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This paper will look into the subject matter of disability by examining a mental illness' mass media representation, i.e., Intellectual Disability in the movie, The Other Sister that is a 1999 romantic comedy movie. Carla Tate, a 22-year-old American female, has a mild mental deficiency. She goes back home to her rich family in California after getting a certificate from a secluded private boarding school. Carla's parents feel guilty for sending her away and Carl's greatest problem now is coping with her overprotective, snobby mother, Elizabeth. More than anything else, Carla wishes to be responsible and independent. Later on, after pursuing a course in trade school, she meets a guy called Daniel who also has mental deficiency. Carla and Daniel became close, finally having a romantic relationship (Kantor, 2014).
The movie, The Other Sister, focuses on Carla who goes back and tries to be independent…
Kantor, J. (2014, November 18). The Other Sister. Retrieved November 25, 2016, from Prezi: https://prezi.com/78mherbqueiz/the-other-sister/
Parmenter, T. (2011). Promoting Training and Employment Opportunities for People with Intellectual Disabilities: International Experience. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1560&context=gladnetcollect
Rillota, F. (2012, June). Intellectual Disability. Special Education Resource Unit, 22(2), 1-46. Retrieved from http://seru.sa.edu.au/pdfs/SERUpdate%20June%202012Intellectual%20Disability.pdf
Bhaumik, S., Gangadharan, S., Hiremath, A., & Russell, P. S. (2011). Psychological treatments in intellectual disability: the challenges of building a good evidence base. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(6), 428-430. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/198/6/428
Intellectual Disability and Speech Impairment esources in Duval County, Florida
Today, the State of Florida is tasked with providing high quality educational services to a broad range of students with differing abilities and disabilities. To determine the current state of their educational programming, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature and Florida Department of Education's Web site concerning intellectual disabilities and speech impairments, including a full description of the disability, possible causes, possible treatments, and the teacher accommodations that are provided. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the provision of educational services to students with intellectual disabilities and speech impairments is provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Full description of the disability. The definition provided by the State of Florida Department of Education (FLDOE) states that this condition "is defined as significantly below average general intellectual and adaptive functioning manifested during…
Intellectual disabilities. (2013). State of Florida Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/ese/ind.asp .
Morin, D., Cobigo, V., Rivard, M,. & Lepine, M. (2010, August). Intellectual disabilities and depression: How to adapt psychological assessment and intervention. Canadian Psychology, 51(3), 185-192.
Speech impairments. (2013). State of Florida Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/ese/si.asp .
Tatham, M. & Morton, K. (2011). A guide to speech production and perception. Edinburgh:
Student With Intellectual Disability
Goals and IEPs: Aiden
One of the critical components of any IEP is 'goal setting.' Goals are determined for each individual student and a specific instructional plan is designed to meet those goals. Goals are usually set annually but each annual goal has a series of short-term goals designed to facilitate reaching that objective. In the case of 'Aiden,' for example, a student identified as having ADHD, the first major goal was for the student to pass all of his classes. Despite testing with a near-normal IQ, Aiden struggled with paying attention in class and often acted as a distraction to other students. His grades did not reflect his abilities because of his difficulty in focusing. Short-term goals designed to achieve this long-term objective including turning homework assignments in on time, getting a C. Or above on all in-class tests and quizzes, and making a…
Helping the student with ADHD in the classroom: Strategies for teachers. (1998). LD Online.
Sample IEP goals. (n.d.). netreach. Retrieved:
Article Critique 1 – A Phenomenological Study
This article critique analyses the article by Corb, Taggart and Cousins (2015) titled “People with intellectual disability and human science research: A systematic review of phenomenological studies using interviews for data collection”. The researchers, Deirdre, Taggart and Cousins (2015), examined the manner in which people suffering from intellectual disabilities could consent to their participation in a research. The researchers also discuss the methods of information dissemination and the methodology used in that dissemination hence increasing research value. Further, the researchers examine the manner in which Heideggerian phenomenology can be applied on people suffering intellectual disabilities.
This research by Corb, Taggart and Cousins (2015) utilizes a systematic investigation review that utilized phenomenological methods in conducting interviews among intellectually disabled participants. The research entailed 4 electronic data bases. The inclusion criteria utilization occasioned the twenty eight relevant publications. The articles selected were examined and pertinent…
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Stanford -- Binet Intelligence Scales
Analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Stanford -- Binet Intelligence
Present use of Stanford -- Binet Intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
esults from Studies
The performance IQ
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning
Psychological testing -- also known as the psychological assessment -- is basically the foundation of how psychologists are able to get a better understanding a person and their behavior. It is a process of problem solving for many professionals -- to try and regulate the core components of a person's psychological or mental health difficulties, personality, IQ, or some other element. It is likewise some kind of process that aids and identifies not just flaws of a person, but also all of their strengths. Psychological testing are done to measure a person's performance at a particular point in time. Psychologists discuss about an individual's…
Arrigo, B.A. (2009). Police corruption and psychological testing: A strategy for preemployment screening. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 12(3), 23-45.
Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., & Stancliffe, R.J. (2010). The mental health of young children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(21), 21-34.
Gonzalez-Gordon, R.G., Salvador-Carulla, L., Romero, C., Gonzalez-Saiz, F., & Romero, D. (2012). Feasibility, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability: A structured psychiatric interview for intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 21(6), 111-120.
Maeda, S., Kita, F., Miyawaki, T., & Takeuchi. (2012). Assessment of patients with intellectual disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to evaluate dental treatment tolerability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 24(9), 253-259.
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,
Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm
Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social
support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
Self-Monitoring in Education
Putting individuals with "intellectual disabilities" and "challenging behaviors" into regular classrooms is clearly a good idea - the educational literature supports this. But what happens once they are in the classroom? How does one then improve the social behavior and learning opportunities of these students? One idea, cooperative learning (also called peer tutoring), does show some promise; however, another idea based around the technique of self-monitoring/self-recording is specifically highlighted in the article under discussion. This method (which trains a student to identify, record and modify inappropriate behavior) was introduced to a certain thirteen-year-old girl named Pauline who had lived in a Romanian orphanage for ten years and had suffered "severe deprivation and abuse." The specific behaviors targeted in Pauline were stereotypic in quality (body-rocking and hand gazing) as well as consistent in quantity (they occurred consistently throughout the school day).
