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Medications must be continued until the vaccine becomes effective. She should contact the state of local health department immediately about the outbreak and report cases to the local health department.
The Watson Caring Theory may be infused in the role and functions of the community health nurse when treating and caring for patients or victims of influenza. Jean Watson's 10 carative factors can translate into clinical caritas processes and bring about subject healing processes that can help speed up the recovery of a patient as an individual, as part of a family or as a member of the community. In applying Watson's caring theory or model, the nurse can form or build a humanistic-altruistic system of values with the individual patient, the family or community; instill faith and hope; become more sensitive to them in their suffering; develop a more trusting relationship with them; elicit and accept their expression of…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Influenza: the Disease. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cdc.gov /flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Two families belong to this one, the Paramyxovirus and the Orthomyxovirus. Influenza virus belong to the latter.
It was only perhaps during in the 1930's when the etiologic agent was identified to be a virus, rather than a bacteria.. Influenza virus has five genera: InfluenzavirusA, InfluenzavirusB, InfluenzavirusC, Isavirus and Thogotovirus. The virus that causes influenza has three immunologic types: A, B and C. Influenza type a is known to have great antigenic changes, type B to a lesser degree. Type C appears to be the most stable antigenically among the three. Types a and C. affect multiply species, while Type B exclusively infects humans. (2008 the Flu)
Influenza virus a is the prototype of the Influenza virus, and the structures of other Influenza virus are almost the same.
Influenza virus are usually spherical, but can also be globular and about 100 nm in diameter, sheathed in a lipid bilayer that…
Brooks, GF, Butel, JS, Ornston, LN 1995, Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg's Medical Microbiology 20th ed, Appleton and Lange, Norwalk.
2008 the Flu, Available from: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/I/Influenza.html[April 24, 2008].
2005 Influenza Viruses, Center for Disease and Control Prevention, Available at http://www.cdc.gov /flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Classification of the influenza virus
Definition of pandemic and causes and reasons for its spread
How well is USA prepared for the onset of the influenza virus?
The morbidity and mortality rates of the influenza virus
Details about WHO and CDC and their methods of tackling the disease
What is Influenza and how does it spread:
Influenza is defined as a severe infection of the respiratory tract and is shown in the inflammation of the nasal mucosa and the pharynx and the eyes and the patient suffers from a headache and more often severe myalgia. He also suffers from chills, prostration, muscle aches, a sore throat and also, a dry cough. Influenza is also known as the flu and is described as an infectious disease caused by the inhalation of an infectious virus. It may become a life threatening disease in infants, the elderly, and…
CDC protects Health and Safety. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov /protect.htm. Accessed on 15 September, 2004
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved at
For many centuries, the influenza virus has been a threat to the health of humans as strains of this virus continue to spread quickly worldwide, especially during the flu season i.e. from late fall through winter. It's estimated that between 5% to 20% of America's population contact the flu and exhibit symptoms like headaches, digestive and breathing difficulties, muscle aches, and high fever. As a result, an estimated 36,000 people in America die from influenza annually because of the high rate of infections. Therefore, the virus has continued to be a major health challenge to many people to an extent that its one of the major pandemics throughout the world.
Human Activities Contributing to Environmental Problems:
Similar to other communicable diseases, many people continue to suffer from the devastating effects of the influenza virus. In the past few years, numerous attempts have been made to understand the science underlying…
"Chapter One: Unintended Consequences." (n.d.). Department of Health and Ageing. Retrieved from Australian Government website: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/62447BB3FD99D740CA256F1900041F2D/$File/chapter1.pdf
"Research: The Scientific Method." (n.d.). Small Island Environmental Management. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://islands.unep.ch/siemh1.htm
Much like other influenza a viruses, the virion of the H5N1 virus is enveloped and is either spherical or filamentous as to its formation and in clinical isolates, the virus has been shown to be more filamentous, while in some laboratory strains, it appears more spherical (eigel, et al., 1379). As to the genome of the H5N1 virus, this is composed of eight single non-paired RNA strands, containing a code with eleven specific proteins; the overall size is estimated at 13,588 bases (eigel, et al., 1379). According to Wang and Jiang, the entry of the H5N1 virus into a host cell is mediated by hemagglutinin, "a virus surface glycoprotein that can bind terminal sialic acid residues on host cell glycoproteins and glycolipids (2009, Internet).
In most cases, treatment of the H5N1 influenza virus includes immediate hospitalization in the intensive care unit and being placed on a ventilator, along…
"Avian Influenza -- Bird Flu." CDC. 2009. Internet. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov /flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Symptoms of the bird flu in humans vary depending on the exact subtype which that individual has been infected with. Most people contract the avian influenza from coming into contact with infected birds, "During an outbreak of avian influenza among poultry, there is a possible risk who have contact with infected birds or surfaces that have been contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds," (CDC 2007). The etiological agents which infect the body are transmitted through fluids and feces.
The most typical subtype is the Avian Influenza A, or the H5N1 virus (CDC 2007). A frightening percentage of more than half of all people who have contracted H5N1 have died. Most cases of contraction between humans falls into the realm of extremely close familial relationships, like between mother and child. However, there are still fears that H5N1 could mutate into a form which could be easier transmitted through human…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Department of Health and Human Services.
Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1
Virus)." 2007. http://www.cdc.gov
Department of Health and Human Services. "Pandemic Flu." 2007. http://www.pandemicflu.org
In the event of such an epidemic, it is reasonable to assume that public health departments will be pressed to find ways to maintain their services even when employees are ill, normal supply chains are disrupted, and the nation's infrastructure is inoperative; furthermore, the traditional roles of environmental health professionals can also be expected to change in dramatic ways during a period of pandemic influenza (Fabian, 2006). As U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Secretary Leavitt has noted, states and local jurisdictions will be in the vanguard of the battle that has 5,000 fronts. According to the secretary, "A lot is going to be expected of us. Fortunately, a great deal of the preparation activities laid out below have already become part of our awareness and skill set as a result of some of the terrorism and emergency response planning that public health has recently experienced" (Fabian, 2006, p.…
Aguirre, A.A., House, C., Ostfeld, R.S., Pearl, M.C., & Tabor, G.M. (2002). Conservation medicine: Ecological health in practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235
Chikombero, P.M., Haridakis, P.M., Hullman, G.A., Pornsakulvanich, V., & Sun, S. (2003). Television exposure not predictive of terrorism fear. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 128.
