=Puerto+Rico&category=HIV%2fAIDS&subcategory=Persons+Living+with+AIDS&topic=All+Ages

HIV / AIDS Among Hispanics. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/PUBS/Facts/hispanic.pdf

Puerto Rico: Total Number of Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes, 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from;
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Health Care Options for Pregnant Women

Words: 1588 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16562288

Healthcare for Pregnant Women Comparison: U.S., Switzerland and Canada

A Comparison of Healthcare Options Pregnant Women in United States, Canada and Switzerland

The healthcare systems in Western societies do not assume that a woman requires health information; however, collectively, it has become well recognized that good information is necessary to a pregnant woman, and that understanding the stages of pregnancy, labor, and delivery is important to good perinatal care (Crook, 1995). This paper provides a comparison of the healthcare options available to pregnant women according to their income and insurance resources in the United States, Canada and Switzerland. A comparison of the respective healthcare systems for these nations will be provided in the summary, and a critique of the United States healthcare system will be provided in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Healthcare Options -- United States. The U.S. spends a larger percentage of its GDP on healthcare than does…… [Read More]

References

Barnes, D. (January 10, 2002). Group Fights 'Enormous' Problem of Teen Pregnancy. The Washington Times, 8.

Benoit, C., Carroll, D. & Millar, A. (2002). But Is It Good for Non-Urban Women's Health?

Regionalizing Maternity Care Services in British Columbia. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 39(4), 373.

Collins, C. & Williams, D.R. (1995). U.S. Socioeconomic and Racial Differences in Health:
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The Health System in the Czech Republic

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36554515

Health System in the Czech epublic

WHO rankings of the Czech epublic in major health indices, i.e. life expectancy and infant mortality

According to statistical reports, life expectancy in the Czech epublic in 2012 was at 78.2 years. The OECD average is 80.2. The highest life expectancy was reported to be among the Japanese. Life expectancy in Japan was 83.2; which was the highest reported among the OECD nations. Iceland and Switzerland came in second and third respectively. The obesity rates among OECD countries including the Czech epublic have been reported to be on the increase; more so in the last decade. In particular, the rate has risen from 14% in 2000 to 21% in 2010. Although these figures remain significantly lower that the occurrence in the USA (which stood at 35.3% in 2012, the ever increasing incidence of obesity cases is an early warning of the occurrence of health…… [Read More]

References

HealthCzech s.r.o. (2016). The Healthcare System. Retrieved from Healthczech s.r.o: http://www.healthczech.com/why-czech-republic/the-healthcare-system/

Knoema. (2016). Czech Republic - Mortality - Infant mortality rate. Retrieved from Knoema:  https://knoema.com/atlas/Czech-Republic/topics/Demographics/Mortality/Infant-mortality-rate 

Lipari, R. (2012, December 10). What Can the U.S. Healthcare System Learn from the Czech Republic? Retrieved from The German Marshall Fund of the United States:  http://www.gmfus.org/blog/2012/12/10/what-can-us-healthcare-system-learn-czech-republic
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Social Cultural and Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery

Words: 4282 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16620351

Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery

Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.

Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.

Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.

Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
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MDG for CA'te D'ivoire

Words: 2940 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46625849

Prospects of a brighter future for Cote d'Lvoire

Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).

Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire

The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire

Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction

According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done…… [Read More]

References

AfDB (2011).The Middle of the Pyramid: Dynamics of the Middle Class in Africa. Market Brief, 20 April 2011, AfDB.

AfDB, OECD and UNECA (2010). African Economic Outlook 2010. Paris: OECD.

AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA (2011).African Economic Outlook 2011. Paris: OECD.

Berg, Andrew, Pedro Conceicao, Ayodele Odusola et al. (2012).Enhancing Development Assistance to Africa: Lessons from Scaling- Up Scenarios. New York: IMF.
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Turner County S Childhood Obesity Rates

Words: 1191 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71925559

Childhood Obesity in Turner County, GA Ages 6-11

Turner County is one of the regions in Georgia that is affected by childhood obesity and overweight. Generally, childhood obesity is one of the major public health concerns and issues affecting Georgia. Currently, the state is among the top three states with high prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight issues. Despite the numerous measures that have been undertaken to deal with the problem and significant gains that have been made in the process, Georgia still has a high rate of childhood obesity cases. In essence, Turner County is still largely affected by the issue of childhood obesity similar to other counties in Georgia. However, a clear understanding of the extent of childhood obesity in Turner County among children aged 6-11 years requires collecting vital statistics on this population. For this analysis, the researcher has relied on a questionnaire and interview of healthcare…… [Read More]

References

Davila-Payan et al. (2015, March 12). Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2015/14_0229.htm

Johansson, S. (2014, October 15). Maternal Overweight and Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Infant Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden. British Medical Journal, 349. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6572

Appendix

Childhood Obesity Questionnaire
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An indepth analysis of Health Disparities in Healthy People 2020

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77693067

Health Disparities in Healthy People 2020

For the last two decades now, one of the central goals of Healthy People has been on alleviating disparities. Healthy people 2000 focused on reducing health related disparities in the American population. The Healthy people 2020 mission defines health disparity as a health difference that has close links with socio-economic and environmental disadvantages. Such heath disparities negatively affect groups that face systematic obstacles because of their race, socio-economic stature, religion gender, age cognitive abilities, physical disability, geographic location, exclusive considerations, sexual orientation, or ethnic group (Anon., n.d.).