This "targeting" of behavior took the form…
JAMES' CASE STUDY
Case Study on James in IDEA
Case Study on James in IDEA
James is a six years old boy living with his parents in first grade. With his intellectual disability, he has been placed under special education classroom having 15 other students. James has some challenges related to learning due to the poor memory and delays in language development. One of the strengths that James has is that he is confident in school and is not easily frustrated. He can communicate effectively with adults but socializing with his peers is a challenge. One of the major challenges that he faces is the fact that he has low achievement in most of the academic areas. These include reading comprehension, mathematics, and written expressions. His interests are in sports, games although he is challenged by isolation from his peers. He has faced delays in cognitive, social and adaptive behavior…
Sometimes the worst disabilities are those which are invisible to the naked eye; people who have a mental illness or disability are overwhelmingly stigmatized by society and discrimination against them is both widespread and fully condoned in our culture. (Johnstone, 2005). The disadvantages of mental disabilities are compounded by the fact that the abilities which are disabled, so to speak, tend to be those which are most useful in navigating the social provisions for the disabled, and by the lack of physical manifestations which may discourage outsiders from recognizing the need for intervention. Thus there are many particular challenges facing the mentally disabled, including a lack of social sensitivity to, acceptance of, and knowledge about these disabilities, and widespread institutional discrimination affecting employment, medical care, travel, residency, and many other aspects of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the portrayal in film and literature of the…
American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
American Association of People with Disabilities
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
Purpose and structure
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD) is the largest cross-disability membership organization in the nation. The agency serves multiple purposes, the most fundamental of which is advocacy. Established in 1995, the agency's original objectives were twofold: (1) to be a voice for and implement the policy goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) -- which had been enacted in 1990 -- and (2) to unite a wide diversity of people with disabilities into a community, bringing together the many disability-specific organizations that made up the landscape. The American Association of People with Disabilities holds that joining the diverse constituencies of the disability community -- people with physical disabilities, intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities, sensory disabilities, psychiatric disabilities, and chronic health conditions --…
Affirmative Action, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.(2009). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
American Association of People with Disabilities Annual Report 2008-2009. Retrieved
Buskey, F., and Pitts, E.M. (2009). Training subversives: The ethics of leadership preparation. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 57-61. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from EBSC host, http://web.ebscohost.com/
Social Promotion on Students With Learning Disabilities
Prospectus: Effects of Social Promotion on Young Students with Learning Disabilities
Social promotion in various learning institutions is a practice where the students are promoted to the next grade level even if they have not attained the required learning standards by the understanding material used. In most cases, social promotion has been contrasted with retention, which is a practice of holding students back to remain in the same class or grade if they fail to meet academic expectations. Students are always expet to show that they have attained the required learning standards or academic expectations before they are promoted to the next class of grade level (Chou et al., 2016). The practice is referred to social promotion in various learning institutions because as non-academic considerations factors like societal expectations and pressures influence promotions decisions made on students from one class to the next…
Chou, Y. C., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., & Lee, J. (2016). Comparisons of Self-Determination Among Students With Autism, Intellectual Disability, and Learning Disabilities A Multivariate Analysis. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 1088357615625059.
Ciullo, S., Falcomata, T., & Vaughn, S. (2015). Teaching Social Studies to Upper Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities Graphic Organizers and Explicit Instruction. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(1), 15-26.
Wehmeyer, M. L., Shogren, K. A., & Seo, H. (2015). Promoting the Self-Determination and Goal Attainment of Youth with Learning Disabilities And Behavioral Disorders. In Transition of Youth and Young Adults (pp. 173-196). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
hear the word 'disability, the first images that come to mind are people with obvious disabilities, such as physical limitations. But now I know that disabilities come in many shapes and sizes. Learning disabilities are not always immediately apparent to even the trained eye of a seasoned teacher. A student with ADHD can seem very normal running around on the playground, and it is not until the child is sitting in a classroom environment that his or her 'disability' becomes evident on a test.
The first words which come to my mind when I hear 'disability' tend to be negative words: it is difficult not to see a disability as a liability rather than simply as a difference, although from the point-of-view of a teacher it is better to view it as such, and is more empowering for the students to do so as well.
Question Box 2 on
Intellectual Freedom in Libraries
In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.
Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…
American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
Work Disability in Small Firms Chapter II
Work disabled ChII Lit Review
Review of Literature Demonstrates Information Gap and Identifies Methods
This chapter justifies the problem statement and research questions, and locates the results among existing research. Copious data and analysis describes pronounced unemployment for potential workers with disabilities and lower income where workers with disabilities are employed, compared to the general U.S. workforce, extensive policy intervention notwithstanding. Fewer studies focus on workers or potential workers with disabilities in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, Georgia metropolitan statistical area, and even at the national level, very few juried reports describe productivity and job satisfaction for workers with disabilities in firms smaller than fifteen employees. Firms with fewer than fifteen employees are exempt from compliance with Title I of the ADA, but stimulating employment for workers with disabilities in these firms may improve economic self-sufficiency for this historically disadvantaged population. Conversely, if productivity and…
Policy disincentives probably affect productivity, satisfaction and employment.
Where consensus agrees is around a strong disincentive to work if medical costs covered by Medicaid exceed the level of income qualifying them for SSDI reimbursement. As numerous experts, administrators and disability employment program consumers testified to the 111th U.S. Congress in 2009 (U.S. Congress, 2011), once an individual earns more than a threshold that qualifies them for Medicaid coverage, they have to pay their medical costs out of pocket, and if those costs are more than the new earnings plus the SSDI transfer income, then the result is negative earnings plus often considerable effort and expense getting to work along with the labor of work itself. The result, not surprisingly, is often that potential workers with disability live off $674 per month income support in order not to lose Medicaid eligibility by earning more than qualifies them for federal health care coverage, i.e. $940 in one month (C. Bates-Harris, qtd. In U.S. Congress, 2011, p. 23-25), if total earnings become less or negative covering medical costs out of pocket, especially given exclusion from insurance for the pre-existing condition that justified Medicaid coverage in the first place before the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). PPACA made such exclusion illegal, but the results are still too new for empirical analysis as yet. The perverse incentive generated by high-enough out-of-pocket medical costs meant that a potential worker with disability had to go from earning little enough to qualify for Medicaid, to enough that they could cover those costs out of pocket and also the foregone monthly income transfer. This might often mean many thousands of dollars per year or month if disability required ongoing medical attention, a situation experts often call the "Cash Cliff" (Tremblay, Porter, Smith and Weathers, 2011, p. 19) due to the abrupt income threshold.