Executive Order. (April 1, 2005). Amendment to E.O. 13295 relating to certain influenza v iruses and quarantinable communicable diseases.
Influenza is, in basic terms, a viral attack on the respiratory system of an individual. In most cases, it is simply referred to as the flu. Some of the more common symptoms of influenza include, but they are not limited to, a sore throat, nasal congestion, weakness and fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and fever. In as far as diagnosis is concerned, a physical exam is in most cases conducted alongside tests. There are various tests that could be used in influenza diagnosis. These could be inclusive of the rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs).
From the onset, it is important to note that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2016), RIDTs “are immunoassays that can identify the presence of influenza A and B viral nucleoprotein antigens in respiratory specimens, and display the result in a qualitative way (positive vs. negative).” As CDC further points…
However, one cannot develop the vaccine before the outbreak occurs. From development to commercial production of the vaccine would take approximately three months after a pandemic has been declared (WHO, 2008). The vaccine developed must be matched exactly to the disease, or it will prove ineffective. The development of a vaccine that is not effective is a waste of money, resources, and will do nothing to help stop the spread of disease. This does not mean that a vaccine is useless, it will help to control and stop the pandemic once it is started. Without the development of a vaccine, the pandemic would have a more devastating effect on the human population. The disease would literally be able to spread unchecked on a global basis.
There are currently two drugs on the market that are effective against H5N1. They are both in the neuraminidase inhibitor class. Osletamivir (tamiflu) and zanamivir…
Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy (CIDRAP). Pandemic Influenza.
Academic Health Center,
University of Minnesota. 2008. http://id_center.apic.org/cidrap/content/influenza/panflu/biofacts/panflu.html. Accessed April 11, 2008.
Health and Human Services (HHS). Pandemic influenza plan. Released Nov 2, 2005. http://www.hhs.gov/pandemicflu/plan/ . Accessed April 11, 2008.
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic posed enormous challenges for state health departments across the United States. This case focuses on Tennessee which endured an intense resurgence of the disease in 2009 and explores how state health officials, working with their partners from public and private sectors, mobilized in advance for the second wave of the disease. An array of preparedness efforts, such as the development of mechanisms for distributing vaccine, ultimately put the state in a strong position to deal with H1N1 come fall, but health officials still experienced considerable difficulty in several areas, including vaccine delivery, communicating with an anxious public, and managing a surge of patients seeking care. The case highlights methods for preparing for a significant public health emergency and explores the difficulties of coordinating a response involving multiple jurisdictions and a mix of actors from both the public and private sectors.
The federal government had…
Alapo, L., & Kennedy, C.W. (2009, April 28). Tennessee Preparing for, not Panicking about, Swine flu. Retrieved September 29, 2012, from www.knoxnews.com: http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2009/apr/28/042809swineet/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic: Summary Highlights. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2009, January 29). H1N1 State and Federal Response . Retrieved September 29, 2012, from www.ncsl.org: http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/health/h1n1-state-and-federal-response.aspx
Tennessee Department of Health. (2009, November 11). Sentinel Provider Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) Surveillance Summary. Retrieved September 29, 2012, from www.health.state.tn.us: http://health.state.tn.us/Downloads/week50ILI_spnreport_2009.pdf
Seasonal Flu (Influenza) Problem
Centers for Disease Control
The CDC website contains a wide range of information on the seasonal flu, spanning from demographic information and technical information about what 'is' the flu to practical information about preventative measures and treatments that would be of interest to patients. The information is comprehensive and detailed, and also includes special links to information for specific groups, such as the elderly and diabetics.
Explain how content does or does not represent bias based on advertising or sponsorship.
Most of the data is scientifically validated and virtually all of the entries contain detailed references to matters such as the composition of the different flu viruses that are seldom found in other literature directed at the public. There are parts of the website designed to quiet reader fears in regards to who and who should not get different types of flu vaccines. All information…
Flu deaths expected to rise" is written by influenza expert Mr. . Paul McKinney. He stated that the influenza virus will be stronger and worst this year and the health officials should make precautions for it and spread awareness amongst the masses about the attack. The virus is expected to attack more brutally on the older people and infants, i.e., people who are older than 65 years and younger than 5 years are more likely to be attacked. The virus can also cause several deaths of those who are already suffering with chronic diseases. Hence there will be an overall rise in flu deaths this year. There is no doubt that the government and other health officials and professionals are trying their best in order to educate people about the severity of the virus and to make the situation prominent and vivid, but there is a need of much more…
Mckinney, N. Flu deaths expected to rise. Pearson Neighborhood news, Week 11. http://www.pearsonneighborhood.com/lvl1/news/week_11.cfm
Lowell, A. Smoking breaks a thing of the past? Pearson Neighbourhood news, Week 9. http://www.pearsonneighborhood.com/lvl1/news/week_09.cfm
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2003). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2004). Community & public health nursing. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby.
The risk to humans is generally low, however during any outbreak of Avian Flu among poultry, there is always a possible risk to humans who have contact with the infected birds and surfaces contaminated with excretions from the infected fowl (Avian1). The current outbreak of H5N1 among poultry in Asia and Europe is an example of a bird flu outbreak that has caused human infections and death (Avian1). In rare instances, limited human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus has occurred, however transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person (Avian1). Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could mutate and infect humans with a strain that could easily spread from one person to another (Avian1).
Furthermore, according to the CDC, because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human…
Avian1 Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Avian Influenza is a disease that humans are becoming exposed to through contact, either directly or indirectly with infected poultry or fowl. This paper intends to explore the history of the flu as well as what is being done to combat this infectious and deadly disease.
Avian Influenza, also known as Avian flu or "bird flu" is "an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus" according to the World Health Organization. Identified over 100 years ago in Italy it has now spread throughout the entire globe. The immune systems of some bird species are more resistant to this disease than other although it is believed that all species are susceptible to becoming infected with the disease. The flue ranges "from mild illness to a highly contagious and rapidly fatal disease results in severe epidemics."
