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Audit in isk Management
Agelova, B., Koleva, B. (2015). The role of internal audit in risk management system of the companies. Economic Development, 3: 1-10.
This study shows that the purpose of the internal audit is increasingly oriented towards mitigating risk so that the firm in question can reduce uncertainty and exercise adequate, effective and appropriate decision making processes. The focus of the study is, therefore, on the internal audit aspect of a company's risk management. The purpose of the study is situated in evaluation research -- here, that which is evaluated is the "contribution of the internal audit in the management of risks in the Macedonian enterprises" (Angelova, Koleva, 2015, p. 1).
The sample used for this included the managers of 30 Macedonian enterprises along with 48 internal auditors in the epublic of Macedonia. The survey method was used for gathering data and the finding of the study was…
Agelova, B., Koleva, B. (2015). The role of internal audit in risk management system of the companies. Economic Development, 3: 1-10.
This implies a comparison of the results of the internal and external audits. Additionally, aside results and documents consulted, it is also necessary to assess the various variables used in the evaluations.
It is for instance possible for the company to alter the findings by focusing on more favorable variables. As a specific example, a financial audit could reveal increased organizational abilities to honor company debts, but this conclusion could solely be founded on the assessment of the company's short-term liquidity, in a context in which the assessment of the long-term liquidity would have revealed financial instabilities. In this order of ideas, the risks of altered results would decrease and the relevance of the findings would increase to better allow the auditor to assess the quality of the internal control systems.
At this stage, the auditors would make use of several technological applications through which to increase the efficiency of…
2003, Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance. A Checklist for Evaluating Internal Controls -- General Ledger and Financial Reporting Processes, AXS-One, http://www.axsone.com/pdf/GL_checklist_short%20version_121703.pdf last accessed on June 25, 2010
Internal Control Checklist, IDAHO Management Control Systems, http://www.sco.idaho.gov/web/DSADoc.nsf/6065F400C610BDB5872569BC0074D4EE/$FILE/Cklist60.rtf last accessed on June 25, 2010
Internal Control; Self-Assessment Checklist, the University of Utah, http://web.utah.edu/Internal_Audit/ppts/Internal%20Control%20Self%20Assessment%20Mar-06.doc last accessed on June 25, 2010
Phases of a Control Evaluation PowerPoint
Internal Fraud Detection
Fraud can be detected by deliberate effort through internal control efforts or by coincidence or chance. When companies do not practice strong internal control, it leaves the door open for employees to misappropriate assets without being detected, except by chance. y the time fraud is detected by chance, it could have cost a company millions of dollars in misappropriated assets.
The first coincidence discovered by the magazine company was in the process of a new auditor in an effort to get to know his new company and their accounting codes taking invoices to a vice president responsible for approving payment on them. The very top invoice was a forged signature, and upon evaluation, more invoices were discovered to have contained forged signatures, which is what set up the investigation. According to (Global Economic Crime Survey), 13% of internal fraud is detected by accident, 27% reported fraud in…
Global Economic Crime Survey. Nov 2009. http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/economic-crime-survey-2009.pdf . 18 Mar 2013.
Internal Controls and Fraud Proofing. 2013. article from http://www.aicpa.org/ InterestAreas/ForensicAndValuation/...rnal%20Controls%20and%20Fraudproofing.aspx. 18 Mar 2013.
32, and Pepsi's ratio is .29. These are close, but suggest that Pepsi is actually able to generate more revenue for every dollar of property and equipment it owns.
This makes sense given the operational differences at these companies; as noted above, Coca Cola does not actually own or operate all of the production elements for its products, thus it makes sense that is has much lower property values than its rival Pepsi, which is more fully integrated (Coca Cola, 2012; Pepsi, 2012). This also suggests, however, that Pepsi's revenue generation and overall value is more tied to its physical properties, plants, and equipment than is Coca Cola, meaning expansion could ne more costly for the company (Palepu, 2007). In this way, productivity might not transfer into long-term efficiency and profitability, which is something both investors and competitors should consider.
If determining human resource and plant/equipment productivity was…
Coca Cola. (2012). 2011 Annual Report. Accessed 1 April 2012. http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/investors/pdfs/form_10K_2011.pdf
Fitz-enz, J. & Davison, B. (2002). How to Measure Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw Hill.
Palepu, K., Healy, P., Bernard, V. & Peek, E. (2007). Business Analysis and Valuation. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Pepsi. (2012). 2011 Annual Report. Accessed 1 April 2012. http://www.pepsico.com/annual11/downloads/PEP_AR11_2011_Annual_Report.pdf
The determination for marketable security with respect to disproportionate distribution is accomplished by reducing the amount of marketable securities that is treated as money using the following steps:
1. The excess of the partner's share of net gain that would be recognized if all securities of the type distributed held by the partnership immediately before the transaction were sold at fair market value over
2. The partner's share of gain that would be taken into account if the securities held by the partnership immediately after the transaction were sold.