Extensive testimony to Congress (2011) described problems within SSDI programs themselves. Income verification requirements where employment was successfully accomplished, for example, resulted in overpayment and then reversal of awarded transfers that left workers with obligations to reimburse SSDI for in one case $115,000 where a worker with psychiatric disability had benefits retroactively revoked for the prior six years, for "sporadically, very occasionally exceeding the substantial gainful activity level by small amounts, due to his disability, and there is no dispute that he reported his work attempts" (Landry, Anderson, Lacava and Bronstein, qtd. In 111th Congress, 2011, p. 88). Another was overpaid $60,000; another over $56,000; none of these individuals have worked since, which their program administrators attributed to their
The basic idea is to provide these individuals with technology that they can use to help them effectively deal with the issues that they are facing. A few of the most notable solutions that we will be using include: the Braille / Braille Embosser, FM radio systems, Hear It devises, tape recorders, victor reader waves for audio books, victor reader streams for audio books, Handi Cassette II (talking book), MP 3 Players, Neo-Alpha Smart Note Pad, TTY Communication, Digital Voice Statistical Calculators, Speaking Dictionaries and Cannon Scanner for text books. At the same time, we will use different programs to support these various solutions that are being introduced to include: JAWS, Kurzweil, open book, and zoom text. Once this occurs, this will help to address the needs that are facing a wide variety of individuals who suffering from various disabilities. As, these tools can be used to help them be…
I am a fourteen-year-old boy, studying at present, at a special education school. A few months after I turned one, my mom started noticing that I behaved differently or "strangely" (in her precise words) as compared to other toddlers. She also noted that such atypical behavior started surfacing immediately after I was administered a succession of vaccinations. As months passed, she started becoming anxious as I stopped making eye contact with all, even her. I refused to look people in the eye when addressed and started exhibiting repetitive behavioral patterns (for instance, I would solve a puzzle, jumble it, and again set about solving it) (Nagle, 2011). At age two, I'd stopped talking and seemed to be lost in my own world. If my parents took me out with them to supermarkets or other places having bright or flashing lights, I would grow fussy and distressed. Every small sound had…
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…
Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.
Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
Previous research shows that giftedness shows up in all populations, but the fact is that well over three-quarters of the American teaching force are of European descent.
A study by Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh and Holloway (2005), used stratified cluster sampling to ascertain just that question. The sample was drawn from 16 elementary schools from three distinct geographical quadrants of a large Midwestern city school district. The sample included 207 elementary school teachers; 92% of whom were female and 83% of European descent. The study instrument was a short descriptive vignette about a student who possessed the research-based profile of a gifted and talented student. 1/3 of the participants were told this student was European-American, 1/3 that the student was African-American, and 1/3 no information on ethnicity (control group). After reading the prose, teachers were asked to rank levels of agreement towards statements recommending that student into a gifted program.
Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh and Holloway. (2005). "Effect of Children's Ethnicity on Teachers'
Referral and Recommendation Decisions in Gifted and Talented Programs." Remedial
And Special Education. 26 (1): 25+
Winner, E. (1996). Gifted Children: Myths and Realities. New York: Basic Books.
Psychological tests are pompous procedures of intellectual performance. A good number are objective as well as medical; nevertheless, definite projective tests might engross various height of prejudiced elucidation. The main aim of this paper is to clearly bring the meaning of the term test, describe the main classifications of tests and show the main or significant major uses as well as those who use the varied forms of tests, also offered here are the comparisons and contrasts of the concepts of reliability as well as validity of the methods of tests and how they affect the field of psychological testing.
Tests can be defined as verbal, visual or written assessments administered to evaluate the cognitive as well as emotional performance of individuals regardless of their age. The main purpose of these processes is to evaluate a multiplicity of intellectual capabilities as well as characteristics such as attainment as well as…
Gregory, R.J. (2007). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (5th ed.). Boston, MA:Pearson.. Retrieved August 26th, 2013 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0137017510.pdf
SPECIAL EDUCATION & EALY CHILDHOOD
Tasks in Special Education and Early Childhood
Defining Intellectual Disability and Degrees Thereof
Language is a powerful tool or a powerful weapon. The language used to described non-normative populations is often accompanied by a vigorous and often difficult discussion regarding what kinds of words are academically, professionally, and medically describing abnormal populations. One such term with an interesting history is the term "mental retardation." Within the recent years of the 21st century, there has been a shift away from the term mental retardation and more toward the phrase intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has been an influential party with respect to this linguistic, conceptual, and social shift. Dunlap (2009) elaborates upon the definition of mental retardation that the AAIDD proposes, stating that it is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive…
Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116 -- 124.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2008). The Intellectual Disability Construct and Its relation to Human Functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 311 -- 318.
Person Centered Planning in People With Developmental Disabilities
Person centered planning has received much attention in the past as the effective method of meeting the diverse needs of people with disabilities. The person-centered planning takes into consideration the unique needs, choices, and preferences of individuals. The planning structure explores innovative ways applicable to improving the health and health outcomes of people living with disabilities. Features of the person centered approach like focusing on the partnership between society members; building shared commitment, developing learning activities, and providing support to facilitate the realization of the diverse needs of the disabled. The method uses flexible systems and approaches that accommodate the diverse priorities and interests of the disabled that are always under constant change (Holburn, 2002). The flexibility of the systems offers opportunities for partnership and support between the stakeholders involved in the provision of the person centered approach services. As such, person…
Arscott, K., Dagnan, D., & Kroese, B.S. (1999). Assessing the ability of people with a learning disability to give informed consent to treatment. Psychological Medicine, 29 (7):1367 -- 1375
Bakken, T.L., Eilertsen, D.E., Smeby, N.A., & Martinsen, H. (2008). Observing communication skills in staff interacting with adults suffering from intellectual disability, autism and schizophrenia. Nordic Journal of Nursing Research Clinical Studies Vard I Norden, 28(3): p. 30 -- 36.
Bradshaw, J. (2001). Complexity of staff communication and reported level of understanding skills in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research?: 45 (3). pp. 233-243
Cambridge, P., & Carnaby, S. (2005). Person centered planning and care management with people with learning disabilities. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Stigma and Disability
The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…
Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299
Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1284&context=edicolle ct&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"
Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/edicollect/1233/
In 2002 the American Association on Mental etardation (AAM) made changes to their manuals regarding the assessment of mental retardation (M). The revisions were designed to affect changes in professional practice regarding assessment of M, public policy, and the science and understanding of M. Key in this change was the attempted change from the M term to a more politically correct term Intellectual Disability. Assessment was to consider both IQ scores and adaptive behavior (AB) which was to be termed "adaptive skills as well as the individual's cultural background and in the context of associated strengths. Instead of following a deficit model of explanation the goal was to follow a needs model. The definition of intellectual disability then includes three core criteria: significant impairment of intellectual functioning (defined by decreased IQ scores), significant impairment of adaptive/social functioning and, onset before adulthood. Polloway et al. (2009) looked at the…
Gordon, S., Duff, S., Davison, T. & Whitaker, S. (2010). Comparison of the WAIS-III and WISC-IV in 16-year-old special education students. Journal of Applied Research and Intellectual Disabilities, 23, 197-200.