Facts of the Disease:
The fatal version…
Avian Influenza - Fact Sheet (2004) World Health Organization Web site [Online] available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_01_15/en/
Guidance for Protecting Workers Against Avian Flu
Weekly Epidemiological Record: Avian Influenza Thailand
Addressing myths targeting the young is particularly important to stress online, given that is where anti-vaccine myths are often disseminated. The fact that the flu shot has minimal risks should also be addressed, to counteract the urban myths about its dangers. Online, links to useful 'myth-busting' sites about the flu and the spread of the flu can be provided.
Various types of persuasive motivations should be emphasized, across all the types of media used in the campaign. Older individuals may be motivated to get vaccinated because of a fear for their more fragile health -- but also because they do not want to put their grandchildren at risk. Older people may also be motivated by a sense of civic purpose, so as not to spread the disease. So might healthcare workers and teachers, both of whom are in contact with high-risk members of the public on a frequent…
Questions and Answers: Seasonal Flu Shot. (2010). Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
Retrieved October 28, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov /flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
H1N1 flu and its impact on the students of a school in Lincoln, Nebraska. On a particular Wednesday, this school had 221 sick students who reported flu-like symptoms and this rate dropped to 191 on Thursday. The author clearly conveys how this threat can spread quickly among students and the options available to the school Principal to tackle this situation. The article is well-written and it is mostly centered around the happening of Pius X Catholic High School. The author has given a lot of importance to the actions taken by the Principal and his opinion on how the situation should be handled.
The implicit message of the article is clearly about how the school is completely unprepared to face this health threat. The school did not even have a sick room and out of necessity, an administration room had to be converted to a sick room for the students…
Selyukh, Alina. (2009, September 3). Swine Flu May Be Behind 191 illnesses at school. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com
Brownlee, C. "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients." Science News, 30 September 2006, 211+.
Grist, N.. Pandemic Influenza 1918. 2009. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town. Online. Available from the Internet: http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/jmoodie/influen2.html, accessed 17 April 2009.
Imperato, Pascal James. "America's Forgotten Pandemic. The Influenza of 1918." Journal of Community Health 29, no. 1 (2004): 100+.
Irwin, Julia F. "An Epidemic without Enmity: Explaining the Missing Ethnic Tensions in New Haven's 1918 Influenza Epidemic." Urban History eview 36, no. 2 (2008): 5+.
Phillips, Howard and David Killingray, eds. The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. New York: outledge, 2003.
1. Howard Phillips and David Killingray, eds., The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. New York: outledge, 2003, 2.
C. Brownlee, "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients," Science News, 30 September 2006.
Brownlee, C. "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients." Science News, 30 September 2006, 211+.
Grist, N.R. Pandemic Influenza 1918. 2009. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town. Online. Available from the Internet: http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/jmoodie/influen2.html, accessed 17 April 2009.
Imperato, Pascal James. "America's Forgotten Pandemic. The Influenza of 1918." Journal of Community Health 29, no. 1 (2004): 100+.
Irwin, Julia F. "An Epidemic without Enmity: Explaining the Missing Ethnic Tensions in New Haven's 1918 Influenza Epidemic." Urban History Review 36, no. 2 (2008): 5+.
The statistics in the article show that vaccination levels during 2003 were substantially below the objective set for 2010. Various factors may play a role in this phenomenon, including vaccine supply delays and shortages (MMWR, 2005, p. 8).
The article suggests a variety of strategies to help meet the goals set by Healthy People 2010. The benefits of meeting this goal particularly relate to more hours at work and thus greater productivity and a growth in economy, fewer disruptions in essential services, as well as fewer deaths and other complications related to influenza (MMWR, 2005, p. 12). The benefits to the country then relate to the general well-being of the population and its economy.
Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization…
Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and can promote public health worldwide. However, new strains of existing diseases like influenza and potent viruses like HIV continue to plague researchers. Of the various epidemics and pandemics currently facing the international community, all are concerns but it is possible that influenza will become the gravest threat to humanity because of its continual mutations and changes.
The international research community needs to respond to influenza by more aggressive programs in vaccine development, designing new vaccines using methods like those described by Berkeley in his Ted talk. Every few years, a new type of infectious disease becomes a pandemic, according to Berkeley, and this means that the research community around the world must work tirelessly to target new expressions of the same…
Berkeley, Seth. "HIV and Flu: The Vaccine Strategy." TED Talks. Retrieved online: https://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy?language=en#t-35482
Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
According to Davis (2012), the hepatitis A virus occurs in the feces of people who carry the disease. The most common transmission is when people eat food that has been contaminated by infected feces (fecal-oral transmission). Food or water can be contaminated when there are poor sanitary conditions or when hands are not properly washed. aw or undercooked shellfish from sewage contaminated water can also carry the virus. Sexual contact can also cause transmission of the disease, especially when the contact is oral/anal. Very rarely, blood transfusions can infect a recipient of infected blood. Persons who are infected can start spreading the condition about one week after their exposure, even if there are no symptoms. The greatest risk of infection with this disease is in developing countries, where there are sometimes poor sanitary and personal hygiene standards. Daycare centers, prisons, and mental institutions tend to be at greater…
Bazell, R. (2003, Nov. 21). Dirty Rotten Scallions. Slate. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2003/11/dirty_rotten_scallions.html
Davis, C.P. (2012). Hepatitis A emedicinehealth. Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hepatitis_a/page2_em.htm#Hepatitis A Symptoms
practitioner in a family medical practice, a physician will see an assortment of ailments. Many inflicted individuals first seek aid in a family practice setting. From that point multiple outcomes and referrals are possible. The treatment can also vary greatly. Treatment can range from a simple dose of antibiotics to surgery. In this aspect, family clinics and physicians are of great importance in American society. Branchial cleft cysts are fairly uncommon and there are three known types. As it is the result of a recessive genetic disorder, both parents must be carries for the ailment. "The birth defect may appear as open spaces called cleft sinuses, which may develop on one or both sides of the neck. A branchial cleft cyst may form from fluid drained from a sinus. The cyst or sinus can become infected" (McGuirt, 2005). This type of cyst is generally composed of squamous or columnar cell…
Healthwise Inc. (2009, July 6). Computed Tomography (CT) Scan of the Body. Retrieved April 2, 2011, from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/computed-tomography-ct-scan-of-the-body
Hong, C.-H. (2010, July 14). Branchial Cleft Cyst . Retrieved April 2, 2011, from medscape.com: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1110351-overview
Kaneshiro, N.K. (2009, November 2). Branchial Cleft Cyst. NY Times .