While the term "marketable securities" includes interests in actively traded precious metals and other financial instruments that are set forth in the applicable IRC code and regulations, there are some exceptions to this provision, though, and it does not apply in three specific situations as noted below:
1. Contributed by partner. If the security itself was contributed to the partnership…
A major objective of the custodial Financial reporting system is to be continuously and accurately responsive to regular and ad hoc requests for custodial financial reports" (Website of the Internal evenue Service, 2008).
The new information system has not been entirely implemented in the meaning that it still in the stages of control and testing. Once its implementation has been completed, the FMIS is expected to perform the following tasks:
Support the financial audit conducted by the General Accountability Office
Prepare the financial statements of the Internal evenue Service
Prepare reports for trending on operational impact
Feed the BPMS (the Business Performance Management System), the CCW (Compliance Data Warehouse) and the CAP (Custodial Accounting Project)
etrieve the information necessary for the Federal Payment Levy Program (FPLP), and finally
Analyze and report on modules with credit balances belonging to frozen credit processes (Website of the Internal evenue Service, 2008)
Johnson, S., 2008, GAO to IRS: Get Control of Yourself, CFO, http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/12592210?f=searchlast accessed on December 10, 2008
Website of the Internal Revenue Service, http://www.irs.govlast accessed on December 10, 2008
Website of the U.S. Government Accountability Office, http://www.gao.gov/last accessed on December 10, 2008
The fifth principle of cash disbursement is that of independent internal verification. This occurs at Guard Dog because the reconciliation is conducted by the assistant chief accountant, not the treasury. There are other controls as well that are consistent with the principles of internal control of cash. The invoices are stamped "PAID" when the check has been issued, for example. Also, in each key department there are two individuals, which allows each individual to take vacations. The checks are compared to the invoices before they are issued. By doing all of these things, Guard Dog is following the principles of internal control of cash disbursements well.
4-2A. a) There are several weaknesses in the internal control. The head usher counts the money unsupervised; financial management and audit is conducted by the same group; regular audits are not conducted; only one employee keeps records; the financial secretary conducts reconciliation and audits;…
Presently, the ed Line consists of three segments Downtown LA, Wilshire Center and N. Hollywood and the total coverage is 17.4 miles. Apart from this, the review identified the possible financial and schedule risks. It was inferred that the cost and completion schedules were justified; however funding risks were present for the North Hollywood segment. Apart from that, MTA's overall finances and the operating budget shortfalls might impact the ed Line. Therefore it was recommended that FTA need MTA to keep its finance plan up-to-date and to clearly find out and make priority in its different capital and operating costs revenues by source, and the specific revenues which are to cover specific costs. FTA approved the recommendation. Finally the report concluded that the ecovery Plan's 7-year projections of revenues and costs can be supported and were justified. Nevertheless MTA would be encountering a deficit of $1.1 billion. ("Transportation Investment Projects…
Albrecht, Steven. (1996) "Crisis management for corporate self-defense." American
Management Association, New York.
"Case Study: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) District of Columbia" pp: 39-48. Retrieved 10 May, 2007 from http://www.cutr.usf.edu/security/documents/UCITSS/WMATA.pdf
Gibbs, Michael. (2002, October) "Home on the Page: Retail Burglary" Security
Auditing, Monitoring, Intrusion Prevention, Detection, and Penetration Testing
The network vulnerability is a major security weakness that allows an attacker reducing computer information assurance. Vulnerability intersects three elements: a system flaw, the attacker is having access to the flaw, and ability to exploit the flaw. Thus, a security risk is classified as a vulnerability that is tied to a great significant loss. The vulnerability can erode data confidential, system integrity and availability of data.
The objective of this study is to carry out analysis of two research articles that discusses the network vulnerabilities in the IT environment. (Jackson, et al.2008, Sommer, et al. 2003). Both articles believe that attackers exploit the network vulnerabilities to inflict damages in the information systems. Moreover, the two articles agree that the traditional securities such as network IDS (intrusion detection system) (Sommer, et al. 2003) and DNS pinning (Jackson, et al.2008) are no more effective…
Debar, H. & Morin, B.(2002). Evaluation of the Diagnostic Capabilities of Commercial Intrusion Detection Systems. RAID'02 Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Recent advances in intrusion detection:177-198.
Jackson, C., Barth, A., Bortz, A., Shao, W., and Boneh, D. (2008). Protecting browsers from DNS rebinding Attacks. ACM Trans. ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). 3(1).
Karlof, C. Shankar, U. Tygar, J.D. et al. (2007). Dynamic pharming attacks and the locked same-origin policies for web browsers. Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security: 58-71.
Lam, V.T, Antonatos, S. Akritidis, P. et al. (2007). Puppetnets: Misusing web browsers as a distributed attack infrastructure. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security 12(2).
S. through even 2009. The exponential growth of Indian outsourcing companies who have expertise in Business Process Management (BPM) have correspondingly seen an increase in their business, as many smaller American publicly-held companies do not have the people or the expertise to get their processes, systems, it plans and accounting and reporting functions in compliance to the SOX standard in any meaningful period of time (adtke, et.al.) as a result many accounting professionals also must manage outsourcing contracts with companies who specialize in BPM and SOX process-redefinition. Finally there is also more concentration on oversight at the corporate level, with companies including Boeing having a Chief Compliance Officer who reports directly to the CEO to ensure GC Initiatives gain the necessary resources to be effective. Accounting and auditing will continue to be significantly influenced by SOX for the foreseeable future as the need for compliance grows.
