Infant mortality, though on the decline, is still a serious health concern in the United States and Philadelphia presents the worst-case scenario. Though government sponsored programs have helped mitigate the crisis there is still a lot to be done in terms of enabling easy access of quality maternity care to people from diverse economic, ethnic and cultural backgrounds.
Infant mortality is a serious concern worldwide and infant mortality rate is considered an indicator of the health standard of a nation. In the United States, over the last few decades there has been a steady drop in the infant mortality rates indicating a positive change in maternal health care facilities. The infant mortality rate, which was as high as 96.5 per 1000 live births in the early part of 20th century has now dropped considerably to 6.8 per 1,000 live births as projected by the 2001 statistics. However in some regions…… [Read More]
Perinatal Asphyxia and Its Impact on Infant Mortality ates in Low-Income Countries
One of the main factors used to determine how healthy people are in a location is infant mortality rate. This yardstick is also particularly efficient in giving an insight into how comfortable people are and how improvements in paediatrics have been effective. One of the medical conditions new babies face after birth, called "birth asphyxia", is caused by poor oxygen intake which could lead to acutely low levels of oxygen reaching vital body parts. It is quite clear that new research on the causes of new-born fatalities is vital in order to reduce the alarming numbers recorded in first and second order countries. ecent research in this regard has given some solid causes of this trend. Elderly mothers, improper appointments bookings, pre-eclampsia as well as abuse of stress relievers and body fluid controlling fluids have been identified as…… [Read More]
U.S. Infant Mortality Rates
hat methodological explanations have been offered for the relatively high infant mortality rate in the U.S.
There have been a variety of methodological explanations for the relatively high infant mortality rate in the United States. The most obvious criticism of the conclusion that the U.S. has a higher infant mortality rate than other industrialized nations is that the figures reported by the various countries are not the same. For example, while the orld Health Organization (HO) defines a live birth as any newborn showing signs of life, such as heart beat or a gasp of breath, not all countries follow that definition. The definition of live birth is critical; because the infant mortality rate is the number of all deaths to babies under one-year-old, divided by the number of live births that year. Therefore, the higher the number of live births, the higher the number of…… [Read More]
Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use can lead to birth defects, low birth weight, and premature delivery (HHS, 2006). All of these are listed as the major causes of infant mortality (CDC). Given the literature and public service announcements produced on these subjects over the past several decades, it is difficult to believe that anyone in this country is unaware of the detrimental effects these things can have on a fetus, and apparently thee communications are working to a degree; the infant mortality rate has dropped significantly, and yet such abuse is still among the leading causes of infant death (CDC; HHS, 2006). To tackle these issues, information should not be the focus of the message strategy but rather the mothers themselves should be the message's focus. Perhaps a short bulleted list of the disadvantages children with fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects of in utero abuse are likely to…… [Read More]
There are several different elements that should be considered and properly acted upon to facilitate a comprehensive program to reduce the mortality rates for children under five. According to the World Health Organization, "6.9 million children under the age of five died in 2011. More than half of these early child deaths are due to conditions that could be prevented or treated with access to simple, affordable interventions" (No author, 2012).
Therefore, the comprehensive program to address this issue will consist of three different parts. The first is to provide interventions for mothers prior to childbirth, the second is to provide interventions during childbirth, and the third is to provide interventions during the first five years after childbirth. For the first of these interventions, it is crucial that mothers receive immunizations against common child-bearing diseases such as tetanus, receive regular visits from antenatal consultants, and refrain from intoxicants such as…… [Read More]
There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…… [Read More]
In today's day and age with the massive amount of resources to humanity, it is a wonder as to why infant mortality is still a problem. The impact of the healthcare system has made improvements in this area, but there are still issues that lack clarity. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the need for free basic health insurance for new born babies to prevent illness and suffering. This essay will first summarize the problem before offering solutions on how best to address the problem.
