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Consent & Ethics
Complications stemming from patient-counselor interactions remain a key source of ethical violations and complaints. Informed consent is a major issue with a direct bearing on the counselor-patient relationship. In clinical avenues, the origin of informed consent continues to have a direct outgrowth of advances in professional ethics, legal precedents, and continuous moral development. Through informed consent, patients have been able to take responsibility and explore options for their well-being (Welfel, 2012). They achieve this through considering the benefits and costs associated with the procedures and services offered to them and options to those services. Informed consent tends to be integrated to self-determination, ethics, and patient autonomy. It is determinately the starting point of the counselor-patient provider relationship. In this way, it poses as the genesis of the three main components of ethical conduct: beneficence, nonmalefience, and autonomy.
The American Code of Ethics for Psychologists had as…
Besley, T. (2012). Counseling youth: Foucault, power, and the ethics of subjectivity. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger.
Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions. Belmont, Calif: Brooks/Cole.
Fisher, C.B. (2013). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. London: SAGE.
Fisher, M.A. (2013). The ethics of conditional confidentiality: A practice model for mental health professionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
consent a "yes or no" response? Enhancing the shared decision-making process for persons with aphasia
Informed consent constitutes a legal and moral requisite for any research works that involve fellow human beings. Study subjects are provided information regarding every element of a study trial deemed to be vital for subjects' decision-making, including study significance with respect to societal welfare and for advancing the medical field. After an examination of every trial related facet, subjects ought to be able to voluntarily confirm their readiness to be a part of the given clinical trial. This 'informed consent' principle has been imbedded in the Helsinki Declaration, Belmont eport and Nuremberg Code. It is compulsory before commencing any study that entails humans as research subjects (Jayes & Palmer, 2014). This provision essentially suggests if the subject's mental or physical state allows for informed, well- thought-out decisionmaking. But aphasics aren't always able to satisfy the…
Blackmer, J. (2003). The unique ethical challenges of conducting research in the rehabilitation medicine population.BMC medical ethics, 4(1), 2.
Jayes, M., & Palmer, R. (2014). Initial evaluation of the Consent Support Tool: A structured procedure to facilitate the inclusion and engagement of people with aphasia in the informed consent process. International journal of speech-language pathology, 16(2), 159-168.
Mendyk, A. M., Labreuche, J., Henon, H., Girot, M., Cordonnier, C., Duhamel, A.,. ..& Bordet, R. (2015). Which factors influence the resort to surrogate consent in stroke trials, and what are the patient outcomes in this context? BMC medical ethics, 16(1), 26.
Purtilo, R. B., & Doherty, R. F. (2016). Ethical dimensions in the health professions.
Consent egarding Qsen Competencies14
The following paper describes patient safety as being one of the concerns of patient care. It also discusses the QSEN competency related to patient safety. Moreover, the paper describes the significance of patient safety with reference to the QSEN competency. A review of literature and a case example related to the aforementioned topics are also included. Lastly, the paper gives implications related to better patient safety.
Patient Care Concern
Health is very important to everyone and therefore, people pay a great deal of attention to their health problems and concerns. The nursing staff taking care of patients is also concerned about the issues that the patient may face. As the patient starts getting medical help, there are multifarious issues and concerned that, he may encounter. The nurses must then keep these issues in mind in order to ensure a healthy recovery of the patient. (Scott, 2003)…
Barry, M.J. & Edgman-Levitan, S. (2012). Shared decision making -- the pinnacle of patient-centered care.New England Journal Of Medicine, 366 (9), pp. 780 -- 781.
Batalden, P., Bednash, G., Blackwell, J., Cronenwett, L., Day, L., Drenkard, K., Durham, C., Hall, L., Ironside, P., Johnson, M. (., Ladden, M., Moore, S., Nelson, A., Sherwood, G., Smith, E. & Tagliareni, M.E. (2014). Graduate-Level QSEN Competencies-Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes. [e-book] Washington, D.C.: American Association of Colleges of Nursing. pp. 7-8. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/faculty/qsen/competencies.pdf [Accessed: 12 Apr 2014].
Gorski, L. (2010). Development of the 2011 Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice. International Journal Of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 8 (3), p. 169.
Kizer, K. (2001). Patient safety: a call to action: a consensus statement from the National Quality Forum.Medgenmed: Medscape General Medicine, 3 (2), pp. 10 -- 10.
Healthcare Law, Ethics & Policy, Healthcare Terminology
TRULY INFORMED CONSENT
Healthcare Law, Ethics and Policy Healthcare Terminology
Current forms of informed consent for cataract surgery -- and perhaps, all forms of surgery -- may appear complete and thorough (AAO, 2015; Koch & Koch, 2009). ut they also appear to be lopsided. The following are, therefore, recommended to improve these forms:
Patients should be shown a video of actual cataract surgical procedures and the details explained before they are asked to consider the option. The video should show how the surgery is performed ste-by-step so that the patient can know what to expect if he opts for it;
The brochures and video should be prepared with the patient's educational level and age -- as well as other important factors. All technical and medical terms should be thoroughly explained in the patient's language and level or capability of understanding. The health practitioner…
AAO (2015). Informed consent for cataract surgery. Ophthalmic Mutual Insurance
Company: American Academy of Ophthalmology. Retrieved on February 21, 2015
Koch, Paul and Koch, Patricia (2009). Informed consent for cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Koch Eye Associates: St. James Surgery Center.
consent is critical to the ethical underpinnings of medical research and procedures in any field. Both verbal and written consent will be required in most situations, because "obtaining written informed consent from a potential subject is more than just a signature on a form," (UCI, 2014). It is our responsibility as health care workers to talk with patients, and be honest about the risks of procedures, their alternatives, and any information related to confidentiality and privacy. Informed consent should be considered more as a "process" than as a one-time event in which a patient signs a form (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 1993). The client, participant in research, or patient needs to be thoroughly debriefed in ways that are comprehensible and meaningful to them, in language they can understand. This is particularly important in situations where the patient and doctor speak different languages or come from different…
Coons, S. (2012). Informed consent forms growing too complex. Research Practitioner 13(5).