The accounting and…
Ronald Jelinek, Kate Jelinek. "Auditors gone wild: The "other" problem in public accounting " Business Horizons 51.3 (2008): 223. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 14 Mar. 2009
Jeffrey E. Michelman, Bobby E. Waldrup. "Improving Internal Control Over Financial Reporting" the CPA Journal 78.4 (2008): 30-34. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Mar. 2009
Robin R. Radtke.. "Role Morality in the Accounting Profession - How do we Compare to Physicians and Attorneys? " Journal of Business Ethics 79.3 (2008): 279-297. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Mar. 2009
Sandra Waller Shelton, O. Ray Whittington. "The influence of the auditor's report on investors' evaluations after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. " Managerial Auditing Journal 23.2 (2008): 142-160. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 13 Mar. 2009
Managing the Effectiveness of the Audit Process
Mission and Objectives of the International Audit Department
The IAD stakeholder power-interest grid
The Audit Process
Objectives, Scope and Approach of the Research
Purpose and Mandate
Sustaining People Excellence
Tools and Technology
Infrastructure and Operations
Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is an international tobacco business that is operated by Japan Tobacco Inc. Japan Tobacco Inc. is the third largest player in the international tobacco industry with a market capitalization of 32 billion USD and a market share of 11%. JTI was established in the year 1999 when Japan Tobacco Inc. purchased the operations of United States multinational R.J. Reynolds, for 8 billion USD.
The Internal Audit Department (IAD) of the organization is accountable to the board of directors. The department is headed by the Global Internal Audit Vice President. He took his position in…
Anupindi, Ravi. 2006. Managing Business Process Flows. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Leseure, Michel. 2010. Key Concepts in Operations Management. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Mahadevan, B. 2009. Operations Management. New Delhi: Published by Dorling Kindersley (India), licensees of Pearson Education in South Asia.
Slack, Nigel. 2009. Operations and Process Management. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.
hythm on the Vine is a concert series that is run on a charity basis by the Shriner's Hospitals for Children. hythm is a concert series and the size of the events is growing rapidly, so there is a need for the Shriners to implement proper procedures for financial management and cash handling at these events. Members of the public pay for their tickets with credit cards or online, but there are some ticket purchases at the events, and in some instances there are cash purchases of food and beverages available. There are several different ticketing tiers, with the highest level of sponsorship at $5,000 and lower levels down to $35 tickets at the picnic area. The picnic area generates cash sales of food and beverages in particular, as many picnic guests rely on ad hoc food purchases. In addition to ticket sales, there are silent auctions as well.
Allen, J. (2014). Audit preparation best practices. Maner Costarian. Retrieved November 23, 2015 from http://www.manercpa.com/images/uploads/AutitPreparation-2014NonprofitUpdateMaterials.pdf
Cantoria, C. (2011). What internal controls should be in place for handling cash? BrightHub.com. Retrieved November 23, 2015 from http://www.brighthub.com/office/finance/articles/119173.aspx
Gustafson, F. (2015). Best practices for handling cash. eHow. Retrieved November 23, 2015 from http://www.ehow.com/info_10052406_practices-handling-cash.html
A market research plan is the systematic study that deals with the gathering and analysis of the concerned data to assess the role of a certain company in the market and persuade the customers to by their products. Marketing research assist the companies to design better strategies for future with respect to customer behavior (Pickett, 2010).
Marketing audit: It is a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of a company's activities and the results achieved due to its capabilities .In order to carry out marketing research one must understand the role of marketing audit in research.
PUPOSE OF THE AUDIT (Wal-Mart)
Marketing audit is necessary because the Wal-Mart has to compare its performance with the constantly changing market environment. There are certain micro and macro environmental factors that affect the business and marketing operations of the retail business of Wal-Mart largely. A detailed description of them is as under:
Cangemi, M.P., & Singleton, T.W. (2003). Managing the Audit Function. New York: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
D'Souza, S. (2009). The Brain Audit. Chicago: Psychotactics.
Foxall, G.R. (1981). Strategic Marketing Management. London: Croom Helm.
Hayes, R.S., Dassen, R., Schilder, A., & Wallage, P. (2005). Principles Of Auditing. Harlow, U.K.: Pearson Education.
Accounting and Audit Enforcement
1. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act applies to publicly-traded companies. Thus, it does not apply to non-profit entities. Nor does it apply to for-profit entities that are not publicly-traded. This is because SOX was passed specifically to address instances of accounting fraud in publicly traded companies that were undermining consumer trust in the capital markets (101.com, 2018). A publicly traded companies has a variety of different obligations under SOX that will help to reduce the opportunities and incentives for accounting fraud. Both opportunity and incentive are components of the fraud triangle – one needs to have a perceived need to commit the fraud and the circumstances with which to do so (ACFE, 2018).