The Centers for Disease Conrol (CDC) defined infant mortality as "the death of an infant before his or her first birthday." In this first year of life, the child is especially vulnerable to the threats of his or her environment and the risk of an infant dying is especially strong. Through medical and social evolution, infant mortality has generally gone down…… [Read More]
Indeed, the Model is an appropriate way to gain a better understanding of what causes people to make certain health behavior decisions, such as those which are likely to have caused pregnant women to bypass regular medical attention or to have failed to take the necessary lifestyle precautions during pregnancy to protect her health and that of her unborn child. ithout question, issues of poverty and a shortfall of necessary resources will be relevant causes. However, the premise of the message campaign will be to disseminate information about self-care that can help those lacking access. Additionally, we act from the presumption that the scarcity of resources also means that where such are available, there may be a dearth of distributed information to make women aware of these options.
Therefore, it seems reasonable to deduce that a perspective through this model might help to reveal such possible causes for maternal and…… [Read More]
Evidence-based practice indicates the universal need for the implementation of better maternal and newborn infant care, especially with regard to breastfeeding support and encouragement. This is evidenced by countless research works that both report the optimized goals of better rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-6 months and the evidence of current trends and practices (AAP, 2010; Scanlon et. al, 2007; Naylor, 2010; Grummer-Strawn & Shealy 2009). These researchers, reviewers an experts base their observations on a need that is well documented in the literature, i.e. both the current state of breastfeeding support in maternity settings and clinical short- and long-term health related outcomes associated with breastfeeding and lack of breastfeeding. The literature associated with this need is demonstrative of many issues regarding breastfeeding and support that the best overall scenario for maternal and infant health is exclusive breastfeeding of infants till six months of age with supplements or…… [Read More]
Health Care Disparities in Infant Mortality
Numerous empirical studies have demonstrated a significant discrepancy in survival rates of newborns of different race. It has been shown that black infants are two times more likely to die within the first month of life than their white counterparts. Identification of these disparaged findings has prompted analysis of health care offered from a demographic perspective, considering racial treatment and socioeconomic conditions. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has examined race-specific mortality information on newborns, and reported a series of noted and persistent trends coinciding with the data differences. It is necessary to address this inconsistency in survival rates between the black and white races to identify potential changes in health care delivery systems and eliminate racial factors in infant mortality.
The U.S. government has identified six classes of racial and ethnic minority discrepancies in health care access, experience, and outcomes. In…… [Read More]
Infant Sleep Patterns
People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…… [Read More]
Maternal Risk Entity
Is there anything more important to a family -- and to the community of interest around that family -- than the safe and healthy delivery of the brand new baby and its mother? Modern medicine has provided technologies and training to alleviate many of the risks vis-a-vis mother and infant, however there is never going to be a situation absolutely free of potential risks surrounding pregnancy, childbirth, and the post-pregnancy period. Hence, nurses and physicians and other healthcare professionals must stay informed and be fully prepared to come up with solutions when risky situations occur. This paper presents the peer-reviewed literature on several maternal risks and there possible remedies.
Infants' Risks in Late Preterm Births
In the peer-reviewed journal Birth, the authors point out that the preterm birth rate has risen from 10.6 births in 1990 to 12.8% in 2006 -- a twenty percent increase (Kirby, et…… [Read More]
Motherhood conjures up images of a plump round female body surrounded by plump round babes playing about at feet while another suckles at breast, much as one sees in Victorian paintings. It is a common belief that bottle-feeding is a modern phenomenon, and although most images of motherhood do depict breastfeeding, it seems even in the Victorian era and earlier, substitutes for nursing babies was not uncommon.
The horn, which was commonly used as a drinking vessel for adults during the Middle Ages, was used to feed infants by tying a soft leather scrap to it to make a teat (History pp). In 17th Century Europe, leather or wood feeding bottles were used, then later pewter bottles and pap boats, most of which were flask shaped with screw on tops to form a hard round nipple (History pp).
Over the next four hundred years, the materials and design…… [Read More]
The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)
The FIMR Process
FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death
Data Collection/Record Review
Improved Maternal & Infant Health
Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…… [Read More]
Another service the clinic should provide involves remote access. For example, the clinic should assess the feasibility of home visits by doctors and nurses. egular phone calls to clients or potential clients would also help encourage pregnant women to avail themselves of the clinic's services. The clinic should also establish a solid Web site that allows women to access information from home and possibly, interact in a live chat with staff.