UCI (2014). How to consent. Retrieved online: http://www.research.uci.edu/compliance/human-research-protections/researchers/how-to-consent.html#definitions
United States Department of Health and Human Services (1993). Office for human research protections (OHRP). Retrieved online: http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/policy/ictips.html
THE PATIENT AND POVIDE ELATIONSHIP
At any hospital like ABC, informed consent is not needed during emergencies. During emergencies, there lacks time to offer a vivid description of risks involved while physicians act quickly in saving life. Patients do not have an opportunity of suing for absence of informed consent within similar situations even as they did not allow the treatment. Trust remains one of the vital elements that patient-doctor relationships exist. Patients and doctors should believe that other parties are honest and have a willingness in providing necessary information to influence treatment and advice. The medical professional needs to consult the information on patient for potential benefits and risks based on options through availing support to patients and informed choice. It is prudent for caregivers to pay careful attention to processing informed consent and choice in proposing treatment as expensive or way innovative (Maclean, 2009). If patients choose…
Kazmier, J. (2008). Health Care Law. New York: Cengage Learning.
Lindh, W., Pooler, M., & Morris, J. (2013). Delmar's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies. New York: Cengage Learning.
Maclean, A. (2009). Autonomy, Informed Consent, and Medical Law: A Relational Challenge. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Proposal for Early Intervention Project
In the recent past, the issue of family violence against children in the aboriginal communities has attracted significant attention of different stakeholders involved in the protection of the rights of the children (Backlar & Cutler, 2002). While significant attention has concentrated on the identification of the effective strategies for curbing general family violence, limited research has been done on family violence on children in Aboriginal communities (Bowman, 2004). Therefore, the following presents a proposal of the intervention that can be applied to ensure the reduction of cases of family violence against children in Aboriginal communities found in Australia. The analysis begins by providing the objectives of the program, method of intervention, ethical implications of the approach, and resources required for the success of the research. It also provides an analysis of the budgetary requirements, method of program evaluation, and the limitations that are…
Backlar, P., & Cutler, D.L. (Eds.). (2002). Ethics in community mental health care: Commonplace concerns. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Bowman, P.J. (2004). Ethical issues related to research with communities of color, Jane Addams College of Social Work Pre-Doctoral and Doctoral Program Conference. University of Illinois at Chicago: Bowman, Phillip J.
Campbell, J.C., & Dienemann, J.D. (2001). Ethical issues in research on violence against women. In C.M. Renzetti, J.L. Edelson & R. Kennedy Bergen (Eds.), Sourcebook on violence against women (pp. 57-72). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Carlson, E.B., Newman, E., Daniels, J.W., Armstrong, J., Roth, D., & Loewenstein, R. (2003). Distress in response to and perceived usefulness of trauma research interviews. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 4(2), 131-142.
Latha (2010) notes, "Legally, treatment without consent is permissible only where common law or statute provides such authority" (p. 96) and in the case of the schizophrenic patient who refuses to take the prescribed medication the question comes down to whether the person is legally capable of making a decision. If so, then he has every right to refuse treatment; if not, treatment may be given him. This is the essence of the Health Care Consent Act, which is used to determine whether such a person as the schizophrenic patient is capable of deciding for himself (Downie, Caulfield, Flood, 2011).
The two questions that must be asked with regards to the Health Care Consent Act are: 1) Is the person capable or able of understanding the data that is relevant to his making a decision regarding treatment? 2) Is the person capable or able of appreciating the likely consequences of…
Confidentiality Breaches in Clinical Practice
The confidentiality and privacy of patients are considered as one of the fundamental freedoms that they should enjoy and are safeguarded under Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPPA). It is also a precept of the American Medical Association’s Code of Ethics and the Hippocratic Oath. The breach of confidentiality is unethical and illegal.
Medical professionals are under the obligation of protecting the patient’s confidentiality. Confidentiality and privacy prohibit medical providers from unlawful disclosure of the patient’s information. Some of the inappropriate disclosures include discussing a patient’s case in the elevators or corridors, giving out extra copies of handouts from conferences while they contain identifiable patients’ details and any other possible leakage of information to unauthorized individuals (Beltran-Aroca et al. 52). In clinical practice, the patients’ confidentiality can be breached due to indiscretion, carelessness, and sometimes malice. Medical practitioners are obligated legally and…
Although the San Francisco police do not carry stun guns they do carry Tasers, and Tasers work on the same mechanism as those of stun guns shooting darts that deliver electric shots to stun suspects. It is said that 334 individuals died from these electric shots during the years 20001 to 2008. If that is so, the AHP can publish the results on its page pointing out that the effects of so-called not-so-lethal stun guns are actually quite lethal indeed.
The Belmont eport
The basic ethical principles to be considered in all human research studies involves:
1. espect for persons -- This involves two categories: (a) that all people regardless of ethnic, gender, mental, physical and any sort of distinction should be treated with dignity and respect, and accorded their autonomous right to do as they wish. (b) That individuals who are more vulnerable should be accorded special…
The Belmont Report HHS.gov http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/ guidance/belmont.html
Rutgers Protection of human research subjects http://orsp.rutgers.edu/index.php?q=content/announcement-human-subjects-international-researcher-guidance-and-procedures
The Truth About Psychiatric Drugs (Thursday, 11 August 2011). AHRP.
Requirements for licensure for psychologists under the American Psychologist Association (APA) set certain educational and ethical standards that govern the profession. Now clinical psychology is, much like medicine and law, a discipline accorded respect in society, and an individual who seeks counseling can feel confident being open and trusting of a licensed therapist. A therapist cannot claim to be a professionally licensed therapist under the law, unless he or she possesses specific qualifications. Licensing is vital to maintaining trust in the profession, as ethical questions grow more contentious regarding psychotherapy, such as the question therapists that do research funded by drug companies on psychoactive drugs, or who testify to the competency of a defendant or witness to stand trial or make decisions about his or her health. Licensing and standardization of qualifications increases confidence that the individual is giving acceptable advice based in evidence and professional ethics.
Certain aspects of…
Competency. (2009). Ascension Health. Retrieved March 2, 2009 at http://www.ascensionhealth.org/ethics/public/issues/competency.asp
Lloyd, Raymond. (2009). A Guide to Psychology and its Practice.
Retrieved March 2, 2009 at www.GuideToPsychology.com
Rosenfeld, Barry. (2002). The psychology of competence and informed consent: Understanding decision-making with regard to clinical research. Fordham Urban Law Journal. 30.
consent? When you consider this, consider the two senses referenced in the lecture notes (slide 49). Were both senses of informed consent met?