McGuirt, W. (2005). Differential diagnoses of neck masses. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery, 1102-1118.
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated.
In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals.
Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…
Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.
Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.
Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Medical ethics and rules like the Hippocratic oath are fairly clear-cut when applying them to real-world solutions and situations. However, there are some situations where the "right answer" can be elusive and people will sometimes go against their own self-interest. Such seems to be the case with Mr. Simpson. He has weak lungs and his doctors and family morbidly fear that if/when he gets the flu again, it will literally kill him. However, even with this being the case, Mr. Simpson refuses to get the flu show under the auspices that he could end up getting the flu as a direct result of the shot despite assurances that this will not happen. Of course, this can absolutely happen in real life but that argument is not a factor in this case study as it is assumed he cannot possibly contract the virus. While Mr. Simpson is obviously not making the…
Like much of the other material under review, the only way to control a flu pandemic is to develop more technologically savvy prediction models, more complex warning and communication systems, and globally coordinated response preparation.
Schmidt, C. (2009). Swine CAFOs & Novel H1N1 Flu: Separating Facts from Fears. Environmental Health erspectives. 117 (9): A394-401.
Schmidt writes in a popular science mode and hopes to help the public understand how flu viruses regularly mutate through avian and swine farming sources. The article chronicles the conditions that most swine are subjected, and explains the nature of an antigenic shift in birds and hogs, then to humans. Overall, the situation is complex and multidimensional. The flu pandemic cannot be won on a medical basis only; but requires global economic, political, and even organizational cooperation.
Yang, Y., et.al. (2009). The Transmissibility and Control of andemic Influenza a (H1N1) Virus. Science. 326 (4): 729-33.
Pandemic H1N1 flu has now spread globally and is the dominant flu strain in the Southern Hemisphere. The authors estimate that about 30% of all exposed will manifest the virus, and a typical schoolchild will infect at least 2 others during the initial course of the outbreak. The major point of the article focuses on vaccination strategies, finding that if an appropriate vaccine were available early enough, vaccination of children, older adults, then the regular adult population might prevent a serious outbreak with a 70% vaccine coverage ratio.
Zimmer, S., and Burke, D. (2009). Historical Perspective -- Emergency of Influenza a (H1N1) Viruses. The New England Journal of Medicine. 361 (3): 279-85.
This is a focused historical study of the manner in which the Spanish Flu mutated over decades, becoming less virulent and then mutating more into avian and swine flu. Each mutation is cataloged by year, showing its mutation, method of infection, and overall basic organic makeup. Rather than focusing on solutions, the article is more a chronicle of the events surrounding a virus particularly adapted to humans and our agricultural practices.
Prevention and Control of the Flu
The flu is a serious illness but one of its great advantages is that a vaccine does exist to contain its spread and prevent or at least mitigate its symptoms. The flu is a virus and available antiviral medications like Tamiflu are not as effective as treating, for example, a bacterial infection with an antibiotic. The most effective method of treating the flu is to not get it at all -- which is why vaccination is so essential. However, even flu vaccinations are not particularly effective on a seasonal basis: "A flu virus mutates at an exceptionally high rate as it reproduces, and some mutations will change the tips of the surface proteins. The antibodies cannot grab tightly to the altered tips, so the virus is able to proceed with its invasion. From one flu season to the next, the evolution of the flu…
Mwangi, T. Bethony. J. & Brooker, S. (2006). Malaria and helminth interactions in humans: an epidemiological viewpoint. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100(7): 551-570. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858631/
Zimmer, C. (2013). The quest to end the flu. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:
Triple P. Positive Parenting Progress
The 'Triple P' Program is marketed with a somewhat startling and troubling slogan: "Parenting now comes with an instruction manual!" This confidently seems to suggest that the program is superior to a parent's gut instincts and conventional wisdom. The program allegedly is an internationally award winning-program and "backed by over 25 years of clinically proven, world-wide research" and "has the answers to your parenting questions and needs" (Welcome to Triple P, 2011, Official Website). However, on the website the actual studies backing up the program are apparently done by individuals who work for Triple P. The 'research articles' in support of Triple P. are extremely vague, and the much-touted five different levels of intervention do not actually outline specific strategies, but rather the different intervention levels one can purchase (Sanders et al., n.d). The research articles supporting the intervention are made to look like they…
Get the shot, not the flu! (2011). Virginia State website. Retrieved:
HOPS study preliminary results. (2011). HOPS. Retrieved:
Bennie is a well-nourished seven years old who develops the flu and has a fever of 101 degrees over the period of two days. Influenza could temporarily affect Bennie's nutritional status in several important ways. First, the diarrhoea and vomiting associated with influenza alone often result in dehydration. In addition, sweat loss from the fever would increase the degree of dehydration. As such, it would be important to ensure that Bennie receives adequate water and replacement electrolytes to compensate for those lost during the course of the influenza.
Second, Bennie's diarrhoea and vomiting would also affect his ability to absorb new nutrients. In addition, fever increases the body's caloric requirements. Given that Bennie is a well-nourished child, this temporary discrepancy between the calories required and calories absorbed would not likely seriously affect his overall health. As such, there is no pressing need to attempt to replace the nutrients lost during…
prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:
H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.
H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.