Non-profit organizations have no obligations under SOX. However, there is a school of thought that holds that non-profit entities can benefit from some of the recommendations and mandates that SOX contains. Fritz (2016) writes that…
US General Accounting Office & National State Auditors Association. "Management Planning Guide for Information Systems Security Auditing." Issued 10 December 2011. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/managementpln.pdf
his source is a useful reference that can help determine the history and background of I security and federal government regulation. his report is the first of its kind and can help provide deep background information on the topic at hand.
Spremic, M., Ivanov, M., Jackovic, B. (2012). I Governance and information system auditing practice in credit institutions in the Republic of Croatia. International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, 2(6), 2012: 101,109. Retrieved from http://naun.org/multimedia/UPress/ami/16-201.pdf
his source provides a study to base the effectiveness of I governance. Despite a question of relevance due to the geographical location of the study, the information still holds value because of the questions the article essentially asked. he study focused on financial institutions performance and actions and their reliance…
This source examines auditing practices from a different type of academic source. This article argued that internal audit activity must be staffed with competent members dedicated to achieving goals. The article claimed that the internal audit activity must assess whether the information technology governance of the organization supports the strategies and objectives.
Melville, N. (2010). Information Systems Innovation for Environmental Sustainability. MIS Quarterly 34(1), March 2010: 1-21. Retrieved from http://www.misq.org/downloadable/download/linkSample/link_id/838/In
This source makes a plea that information systems integration and innovation is essential to the life of any and every organization. The article introduced the Belief action outcome (BAO) framework as an acceptable means to introduce the information technology systems into the larger environment.
Network Audit Case Study
This study focuses on a comprehensive list of top ten tips of network and business continuity audit. These tips might lead businesses to survive and thrive in their audits without the need to overhaul their entire infrastructure.
Top ten network and business continuity-auditing tips
Segmentation of tasks distinctively: It depends on the principle of drive and conquers. It involves brainstorming about the organization's security tasks in terms of pieces and separating them into logically and physically segments. For instance, security tasks depend on ensuring people are kept on the outside by using both physical and firewall security (Bergmann & Pamplin, 2013). However, other components are safely kept on the inside using antivirus. Security does not solely imply that people should be kept from the outside. Obviously, companies have lost information from within the business. In this case, each piece must be documented and prioritized.
Bergmann, T.S., & Pamplin, B. (2013). CISA - Certified Information Systems Auditor: Study guide. Indianapolis, Ind: Wiley Pub.
Gregory, P.H. (2010). CISA certified information systems auditor all-in-one exam guide. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Internal evenue Service's Use of Circular 230 to egulate Tax Preparers
An oft repeated maxim in American history states sardonically that "in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except for death and taxes" (Franklin, 1840), and under the modern statutes of federal tax code that observation has never been more prescient. With taxes imposed by local, state and federal governments throughout the entirety of our natural lives, Americans living in 2012 may be facing the most extensive excises ever levied by one nation on its citizenry. Considering the dreaded annual income tax, the sales taxes added to the cost of consumer goods, and property taxes attached to home valuations, the average person is compelled to contribute thousands of dollars annually to support the revenue shortages of a mismanaged federal government. Even the choice to gift a sum of money to your child, spouse or lifelong friend, perhaps…
Franklin, B. (1840). Letter to m. le roy on the affairs of france. In J. Sparks (Ed.), The works of Benjamin Franklin: containing several political and historical tracts not included in any
former edition, and many letters, official and private, not hitherto published; with notes and a life of the author (Vol. 10th). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=weTtwiiGUYQC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_
Fraud in income tax return preparation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight of the Committee on Ways and Means, 109th Cong. 1 (2005).
Audit Planning Control
The American Institute of CPAs (AICPA) has published guidelines for preparing an audit plan. The first step is the preliminary engagement activities, which is focused on establishing an understanding of the terms of engagement for the audit. The steps in the planning process are to identify the scope of the audit; to determine the reporting objectives; to consider the results of the preliminary engagement and to determine the resources that are going to be required to conduct the audit -- and the timing of when those resources will be needed (AICPA, 2015).
To audit Home Depot, it is important first to determine what the scope will be, as this will help to determine the resource requirements. A preliminary meeting with the company will help to determine this -- for example is it necessary to visit stores? Conduct inventory? Talk to Canadian HQ? Or is a visit to…
Areas of Heightened Audit isk
Audit risk = Inherent risk x Control risk x Detection risk. Audit risk can be referred to as the probability that an audit team will give an outright and absolute judgment when the financial statements of an institution are in actual fact materially misstated. To start with, inherent risk is the possibility that material frauds and errors will get into the accounting system employed to cultivate and improve the financial statements. On the other hand, control risk is the possibility that the internal control system of a client or company is not able to prevent or detect material misstatements (Griffiths, 2005). Lastly, detection risk is the probability that an auditor's audit procedures will not able to detect material misstatements. Taking into consideration the financial statements and the management commentary in the annual report of Havelock Europa there are a number of areas of…
Griffiths, P. (2005). Risk-Based Auditing. Aldershot: Gower Publishing Limited.