Maternal, Infant and Child Health

As in the case with adults, social and demographic forces, including the income that the family gets affects infant health, too. Physical and mental health dynamics of the caregiver and parent are also causal to the effects. acial-based disparities have been observed in both mortality and morbidity for children and mothers. This…… [Read More]

References

Anon., n.d. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [Online]

Available at:  https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Disparities 

[Accessed 27 August 2016].

Anon., n.d. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [Online]
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American Urban History-Public Health Public

Words: 3719 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79796999

Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.

In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.

The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.

The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.

During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.

It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…… [Read More]

References

History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink

Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)

http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/ndwc_DWH_2.html

Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
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Healthcare and Medicine in the

Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8445117

The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).

The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…… [Read More]

References

Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research

Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.

Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.
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Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish Louisiana

Words: 2397 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13049820

Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana

Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana

With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.

Table

Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish

Population Size

Census

Pop.

5,282

8,884

68.2%

12,140…… [Read More]

References

About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://

www.caddo.org/about.cfm/.

Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.

org/pdfs/.
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Poverty and Race in America

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9988902

The paper looked at other possible explanations, such as teacher experience, but found little correlation (Mitchell, 2001).

In the weakest schools, 81% of the students qualified for free or reduced-price lunches. In the schools rated highest, only 3 1/2% of students qualified for such programs. In addition, school ratings dropped in direct proportion to the rise in number of students receiving subsidized lunches. The paper used subsidized lunches as one indication of the economic status of the students' families (Mitchell, 2001). Overall, among schools where 75% or more of the students were part of the subsidized lunch program, only four schools were rated "average." All others scored "low," or "unsatisfactory," and none were considered to be doing a better-than-average job of educating students (Mitchell, 2001). These schools also had largely minority student populations: about 20% were black, 68% were Hispanic, while 1% were Asian and 8% white, thus tying both…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bush, Rod. 2003. "The Civil Rights Movement and the continuing struggle for the redemption of America." Social Justice, Mar. 22.

Furdell, Phyllis. 1993. "Survey finds solutions to addressing poverty in local economic development initiatives." Nation's Cities Weekly, Sept. 13.

Mitchell, Nancy. 2001. "30 'Worst' Schools Named." Denver Rocky Mountain News, Sept. 14.

Petrie, Laurie. 1997. "Infant Death Rate Soars in Poor Areas." The Cincinnati Post, Oct. 28.
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Health Disparities in Louisville KY

Words: 3177 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30788288

Health Disparities in Louisville KY

Health Disparities

Health inequities have become a major problem in the United States. Hofrichter stresses in Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice:

A Handbook for Action ( 2006) that, "The awareness of the existence of inequities in health, health status and health outcomes between racial and ethnic groups in America is as old as the nation itself" (Hofrichter, 2006,P. vii). As will be discussed in this paper, these inequalities have a wide range of repercussions, including social and psychological implications. A definition of health disparity is: "... The difference in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups" ( Samuels, 2005).

There is also a consensus in the literature that inequalities in health and healthcare throughout the world are on the increase. This is largely due to the increasing gap between rich…… [Read More]

References

Eliminating social and economic barriers to good health and safety: Louisville

Center for Health Equity. Retrieved from http://www.preventioninstitute.org/component/jlibrary/article/id-278/127.html?tmpl=component&print=1

Galvin, J.R. (2006) Diabetes. Ebony, 61 p. 157.

GradNation - Making the Connection: Health & Student Achievement. Retrieved from http://www.silentepidemic.net/Our-Work/Dropout-Prevention/~/media/Files/Our%20Work/Dropout%20Prevention/Grad%20Nation%20Action%20Forum/Steve%20Tarver%20working%20sess%20PPT.ashx
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Poverty the Economic Quality of

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6837006

There are 346 cars per 1000 population in the country (The Economist, 2011).

Andorra has an adult literacy rate of 100%. Life expectancy at birth is 82.43 years and the infant mortality rate 3.8 deaths per 1000 live births. The unemployment rate is 2.9%. The country has 64,500 cellular phones for 84,825 people, a rate of 0.76. The rate of landlines is 44.6%. There are 67,100 Internet users, or 79.1% of the population. There are no figures given by the Economist of the number of cars in Andorra.

These figures confirm the hypothesis that Andorra, despite having a lower GDP per capita, enjoys a higher quality of life. It has fewer cell phones, for example, in part because it has better landline connectivity. ith respect to human measures, however, Andorra's superior literacy rate, life expectancy and infant mortality rates point to a higher degree of success in developing human successes.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

CIA World Factbook, various pages. (2011). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook
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Applied Projects

Words: 2110 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88837604

Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs

When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.

A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…… [Read More]

References

Drugs Of Abuse Present In 40% Of Newborns (2002). Aphrodite Women's Health. Retrieved from http://www.aphroditewomenshealth.com/news/20020516234829_

health_news.shtml.

Jaudes, P.K., & Ekwo, E.E. (1997). Outcomes for Infants Exposed in Utero to Illicit Drugs, Child Welfare. 76(4).

Ornoy, A. (2000).The Effects of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs on the Human Embryo and Fetus. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 39(2).