2. What incentives would you provide to keep them coming to the clinic before and after they give birth? Why did you choose to use this as an incentive?
Incentives will help clients trust the clinic and seek care as a matter of course. Free or discounted services would be a good incentive in any community regardless of demographic. Financial incentives would also entail working with insurance providers to make sure that preventative care is a priority.
However, the…… [Read More]
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…… [Read More]
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…… [Read More]
Foreign Health Care Policy
Over the last several years, issues affecting the U.S. health care system have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because rising costs are impacting demand for different services. What has been happening is these increases are forcing insurance companies, employers and providers to pass on more of these fees to the individual. This is problematic, as they are unable to afford these costs and premiums for coverage. When this happens, the total number of people who are uninsured will increase exponentially. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that there are 48 million Americans who have no form of health care coverage. (Johnson, 2010) (Harrington, 2009)
While in Germany, the costs of care are lower and 90% of the population is insured. This is because they are using a different model. To fully understand which system is better requires comparing the two…… [Read More]
Canada is even further behind in its access to high tech equipment, including machines used for MRI's and CAT scans. This shortage of equipment affects wait time for diagnostic tests, which in some provinces can run well over three months (Beaudan, 2002).
According to Michael Decter, chair of the national board of Canadian Institute for Health Information, the Canadian health care system is dazed but he still believes that modernized public healthcare is the answer. "e do well on life expectancy and immunization of children compared to the U.S.," he says, noting that the United States spends 40% more on healthcare than Canada does (Beaudan, 2002).
Americans who go to Canada for cheap flu shots often come away impressed at how Canada offers free and first class medical care to everyone. But hospital administrators will tell a different story about having to cut staff for lack of funds or about…… [Read More]
Healthcare in Sweden
The healthcare system in Sweden is used as one of the model systems in the world. hen Johan Hjertoqvist from the Timbro Policy Group spoke before the Montreal Economic Institute in 2002, he said, "...you refuse to accept the consumer as an equal partner, you still look upon the client, the patient, as an inferior partner in the relation" and "you deny the need for good working condition when it comes to the staff, etc." (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Moreover, he stressed the need to move interests and priorities away from the processes and production organization to "the quality of the outcome for the consumer" (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Quality seems to be synonymous with healthcare in Sweden.
Two important characteristics of the Swedish healthcare system are that it is "decentralized and it is run on democratic principles" (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).All residents of Sweden are covered by the national health insurance system which covers medical care, pharmaceuticals,…… [Read More]
As a consequence, Turkey is uniquely positioned to sell to all of these different customers, as its position on the map indicates.
The market research process can be different in the international context. The first issue is that the purpose of the market entry has to be defined. Once this has been established -- suppose the objective is to set up textile manufacturing in Turkey -- then the research can focus on how. There are significant differences that might arise with respect to the access to information in foreign markets, however. hile Turkey is relatively transparent, some other markets are not. Turkish firms are exporting to Iraq, for example, but there are no real market statistics for that market. Such firms may be run by Kurds and trading mainly with Iraqi Kurdistan, for example, using connections to bridge the knowledge gap. In addition, where at home one can…… [Read More]
Number 5 is a cue to action, incenting the mother by reminding her that either she or her baby could be a victim with out proper medical care.
Informed Decision-Making Messaging Strategy
Informed decision-making interventions should be used when persuasion would be inappropriate (Communication for health. Examples include when the evidence is not sufficiently clear to support one behavior over another (e.g., surgical removal vs. watchful waiting for men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer), when an individual's values must be taken into consideration to determine the optimal behavior (prevention of sexual assault), or when society has been unable to reach consensus about the optimal recommended behavior (e.g., prevention of teen pregnancy) (Communication for health). Instead of providing evidence that prenatal care can save lives, it relies on the mother wanting to do the right thing and uses a woman who has lost her child to convince her.
You need…… [Read More]
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
Reflexes (automatic…… [Read More]
U.S. technology in Thai hospitals will have a positive, negative or neutral effect on the mortality rate of patients in Thailand. U.S. hospitals currently offer patients some of the most modern and complex technology available. Patients whether at private or public facilities are very often afforded modern urgent care that reduces the likelihood of mortality from common and less common illness. The mortality ratio, or comparison of patients admitted vs. discharged in most U.S. hospitals is close to or less than 1.00 (Comaro, 2003).