In the case of the Havasupai, informed consent was given, and approval received, but only to study the blood samples of tribe members for diabetes. All the IB and the individual researchers had to do was to rephrase the informed consent agreement to read something like, "Your blood sample and DNA material may be used for scientific research in a range of fields." As Harmon (2010) points out, "Studies have estimated that most individuals -- perhaps more than 90% -- are willing to allow their data to be used for a range of biomedical research. It is when they are not asked that problems arise," (Harmon). Based on the standard definitions of informed consent, as outlined in slide 49, informed consent was not properly achieved in the…
Harmon, A. (2010b). Indian tribe wins fight to limit research of its DNA. The New York Times. April 21, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/22/us/22dna.html?pagewanted=all
Harmon, A. (2010). Where'd you go with my DNA? The New York Times. April 24, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/25/weekinreview/25harmon.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
They have no formal oversight authority. Practices regarding informed consent are inconsistent. This poses a major concern for patient safety while using CAM.
Complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been criticized for a lack of standards in the delivery of services. Holexa and Caspi (2005) found that this lack of standards extends into the practice of informed consent. Patients often do not have access to proper information during the decision-making process. This increases the potential for healthcare oversights and mistakes.
When one examines informed consent issues, it is found that they are similar to the issues addressed in conventional therapies. The Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute (2008) has developed a set of informed consent and ethics that it requires member practitioners to follow. An examination of this article reveals that standards require full disclosure of evidence-based research regarding the procedure. It requires confidentiality of the procedure, professional courtesy, peer review…
Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute. 2008. Ayurvedic Herbalists Code of Ethics. [online] Available at http://www.ayurveda-california.com/ayurvedic_distance_education_berkeley/Buddhist_five_precepts/American_Herbalist_Guild_ethics.htm [Accessed March 26, 2008]. Primary source. Found by Google search.
Caspi, O. & Holexa, J. 2005. Lack of standards in informed consent in complementary and alternative medicine. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13 (2), 123-130. [online] Available at http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/161/19/2288 [Accessed March 26, 2008]. Primary Source. Science Direct Database online.
Drieman, B. 2006. Informed Consent. Journal of the American Dental Association, 137 (3),288. [online] Available at http://jada.ada.org/cgi/content/full/137/3/288-a?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&minscore=5000&resourcetype=HWCIT.Secondary source. Found by searching "find similar articles in Jacobson article. [Accessed March 26, 2008].
Ernst, E. 2004. Balanced judgments on complementary/alternative medicine. Is informed consent necessary? Rheumatology 2004; 43 (5), 666. [online] Available at http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/5/666 [Accessed March 26, 2008]. Primary Source: found through Google search.
Directly benefit subjects.
2. Advance the development of a medical product necessary to the military.
3. Be carried out under all laws and regulations (i.e., Emergency Research Consent Waiver) including those pertinent to the FDA (McManus, et al. 2005)
The necessity of meeting the conditions of 'informed consent' is crucial since grave ethical ramifications can ensure if this condition were violated. Possibilities of this occurring are anticipated and prevented by an ethics committee or Institutional Review Board.
For informed consent to be legitimate, three are needed: disclosure, capacity and voluntariness (Faden & Beauchamp, 1986).
1. disclosure, - the first is that the researchers disclose all necessary information in a comprehensible and comprehensive way without any undue pressure not from researcher or from anyone else
2. Capacity - The potential participant has the capacity to both understand the given information and follow through making a reasoned decision. His cognitive abilities are…
Faden, R.R., & Beauchamp, T.L. (1986). A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford University Press.
McManus, J.; S.G. Mehta, et al. (2005). Informed consent and ethical issues in military medical research. Academic Emergency Medicine 12 (11): 1120 -- 1126.
This was unknown to a researcher who wanted to test a new rehabilitation drug specifically on long-term alcoholics. As a reward for her participation, he offered Maggie some time away from the center. Maggie of course jumped at the chance without further considering the risk factors to either her physical or emotional health. The counselor working with Maggie should have joined the informed consent process, and would have been able to help her make a better decision.
Recommendation 5.4 states that mechanisms should be in place to protect the privacy and confidentiality of patient records. Confidentiality is of utmost concern, especially for vulnerable patients.
In the rehabilitation profession, the history of drug and alcohol use is of utmost sensitivity and privacy to both in- and outpatients. Those visiting the facility trust its professionals with their deepest secrets, some of which they are utterly ashamed of. It is therefore highly important…
consent embodies the idea that as a matter of ethics and law patients are entitled to be exposed to all of the relevant information that would influence and guide their decision making concerning what treatment that they should follow. However, should clinicians provide medical information to terminally ill patients when they suspect that such information could potentially be used to facilitate their suicide? The issues surrounding full disclosure, beneficence, and therapeutic privilege as they relate to patients and their families are discussed and recommendations regarding how such cases should be conceptualized are discussed.
Should clinicians provide medical information to terminally ill patients when they know or suspect that such information will be used to facilitate their suicide? This dilemma affects patients, their families, physicians, other medical professionals. The notion of "informed consent" as a guiding principle in medicine is at the center of modern professional medical ethics. Informed consent embodies…
Monagle, J.F. (1998). Health care ethics: Critical issues for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publications.
Paterick, T.J., Carson, G.V., Allen, M.C., & Paterick, T.E. (2008). Medical informed consent: General considerations for physicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83(3), 313-319.
Russell, B.J. & Ward, A.M. (2011). Deciding what information is necessary: Do patients with advanced cancer want to know all the details? Cancer Management and Research, 23, 191-199
Shatz, D. (1986). Autonomy, beneficence and informed consent: Rethinking the connections. I. Cancer Investigation, 4, 257-269.
Bohme, C. (2000). The Wages of Seeking Help: Sexual Exploitation by Pofessionals. Westpot, CT: Paege Publishes. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27277229 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861
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Holmes, C.A. (1998). Thee Is No Such Thing as a Theapist: An Intoduction to the Theapeutic Pocess. London: Kanac Books. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078
Redleaf, a., & Baid, S.A. (1998). Behind Closed Doos: Gende, Sexuality, and Touch in the Docto/Patient Relationship. Westpot, CT: Aubun House. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
Thon, B.E., Rubin, N.J., Holdeby, a.J., & Shealy, R.C. (1996). Client -- Theapist Intimacy: Responses of Psychotheapy Clients to a Consume-Oiented Bochue. Ethics & Behavio, 6(1), 17-28. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
references for Informed Consent Information. Ethics & Behavior, 7(4), 311-328. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547
Holmes, C.A. (1998). There Is No Such Thing as a Therapist: An Introduction to the Therapeutic Process. London: Karnac Books. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078
Redleaf, a., & Baird, S.A. (1998). Behind Closed Doors: Gender, Sexuality, and Touch in the Doctor/Patient Relationship. Westport, CT: Auburn House. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
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The ethical dilemma that occurs here is related to the necessity of doing the right procedure, but with the reluctance of the patient to provide consent for it.