The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…
Though the impact of H1N1 on the population of Tennessee was relatively mild, especially in light of initial fears about the dangers the virus posed, there were still significant problems in the state's handling of the public health issue that warrant examination. Response times to specific incidents were excellent, and despite changing recommendations from the CDC state officials responded well to the lack of certainty and clarity and managed to keep the public fairly well informed about the risks they faced and the steps that were being taken to address these risks, however more complete communication with media outlets and other means of providing information to the broader population might have alleviated some concerns and limited confusion in the early weeks of the virus' appearance. Initial success can also be seen in the design and implementation of a pre-registration system that allowed relevant parties to place orders for vaccines…
All of the problems in this case can be traced in some measure to communication issues. Communications with the public, between governmental agencies, and with physicians and pharmacies providing vaccines all took place with a fair amount of efficacy but with key gaps or missteps. Though practical issues of the virus itself and the lack of an appropriate vaccine created the problem, it could have been more effectively dealt with had there been a more established and tested means of communication amongst Tennessee's public health entities. Greater transparency and immediacy in communications would also have been desirable.
Tennessee and the relevant officials/authorities in the state clearly learned from the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, given their comments in the case, and the lessons of this case can also be used to generate broader recommendations regarding the handling of public health issues and communication issues in complex systems on a more general basis. It is highly recommended that current communication protocols and hierarchies be examined and tested as applicable to ensure that an event with rapidly changing information and a need for comprehensive knowledge can be properly addressed. Ensuring that a clear system of communication that includes all relevant parties is in place before an emergency event is the only real means of ensuring that it will adequately operate during an emergency event. It is also recommended that even loosely organized and laterally extended networks, such as Tennessee's public health network, be given some degree of centrality when it comes to communication in order to facilitate the more effective and efficient spread of knowledge.
U.S. Military Institute Quarantine?
Law and Policy:
Can the U.S. Military Institute Quarantine Without Legal Issues?
Instituting a quarantine of large numbers of people within the United States would be complicated and difficult, but is it legal? More clearly, is it legal for the military to do such a thing without any kind of legislative or legal issue. If it is legal for the military to do this, there must be various requirements that have to be met in order to ensure that issues are handled properly. If it is not legal for the military to undertake such action, why not? And is there legislation being considered that would make this type of action legal? The question comes about in light of recent issues with the H1N1 "swine flu" scare, where many people thought the U.S. was going to be overtaken by this new strain of flu that would kill…
18 U.S.C. § 1385 - Use of Army and Air Force as Posse Comitatus
Ahrcanum. (2009). H1N1 swine flu quarantine legal in USA. Retrieved from http://ahrcanum.wordpress.com/2009/09/28/h1n1-swine-flu-quarantine-usa/
Hendell, G.B. (2011). Domestic use of the armed forces to maintain law and order -- posse comitatus pitfalls at the inauguration of the 44th president" Publius (2011) 41(2): 336-348
Lindorff, D. (1988). Could It Happen Here? Mother Jones Magazine.
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.
In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).
In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…
Cavendish, M. (2007). Diseases and Disorders (p. 328). Marshall Cavendish.
Groseth, A., Feldmann, H., & Strong, J.E. (2007). The ecology of Ebola virus. Trends in Microbiology, 15(9), 408-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.001.
Petersen, W. (1995). Outbreak. Warner Bros. Pictures.
Preston, R. (2009). Panic in Level 4 (p. 230). Random House, Inc.
Their entire procedure was completed in less than 28 minutes. The current H5N1 tests, on the toehr hand, occur around the space of 4 hours.
Their point-of-care tests are comprised of an instrument that has a disposable component and, by being low cost and rapid to use, is ideal for those countries that need it most and where, due to depleted resources, the influenza vaccine is unavailable. Resources for creating their point-of-care tests are inexpensive: a CD-ROM drive, a power supply, a spindle stepper motor for microfluidic actuation, and optics for fluorescence detection. Most countries can, with help from generous and more privileged others, come up with these requirements. Transport and storage related issues would need to be transfigured into the expense.
The authors provide an important and under mentioned perspective to treatment of H5N1 influenza by noting that countries that most need the vaccination and treatment are not…
In this way, the authors' contribution has global and far-reaching results and they have reason to believe that the microfluidic system described in their article can be "an attractive diagnostic platform, especially for decentralized environmental, biological, or medical testing" (p.4).
Pipper, J. et al. (2007) Catching bird flu in a droplet. Nature Medicine; (Technical Reports), 1- 5.
Communication & Price
The target market will be composed of major retailers like Walmart, Target, CVS, Walgreens, as well as, regional and national grocery chain pharmacies. Each of these retailers already contains a product mix for these products that is diverse and cost competitive. Thus the company will have to work to differentiate itself in every way possible. One strategy for differentiation could be the product packaging and the container.
The products should be packaged in a way that separates them from the rest of the crowd. One idea would be to offer a more portable bottle that would fit into someone's pants or purse much easier. Usually products in this niche are packaged in a child proof bottle or in an individually wrapped sheet in which you have to peel back some kind of plastic to be able to access a single dosage. There are many versions…
Six days after his initial complaint, the patient returned with worsening symptoms and was admitted to the hospital. No bacterial or viral infections could be found, but the patient was treated with antibiotics anyway as his symptoms suggested that his respiratory distress and other symptoms were due to some sort of infection. The fact that his condition continued to worsen without any notable effect from broad-spectrum antibiotics suggests that perhaps the physicians erred in this assessment, and that the negative results of the many tests for infectious agents administered to the patient were more accurate than the physicians thought. Focusing attentions more immediately on other potential causes and more direct methods of symptom relief, either in addition to or instead of the antibiotic treatment and observation that constituted the primary means of treatment at this stage, might have prevented or at least postponed the need for intubation and the mechanical…
Designing a eseach study: Two scenaios
Lewisville Health Sevices, a family health clinic, has seen few people coming in to eceive the influenza vaccine. The bochue advocating getting the vaccine that is distibuted to clinic uses seems to be ineffective. The goal of the eseach is to encouage moe clients to eceive the vaccine.
Reseach method and souces of infomation
This quantitative study will distibute a suvey to clinic uses, asking them if they intend to get the vaccine, if they eceived the vaccine in the past and ask them vaious questions about why they did o did not eceive the vaccine. Thei peceptions of the clinic's cuent maketing of the vaccine will also be assessed.