In Thailand hospitals, modern technology used in community hospitals is somewhat limited and typically consists of the use of X-ay technology and ultrasound for imaging and diagnosis (Dionson, 2003). Many community hospitals currently lack the advanced technology available in U.S. hospitals that has been proven to save lives. There are several private institutions within Thailand however, that do offer more advanced technology.
However, Thai hospitals historically…… [Read More]
un.org)." However, the CIA estimated that in 2004 there were "30.66 deaths/1,000 live births, with 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births among males, and 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births among females (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
AIDS plays a role in the demographics of the Brazilian population. In 2003, the CIA estimated that the "adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS was 0.7%, the number of people living with HIV / AIDS was 660,000 and the number of deaths that year from HIV / AIDS was 15,000 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
One important point about the population data is that when Brazil performed its census in August 2000, it "reported a population of 169,799,170. That figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, and is close to the implied undernumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS, and this can…… [Read More]
As a result, the Govt. has been eager to encourage self-medication, where probable, in an endeavor to save money and time as optimizing convenience for the consumer. (the UK OTC Pharmaceuticals Market: UK pharmaceutical market report)
E) Is there any one burning issue related to health care in this country that is undergoing extensive debate? What do you know about it?
Although Britain NHS has been a model for the rest of the world to emulate, however over the years, a persistent concern with cost constraints and market-defined efficiencies since the bygone twenty years has radically battered the core principles of universal healthcare in UK. The discouragement of proceeds of central taxation as the funding base has been coupled with Govt. passing the costs and dangers to patients and their families. The internal market launched by the Thatcher Govt. In 1980s showed the most prominent features of these modifications, however,…… [Read More]
In 1991 a short-lived coalition of opposition groups seized the capital Mogadishu and ousted aid Barre. By 1992 it is estimated that over half a million people had died through war or from starvation. Between 800,000-1.5m people fled the country to refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen and Djibouti. From there many moved to Nairobi or Addis Ababa before embarking on a journey to the 'West'.
In May 1991, the people of north-west omalia broke away to form the Republic of omaliland.
Although not recognised by the international community, its creation has resulted in relative political stability. Elsewhere, the ruling coalition collapsed resulting in a state of anarchy and civil war that exists today with rival warlords vying for power. ince 1991 most asylum seekers have come from these central and southern regions. In omaliland the voluntary repatriation of refugees from neighbouring countries is now taking place. Return visits to,…… [Read More]
More Care Giving to Babies:
One of the biggest advantages of co sleeping is increase in breast feeding (McKenna, 1994; Richard et al., 1996). This is admitted even by the most conventional American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that co-sleeping has the most advantage of breast feeding. According to the research, mothers who co-sleep breast feed an average of twice as long as non-co-sleeping mothers. Moreover, the act of sucking in breast feeding increases oxygen flow, which is useful for both baby's growth and immune functions (McKenna, 1994).
In addition, co-sleeping infants also get more notice and protective care. The studies have shown that mothers who co-sleep provides five times the number of care like as adjusting the baby's blanket, stroking or cuddling as compared to those mothers who were non-co sleepers (Mosko, 1997).
Long-Term Benefits of Co- Sleeping in Children as adults
Those boys who co-slept with their…… [Read More]
2. SWOT Analysis
2.1. Strengths and Weaknesses
The most important strong point of Earth's Best is its wide range of products. The company's extremely diversified products satisfy all types of customers. Earth's Best has lines of products for each age group: the Infant Line, based on iron-fortified cereals and single ingredient foods. The product line for children aged 18 months and older is consisted of Arrowroot Squares, Cereal Bars, Crunchin' Blocks, and Organic Juices. There is also a line for older children, consisting of Organic 2% Milk, Apple Sauces, and Whole Grain Bars. In addition to this, Earth's Best has launched a body care products line.