Polloway, E.A., Patton, J.R., Smith, J.D.., Antoine, K., & Lubin, J. (2009). State guidelines for mental retardation and intellectual disabilities: A revisitation of previous analyses in light of changes in the field. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44, 14-24.
Silverman, W., Miezejeski, C., Ryan, R., Zigman, R., Krinsky- McHale, S. & Urv, T. (2010). Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ differences and their implications for adults with intellectual disability. Intelligence, 38 (2), 242-248.
Whitaker, S. (2008). The stability of IQ in people with low intellectual ability: An analysis of the literature. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 120-128.
Heward reference is a book review of Nancy Close's book Listening to Children: Talking With Children About Difficult Issues -- It is improper to reference a book review-unless of course you are also reviewing the book. I have included the proper reference
Perhaps the one of the worst fears of new parents is that their child may develop a serious disability such as mental retardation or other developmental disability. Arguably the most important influences on the development of any young child would be the child's parents and the sociocultural environment in which the child grows up (Skinner & Weisner, 2007). This socio-cultural environment includes the family environment, community environment, and geographic locale including all shared beliefs and assumptions about child development and about disabilities. However, one can argue that the most important aspect of the sociocultural environment that a child with a disability grows up in is the influence of…
Barnett, D., Clements, M., Kaplan-Estrin, M., & Fialka, J. (2003). Building new dreams:
Supporting parents' adaptation to their child with special needs. Infants & Young Children, 16(3), 184-200.
Bostrom, P.K., Broberg, M., & Hwang, P. (2010). Parents' descriptions and experiences of young children recently diagnosed with intellectual disability. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(1), 93-100.
Bruce, E.J. (2000). Grief, trauma and parenting children with disability: cycles of disenfranchisement. Grief Matters: The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement, 13(2), 27-31.
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, iehl JC, MacQueen, and lackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year ook, Inc. 1997.
Evans O, Tew , Laurence KM. The fathers of children with spina bifida. Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie [Surgery in Infancy and Childhood]. 1986;41 Suppl 1:42-44.
Fagan J, Schor D. Mothers of children with spina bifida: factors related to maternal psychosocial functioning. (1993) American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63:146-152. [
Holmbeck GN, Gorey Ferguson L, Hudson T, Seefeldt T, Shapera W, Turner T, Uhler J. (1997)Maternal, paternal, and marital functioning in families of preadolescents with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997;22:167-181. [
Kazak AE. Families with disabled children: stress and social networks in three samples. (1987)Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1987;15:137-146. doi: 10.1007/F00916471. [
Minnesota Title V MCH Needs Assessment Fact Sheets…
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1992) Children with physical handicaps and their mothers: The interrelation of social support, maternal adjustment, and child adjustment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1992;17:725-739. [
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1994) Optimism, appraisals, and coping in the adjustment of mothers and their children with spina bifida. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 1995;4:303-320.
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, Biehl JC, MacQueen, and Blackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1997.
There is a growing body of support that indicates that while inclusion may be the best answer for mildly autistic children, it may not be the best setting for those with moderate to severe autism. Until now, research into the autistic child in the classroom has focused on taking the position of either for or against inclusion in the general classroom. However, when one takes the body of literature as a whole, it appears that inclusion is good for some and bad for others. This leads to the logical conclusion that differences exist between children who are successful under inclusion and those that are not. Understanding these differences is the key to taking the proper action for an individual.
Literature regarding autism and inclusion missed the important point that in order to make the program a success, we must decode the keys to success. One of these keys lies in…
Dybvik, a (2004). Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms? Daniel knows. Education Next. Winter 2004. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJG/is_1_4/ai_111734750
Fighting Autism (2003). Autism Prevalence Reports, School Years 1992-2003. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://www.fightingautism.org/idea/autism-prevalence-report.php
Horrocks, J., White, G., & Roberts, L. (2008). Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools. J Autism Dev Disord. 38(8):1462- 73.
Humphrey, N. & Lewis, S. (2008). Make me normal': the views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools. Autism. 2008 Jan;12(1):23-46.
Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…
Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.
Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0
Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.
Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+Who+Can%27t+Pay+Attention%2FADHD
Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)
This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations…
Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).
Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html .
Katsiyannis, A.; deFur, S. & Conderman, G. (1998). Transition Services -- Systems Change for Youth with Disabilities? A Review of State Practices? The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 55-61.
Mason, C.; Field, S. & Sawilowsky, S. (2004). Implementation of self-determination activities and student participation in IEPs. Council for Exceptional Children, 70(4), 441-451.
VIII. Preliminary Literature Review
The work of Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar (1999) entitled: "Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drugs Use" reports a study in which the frequency, characteristics and associated target symptoms of psychotropic drug use among individuals with developmental disorders and specifically those with "higher functioning pervasive developmental disorders. (HFPDDs) in a total of 109 children, adolescents and adults results show that 55% of these were taking psychotropic drugs and 29.3% were taking two or more of these medications simultaneously. Conclusions of the study report as follows: "Psychotropic medication use appears to be common among subjects with HFPDDs, yet not generally based on the results of empirical research. Clinical heterogeneity among treated subjects suggests that psychiatric comorbidity may be overlooked in this population." (Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar, 1999) the work of Reynolds and Dombeck (2006) relates that individuals with autism spectrum disorders are…
Martin, Andres; Scahill, Lawrence, Klin, Ami, and Volkmar (1999) Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drug Use. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 38 Issue 7. Online available at: http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/jaac/article/PIIS0890856709665436/abstract
Reynolds, Tammi; Dombeck, Mark (2006) Autism: Medication. MentalHelp.net. Online available at: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8792&cn=20
De Bildt, Annelies, et al. (2006) Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Behavior Problems, and Psychotropic Drug Use in Children and Adolescents With Mental Retardation. Pediatrics Journal Vol. 118 No. 6 December 2006. Online available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/118/6/e1860
Mikkelsen, Edwin J. (nd) the Rational Use of Psychotropic Medication for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. NADD. Online available at: http://www.thenadd.org/pages/products/bookdetails/dt07-038b.shtml
One trend that needs to be altered is the development of perceptions that stress the ways in which the environment of the classroom and school can be improved to better accommodate and support LD students, which will likely in turn assist all students with self-efficacy and self-perception. This should be done to alter the historical challenges that LD students face with regard to the perception that all LD students are alike or that they are all in need of self-development in order to fit into the mold of general education, rather than the reverse. Educator understanding of the individual and specific LD diagnosis will likely help a great deal as will advanced training for general educators with regard to these specific abilities and needs.