Havelock Europa PLC. (2013). Annual Report 2013.
Goldman, P., Kaufman, H. (2011). Anti-Fraud Risk and Control Workbook. USA: South Western Cengage.
Rittenberg, L., Johnstone, K., Gramling, A. (2012). Auditing: A Business Risk Approach. USA: South Western Cengage.
Internal Control Limitation
Limitations in the internal control system consist of lack of training or communication, collusion, lack of management support, human error, staff size, or cost benefit considerations. Lack of training or communications can consist of employees not being trained in internal controls or not understanding correct procedures (McIntosh). Collusion is where employees find ways to work around the internal control system. It can include two or more employees exchanging passwords and entering false transactions. Lack of management support constitutes the tone at the top. Without management support, employees are not properly supervised.
Human error comes from carelessness, distraction, misunderstanding, or mistakes in judgment (Rennels). If a company does not have adequate staff size, segregation of duties are not proper for internal control and staff fatigue or stress can also cause weak internal controls. The benefit of the internal control should be more than the costs. If the benefit…
Bagranoff, N.A. (2010). Accounting Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
McIntosh, K.A. (n.d.). What are The Limitations of Internal Control in Accounting? Retrieved from eHow Money: http://www.ehow.com/list_7463602_limitaions-internal-control-accounting_.html
Red Flags of Fraud. (n.d.). Retrieved from University of Texas - Arlington: http://www.uta.edu/internalaudit/documents/Fraud%20Red%20Flags.pdf
Rennels, M. (n.d.). What are Three Limitations of the Internal Control System? Retrieved from eHow Money: http://ehow.cominfo_8043208_three-limitations-internal-control-system.html
The proper authorization to complete an inventory also needs to include training on how to manage the exceptions that often occur when physical counting is taking place (Corman, 1988).
The third principle to have adequate documents and records in place that can be quickly be used by the teams completing the audits. This also needs to be preceded with a training session focused on how to also manage exceptions to the paperwork as well, as each company's physical inventory processes are unique to their specific business models (andall, 1984).
The fourth and fifth principles are physical controls and independent checks on performance. These two principles need to anchor all training activity and also be continually audited to ensure performance to standards set over decades are attained. Physical controls and independent checks are also indispensable to the audit and final approval of physical inventory levels, which is the first step in…
Corman, T.R. (1988). Inventory management. Hospital Materiel Management Quarterly, 10(2), 5-5.
Giannoccaro, I., & Pontrandolfo, P. (2002). Inventory management in supply chains: A reinforcement learning approach. International Journal of Production Economics, 78(2), 153-161.
Howard, K. (1984). Inventory management in practice. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 14(2), 3-3.
Randall, a.M. (1984). Computerized inventory management: A return to basics. Hospital Materiel Management Quarterly, 5(3), 12-12.
On the other hand, Enormo Corp is a big client for CPA, and exposing its case to authorities, would mean losing it.
As an alternative, CPA can refuse to work with Enormo Corp in this case and Enormo would be forced to resort to a different auditing company.
3. ecommended course of action. CPA has the right to handle this situation with the client, while trying to continue to have a professional relationship in the future. So, the suggested course of action would be to address the issue to a higher authority, start documenting it and explain to the client the implication of such documentation. The auditing firm also has the right to protect its integrity, so in this case it is essential to document the findings. However, since there is no rule that forces the auditor to report such discrepancy, the auditor will chose to restrict its actions to…
AICPA - the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants 1999, ET Section 102 - Integrity and Objectivity, http://www.aicpa.org/
IFAC - the International Federation of Accountants, 2007 Handbook of International Auditing, Assurance, and Ethics Pronouncements, www.ifac.org
Auditing Apollo Shoes
Inventory and Warehousing: Test of Controls
Testing the controls that exist in the inventorying and warehousing processes at Apollo Shoes consists of the auditor ensuring that the existing controls actually measure what they set out to measure, and that these measurements reflect that actual movement of goods and materials through the various parts of the business (Arens et al. 2008). Certain processes, such as the means by which inventory is checked in and out of various stations in the business, must also be examined (Arens et al. 2008). Ensuring that these practices are able to influence physical movements of materials and goods is key to the audit process.
Inventory and Warehousing: Test of Transaction
In order to test the transaction that exist in Apollo Shoe's inventory and warehousing processes, the specific physical and record-keeping details of the company must be determined by the auditor. A…
Arens, A., Elder, R. & Beasley, M. (2008). Auditing and Assurance Services. New York:
Coyle, B. (2000). Cash Flow Control. Chicago: Dearborn.
performance indicators and internal budget controls like reviewing staff hours can be used to assess individual and organizational accountability. Strict AICPA standards are required for the peer-review process. In addition, internal budget controls are also effective performance indicators.
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has published extensive and strict guidelines regarding the CPA peer review process (AICPA). The standards for membership in the AICPA are strict, "to retain their membership in the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) members of the AICPA who are engaged in the practice of public accounting in the United States or its territories are required to be practicing as partners or employees of firms enrolled in an approved practice-monitoring program..."