In the second case, communicating consent and information can be made difficult by language or cultural barriers. The ethical dilemma relates to whether or not the patient properly understands what he is up against and whether he is able to make an informed decision.
3. With traditional medicine, there is a problem of communication and understanding. The Western patients are not used to TCM, it is something new for them, so a lot of time needs to be spent in delivering the appropriate information in terms of principles and practice before anything can actually be done. If this was applied in China, many of the steps could be skipped, because many of the principles are related to Chinese spiritual practice.
e. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. that it is the unimpaired individual who must shoulder the full responsibility of the decisions he or she is making regarding the end of his or her life. That is in fact the point of the law, that a physician's responsibility as well as the responsibility of anyone who is active in the act of euthanasia is relinquished entirely to the will of the dying individual. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by his or her guardians or care takers. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…
Gilmore, J. (2005, April 4). Court-Ordered Euthanasia: Euthanasia Advocates Claim It Is Not a Crime to Kill as Long as the Victims Cannot Speak for Themselves. The New American, 21, 27.
Kamisar, Y. (1998). Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88(3), 1121-1146.
National Healthcare Agency
Consent and research
Ethical standards that apply to experimentation and research
According to the Society for esearch in Childhood Development (SCD), several basic principles must be followed when research is being conducted on children. The first principle states that the procedures must be non-harmful: "The investigator should use no research procedure that may harm the child either physically or psychologically. The investigator is also obligated at all times to use the least stressful research procedure whenever possible" (Ethical Standards for esearch, 2012, SCD). However, no specific definition of what constitutes 'harm' is given.
There is also the principle of informed consent: consent of the child and the parent. "Before seeking consent or assent from the child, the investigator should inform the child of all features of the research that may affect his or her willingness to participate and should answer the child's questions in terms appropriate to…
Czaja AS, Valuck R. (2012). Off-label antidepressant use in children and adolescents compared with young adults: extent and level of evidence. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug
Saf. (9):997-1004 doi: 10.1002/pds.3312
Ethical Standards for Research. (2012). Society for Research in Childhood Development
Mrs. E (Kluge 2005, pp. 191).
This does not apply to this situation, however, as Jack's competency for decision making is only temporarily impaired, and he will still be caring for himself by and large for the foreseeable future. Thus, a consideration of his best interests must include a consideration of Jack's psychological, emotional, and religious/philosophical attitudes as well (Kluge 2005, pp. 191). Jill asserts that her husband feels very strongly that all individuals should contribute to the welfare and progress of the community, and she believes that medical progress through such things as successful drug trials are a part of this progress and contribution. It is from this stance that she decides to have Jack included in the trial.
There does not appear, at first glance, to be anything wrong with this assessment, yet it must be noted that it is Jill's opinion that medical testing and drug trials…
Any kind of other personal information that is collected will be securely stored and monitored by the Chief Investigator. ("Information Privacy Principals," 2010)
5.2 Give details of the arrangements that have been made for the safe storage of the data and also the measures, which will be adopted to protect confidential records about research participants?
(a) During the study. All data will be securely stored under lock and key.
(b) After the study. All data will be stored under lock and key. The Chief Investigator will be the only person who is allowed access to the information.
5.3 How will confidential records be destroyed after the study is complete?
5.4 Will anyone else, apart from the Chief Investigators, have access to confidential records or human tissue samples?
Yes [ ] No [x]
5.5 May any party, other than investigators claim ownership of the materials or results derived from the…
The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap. (2009). McKinesy & Company. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/app_media/images/page_images/offices/socialsector/pdf/achievement_gap_report.pdf
Information Privacy Principals. (2010). Office of Victorian Privacy Commissioner. Retrieved from: http://www.privacy.vic.gov.au/privacy/web.nsf/content/information+privacy+principles
MP Ignores the Job Needs of the Less Educated. (2010, July). Sydney Mourning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/mps-ignore-job-needs-of-the-less-educated-20100719-10hr1.html
National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia. (2010). Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved from http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/agenda/agenda89/australi.htm
Question #5: Yes. Small samples are totally justifiable however, the statistical tool selected to analyze the data must be able to accommodate small sample size. The statistical techniques employed for small sample size is what applied statisticians call "robust statistics" or certain parametric types such as the t Test. Although the parametric tool is more robust that the non-parametric counterpart, parametric statistical tools with real small samples may produce misleading information because there is no way to determine if the data came from the Guassian population. That is to say, increasing the number of participants from 15 and 14 respectively to at least 30 and 30 might possibly produce result changes. However, there is no real way of knowing unless the study were replicated with a larger group. The advice to any research investigator is to have a sample size of each group of 25 to 30 at least. When…
When it comes to political science and philosophy, there are many subjects and points of analysis that are very intriguing, widely discussed and heavily debated. There are also certain people, both past and present, that have proved themselves as scholars on those political subjects. Such is the case with both John Locke and David Hume. One particular subject that both men weighed in on was the role of consent when it comes to the creation of political obligation. The positions of both men will be covered in this report and the author of the same will come to a conclusion as to which man made the better argument. Political obligation, of course, is the general rule that the law must be obeyed. Consent, on the other hand, is much more nebulous in terms of definition and concept and that will be covered in this report. While both men…
Merrill, in the UK. Following his experience with heart surgery using innovating surgical techniques, the physician noted the problems he experienced in understanding all of his alternatives compared to a simpler earlier procedure, and finally trusted to the advice of his cardiologist to surgically intervene. In response to the experience, Dr. Merrill emphasized that, "As a physician talking to colleagues, I had the best information possible under the circumstances. But it wasn't the same as my hernia repair. The experience brought home to me the realization that the progress of medicine has made informed consent impossible -- even for me" (Merrill 1999: 190).
ationale of Study
Taken together, the foregoing issues indicate that there is an ongoing need for an assessment of knowledge levels of informed consent among perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners. Perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners, though, are frequently subjected to an enormous amount of stress…
Calloway, S.J. (2009) 'The Effect of Culture on Beliefs Related to Autonomy and Informed
Consent.' Journal of Cultural Diversity 16(2): 68-69.