Another strength refers to the quality of Earth's Best's products. The company's products benefit from a lot of credit from its customers, which become loyal clients. The company's web site presents a series of testimonies from customers that appreciate the quality of the company's…… [Read More]
World-ank-assisted Women-in-Development project for Ethiopia proposes to socially and economically help vulnerable women participate and benefit from its increasingly expanding economy and opportunities in the private sector. It hopes to raise the standard of living of these women and contribute to alleviating poverty. On the whole, addressing all the constraints to the effective and realistic implementation of the National Policy on Women and forming grassroots women's organization would work towards building women's capability. This would then enable them to effectively verbalize their situation, aspirations and problems or sentiments about their economic, social and civic rights.
1. C (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. C.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World ank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm…… [Read More]
Hungary is located in Central Europe, northwest of Romania (CIA 2012, EEA 2012). It measures 93,000 square kilometers. It is bordered by Romania, Croatia, Austria, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. Its capital is udapest (CIA, EEA).
Hungary has a Republican form of government (FCO 2012). Its Constitution was adopted on April 18 last year and took effect in January this year. Its four branches of government are the executive, legislative, judicial and a Constitutional court. The President is the head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government. A cabinet is also part of the executive branch. The legislative branch consists of a National Assembly of 386 members with a four-year term. The judicial branch is a Curia or a Supreme Court. The President since August 6, 2010 is Pal Schmitt and the Prime Minister since May 29, 2010 is Viktor Orban. Hungary has 19…… [Read More]
Healthcare in the United States and India
The healthcare systems in the United States and India have starkly different origins: the former arose out of employer based insurance coverage while the latter began through government funding. As Sai Ma and Neeraj Sood document in a report on India's healthcare challenges, the Indian government faced the challenge of redesigning their healthcare infrastructure after their independence in 1947 (2008). The Bhore Committee, assembled by the central government, established that unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, inadequate health education and a lack of prevention must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life for India's population. To meet these needs, the central government established a three-tiered system consisting of primary health centers (PHCs) to meet basic health needs, subcenters (SCs) for public health concerns, and community health centers (CHCs) for more specialized care. Doctors employed at these facilities received training at publically funded…… [Read More]
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…… [Read More]
Community resources must be identified and brought together to meet needs. Actions can be developed to prevent poor health outcomes by: appropriately identifying, collecting, and reporting racial/ethnic group-specific data; identifying where data are lacking and developing appropriate tools to collect those data; and linking poor health status indicators to social conditions and influences, as well as personal behaviors and genetics.
As indicated by other counties, the populations experiencing these disparities have many strengths and traditions to draw upon for solutions. In the African-American communities, churches provide connections and leadership on community issues. Other models have provided the use of community engagement principles encouraged throughout any state and local processes addressing eliminating health disparities, whether funded by this initiative or not. Such community engagement principles include fostering openness and participation in the planning process, ensuring that those representing a specific community truly represent that community's values, norms, and behaviors, and using…… [Read More]
espiratory distress syndrome (DS) in preterm infants/Neonates
Prophylactic and early surfactant administration
Later surfactant administration
O: educed mortality and pulmonary complications (Bronchopulmonary dysplasia-BPD and other)
Surfactant therapy involves intervention via various methods like oxygen, CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and surfactant. Many ask if surfactant therapy works. They also ask what is the ideal dose and when to administer the dose. Too much and too late could cause problems versus early with a low dose. When surfactant was introduced in neonatology, it reduced VLBW infant deaths by 30%. Surfactant use two decades ago also led to an 80% decline in neonatal mortality in the United States.
However, surfactant can fail and normally does so because of certain factors like when infants are extremely preterm and developed poorly structured longs and when there an infant develops perinatal asphyxia. When those factors are not present, surfactant reduces incidence of PDA, sepsis pneumonia, and most…… [Read More]
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…… [Read More]
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]
" ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) Other messages of the campaign were to stress the need to avoid high risk pregnancy, prior to age 18 or after age 35 and to stagger pregnancies by two years to help the maternal body recover and be strong enough to care for the developing infant and go through labor successfully. The campaign, promoting these ideas states that it has been successful in reaching its goals, and has currently reached 66% of the population in the regions where the campaign was launched. ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) There is not mention as to whether the campaign will end, or be expanded to a broader audience in Turkey.