Natue of data to be gatheed and analyzed
The data gatheed and analyzed will be quantitative in natue, as it will be based upon a distibuted suvey to all clinic paticipants. Client's demogaphic infomation…
references and given sample pizzas to taste-test. Then, they will answer a quantitative survey on their buying habits.
Nature of data to be gathered and analyzed
A mixed method approach will be used: testers will be interviewed and observed in a qualitative fashion. They will also answer a quantitatively analyzed questionnaire about their tastes, eating habits, and frozen food consumption.
Hypothesis or hypotheses to be proved or disproved
The new frozen pizzas will be popular amongst teenagers and working couples who need to put a hot meal quickly on the table every night.
Scenario Background -- Jack Parks is the benefit manager for a division of USA Motors. He is concerned about the level of absenteeism and the "paid absence" agreement negotiated a decade ago. The theory was that by giving workers a full week of paid absence against which they could charge personal absence, they would be encouraged to plan ahead and let supervisors know when they might be gone so that staffing could remain consistent. In reality, workers discovered that by not charging off any paid absence days they could receive a full week's pay in June when the company paid unused benefit hours. Workers had, in fact, come to think of it as a bonus that coincided with summer vacations when USA shut down for inventory in the summer. Parks believes that he can control this abuse of a benefit by a series of percentile deductions on future…
Absenteeism Control Programs. (2005). Performance Development International. Retrieved from: http://www.pdii.net/hrservices_Absenteeism.aspx
Kole, M. (January 8, 2010). Trying to Understand Union Mentality. Kole Hard Facts of Life. Retrieved from: http://kolehardfacts.blogspot.com/2010/01/trying-to-understand-union-mentality.html
McClenney, M. (1992). A Study of the Relationship Between Absenteeism and Job Satisfaction. Applied Research Projects, Texas State University, 241. Retrieved from: http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/241/
Treble, J. And Barmby, T. (2011). Worker Absenteeism and Sick Pay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
John Brown applied for a job as a grounds worker at a federal facility and was denied employment because of his sexual orientation. He asks you to explain the law relevant to his situation. What if the same thing happened at Boston University?
Unfortunately title VII does not prohibit discrimination because of an individual's sexual orientation. Though Title VII prohibits discrimination because of sex, the word sex is interpreted gender. However, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), is a proposed U.S. federal law that would prohibit discrimination against employees on the basis of sexual orientation. If it happened at Boston University, the University would pursue affirmative action and adherence to state and federal laws.
Six months after Harry was hired as a part-time retail clerk, twenty hours a week, he called in sick on a Wednesday morning..At first, his mother told the store manager that Harry had the flu and would…
The teacher wasn't very approachale either. He seemed to e kind of cynical aout students and their "excuses" for not doing their work, and I was afraid he wouldn't elieve me. But my conscience othered me! I like to do my own work actually. Most of the time it is pretty interesting.
What I ended up doing was to e-mail the teacher and ask him for an extension. I told him aout my fever and how sick I had een and that I wanted to do the paper ut I needed more time. He actually responded positively! He said I had een a "conscientious student" all semester, so he had no prolem with giving me a few days more. I asked my cousin to give me her iliography as I figured that would save me some time, and I had almost no troule locating the sources in it online and…
bibliography as I figured that would save me some time, and I had almost no trouble locating the sources in it online and printing them out. I read most of the materials on conditions in prison and wrote my own paper. I turned it in, and I got an a-minus on it! I was pretty happy afterwards that I didn't cheat. If I had, the a-minus wouldn't have belonged to me. Besides, I learned quite a bit.
Nik and the following is my problem. I have been assigned to a beautiful island in order to help my team, Alex and Chris, set up their work site. Kava, the island itself, is battered with more challenges that I have ever lived with that include tidal waves/tsunami; typhoons/hurricanes; tornadoes; floods; fires; volcanic eruptions; earthquakes. Add to this mixture HIV / AIDS; petroleum spill; high risk for avian flu; and terrorism and you understand why I am queasy about the chances of success and, more so, perplexed about where to start. Aside from the above external problems that impact the project, internal challenges include disorganization of the work location and site; shoddy H procedures, chaotic organizational structure; and non-harmonious workforce that has been reflected in the organization's history of high turnover.
My task, according to Alex and Chris, consists in helping them establish a greater presence in Kava. Ways of…
MindTools.Com. Paired Comparison Analysis. Retrieved on 2/24/2012 from:
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…
About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical
Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
Fear as an Advertising Tactic
Americans are considered to be one of the most highly exposed peoples to commercial advertising in the world. From television (an entertainment medium in which the average adult spends 254 minutes a day engaged), to print media, to internet banner ads, the American consumer culture is kept humming through the often, guerilla tactics of top advertising firms.
Although there have been many concerns about the sheer volume of advertising in all forms of media from as long as it has been in existence, the relatively new and growing trend of using health-related fears to sell products is particularly alarming. It is this trend that Benjamin Radford mentions in his book, Media Mythmakers, that actually "threatens" to manipulate consumers to the detriment of society as a whole.
It seems that the concept of an "informed citizenry" has become almost passe in modern times -- especially when…
East Trading Company
From Stockholm's perspective, the clearest signs of the company's problems came from the FETC half- year report. As such, operating income was down by 26% in Swedish krona terms and most activities were encountering serious net operating losses.
In terms of operations, there were significant signs of accounting fraud and cost control deficiencies. Additional, many of the operations seemed to be function at much less than the desired potential. The Chinese plant is an excellent example: a state of the art production facility was operating at only 70% of its capacity. As we can see from these examples, the cause of the company's misfortunes had only a secondary cause in the Asian Crisis. The more important one was given by the bad management and organizational practices.
In terms of the financial situation, the company had contracted several important credits on the international financial market and the subsequent…
1. Case online at www.t-bird.edu/faculty_research/case_series/cases_1999/far_east_trading.htm
Newspapers frequently feature stories democratic principles processes contribute democratic governance impact a wide variety issues ranging distribution flu vaccines legal venue terrorist trials. Public policies formulated address issues result influence application democratic principles processes.