Cobb, W.G. (2005) 'Defending the Informed Consent Case.' Defense Counsel Journal 72(4):
More times than not, a patient will argue that he did not understand what the physician stated to him; even amidst documented proof the medical professional and the patient did engage in an informed conversation. "The fact that a meeting took place does not necessarily mean that there was a meeting of the minds" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 5). This issue leads some health care providers to assert that informed consent forms possess little value, particularly when a legal battle ensues and the professional cannot prove the patient did, in fact, understand the informed consent process.
Currently, lawyers routinely challenge informed consent forms in courtrooms throughout the United States (U.S.). "The model consent forms incorporate substantial details of anesthesia techniques, risks and other elements of 'informed consent', so that a strong presumption is established on its face" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 7). During the informed consent process, to help inoculate…
Anaesth, B.J. (2009). Perioperative visual loss: What do we know, what can we do? Department
of Anesthesia and Critical Care. University of Chicago. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/103/suppl_1/i31
Booth, B. (2008). Informed consent at the heart of New York lawsuit. Retrieved January 26,
2010 from http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2008/03/10/prca0310.htm
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Landmark Legal Cases, Informed Consent:
Implications for the Counseling Field
Many seek counseling each year and do not understand what services are offered, or even that the counselor they see is required by law to maintain the confidentiality of the conversation that the two of them are going to have. These issues have been clouding in the past and have led to many court cases that have helped counselors in every state outline exactly what is required of the document. The American Counseling Association (ACA), and the associations of the different states, have specific ethical guidelines which require members to provide new clients with an informed consent document to sign. State and federal legal cases have shown the need for a document which spells out what the counseling services of a particular practice are, what confidentiality is, and oftentimes how the counseling services will be paid (Walsh & Dasenbrook, 2005).…
American Counseling Association. (2005). Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Bussey, G.D. (1995). Informed consent: Its legal history and impact on medicine. Hawaii Journal of Medicine, 54(4). 469-471.
Walsh, R.J., & Dasenbrook, N.C. (2005). Implementing informed consent. ACA.
Wilder. J. (2000). The ethical question -- informed consent. Medscape Today. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/414664_2
Discussion -- Textbook approach gives a great deal of theory; value of the article is in taking the material and applying it to situations that are relevant to one's current profession and/or understanding different approaches to conflict.
Review -- the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) - the MCMI is a psychological assessment tool that was written to provide information on psychopathology including specifics outlined in the DSM-IV. It is intended for adults over 18 who have at least an 8th grade reading level and who are seeking mental health services. The test was actually developed and standardizes on clinical populations in psychiatric hospitals or individuals with current existing mental health issues. The authors are quite specific about it not being used with the general population or with adolescents, as values will likely not be appropriate for extrapolation (Pearson, 2012).
History -- Published in 1977 by Theodore Millon based on his…
Million, T., et.al. (2006). MCMI-III Manual. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.
Pearson Educational Services. (2012). The Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.
Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/pai/ca/research/resources/faqs/MCMI-III_FAQs
Widiger, T., et.al. (1985). The MCMI and DSM-III. Journal of Personality Assessment.
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to drug addiction.
The recurrence of homelessness for individuals may be frequently attributed to mental illness.
There is a clear reciprocal relationship between homelessness, drug addiction and mental illness.
Mental illness plays a significant role in preventing homeless individuals from f inding suitable long-term housing. .
Singleton identifies the systematic procedure as a form of data gathering in which a survey or interview will be utilized in order to gather information for further analysis. His text points to the large-scale probability study as a form in which substantial populations can be measured according to representative sample sets. The "scientific sampling…
The National Institutional Health (NIH). (1979). Regulations and Ethical Guidelines. The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Singleton, R.A. & Straits, B.C. (1999). Approaches to Social Research. Oxford
Ongoing Duty to Inform
The 2008 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 3.3 under Section A. General Principles adds a comprehensive explanation of the specific duty of researchers to continue the information disclosure element of the duty to inform throughout the participation in the research project. In that regard, the 2008 draft version details the obligation of researchers to bring to participants' attention any information that comes to light subsequent to the initial informed consent acquisition process. That provision further details the obligation to continue providing relevant information even beyond the conclusion of the research study where appropriate or necessary.
The 2008 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 3.4 under Section A. General Principles adds an Incidental Findings section that is absent from the 2003 draft version. In principle, this provision defines incidental findings as findings that could have potentially…
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,
Levine C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:
The McGraw Hill Companies Inc.
The Institutional eview Board (IB) was created to protect human rights in research studies. Prior to the creation of ethical standards in research individual rights were frequently violated without consequence for such actions. Extreme examples of ethical violations include the experiments conducted on individuals during the Nazi Concentration Camps and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. In both cases individuals were inflicted with significant harm without knowledge of the study or willing participation. Currently the Department of Health and Human Services regulates federal guidelines to ensure the safety and protection of participants in research studies. Following ethical guidelines ensures protection of human beings' rights and the integrity of research. In the case study of Lucy, several ethical violations occurred including: lacking of formal IB approval for her research study, issues with informed consent, and misrepresentation of the research authorship.
Lucy, a special education teacher, sought IB approval for her proposed research…
Adam, Z., & Boyd, S. (2010). Ethical challenges in the treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Ethics & Behavior 20 (6).
Roig, M. (2009). Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices:
A guide to ethical writing. Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved from:
ethical decision making in general and then in the nursing profession. It addresses two key questions. What are the different ethical decision making processes? How could the ethical dilemma of informed consent in the nursing profession be resolved using one of these processes? The sources used to collect information are books and academic journals. The teleological approach suggests that informed consent is ethical because its benefits exceed its costs. In other words, its consequences are more unfavourable than opposite.
Ethical decision making is the process by which individuals choose an approach to deal with a moral issue they encounter. In everyday life, professionals often have to deal with moral issues. Therefore, frameworks for dealing with ethical dilemmas are required.
"Ethics is the science of the moral life. It is concerned with human conduct in relation to character and a conception of the good, commonly referred to as the highest good.…
Caples, S.C., Hanna, M.D., Phelps, L. (2008). Linking Ethics Decisions to Philosophical Rationales: An Empirical Study. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues. 11 (2), pp.93+
Dresser, H.W. (1925). Ethics in Theory and Application. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Lachman, V.D. (2006). Applied Ethics in Nursing. New York: Springer.