In accordance with the AICPA standards, the firm will chose a single, qualified CPA from a list provided by the AICPA to conduct a peer review. This person will review working conditions,…
IACPA. Standards for Performing and Reporting on Peer Reviews. 23 October 2003. http://www.aicpa.org/ members/div/practmon/stdstitle.htm
SAS Number 99 and the Corporate Audit
This report attempts to explain how the new SAS No.99 will change the way accounting firms will be required to conduct corporate audits. News about the collapse of Enron continues to dominate the American media circuits and in the wake of the now infamous Enron accounting scandal, accounting firms will be required to pay more attention then ever. Since the recent American Institute of Certified Public Accounts issue of SAS 99, the approach of auditors in the United States will for ever more be greatly enhanced. ith SAS 99 for example, external auditors will be required to discuss and gather facts with internal auditors. As of SAS 99, corporate America will now be required to monitor and share the findings of internal auditors who may be privy to critical fraud-related data residing with their clients. SAS 99 will therefore provide new opportunities for…
BBCi. "Enron finance chief denies charges" BBC International. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2756345.stm6 November, 2002..
BBCi. "Ex-WorldCom Finance Boss Indicted." BBC International. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2222137.stm28 August 2002.
SAS 99. Ed. AICPA. AICPA. http://www.aicpa.org/ index.htm.
Strategic Audit a Corporation1 I. Current Situation A. Current Performance How corporation perform past year terms return investment, market share profitability? B.
Nestle's performance Audit Report
Performance of Nestle in the year 2011
In the developed world the corporation faced economic frailty and uncertainty more so in the developed world. The economic down turns in the developed world economies had a significant impact on the performance of the product in the market which set in new challenges. Key to remaining afloat with all this challenges at Nestle is to focus on delivery of both short-term performance result and considering investing along the long-term profitability and sustainable lines Nestle The World's Leading Nutrition, Health and Wellness Company 32()
On top of the normal growth Nestle corporation experienced organic growths of up to 7.5%. Real internal growth was recorded at 3.9% while growth in pricing stood at 3.6% Nestle The…
Myers H. Trends in the Food Retail Sector across Europe,. Oxford London,: Oxford Institute of Retail Management, 2004. Print.
Nestle. Nestle Corporate Governance Report http://www.nestle.com/Common/NestleDocuments/Documents/Library/Documents/Corporate_Governance/Corp_Governance_Report_2011_EN.pdf2011 . Print.
-. The World's Leading Nutrition, Health and Wellness Company. http://www.nestle.com/Common/NestleDocuments/Documents/Library/Documents/Annual_Reports/2011-Annual-Report-EN.pdf : Nestle S.A., Cham and Vevey (Switzerland), 2011. Print.
Change Management Audit
While technology and information systems are there in order to make management much more efficient, these systems may also expose an organizations to various risks which might often be serious in nature. These risks increase when changes are brought about in an existing system. In order to minimize such risks it is important that organizations have a change management plan, which is duly audited and tested for compliance before change is implemented.
With the advent and progress in the field of Information Technology, the corporate sector across the globe has increased the incorporation of technology in business practices greatly over the years. Besides assisting in communication and production related tasks, Management Information Systems and knowledge managements are important and integral part of organizational management that play a vital role in ensuring efficiency and quality management. That said, the rapid progressions in technology mean that the preceding technologies…
Beasley, M.S., Branson, B.C., & Hancock, B.V. (2008). Rising Expectations: Audit Committee Oversight of Enterprise Risk Management. Journal of Accountancy, 205(4), 44+.
Kanter, H., & Pitman, M.K. (1995). A New Approach to Audit Risk Assessment. The Government Accountants Journal, 44(2), 49+.
Although the company relies on information technology it is not at the forefront so can adapt more slowly. There are limited political-legal and societal implications. The most important force -- economic -- does vary but the North American market is by far the most important. Jet fuel prices do not vary significantly from country to country.
Industry competition is driven by overall demand levels, price and service. These forces do not vary globally. There is low threat of new entrants due to high entry costs. Buyers have average buying power due to competition. There is a high threat of substitution from electronic communications and slower shipping services. Rivalry among firms is intense. Unions, governments, interest groups have low relative power.
Customers are the only immediate factor affecting FedEx, as they have curtailed spending on shipping. A major threat is that customers will find ways to reduce shipping permanently. An opportunity…
MSN Moneycentral: FedEx. (2009). Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/hilite.asp?Symbol=FDX
Carey, N. (2009). FedEx says taking market share despite slump. Reuters. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/article/pressReleasesMolt/idUSTRE52I3C820090319
Shult, K. (2008). Battle of the brands: UPS vs. FedEx. Blogging Stocks. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/05/05/battle-of-the-brands-ups-vs.-FedEx/
2009 FedEx Annual Report. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/FDX/791567587x0x312397/557bd7f3-8372-4afe-a664-1fdb82a488b0/FedEx2009AnnualReportl.pdf
Strategic Audit Format
Strategic Audit Areas
History, Development, Issues
Milestones (Identify minimum four milestones (events)
Past Issues/problems that the industry faced (Four to five issues)
Current Industry Issues (Minimum three issues)
History, development, problems
Milestones (Minimum four milestones (events)
Current Company Problems (Minimum three internal or external problems)
Present strategic posture
In the following sub-sections (a, b, c, and d), analyze the current vision/mission/goals/objectives/STRATEGIES / structure & culture of the firm
- The vision is to be a leading IT company that grows and meets customer demands on all related IT accessories including desktops, servers, computer peripherals, computer storage and various IT accessories.