Turkey's example program could serve as a template for other health issues that need to be expressed to the public in Turkey and in other nations with challenged health care delivery infrastructures and limited public knowledge of…… [Read More]
healthcare system is regarded as one of the most expensive across the globe though it underperforms as compared to other developed and/or advanced countries. The states of America's healthcare system relative to its costs have attracted considerable attention from policymakers, health experts, and business leaders. These various stakeholders continue to look for viable means of improving and reforming the system in order to enhance its efficiency and improve performance. One of the major ways towards this process is comparing the U.S. healthcare system with those of other countries in terms of costs and efficiency. This article compares the American healthcare system with that of Canada and Germany with regards to costs, services provided, and outcomes like infant mortality and insurance coverage.
United States, Canada, and Germany Health Care Systems
As previously mentioned, the American healthcare system is the most expensive throughout the world though it significantly underperforms across…… [Read More]
The genetic factors were also excluded as having a major influence in the medical condition according to studies that showed that genetic factors that may influence the illness are overcome in proportion of 3:1 by environmental factors (uaranaccia, 1981, 11).
In her study, Laura onzales points out that Puerto Rican migrants are keeping in close contact with their relatives, friends and acquaintances from the islands, traveling back and forth, being engaged in what Christenson had defined as a "circulatory migration"(onzales, 2008, 2). The fact that the first language on the Puerto Rican Island is Spanish, English being widely taught in schools, but as a second language, made things harder for the older generations who migrated to the mainland. On the other hand, in a city like New York, one of the most targeted cities for the Puerto Rican migrators, Spanish is one of the languages "most commonly heard" after English,…… [Read More]
To analyze and compare the U.S. healthcare, internationally, it is important to know what really constitutes a good health care system. The U.S. Institute of Medicine describes this quality as, "the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge." This system, in its broad sense, should comprise of two main branches of preventative and curative medicine, both of which should cover different aspects of health, such as travel medicine, school health, occupational health, mental health, reproductive health and so on. Furthermore, a well established health care system does not act independently but in co-ordinance with other industries, such as the agricultural industry. Therefore, since a well developed nation has better access to proper sanitation, housing and adequate nutrition, it is more likely to have a better developed health care system. Other factors,…… [Read More]
Access and Availability
The biggest problem in terms of access to healthcare is in rural areas. Our investigation found that there are very few if any rural clinics or healthcare facilities.
Access to healthcare is also limited to those that can afford insurance or qualify for Medicare or Medicaid. The unemployed and the poor are at a major disadvantage when it comes to gaining access to healthcare. The location of healthcare facilities is limited to the larger municipalities.
The entity that is responsible for the healthcare system is the United States Government. In addition, Puerto ico has a governor and a cabinet in place to ensure that the appropriate laws are carried out. The entity that makes laws concerning healthcare is outside of the country but the entity that enforces these laws is inside the country. Services are evaluated by state run entities and agencies of the United States…… [Read More]
High health care costs are another problem associated with American health care. eporter Curl continues, "Mr. Bush said competitive forces in the marketplace - primarily by giving Americans more choice - is the best method for bringing down health care costs. Another way is to give people who can't afford health care access to facilities other than emergency rooms and hospitals" (Curl A04). However, if the government does provide other facilities, ultimately these costs will be born by the taxpayers. As a health care crisis continues among the elderly, the poor, and the uninsured, the government will continue to create more of these facilities, and costs will continue to mount. If that is the case, it seems simpler to nationalize the entire system, allowing everyone to enjoy the same, high level of care, rather than creating special facilities dedicated to the poor and the uninsured who cannot afford health…… [Read More]
Childhood Obesity in Turner County, GA Ages 6-11
Turner County is one of the regions in Georgia that is affected by childhood obesity and overweight. Generally, childhood obesity is one of the major public health concerns and issues affecting Georgia. Currently, the state is among the top three states with high prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight issues. Despite the numerous measures that have been undertaken to deal with the problem and significant gains that have been made in the process, Georgia still has a high rate of childhood obesity cases. In essence, Turner County is still largely affected by the issue of childhood obesity similar to other counties in Georgia. However, a clear understanding of the extent of childhood obesity in Turner County among children aged 6-11 years requires collecting vital statistics on this population. For this analysis, the researcher has relied on a questionnaire and interview of healthcare…… [Read More]
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…… [Read More]
Prospects of a brighter future for Cote d'Lvoire
Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).
Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire
The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire
Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction
According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done…… [Read More]
Health Disparities in Healthy People 2020
For the last two decades now, one of the central goals of Healthy People has been on alleviating disparities. Healthy people 2000 focused on reducing health related disparities in the American population. The Healthy people 2020 mission defines health disparity as a health difference that has close links with socio-economic and environmental disadvantages. Such heath disparities negatively affect groups that face systematic obstacles because of their race, socio-economic stature, religion gender, age cognitive abilities, physical disability, geographic location, exclusive considerations, sexual orientation, or ethnic group (Anon., n.d.).
Maternal, Infant and Child Health
As in the case with adults, social and demographic forces, including the income that the family gets affects infant health, too. Physical and mental health dynamics of the caregiver and parent are also causal to the effects. acial-based disparities have been observed in both mortality and morbidity for children and mothers. This…… [Read More]
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…… [Read More]
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…… [Read More]
Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana
With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.
Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish
12,140…… [Read More]
Fracking and Ethics
While “fracking”—the term applied to the practice of hydraulic fracturing of rock to gain access to the oil or gas underground—has been hailed as a revolutionary way for the oil industry to draw oil from previously hard to reach places, there are a variety of ethical issues surrounding the practice (Evensen & Stedman, 2018). Stakeholders in the issue of fracking go beyond those in the oil/gas industry, however. They include people in communities, whose water supply has been contaminated as a result of fracking. They include people whose lives have been changed by fracking due to the opportunity to invest in companies engaged in this practice. They include the workers and employees who are given jobs because of the new opportunities that fracking provides. Thus any position for or against fracking will impact all these stakeholders in different ways. Some believe fracking is the way of…… [Read More]
The paper looked at other possible explanations, such as teacher experience, but found little correlation (Mitchell, 2001).
In the weakest schools, 81% of the students qualified for free or reduced-price lunches. In the schools rated highest, only 3 1/2% of students qualified for such programs. In addition, school ratings dropped in direct proportion to the rise in number of students receiving subsidized lunches. The paper used subsidized lunches as one indication of the economic status of the students' families (Mitchell, 2001). Overall, among schools where 75% or more of the students were part of the subsidized lunch program, only four schools were rated "average." All others scored "low," or "unsatisfactory," and none were considered to be doing a better-than-average job of educating students (Mitchell, 2001). These schools also had largely minority student populations: about 20% were black, 68% were Hispanic, while 1% were Asian and 8% white, thus tying both…… [Read More]
Health Disparities in Louisville KY
Health inequities have become a major problem in the United States. Hofrichter stresses in Tackling Health Inequities Through Public Health Practice:
A Handbook for Action ( 2006) that, "The awareness of the existence of inequities in health, health status and health outcomes between racial and ethnic groups in America is as old as the nation itself" (Hofrichter, 2006,P. vii). As will be discussed in this paper, these inequalities have a wide range of repercussions, including social and psychological implications. A definition of health disparity is: "... The difference in the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups" ( Samuels, 2005).
There is also a consensus in the literature that inequalities in health and healthcare throughout the world are on the increase. This is largely due to the increasing gap between rich…… [Read More]
There are 346 cars per 1000 population in the country (The Economist, 2011).
Andorra has an adult literacy rate of 100%. Life expectancy at birth is 82.43 years and the infant mortality rate 3.8 deaths per 1000 live births. The unemployment rate is 2.9%. The country has 64,500 cellular phones for 84,825 people, a rate of 0.76. The rate of landlines is 44.6%. There are 67,100 Internet users, or 79.1% of the population. There are no figures given by the Economist of the number of cars in Andorra.
These figures confirm the hypothesis that Andorra, despite having a lower GDP per capita, enjoys a higher quality of life. It has fewer cell phones, for example, in part because it has better landline connectivity. ith respect to human measures, however, Andorra's superior literacy rate, life expectancy and infant mortality rates point to a higher degree of success in developing human successes.…… [Read More]
Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs
When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.