McConnell, T. (2000). Inalienable Rights: The Limits of Consent in Medicine and the Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
Autonomy in the nursing profession states the importance of the client's role in making decisions that reflect advocacy for the client (Wade, 1999, p.310). Ultimately, this includes taking care of the patient physically as well as mentally and emotionally, developing a relationship with the patient that is beneficial to his care and actively advocating for the patient's rights and care. This type of autonomy, it is important to note, is not the same as individual or work autonomy, yet it must be considered that empowerment in nursing autonomy will inevitably lead to better professional and personal autonomy and should also lead to increased job satisfaction (Wade, 1999, p.310).
Typical definitions of autonomy would include the idea of complete independence for the person making the decisions. However, in the case of the nursing profession, the client's needs and desires must be heavily weighed and, in fact, become central…
Wade, G.H. (1999). Professional nurse autonomy: Concept analysis and application to nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(2), 310-8.
Gaylord, N. & Grace, P. (1995). Nursing advocacy: An ethic of practice. Nursing Ethics, 2(1),
White, L. (2004). Foundations of nursing: Second edition. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.
The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:
Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008
This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).
Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…
Breggin, P.R. (n.d.). Electroshock: Scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved from http://www.sntp.net/ect/breggin1.htm
Electroconvulsive therapy. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/electroconvulsive-therapy/MY00129
Confidentiality and Informed Consent
Confidentiality has for a long period of time been embedded as the foundation of professional social work values. This is primarily because social workers show honesty and respect through safeguarding the confidentiality of their clients. The significance of confidentiality in social work is demonstrated in the fact that it is basis of ethical standards that govern the social work practices. The need for social workers to protect clients' confidentiality is because the nature of their work involves being provided with confidential and private information of clients. One of the events or incidents that have played a crucial role in demonstrating the significance of confidentiality in social work is the decision of Tarasoff v. The Board of egents of the University of California. The process of informed consent and refusal play an important role in confidentiality in the therapist-client relationship.
Tarasoff v. The Board of egents of…
Fisher, C.B. & Oransky, M. (n.d.). Informed Consent to Psychotherapy and the American
Psychological Association's Ethics Code. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://e-psychologist.org/index.iml?mdl=exam/show_article.mdl&Material_ID=79
Fisher, M.A. (n.d.). Selected Ethical Standards About Informed Consent: Counselors (from ACA
Code of Ethics). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://www.centerforethicalpractice.org/ethical-legal-resources/ethical-information/ethical-obligations-informed-consent/selected-ethical-standards-counselors-from-aca-code-of-ethics/
Cultural, Ethical, And Legal Factors in esearch
In research, there are cultural, ethical, and legal factors that have to be addressed, and that are highly significant to the quality and appropriateness of the research and its conclusions. These include IB approval and informed consent, along with whether the study participants were part of a population that was vulnerable. Three articles will be reviewed and addressed here, in order to see whether they were handled acceptably from cultural, ethical, and legal standpoints. Whether the populations that were used for the studies were treated correctly is highly significant when it comes to the safety of those populations and their use in future studies. When older research is used and compiled there are no serious worries about population safety, but when the researchers of a current study decide to conduct a survey or experiment, it is vital to be sure the participants are…
Bibbins-Domingo, K., Pletcher, M.J., Lin, F., Vittinghoff, E., Gardin, J.M., Arynchyn, A., Lewis, C.E., & Williams, O.D. (2009). Racial differences in incident heart failure among young adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(12): 1179-1190.
Gottdiener, J.S., McClelland, R.L., Marshall, R., Shemanski, L., Furberg, C.D., Kitzman, D.W., Cushman, M., Polak, J., Gardin, J.M., Gersh, B.J., Aurigemma, G.P., & Manolio, T.A. (2002). Outcome of congestive heart failure in elderly persons: Influence of left ventricular systolic function. Annals of Internal Medicine, 137(8): 631-639.
Yancy, C.W., Fowler, M.B., Colucci, W.S., Gilbert, E.M., Bristow, M.R., Cohn, J.N., Lukas, M.A., Young, S.T., & Packer, M. (2001). Race and the response to adrenergic blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18): 1358-1365.
Please list sections according to instructions
Exercise 1.1: eview of esearch Study and Consideration of Ethical Guidelines
Option 1: Stanford Prison Experiment
Go to: http://www.prisonexp.org, the official site for the Stanford Prison Experiment.
What do you think the research questions were in this study? List 2 or 3 possible research questions (in question format) that may have been the focus of this experiment.
What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Does natural or innate evil exist, or is evil situational? Are certain people simply born "bad apples" or are they made evil by "bad barrels"?
What is "reality" in a prison setting? This study is one in which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? How quickly and easily will 'ordinary men' adjust to the roles as prisoners, guards and…
Asby, M.D. And S.A. Miles (2002). Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak their Minds. Oxford.
"Frederick W. Smith: The Entrepreneur Who Created an Industry." (2003). IBS Center for Management Research. http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship/Frederick%20W%20Smith-The%20Entrepreneur-Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship.htm
Holstein, W.J. (2007). "Fred Smith's Golden Rule for CEO's." BNet, November 19, 2007. http://www.bnet.com/blog/ceo/fred-smiths-golden-rule-for-ceos-be-selfless/1061
Lussier, R.N. And C.F. Archua (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. South-Western Cengage Learning.
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…
Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).
Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).
Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226
Without seeing the wording of the consent form, there is little evidence to support the rejection of the study. The British Psychological Society's guidelines on informed consent can be found on page 12 of the Code of Ethics and Conduct. They are attached in Appendix A. There is no evidence in the one-paragraph case write-up that the proposed study does not give ample opportunity for participations to understand the nature of the study (i). The consent form should explain this and the researchers also have the opportunity on multiple occasions to explain the nature and consequences of the study.
Line (ii) is adhered to, as all volunteers will be required to sign the consent form. The wording of the paragraph is "asked to sign," and this should be amended to clarify: volunteers will be required to sign, and they will sign immediately prior to the interview.
McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.
Are there any HIPAA concerns that are evident in this study?
Both caregivers and patients were required to sign informed consent documentation in order to participate in the study. Were any concerns related to HIPAA indicated in the protocol or procedures for conducting the study, those concerns would need to be delineated in the consent documents and explained to the participants. Since caregivers were an integral component to the hospice care and quality of life measures for patients, patient privacy could be maintained just as with any other medical or healthcare services.
What methods were put in place to ensure that the subjects were giving true informed consent?
The inclusion criteria and protocol for participating in the study required that patients and caregivers both be…
McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.