Public policy issue: Healthcare reform
The issue of healthcare
Healthcare is an extremely complex, bureaucratic public policy issue. However, it is also very emotional for many Americans given healthcare encompasses the 'hot button' issues of physical health and spending large amounts of money. The recent debate over the Affordable Care Act is only one of many national 'conversations' about healthcare that has resulted in partisan divisions even within families.
Democratic principle 1: Autonomy
Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the ACA is the individual mandate, which states that all Americans must have health insurance or pay a penalty unless this will cause them undue hardship. Many conservatives bridle at the fact that they are being 'compelled'…
Belvedere, M. (2013). Truth about Obamacare? Mandate wasn't needed. CNBC. Retrieved:
Nelson, S. (2013). Colin Powell endorses single-payer health care. U.S. News and World Report.
I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).
The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…
American Society for Microbiology and (Corporate Author) Patrick R. Murray. (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Manual of Clinical Microbiology). 8th ed. American Society Microbiology.
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov /h1n1flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov /h1n1flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The result is that the flu pandemic created a greater respect from citizens to medical professionals and also increased the role of government in preventing and anticipating the spread of infectious diseases.
Overall Crosby's work makes very valid arguments; his intent throughout the book is to provide an analysis of the impact of the influenza pandemic. He wanted the reader to understand precisely why this pandemic, though so large in scope and so damaging to the youth of merica during that era has escaped the national consciousness. He argues that this is the result of apt responses by government and the emergence of a new confidence in the medical profession. On all of these counts Crosby has succeeded admirably, he demonstrates through his narrative how even though individuals became more hysterical over the threat of the flu, they were at the same time persuaded and assuaged by local, state and…
America's Forgotten Pandemic" has become extremely popular over the course of the last twenty years. Mainly because it provides a vivid account of another modern pandemic that threatens to mirror the myriad of epidemics that the world is confronting. The similarities between the avian flu scare as well as the current fight against AIDS have made this book much more vivid in the minds of both the public and scholars. This book has now been in print for over twenty five years, and has released itself in a new addition. It is primarily worth reading because it is not only a book about the pandemic, but more so a thorough psychological review of why the pandemic has such a strong influence upon the national consciousness of 1918, but is barely referenced in narratives in contemporary society. The blending of psychology, medical history and the thrill of narrative writing makes this book a highly worthy read.
Crosby is a noted American history; he is the Professor Emeritus in American Studies, History and Geography at the University of Texas at Austin where he has taught for twenty years. His specialty has been on the historical significance of "national terror events," and he has published numerous book sons the theme of reality vs. The national psychology. In this narrative, he uses thorough research to recreate the feelings and emotions that encompassed the crisis. In particular he uses primary narratives such as newspaper accounts during the tragedy as well as first hand narratives from people who lived through the crisis. His strong use of primary sources is probably why the stories and case studies he provides are so vivid. In addition to the primary sources he used to recreate the narrative of the pandemic, he also used many secondary resources to support the rise of the medical profession and the impact of the epidemic upon the historical response and the current practice of the medical profession. This is especially evident in his research on the changes that occurred to government responses to epidemics as a result of the 1918 pandemic. In both of these areas he uses strong research to support his story and not only provides a strong academic review of the impact, both psychological and real, of the pandemic but also a stirring story of tragedy, pain, and fear that arose from the actual people affected by the Spanish flu. In general I found this book to be very engrossing and would definitely recommend it to others.
Crosby, Alfred, America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)
Eating Right and Grtting Excercise in Prison
Preventive care is the best care and one of the best methods of preventive medicine is physical activity—i.e., exercise (Loprinzi, 2015). That is because exercise keeps the body humming like a well-used vehicle: nothing gets rusty; muscles, organs, arteries, heart and lungs all work together to give the body what it needs. Can exercise alone address all health-related issues or prevent one from getting the influenza virus? No—but exercise is a good start because it can help keep the immune system operating at a high level. The body’s immune system is the first line of defense, and if it is weakened by lack of exercise, the flu virus could be far more devastating on a body. As Boergeling and Ludwig (2017) note, “the immune system needs to be delicately balanced between immune response and tolerance to protect the host from pathogens while…
The focus of the article is upon the unique constitution and needs of the elderly, not upon herpes zoster or influenza as a national phenomenon particular to the United States. However, all of the studies it cites are based in the United States, and SV has been primarily studied as a phenomenon occurring in the U.S. The prevalence of nursing homes in the United States might also make the article more relevant to U.S. practitioners, and the regulatory and drug treatments it discusses are particular to North American, such as the FDA.
Supporting evidence: What scientific evidence does the author(s) present to support his or her claims?
The article's most conclusive evidence is found in its treatment of influenza. It notes that in the 40% to 60% of elderly patients in whom the influenza vaccine produces the desired immunity, an effective immune response can be mounted within 10 to 14…
Bader, Mazen & David S. McKinsey. (2005, Nov). "Viral infections in the elderly."
Postgraduate Medicine. 118.5: 45-54
As of May 2, 2009, CNN has reported there are 160 confirmed cases of swine flu across the United States of America and about 108 cases throughout the rest of the world.
Although the swine flu (H1N1) strain's discovery in the 1930s has shown not so much an aggressive spread of the disease through the years worldwide, a flaccid approach to the prevention and eradication of any communicable pathogen could result into a catastrophe worldwide, as transmission methods are numerous and casual like mere sneezing, coughing, and usual human activities, like handshakes, kissing and talking with an infected or healthy pathogen carrier.
Preventive measures include keeping one's self healthy by having a well-balanced diet, taking in ample or optimal amounts of water (8 glasses of water for normal individuals) to keep one normally hydrated, getting enough quality sleep and rest (normally 8 hours of sleep) with some stress relieving naps,…
Black, Richard. Global Warming risk 'much higher'. BBC NEWS. 23 May 2006.