Bear, G.G., Kortering, L.J., & Braziel, P. (2006). School Completers and Noncompleters with Learning Disabilities: Similarities in Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Self and Teachers.…
Bear, G.G., Kortering, L.J., & Braziel, P. (2006). School Completers and Noncompleters with Learning Disabilities: Similarities in Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Self and Teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 27(5), 293.
Busch, T.W., Pederson, K., Espin, C.A., & Weissenburger, J.W. (2001). Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities: Perceptions of a First-Year Teacher. Journal of Special Education, 35(2), 92.
Gerber, P.J. (1992). Being Learning Disabled and a Beginning Teacher and Teaching a Class of Students with Learning Disabilities. Exceptionality, 3(4), 213-231.
Houston-Wilson, C., & Lieberman, L.J. (1999). The Individualized Education Program in Physical Education: A Guide for Regular Physical Educators. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 70(3), 60.
Particularly, the risks of diverse neoplasms have been seen to be raised in Turner Syndrome is quite low quantum, however, except for gut cancer and gonaboblastoma in patients having occult Y chromosome sequences. (Cabanas; Garcia-Caballero; Barreiro; Castro-Feijoo; Gallego; Arevalo; Canete; Pombo, 2005)
Additionally, there appear to have no prior indication of the relationship between the Turner Syndrome and papillary thyroid carcinoma, irrespective of the fact that there has been one report of an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a TS patient in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several epidemiological studies and studies relating to exhaustive long-term monitoring of GH-associated patients have been seen to have benefited therapeutically from GH treatment and found to be safe having no detectable effect on risk of cancer. But the current studies have shown a probable relationship between GH-IGF axis and the pathogenesis of neoplasms. The study on papillary thyroid carcinoma after GH therapy for Turner Syndrome…
Cabanas, P; Garcia-Caballero, T; Barreiro, J; Castro-Feijoo, L; Gallego, R; Arevalo, T;
Canete; R; Pombo, M. (2005) "Papillary thyroid carcinoma after recombinant GH therapy for Turner syndrome" European Journal of Endocrinology. Vol: 153; No: 4; pp: 499-502
Dowshen, Steven. (2005) "Turner Syndrome" Retrieved at http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/genetic/turner.html . Accessed 8 November, 2006
Gordon, John D; Lebovic, Dan I; Taylor, Robert N. (2005) "Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility: Handbook for Clinicians" Scrub Hill Press, Inc.
country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…
Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.
Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.
Vocational training can help place within the adolescent mind the strategies they will need to adapt to life as an adult.
Further research is needed within the field of adolescents with the condition. According to research, "Unfortunately, most psychiatrists are ill-equipped to handle this situation, having received little or no formal training in this area," (Sebastian 2008). Therefore, more research can only open up new information to psychiatrists and physicians who work with families to make the most comfortable life for the adolescent dealing with mental retardation.
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. etrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, obert. (2007). Mental…
Biasini, Fred J.; Grupe, Lisa; Huffman, Lisa; & Bray, Norman W. (2010). Mental retardation: A symptom and a syndrome. Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.uab.edu/cogdev/mentreta.htm
Collins, H. (2004). Children who are mentally retarded. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_who_are_mentally_retarded
Daigneault, Robert. (2007). Mental retardation / adolescent issues for mental retardation. Your Total Health. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/mental-retardation.html?pageNum=4#4
Mental Retardation -- Developmental delay. (2010). Mass General Hospital for Children. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://www.massgeneral.org/children/adolescenthealth/articles/aa_mental_retardation.aspx
Classroom engagement demonstrates, among all disabilities, one of the most important factors in future academic capabilities. (Symons, Clark, oberts & Bailey, 2001, p. 194) Children affected with FXS need additional classroom and behavioral support, in much the same way that high and low level functioning autistic children need assistance.
The fragile X mutation can also cause two less severe patterns of disorders that cause carriers to be affected, depending on gender. Older male carriers can exhibit fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, which can seriously effect balance, memory and cause a demonstrative tremor, while in women is can cause fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency which can in some women lead to infertility and very premature menopause. Neither of these carrier associated diseases are necessary for a carrier to have the necessary gene disparity that creates the mutation that causes Fragile X syndrome. Carriers can be completely asymptomatic and there may be…
National Fragile X Foundation "What is Fragile X Syndrome?" Retrieved April 30, 2008 at http://www.fragilex.org/html/what.htm .
Strom, C.M. (1990). Heredity and Ability: How Genetics Affects Your Child and What You Can Do about it. New York: Plenum Press.
Symons, F.J., Clark, R.D., Roberts, J.P., & Bailey, D.B. (2001). Classroom Behavior of Elementary School-Age Boys with Fragile X Syndrome. Journal of Special Education, 34(4), 194.
disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.
Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.
According to the CDC…
Buckley, S. (1995). Teaching children with Down syndrome to read and write. Down syndrome: Living and learning in the community (pp. 158-169). New York: Wiley-Liss.
Cheung, Y.B., Law, C.K., Chan, B., Liu, K.Y., YIP, P.S. (2006): Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in a population-based study of Chinese people: risk attributable to hopelessness, depression, and social factors. J. Affect. Disord.
Cicchetti, D., & Beeghly, M. (Eds.). (1990). Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crawford, P.A. (1995). Early literacy: Emerging perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10(1), 71-86.
Multicultural model of counseling was developed with individuals with disabilities in mind, as well as other minorities and special needs populations. It is founded on the idea that multicultural competence rests on the ability of a counselor to integrate personal, professional and institutional contexts and suggests that change requires "affective, cognitive and behavioral learning competence" (eza & Toporek, 2001: 13). Further the model suggest that counselors integrate the practice of self-assessment in order to help acquire the standards necessary to address race, culture, ethnicity, disabilities and any other factors that have been recognized as critical to the counseling practice (eza & Toporek, 2001).