The Mission of Dell as it is information technology company is provide the newest technology to create full customer satisfaction with effective cost.
- The focus of Dell INC has always been to be a leader in computer accessories and…
External Corporate Communications Audit
Demonstrate how you would conduct an external corporate communications audit
An external corporate communications audit is a critical undertaking that must be carried out in every organization. Auditing processes are common when it comes to the realization of the basic avenues of growth and development in organizations. In order to realize the best fruits of service from the department of communication, the channels of communication should have to be renewable or accessible for audit. The first section will be used for major auditing activities. The second avenue of the auditing process will involve the personnel that have been put in place as a measure of oversight between the channels of communication, communication processes, and the major pillars of communication within a corporation. Furthermore, it is important to realize the importance of having a sound truth and recognition avenue where the auditing processes are to be executed…
Institutes for Organization Management. (1965). Studies in organization management:
Association. 1st-[3d] year. Washington: Chamber of Commerce of the United States,
Jreisat, J.E. (1999). Public organization management: The development of theory and process. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
First is that they may be different in the foreign country from the domestic one, which can give rise to implementation complications. The project's timeline and cost could be dramatically altered by differences in environmental factors. Local firms or workers may be involved, creating training costs or potential organizational cultural differences. There could also be cost considerations arising from economic or exchange rate considerations. Environmental factors can be positive, too, as solid understanding of them could allow for advantages that would not be available if the project was domestically-based.
3) it is important to honor the local customs for a few reasons. One is that ultimately your ability to do business in the foreign country is permitted by the government of that country. To offend local custom may jeopardize the entire operation. Also, the project will be implemented more smoothly if you work in line with local customs, rather than…
Describe 2 internal control procedures and explain how the company could use these internal control procedures to protect itself from the risks you have identified in part (a) above.
Demanding that all merchandise be accounted for, even so-called unsellable garments, is essential. If there is a discrepancy between the garments sold to the stores and the inventory sold to Sylvia, she must explain why and produce evidence (in the form of a record of all unsellable merchandise), and the manufacturer should be contacted for verification that a complaint was issued regarding the garments. Secondly, Sylvia must keep receipts for all of her expenses and submit them, but there should also be independent audits -- for example, the company could call up the restaurants and establishments she frequents, to verify that she indeed had reservations and ate there. or, the company could specify what types of transport and what places she…
There are ten Fraud Detection Centers across the United States, and these are meant to detect refund fraud and to identify prevention measures. Each of these offices has a Resident Agent in Charge to direct, monitor, and coordinate operations supporting electronic and paper tax filing, and each Center performs activities that include educating Submission Processing Center and Customer Service Center personnel on fraud awareness and detection.
Criminal investigation in the agency started shortly after the Revenue Act of 1913 was passed, and that act imposed a modest tax of 1% on net incomes of individuals, estates, trusts, and corporations. In addition, another tax, or surtax, graduated from 1 to 6%, was applied to income exceeding $20,000. Over time, many laws have been passed that have changed the rates and other aspects of revenue assessment. Tax evasion was noted as early as 1919, when many serious allegations concerning alleged tax frauds…
Baker, Jeremy and Rebecca Young. "False Statements and False Claims." American Criminal Law Review, Volume 42, Issue 2 (2005), 427.
Berlau, John. "Return of the 'Audits from Hell': IRS Commissioner Charles Rossotti Once Pledged to Champion Taxpayer Rights, but Instead Americans Find Themselves Facing the Resurrection of Random Audits." Insight on the News, Volume 18, Issue 27 (July 29, 2002), 15.
Cochran, Amanda a. "Evidence Handed to the IRS Criminal Division on a 'Civil' Platter: Constitutional Infringements on Taxpayers." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 91, Issue 3 (2001), 699.
Craig Jr., James L. "Guidance on Financial Status Audits: It's Not Just for CPAs." The CPA Journal (2007), http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1996/0796/features/Guida.htm .
Communications Audit eport: A Case Study of Walmart Inc.
A Case Study of Walmart Inc.: Communications Audit eport
Wal-Mart is the world's largest retailer, and the world's largest company by revenues. A communications audit was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the company's communication strategy. This report presents the findings of that audit. It shows the specific media and channel used to communicate with internal and external stakeholders.
Communications Audit eport: A Case Study of Walmart Inc.