Rosedale, M., & Fu, M.R. (2010). Confronting the unexpected: Temporal, situational, and attributive dimensions of distressing symptom experience for breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(1), 28-33.
The field of nursing is shaped by a range of ethical principles; while all of these concepts are important, one could argue that perhaps the most crucial ethical principle is that of beneficence. "Beneficence is the obligation to do good and avoid harm. Nurses help others to gain what is beneficial to them, which promotes well-being and reduces the risk of harm" (Young et al., 2009, p. 75). Having a clear understanding of beneficence is important as nurses are often presented with a range of complex ethical situations and dilemmas and they need strong principles to help guide their actions and nursing practice. As Young and colleagues explain, avoiding the harm that comes to a patient involves balancing this against the perceived amount of benefit. Other theorists see this concept in a slightly different perspective: "Beneficence is the principle of promoting the legitimate and important aims and interests of…
Addington-Hall, J.M., Bruera, E., Higginson, I.J., & Payne, S. (2007). Research methods in palliative care. Oxford: Oxford Publishing.
Cedar, S.H. (2006). Stem cell and related therapies. Nursing Ethics, 13(292),
Hitchcock, J.E., Schubert, P.E., & Thomas, S.A. (2003).Community health nursing: Caring in action. Clifton Park: Delmar.
Randall, F.M. (1999). Ethical issues in palliative care. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 43(9), 954-6.
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).
Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Appendix C - Screening for Depression
If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
Sanford, J., Townsend-Rocchicciolli, J.,Horigan, A., & Hall, P. (2011). A process of decision making by caregivers of family members with heart failure. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 25(1), 55-70.
Describe the population for this study.
participants were recruited from cardiology offices, inpatient hospital units, or adult day care facilities. The participant had to be related to the patient with heart failure (HF), provide one activity of daily living, and/or assist the care recipient with two activities of daily living and do this voluntarily.
How was the sample selected? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this sampling strategy?
This was a convenience sample. The participants were recruited from cardiology offices, inpatient hospital units, or adult day care facilities and had to meet certain conditions. The strengths are that the researchers know and get precisely what they are looking for (in terms of qualifications of participants). The weaknesses are that…
Belmont eport to the case of Henrietta Lacks and how they were violated
The three principle keys in the Belmont eport (1974) involving Henrietta's case were the respect for people, beneficence, and also justice. In respect of the people, two important elements are involved which include all people being treated as autonomous while the other persons with lesser independent autonomy be protected. With beneficence, the researchers should minimize profits while they avoid harming participants. They should also weigh the cost benefit for the participants. Lastly, the justice principle in research compels that benefits made from the research should be well contributed (Scannell, 2010).This means the participants of the research should get a fair share and research can only be conducted on those people who would benefit from it.
These ethics were violated because Ms. Lacks was not treated as an autonomous person hence they retrieved cells from her without her…
Scannell, K. (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Journal of Legal Medicine, 31(4), 493-498
Tunc, T. (2011). Review of Rebecca Skloot, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. American Journal Of Bioethics, 11(3), 40-41
Restraining the Elderly
The Project Management path for this research proposal will follow the path of quantitative research in a 'quasi-experimental' environment. Adhering as closely as possible to quantitative experiments designed to establish the causal factors or interdependent links between grouped variables, the researcher will follow a natural course of progression in administering dependent and independent variables, designing the sampling set, determining the optimal time(s) and location(s) for conducting the research, developing the measures and instruments necessary for evaluation of non-empirical evidentiary conclusion (i.e., the thought processes and reasoning of medical staff), measuring the response to education and procedural methodology, documentation to include evaluation materials, response forms, and restraint logs, preparing the education program, delivering the lectures, and evaluating the results in change or lack of change in care providers attitudes toward patient restraint.
Any project that measures the process of learning, comprehension, acceptance or denial,…
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.
Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…
VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)
MY ROUGH IDEA:
1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
Barriers encountered in the Capstone project revolved around the idea that the staff felt it was not there job to read rhythm strips, and did not make the time to get off the floor for any continuing education. Good leadership can help eliminate these kinds of problems, as the problems have to be addressed from the standpoint of people who will insist that everyone does his or her job and makes the time to get involved with things like continuing education. As can be seen, there are generally a number of barriers that are encountered when trying to implement a change in practice. Even if that change will resolve a problem or address a concern, many people are still going to be resistant to it. The main barriers can include resistance to change from staff, lack of leadership, lack of resources (both financial and fiscal), environment, communication, and…
American Nurses Association. (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements (Publication no. CEN21 10M 08/03). Washington, DC: Author.
Finkelman, A., & Kenner, C. (2010). Professional nursing concepts. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Funk, S.G., Tornquist, E., & Champagne, M.T. (1991). BARRIERS: The barriers to research utilizations scale. Applied Nursing Research, 4, 39-45.
Pexton, C. (2005). Overcoming the barriers to change in the healthcare system. Retrieved from http://healthcare.isixsigma.com/library/content/c050413a.asp
The placebo drink smells and tastes like alcohol. Everyone (regardless of condition) believes that they are getting alcohol. He then videotapes each person's communication behavior in a group setting with 10 other people (who are also randomly assigned to the placebo or alcohol condition). Participants sign an informed consent form saying that they are getting alcohol and that they will be participating in a group setting to get to know other people who are also drinking alcohol. They are not told that some of them will think they get alcohol when they are really sober.
There are no ethical issues or problems presented by this case either. Deception was necessary to conduct research in this cases but the type of deception involved in serving placebos instead of alcohol would not present any risk of emotional or other harm to participants. Since the nature of the deception would not cause emotional…
" (Zemsky, 1)
The null hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report no perceptible connection between post-tenure review and job performance.
The alternate hypothesis of the research endeavor is that online professors will report that post-tenure review improves job performance.
Nature of the Study
Significance of the Study
The significance of the proposed research is based in the need for greater study of online instruction in higher education with relation to post tenure review. As with all other elements of this research process, we can initiate a discussion on the significance of the research with a reiteration of the fact that amongst educators without classification, the perspective on post-tenure review is generally hostile. This is because tenure is considered by most educators to be an important feature of the profession demanding of protection. To this end, Ceci et al. (2006) indicate that…
Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003). Post-Tenure Review at Graduate Institutions in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 241-260.
Bowden, R.G. (2009). The Postsecondary Professoriate: Problems of Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Employment Law. Academic of Educational Leadership Journal, 13(3).