Perspectives in Counseling
Kim & Lyons (2003) point out that a growing number of ethnic, disabled and racial minorities in the United States in recent years has necessitated increased attention in the field of counseling toward the unique needs of minorities. In addition research findings tend to…
Cook, D.W. (2000). "Issues in rehabilitation counseling." Journal of Disability Policy
Kim, B.S.K. & Lyons, H.Z. (2003). "Experiential activities and multicultural counseling competence training." Journal of Counseling and Development, 81(4): 400
Reza, J.V. & Toporek, R.L. (2001). "Context as a critical dimension of multicultural counseling: Articulating personal, professional and institutional competence." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(1):13
The simplicity in the work is one of its least impressive features and does not endear the work to individuals interested in observing and assessing more complex features of the data analysis process.
For this work, the data analysis consisted of frequencies and the accompanying percentages. This again is very simple data analysis and while complete consistent with the research leaves the reader dissatisfied with the level of analysis. It may have been useful for the researcher to engage at a minimum some chi square tests to explore whether the observed frequencies were the product of chance or not. The added level of analysis may have imparted added robustness to the work and produced a more compelling data driven argument.
The question of the statistical strength of the work is raised because the data were used to call into question the feasibility of engaging in AAPEP for the type of…
Kontu, E. & Pirttimaa, R. (2008). "The assessment of severely intellectually disabled students." European Journal of Special Needs Education 23(1): 75 -- 80.
..may establish schools for the education and care of the disabled and schools for special education in a way that matches their abilities and aptitudes." This article takes us back to the idea of isolation not integration, by establishing special schools for the disabled. This is a possibility, not an obligation, in accordance with the Minister of Education's inclinations and preferences." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) It is stated in Article 14 that conditions of medical fitness "...should be required for acceptance in all age stages." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) Specifically stated are the following:
(1) Article no. 1 states "The provisions of the child law shall be applicable and any other provision contradicting with the provisions of the said law shall be abrogated."
(2) Article no. 54 indicates "Free education in the schools of the state is a right of all children."
(3) Article no. 133 states "The…
Mittler, Peter (2003) International Experience in Including Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. Inclusion Theory and Practice. Enabling Education Network. 3 Mar 2003. Online available at: http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory_practice/internat_exp.shtml
Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.
Gaad, Eman (2004) Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 1 July 2004.
Wormnaes, Siri (2008) Cross-cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An arena for facilitating reflection? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol. 55, No. 3, September 2008, 205 -- 225
Diabetes is a chronic and progressive disease that leads patients affected to seek the help of medical professionals throughout various stages and time frames. From surgery to patient education to physical therapy, diabetes treatment can be a daunting task that may require complex, multi-faceted effort. Such effort can lead to sever disparities in treatment and in prevalence of the disease. For example, if patient education is at the forefront of chronic disease management and prevention, then it stands to ask if patient education or lack thereof, is creating the kinds of health disparities seen in diabetes. The patients receiving the information on diabetes and lifestyle choices to prevent diabetes, may reduce their chances of developing diabetes versus those that do not receive the information. What kinds of health disparities arise in diabetes as a result of lack of access to information?
Lack of access to information can occur for several…
Abdool, R., Szego, M., Buchman, D., Justason, L., Bean, S., Heester, A., . . . Kaufman, H. (2016). Difficult healthcare transitions. Nursing Ethic, 23(7), 1.
Balogh, R. S., Lake, J. K., Lin, E., Wilton, A., & Lunsky, Y. (2014). Disparities in diabetes prevalence and preventable hospitalizations in people with intellectual and developmental disability: a population-based study. Diabetic Medicine, 32(2), 235 -- 242.
Gaskin, D. J., Thorpe, R. J., McGinty, E. E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J. H., . . . Dubay, L. (2014). Disparities in Diabetes: The Nexus of Race, Poverty, and Place. American Journal of Public Health, 104(11), 2147-2155. doi:10.2105/ajph.2013.301420
Lindberg, C., Fagerstrom, C., Sivberg, B., & Willman, A. (2014). Concept analysis: patient autonomy in a caring context. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(10), 2208-2221. doi:10.1111/jan.12412
A brief but insightful article that stresses the importance of communication is Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement. This also applies to the issue of parental stress but echoes other studies that emphasize the importance of communication skills in treating autistic children. There article notes that autism is a disability or disorder that appears during the first three years of life and is characterized by problems interacting and communicating with others. elated to this is a discussion of the father's role in communication. esearchers found that, …teaching fathers how to talk to and play with their autistic children in a home setting improved communication, increased the number of intelligible words the youngsters spoke by more than 50% and helped dads get more involved in their care."
( Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement)
An article that explores the issue of communication, nursing and the autistic child is Observing communication skills…
'Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement', [Online] Available at:
Azeem M. And Imran N. 2007, Autism: Assessment and Management, [Online]
Available at: http://pjms.com.pk/issues/octdec207/article/reviewarticle2.html
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - An ANALYSIS
Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), U.S. states are in charge of meeting special educational requirements of students with disabilities. For ascertaining which children are entitled to services under the Act, students should first be individually and comprehensively evaluated, for free. The evaluation serves two purposes: • seeing whether the child is disabled or not, within the framework of the Act; and • acquiring a detailed understanding of the special educational services needed by the child (NICHCY, 2012). States have the authority to segregate some disabilities, among the thirteen stipulated by IDEA, into distinct categories; but determining qualification in individual categories necessitates performing of a thorough, appropriate evaluation, employing various stipulated strategies and tools for assessment. IDEA declares that children's developmental, academic, and functional information has to be obtained for aiding eligibility determination (IDEA, 2004). The best interventions for children…
Hocutt, A. M. (1996). Effectiveness of Special Education: Is Placement the Critical Factor? The Future of Children.
IDEA. (2004). Federal Special Education Disability Categories. Individuals for Disabilities Education.
Klein, J. I. (n.d.). Special Education Services. Office of Special Education Initiatives.
(n.d.). Learning Differences and Special Education .
Scholastic claims that a multi-purpose approach to learning, such as that included in the Read 180 program, is ideal for enabling greater achievement among special needs children. Evidence gathered from the literature on first review seems to promote this concept. The evidence provided from in-depth studies of education and special needs students in integrated and segregated classrooms show many factors influence learning. These include collaboration with teachers, an integrated approach to learning, and an approach to learning that is individualized or tailored to the unique needs of the disadvantaged student. When these factors are considered uniformly, Read 180 has the potential to facilitate greater achievement and success among special needs students. Read 180 cannot however, have the label as a universal panacea for educational problems plaguing special needs programs. Further research is critical to assessing the full utility of Read 180 among each of the three core categories of…
Dymond, S.K., & Orelove, P. (2001). What constitutes effective curriculum for students with severe disabilities? Exceptionality, 9(3): 109-22.