Price, Volume, And isk Variances Analysis
The first step in the computation of revenue is to calculate volume, and price variances:
Number of patients receiving flu shots =1200
Charge per flu shot =$
Number of flu patients=1400
Charge per patient =$
Formula to calculate the projected revenue Total evenue is as follows:
= "Number of total patients receiving flu shots * total charge per flu shot) + (Number of total flu patients * total charge per patient)"
= (1200 x 55) + (1400 x 70)
= 66,000 + 98,000
Total evenue = $164,000.
The next step is to calculate the projected revenue as revealed as follows:
Estimated total number of flu shots =400
Estimated total charge per flu shot =$
Estimated number of flu patients = 1,600
Estimated charge per patient = $
Formula to calculate the projected revenue is as follows:
(Estimated total number of flu shots…
Larson, K.D. (2004).Fundamental Accounting Principles. Sixteenth Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2004.
Ott, E.R. & Schilling, E.G. (1990). Process Quality Control -- Troubleshooting and Interpretation of Data, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill.
However, their theories, like the catastrophic predictions, lack real, hard, personal evidence. They may be right - but what if they are wrong and civilization does nothing to combat global warming and the other issues facing the Earth?
In conclusion, it seems that many of the people who are so convinced the Earth will survive on its own are ignoring many of the facts. The Earth's survival has depended on regeneration and re-growth in the past, and many species have been eliminated in global events of the past (think of the dinosaurs). During these historic events, man was a blip on the global landscape, or did not exist at all. Today, billions of humans populate the planet and pollute it in a wide variety of ways. The Earth has been able to survive natural events in the past because it was naturally able to regenerate. Today, man has altered the…
Bailey, R. Two sides to global warming: Is it proven fact, or just conventional wisdom? 20 Nov. 2004.
BBCNews. Pollution hot spots. 2004
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Strategic Healthcare Management
How is the strategic planning process for a healthcare organization different from that of other service industries?
It is often said that there is no good time to become ill -- however, from the health care provider's point-of-view, an unplanned rise in community ailments is an unfortunate unplanned excess cost to the organization as well as an unfortunate blow to a number of individual's states of health. This is why strategic planning of health care costs for organizations must evaluate the appropriateness, necessity, and quality of the prescribed services on a retrospective basis, as well as on a prospective or concurrent basis. ((ProPAC, 1996)
In contrast to other service industries, it can be more difficult for healthcare organizations to plan for seasonal rises and lows in demands placed upon the institutions and its works. True, flu and allergy season brings certain predictable demands for flu shots and…
CDC. (14 Nov 2005) "Patient Screening Form: Who should and who should not get a flu shot?" Retrieved 12 May 2005 at http://www.cdc.gov /flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
IDSA lecture, Finch (2006) offers seven arguments against mandatory influenza vaccinations for health care workers. The reasons are primarily philosophical, political, and ethical in nature. Although Finch (2006) substantiates his primary claims with references to literature and historical precedent, none of the claims refer to the ultimate goal of vaccination programs: reducing rates of serious illness or death resulting from influenza. Finch's (2006) arguments are sound and tight, but would be enhanced greatly by references to the role mandatory vaccination might play in reducing the spread of highly communicable diseases. Likewise, the author does not provide sufficient counterpoints to the core arguments and does not entertain the opposing viewpoint. There is no mention of influenza rates, the potential for disease proliferation among at-risk communities, or the role mandatory vaccinations may play in diseases other than influenza, such as Ebola.
In spite of the weaknesses in the Finch (2006) argument, the…
Whether or not mandatory vaccine programs are effective in achieving health care goals is the core point. The issue of civil liberties infractions is a serious one, as health care workers do have the right to self-determination. However, it can also be said that health care workers are a special community of individuals exposed on a regular basis to infectious diseases. Given this fact, health care workers may need to occasionally sacrifice their civil liberties for the common good to which their profession is pledged: to uphold and promote public health.
Finch, M. (2006). Point: Mandatory influenza vaccination for all health care workers? Seven reasons to say no. IDSA Lecture. In Clinical Infectious Diseases 42, 1141-1143.
If it is understated, however, lives may be lost due to lack of preparation.
One of the difficulties of changing childhood eating habits is the uncertain degree to which environment, genetics, and culture are contributing to the adult and childhood obesity epidemic. One primary intervention would be to study the degree to which influences such as junk food advertising, school lunches, and the proximity of fast food restaurants to schools affect students' BMI. By assessing the degree to which exposure to unhealthy food advertising, meals in schools, and availability of snacks outside of school affect a student's weight, this could provide guidance as to what strategies should be used to prevent childhood obesity. On a secondary level, treating children who are overweight or at risk for obesity with specific intervention programs that could be compared against the weight and health records of control groups would give further guidance…
As a result, this meant that it was only a matter of time until obvious supply chain issues would become a problem. ("Flu Vaccine Case Study")
In 2005, this situation was made even worse, when Chiron announced that the U.S. stockpile was in jeopardy. This is because of contamination issues at the Liverpool, England plant. This lead to major shortages, as the federal government was forced to shut down the plant and look for available supplies elsewhere. In some cases, this meant that rationing was being used, as the drug was limited to the most high risks segments of the population. This occurred in places such as: New York City and Washington D.C. While at the same time, many public officials were looking at other stock piles from foreign-based manufacturers. This created some concern, as many Americans went to Canada to be immunized. as, there were fears based on: the…
"Flu Vaccine Case Study." The Electronic Hallway, n.d.
"How to Write Memos." Poly U, 2010. Web. 2 Apr. 2011.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
While it is important in such widespread and far-reaching networks to ensure that individual elements within the network are empowered to make decisions as they see fit, it is even more important that each node in the network is given access to all relevant information in a current and comprehensive manner (Porche, 2004). A plan needs to be in place for dealing with these health issues that takes the potentials of each entity's position in the public healthcare network into account, such that there is greater consistency and efficiency in the decisions made by each of these individual entities (Porche, 2004). If all counties or health districts/departments had similarly understood the potentials of the mist-form vaccine, as one key example, the vaccine shortages for the population at large would not have been as severe even though certain high priority could not have utilized this vaccine (Giles & Howitt, 2011). Furthermore,…
CDC. (2010). 2009 H1N1 Flu. Accessed 15 October 2012. http://www.cdc.gov /h1n1flu/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>