Ceci, S.J.; Williams, W.M. & Mueller-Johnson, K. (2006). Is Tenure Justified? An Experimental Study of Faculty Beliefs About Tenure, Promotion, and Academic Freedom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 553-594.
DeFleur, M.L. (2007). Raising the Question #5: What is Tenure and How Do I Get it? Communication Education, 56(1), 106-112.
The closed meetings would consist of 15 or fewer members, would be conducted on a weekly basis for approximately 2 hours in a private university classroom or meeting area, and informed consent, eligibility screening and other relevant issues would be addressed in a meeting to be conducted prior to the first formal group meeting.
Possible Social Change Impact
The possible impact of this initiative is difficult to gauge without a comprehensive longitudinal study of the participants involved; however, the importance of regaining lost self-esteem and a sense of self-worth to each person is immeasurable.
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). elations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex oles: A Journal of esearch, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows…
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). Relations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities. Human Ecology, 33(3), 21.
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
Medical ethics and rules like the Hippocratic oath are fairly clear-cut when applying them to real-world solutions and situations. However, there are some situations where the "right answer" can be elusive and people will sometimes go against their own self-interest. Such seems to be the case with Mr. Simpson. He has weak lungs and his doctors and family morbidly fear that if/when he gets the flu again, it will literally kill him. However, even with this being the case, Mr. Simpson refuses to get the flu show under the auspices that he could end up getting the flu as a direct result of the shot despite assurances that this will not happen. Of course, this can absolutely happen in real life but that argument is not a factor in this case study as it is assumed he cannot possibly contract the virus. While Mr. Simpson is obviously not making the…
Thereby it is important that the professionals in the field must ask for additional advice.
Patient rights also include a freedom towards observing their lives in the clinics in accordance to their cultures and ethnic backgrounds. It has been mentioned that racial disparity is one of the main issues in the clinic so the freedom being given to the already mentally vulnerable patients is lesser that is having a negative impact on their well-being (Lloyd, King, and Deane, 2008, p. 38).
3. Strategies to Ensure Confidentiality
One of the main facts that need to be highlighted here is that the mental healthcare professionals should be aware of the rights of the mentally ill people. One of the main responsibilities that the mental healthcare professionals should have is to make improvements in the mental health of the patients. Patient recovery is the main aim in these cases.
In the mental clinic,…
Almeder, F.R. (2002). Mental illness and public health care, Biomedical ethics reviews. Humana Press.
Backlar, P., and Cutler, L.D. (2002). Ethics in community mental health care: commonplace concerns. Springer.
Barker, P. (2011). Mental Health Ethics: The Human Context. Taylor & Francis.
Bhugra, D., and Malik, A. (2010). Professionalism in Mental Healthcare: Experts, Expertise and Expectations, Cambridge medicine. Cambridge University Press.
The Lincolnville VAMC maintains certain base levels of ethical standards, and in some areas indeed exceeds standard ethical rules and practices while at others it most definitely comes in behind the majority of medical institutions. Socially and culturally, for example, the entire VAMC agency is rather narrow-minded, and though efforts have been taken to address this ethical shortcoming they have not been especially successful as of yet (Hunter & Schmidt 2010). This is perhaps especially true when it comes to the recognition and treatment of mental health issues, which some VMAC staff ascribe to or explain by drawing cultural inferences (Hunter & Schmidt 2010). In order to more adequately meet the standards of the medical profession at large as well as the stated values and goals of the United States government and the VA system, a statement of ethics and moral values is necessary, both for the specific…
Howlader, N., Ries, L. & Edwards, B. (2009). The Impact of Underreported Veterans Affairs Data on National Cancer Statistics: Analysis Using Population-Based SEER Registries. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101(7): 533-6.
Hunter, L. & Schmidt, N. (2010). Anxiety psychopathology in African-American adults: Literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model. Psychological Bulletin 136(2): 211-35.
Kizer, K. & Dudley, A. (2009). Extreme Makeover: Transformation of the Veterans Health Care System. Annual Review of Public Health.
Layman, E. (2008). Ethical Issues and the Electronic Health Record. Health Care Manager 27(2):165-76.
ethics codes of the three following counseling associations share certain ethical responsibilities in common, while containing certain responsibilities unique to their organization. The three associations' ethics codes that will be studied about here are the American Counseling Association (ACA) 2005 Draft Code of Ethics, the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) Code of Ethics-Y2004 Final Code, and the American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC) Code of Ethics.
The first level of comparison between the three ethics codes begins with finding the similarities and differences they display in their duties to clients. There exist several similarities in this regard between them. In terms of obtaining informed consent, the ACA codes of ethics states (A2. a) that clients can choose to either continue or terminate treatment at any time. This would be after the counselor discharges his/her duty in informing the client exactly how the counseling would occur, what the counselor's credentials…
AACC code of ethics-Y2004 final code (n.d.) Retrieved February 6, 2005 from WWW: http://www.aacc.net/About_us/media/aacc_code_of_ethics.doc
American association of pastoral counselors code of ethics (n.d.) Retrieved February 6, 2005 from WWW: http://www.aapc.org/ethics.htm#IV
2005 ACA code of ethics draft (n.d) Retrieved February 6, 2005 from WWW: http://www.counseling.org/PDFs/ACA_Code_of_Ethics_2005_Draft.pdf
Disintegrating elationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees
Organizational leadership behavior towards employees can significantly affect their perception of the workplace, and contribute to the organization high performance and most essentially create and maintain a proper organizational culture that lead to the success of the organization . The good health of the organization depends greatly on the relationship between leaders and employees. However, the relationship that exists between organizational leaders and employees are failing at a high rate in today's workplaces and the reasons for this are not clear. Leaders in organizations have a tendency to use employees in the time of the organizational needs and them to simply ignore the employee's commitment and their potential. Committed employees should be rewarded with committed organizational leadership. Critical in organizational leadership interaction with employees is communication. Communication keeps employees informed and results in a feeling of connectedness and inclusiveness in the organizational operations,…
Abrrow, H.A., Ardakani, M.S., Harooni, A. & Pour, H.M. (2013, July). The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice Components and Their Role in Job Involvement in Education. International Journal of Management Academy, 1(1), 25-41.
Albrecht, S.L. (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Broner, S. (2009). Employees' perceptions of leaders' attitudes and employee retention: a quantitative study on perceived attitudes. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.
Creswell, J.W.(2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches .(2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.