Elliot, C., Pring, T., & Bunning, K. (2002). Social skills training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A cautionary note, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 15(1):91-6.
Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2001). Access to the core curriculum, Remedial and Special
In fact, PBS is an inclusive approach since it becomes increasingly applicable to different segments of society such as multicultural youth and urban youth (Utley, Kozleski, Smith, & Draper, 2002). Perhaps, the reason this form of support applies so universally because it uses a collaborative team of people whom know and care about the troubled teenager. hese individuals such as family members, teachers, counselors, and administrators come together and determine functionally the processes which this individual performs and which ones he/she has trouble with or, in other words, together -- with the assistance of the student too -- they put together a functional behavioral assessment and then determine the specific, individualized needs of the student (Carr, 2002). Based upon that particular student's needs, the team derives approaches to help reduce the problem behavior and replace it with appropriate behavior. he reason that this process is said to have lasting effects…
Twenty-second Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disability Act. Washington, D.C.: Author.
Utley, C.A., Kozleski, E., Smith, A., & Draper, I.L. (2002). Positive Behavior Support: A Proactive Strategy for Minimizing Behavior Problems in Urban Multicultural Youth. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(4), 196+. doi:10.1177/10983007020040040301
doi:10.1177/10983007030050020301Warren, J.S., Edmonson, H.M., Griggs, P., Lassen, S.R., Mccart, A., Turnbull, A., et al. (2003). Urban Applications of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Critical Issues and Lessons Learned. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 80+.
o Vargo" (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005, p 27) that focuses on the life story of a young girl called o whose parent enrolls in a regular tradition school from kindergarten through college. The girl had some intellectual disability because she could not communicate properly with people. Despite her disability, her parent showered her a parental care and brought her up in a way they would have done if o were a normal child. The parent made an effort to ensure that o developed excellent psychological and educational developments. To assist o enjoying positive educational development, o's parents enrolled her in a kindergarten school, and showered her love to assist o enhancing positive psychological development.
Overview of the whole issue reveals that o's story is consistence with a developmental pathway of socio-cultural theory. Socio-cultural theory is an emerging theory that reveals the importance of the society to an individual…
Algozzine, B., Harris, M., Mutua, K., Obiakor, F., & Rotatori, A. (2012).Making inclusion work in the general education classrooms. Education & Treatment of Children, 35(3), 477-490. Retrieved from Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA301649979&v=2.1&u=vic_liberty&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=d0b2d044f01b621b6a2f4592c40addd8
Khudorenko, E.A. (2011). Problems of the education and inclusion of people with disabilities.Russian Education & Society, 53(12), 82-91.
Parritz, R.H., & Troy, M.F. (2014). Disorders of childhood: Development and psychopathology (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Polat, F. (2011). Inclusion in education: A step towards social justice. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(1), 50-58. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2010.06.009
Dependent variables include symptom reduction. The research design is not experimental; rather, the researchers analyze past literature related to pharmacological interventions for various personality disorders. The sample size and selection methods are adequate, and the statistical analyses are sound. A graph would ideally differentiate between the different personality disorders and the different intellectual disabilities to reveal patterns.
The research design does not take into account the need to differentiate between different personality disorders or intellectual disorders -- or how those diagnoses are related. External validity problems stem from the overgeneralization problems and the vagueness: too many variables are included in the one research design. The results are adequately and correctly reported, but with insufficient detail. Narrowing the study to a narrower question would have helped. Moreover, the author does not actually mention why the research is necessary other than to promote the use of pharmacological interventions among a population diagnosed…
Nursing and the E
The Emergency oom is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She…
Americans at Risk. (March 2009). Families USA. Retrieved from:
Patient Perceptions in the Emergency Department: Physicians, Physician Assistants,
Nurse Practitioners. (30 August 2010). Retrieved from: http://idiopathicmedicine.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/patient-perceptions-in-the-emergency-department-physicians-physician-assistants-nurse-practitioners/
Because of the lack of clarity and certainty regarding mental retardation or intellectual disability, the effect of having students with this issue in a classroom can be somewhat more chaotic than with other developmental disorders, where specific modes of instruction have been developed. It can be difficult to predict what a student with mental retardation might be stimulated by, and there are certain areas where individual students might simply have no interest. This can make it incredibly hard to involve them in classroom activities even when special accommodations and attempts are made. Students with mental retardation are not especially disruptive, and do not tend to make learning difficult for others, but this actually runs a greater risk of their going ignored as the classroom's education develops and progresses. For this reason, specific and repeated attempts to engage students with mental retardation in every aspect of the classroom and its activities…
However, it is not culturally sensitive and says nothing about the desire to work with in cultural norms and traditions.
This article does not attempt to portray the aboriginal people in any particular way. It attempts to remain neutral in its portrayal of the Torres Strait Islanders. This article recognizes that Islanders in rural areas have different needs than those living in urban areas. The government will provide funding for implementing this plan. It is an excellent plan, but could be made better by the inclusion of cultural sensitivity within the programs that it outlines. The plan promises to give aboriginals better access to public programs. This suggests that access is inadequate at the current time.
acisimnoway (2008). Australian Communities: Torres Strait Islander People. etrieved February 28, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/classroom/factsheets/53.html.
This article explains the language and cultural traits of the Islander, both on and off the island. It…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). The 2004-05 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS). Retrieved February 27, 2008 at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS//PrimaryMainFeatures/4715.0?OpenDocument .
Ban, P., Mam, S., Elu, M., Trevallion, I. & Reid, a. (1993). Torres Strait Islander family life. Family Matters. No.35 August 1993, pp.16-21. Retrieved February 28, 2008 at http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/fm1/fm35pb.html .
Batrouney, T. & Soriano, G. (2001). Parenting Torres. Family Matters. No. 21. Winter 2001.
Commonwealth of Australia (2007). National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health 2003-2013. Department of Health and Aging. Publication Number: P3-2106., Retrieved February 27, 2008 at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/6CA5DC4BF04D8F6ACA25735300807403/$File/nsfatsihimp2.pdf .
performed by the student. The case study took place in the classroom environment, as part of the students part time job in Early Childhood Education, where there are normative and special education students present. The case study objectives involved problem solving, strategy implementation, and differentiated instruction. The specific area of focus in the case study is difficulty with literacy or reading.