A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…… [Read More]
For instance we can take the examples of African-Americans, the events and issues show that some ethnic groups had to struggle hard to stay ahead in the social fabric of American society.
The living conditions of poor and middle segment of the society are main indicators of the health of economy and income distribution. While in developing nations the plight of the poor and even middle segments of society is well-known. Developed nation like United States have not been associated with poverty and the poor treatment of certain segments of society. Recent event have made people argue that over the years issues of poverty and unequal income distribution have hit America in a big way. These issues now can not be brushed under the carpet as the issues are being debated at all forums. People have accepted the grim fact that Income gap exists in American Society and these…… [Read More]
The history of maternity nursing in many ways echoes that of other types of nursing, although it is arguable that improvements in the quality of nursing care have had an even greater impact that improvements in other arenas of health-care. This paper examines one of the nurses who was instrumental in improving maternal health care through changes and improvements in maternity nursing, Mary Breckenridge, a nurse-midwife who helped to established a neonatal health-care that dramatically reduced the mortality rates of both mothers and infants.
Humans have nursed each other since the beginning of the species - indeed attempts to care for other individuals to help reduce their pain and increase their overall health are seen in a wide range of primates: Nursing is arguably something that is encoded in our very genes. However, modern nursing can realistically trace its roots only to the 19th century, which is where…… [Read More]
In terms of the plainness of gendered inequalities in the health and longevity of women, compared with men, the majority world demands our notice. The world-wide toll in terms of women's raised levels of mortality and morbidity corroborates that limited or negligible access to political power, land-ownership, education, sexual self-determination and earning ability has detrimental bodily effects (Bradby, 2009).
While sociologists have long studied the aspect of illness, it has only been recently that they have turned their attention to the development of sociology of health. Sociologists' interest in health emerged in part in reaction to the biomedical mode, which focused primarily on disease. A more holistic approach to health and healing, sociologists argued, must also encompass the idea of positive health and well-being. The concept of health itself needs to be explored, and such exploration must take lay perspectives into account. A holistic, or socio-environmental, model of health also…… [Read More]
Save the Children, 'Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.savethechildren.org/emergencies/africa/
IRC, 'Food for Thought: Malnutrition's Insidious Impact on Children', Accessed May 4th 2008, Available at, http://www.theirc.org/news/food_for_thought_malnutrition-s_insidious_impact_on_children.html
IFPRI, 'Looking Ahead: Long-Term Prospects for Africa's Agricultural Development and Food Security," Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://www.ifpri.org/2020/dp/vp41.asp
UNICEF, 'SUDAN Summary for 2005', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://www.unicef.org/media/files/sudan_summary2005.pdf
UN News, 'New UN Survey Reveals Alarming Malnutrition Rates among Darfur's Children', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25178&Cr=sudan&Cr1
Charles W. Corey, 'United States has spent $1 illion in Feeding the Hungry in Darfur', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://usinfo.state.gov/af/Archive/2006/May/11-849194.html
Save the Children, ' Save the Children in Sudan', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.savethechildren.org/countries/africa/sudan.html
Tash Shifrin, 'Sudan on the Verge of Mass Starvation," Guardian, May 24, 2004
USINFO, 'Success in Measles Control', Accessed May 4th 2008, available at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0307/ijge/success.htm
UNICEF, 'New Southern Sudan Government and UN…… [Read More]
Good nutrition and healthy lifestyle are important to a better quality of life, but both can be crucial during pregnancy. Inspection of the research indicates that sound nutritional practices during pregnancy have always been considered important in the development of the unborn child Allen, 2005). However, good maternal nutrition may also be an important factor in the development of the fetus before the mother becomes pregnant and the effects of maternal nutrition on the fetus may extend well beyond childhood into adulthood (Barker, 1992).
Obviously the use of alcohol and certain drugs is not recommended during pregnancy. The consequences of alcohol and drug use during pregnancy have been well-documented and need not be discussed here (e.g., Streissguth, Barr, & Martin, 1984). With respect to pre-pregnancy plans, the National Institute of Health suggests three things that should be undertaken before a woman becomes pregnant: (1) both prospective parents should have physical…… [Read More]