This was a challenging situation because the case study took place in an Early Childhood Education setting. At this stage, there is not much evidence of literacy. At this point in development, most of the students are emerging as readers. That is not to say that there is no evidence of literacy, as literacy does begin with the identification and memorization of letters. In the classroom where my case study took place, there were a total of fifteen students on any given day. There was usually one leader teacher,…
Ganzin, Dr. A. (2012). Traumatized Learning: The Emotional Consequences of Protracted Reading Difficulties. Learning Stewards, Web Available from: http://www.childrenofthecode.org/interviews/granzin.htm#top . 2012 November 30.
Weir, K. (2011). Catching reading problems early. Monitor on Psychology, 42(4), Web, Available from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2011/04/reading-problems.aspx. 2012 November 29.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Background and History of Disorder
DSM 5 diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Severity of the condition
Table for DSM 5 ASD Diagnosis
Approaches to Treatment of ASD
Background and History of Disorder
For this research, the mental illness that is generally visible in children has been chosen, which is Autism Spectrum Disorder. This is a mental problem that is seen in growing children which essentially represents a brain dysfunction and has the potential to affect emotion, the learning abilities, and the memory of individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder. This is a mental illness which also tends to exhibit itself gradually as an individual grows up, and as such Autism Spectrum disorder is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder. While adults are less commonly diagnosed with this illness, Autism Spectrum disorder is generally first witnessed in children, however, it can sometimes manifest itself in adults…
Barbaro, J. and C. Dissanayake. "Early Markers of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Infants and Toddlers Prospectively Identified in The Social Attention and Communication Study." Autism 17.1 (2012): 64-86. Web.
"DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria." Autism Speaks. N.p., 2016. Web. 21 June 2016.
Gammer, Isobel et al. "Behavioural Markers for Autism in Infancy: Scores On the Autism Observational Scale for Infants in A Prospective Study of At-Risk Siblings." Infant Behavior and Development 38 (2015): 107-115. Web.
Huerta, Marisela et al. "Application of DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder to Three Samples of Children with DSM-IV Diagnoses of Pervasive Developmental Disorders." American Journal of Psychiatry 169.10 (2012): 1056-1064. Web.
Fieldwork Paper and Fieldwork Form
The purpose of the fieldwork is to observe the two certified special education teachers and make connections to course content within real world classroom settings. One of the schools where the observation was conducted is P.S. / I.S. 266 whose address is 74-10 Commonwealth Blvd, Jamaica, NY 11426 (P.S. / I.S. 266, 2018). The school, which falls under New York City Public Schools district, is a pre-kindergarten to eighth grade learning institution that was established in September 2003 and has a student population of nearly 700 students. The second school is CLASP, which is located at 80 Grace Avenue, Great Neck NY, 11021 (CLASP Children’s Center, n.d.). This pre-kindergarten setting seeks to provide quality childcare for working parents and has existed for more than 35 years. This paper provides a summary of observations made in each of these schools as part of this fieldwork.
Technology & Education
There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.
Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…
Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/22-1-997
Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9332-y
Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.
Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016264341102600406
Accommodating students with disabilities means enabling the students to participate in normal classroom activities in the least restrictive environment possible: special provisions must be made for the student to compensate for his or her disability in a classroom otherwise populated by the students' peers. In the case of 'Joe,' a wheelchair-bound 12th grade student, there is no cognitive impairment that prevents him from understanding and participating in classroom learning. Although Joe has some physical challenges, these can be met within the traditional classroom with some support. For example, to accommodate Joe's hearing loss, having an assistant interpreter/note-taker; providing written lecture notes; using visual aids; and incorporating learning materials into the online component of the class are relatively minimal additional, assistive techniques that could help Joe -- and even also assist with the learning of other students (Working together PowerPoint, slide 7). Joe's mobility impairment can be accommodated by having…
Working together PowerPoint
Reynolds, T., Zupanick, C.E. & Dombeck, M. (2014). The choice of educational settings:
The pros and cons of mainstreaming children with intellectual disabilities. Seven Counties. Retrieved from: http://sevencounties.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=10364&cn=208
NYC Education Law
Bullying is a common occurrence among district schools in New York City with the major targets often students regarded as different such as the disabled. In this regard, this article highlights a fictitious scenario regarding bullying of disabled students in attempt to answer legal questions regarding education law about bullying students with learning disabilities. Using New York state statutes and related cases, this paper outlines legal actions individuals are likely to take under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Facts of the Case
Tyler is an 8-year-old male student at a Middle School in New York City. He has ADHD and is very wild. His woes started when one day while hanging out at school, some kids realized he was taking medication for his ADHD, and they thought it was the funniest thing. They told him they did not want to hang out with him because…
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280
Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.
Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
advances are made in technology, an increasing number of different forms of technologies, new uses and changes are being made in integrating new technologies into special education so as to benefit learners with disabilities. Research has made tremendous contributions in developing new technologies. Policymakers, too, have enabled the faster adoption of new technologies in special education so as to help learners with different kinds of behavioral and academic challenges. For instance, as early as 1994, James Kulik utilized meta-analysis to collect and analyze the results of over 500 different studies on computer-based learning. Technology-based learning, particularly through the use of computers, individualizes the learning process, so as to accommodate inclinations, knowledge systems, styles of learning, interests and needs of learners. Different forms of computer-based education software have been developed for such purposes, for instance, the Integrated Learning Systems. James Kulik made several conclusions upon the completion of the meta-analysis: that…
Best, S. J., Heller, K. W., & Bigge, J. L. (2005). Teaching individuals with physical or multiple disabilities (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Browder, D.M., Spooner, F., Wakeman, S., Trela, K., & Baker, J.N. (2006). Aligning instruction with academic content standards: Finding the link. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(4), 309-321
Butler-Kisber, L. (2013). Teaching and Learning in the Digital World: Possibilities and Challenges. Learning Landscapes.
Clercq, C. K. (2015). Digitally Enhanced Classrooms: Understanding the Effect of Individualized Technology on Language Arts Instruction in Elementary Schools. University Honors Theses .
Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?
Technology is an integral part of society. Students learn through use of technology like personal computers, tablets, and e-books (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Computers can provide access to videos, documents, and other forms of data that students have the choice of absorbing via visual or auditory methods. Tablets provide the same access but with a light-weight, touch responsive interface. Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Steve Moskowitz: Yes, this is the reason
Technology helps provide other benefits. Integrating technology in schools, especially in other areas like special education enable staff to develop new ways of teaching and…
life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.
Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can help in the creation and the use of technical means with constant interrelation to life,…
Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/22-1-997
Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9332-y
Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.
Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016264341102600406