Walmart is an American-based multinational corporation headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas. The company was founded in 1962 with the aim of providing discount goods to customers to enable them live better. It went public in October 1969 to facilitate the achievement of this vision. Today, the company operates over 11,000 stores in 27 countries, dealing in a wide range of merchandise including foodstuffs, groceries, clothing, furniture, apparel, toys, electronics and clothing. It is home…
Chandler, D. & Munday, R. (2013). A Dictionary of Media and Communication. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Downs, C. W. & Adrian, A. D. (2012). Assessing Organizational Communication: Strategic Communications Audit.New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
Gray, D. (2012). The Connected Company. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media Inc.
Newsom, D., Turk, J. & Kruckeberg, D. (2012). This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Apple Inc. Maketing Audit
Apple Inc. is an Ameican multinational company specializing in poducing and maketing of innovative electonic bands that include iPad, iPhone, Apple watch, Mac, and iOS. Globally, Apple is the second lagest IT (infomation technology) company with annual evenue of $227.5 Billion at the end of 2015 fiscal yea. Apat fom its supeio financial assets, the company also enjoys high band loyalties fo all its poducts. Apple also ecods the unpaalleled maket success in iTunes softwae and digital music playes. At pesent, Apple distibutes and maket its poducts though online and etail stoes that assist the company geneating the annual pofits of moe than $53 billion at the end of 2015 fiscal yea. Despite the company financial success, Apple is still facing stiff competitions in the maket envionments since the company opeates in both developed and developing counties. In the United States, and Euopean counties, many electonic…
Apple Inc. relies on energy resources to produce its product and services, however, Worldwatch Institute (2015) predicts that the price of energy is likely to increase in the future. At present, Apple relies on non-renewable energy resources to develop its product, and an increase in the energy costs will increase the costs of its operations. However, Apple has been accused of contributing to the environmental pollution especially in China. To address the problem, the company has taken steps to reduce its carbon footprint. The company has replaced its outdated lighting and cooling systems to reduce more than 13,800 tons of carbon emissions. Moreover, the company has made its facilities energy efficiencies. However, the effort of the company to reduce the environment pollution is affecting Apple cost of operations.
Conn, S. (2016). Gartner Says Worldwide PC Shipments Declined 8.3% in Fourth Quarter of 2016. Gartner Research.
Each employee is given the resources needed to achieve their goals.
ithin the unit, performance expectations are identified and measured. Productivity goals are laid out, and evaluated. These results are considered by department managers as a key measure of productivity. ithin the marketing department, for example, sales figures (performance) are the key measure, and are weighed against the time and money spent to acquire them. e found this approach to be typical of each department.
So, in looking at how the company views performance and how it links performance to productivity, is that they do this well at the department level.
InforMed scores moderately well on the use of technology to enhance productivity. The basic requirements are in place, but they are not necessarily used to their best. Each department, as we have found, is responsible for their own budget and that includes the technology budget. At the department…
Pohlman, Randolph a. (1997). VDM - Value-Driven Management. In possession of the author.
2008). Organizational Audit of InforMed. In possession of the author.
Pohlman, Randolph a. (1997). VDM - Value-Driven Management.
Climate change is something affecting all countries, with particular relevance to low-lying coastal regions. Island nations in the Indian Ocean, for example, and the dozens of nations in the Caribbean are at risk of inundation not just from the constantly rising sea levels from melting glacial ice in polar regions. Climate change leads to warming ocean waters, which in turn lead to more frequent and more severe storms. In addition to island nations, low-lying coastal regions on mainland continents will also become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Climate change does impact other regions of the globe and other countries, as weather patterns impact precipitation levels, which could lead to some regions experiencing more severe drought conditions and others more flooding; some regions might incur greater damage from forest fires too, due to the persistent lack of precipitation. Therefore, the risks of climate change are genuinely…
Organization Tax esearch and Planning
The Internal evenue Service has specific rules with regards to transferring property to stock that are based on the value of the property exchanged and the percentage of all voting stock that the group will receive. First of all, the members that are going to take part in the transaction have to be members of one recognized group. The reason for this is that the rules for exchange apply equally to an individual or group that conducts such a transfer. Another caveat to the rules is that the group must be "in control" of the corporation's stock for it to qualify as nontaxable (NTIS, 2011). This rule has been maintained with the tax code for quite some time (National Tax Services, 2004) and requires that the parties acquire at least 80% of the stock for the transaction to qualify as "in control." The transaction can…
National Tax Information Service (NTIS). (2011). Property exchanged for stock. Retrieved from http://taxmap.ntis.gov/taxmap/pubs/p542-001.htm
National Tax Services. (2004). Exchange of property for stock. Retrieved from http://www.unclefed.com/IRS-Forms/2001/HTML/p54202.html
Whole Foods Market
Significant key points
Key financial indicators
Graph of sales growth from year 2002 until 2011.
SWOT and TWOS analysis
TOWS Strategic Alternatives Matrix
Pros and Cons
Evaluation and control
The Whole Foods Market is a progressive and focused corporation with presence in three developed markets including U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada. The company has achieved growth since its inception. The increasing market share of the company has enabled it to expand in international markets. The company envisions becoming global leader in organic and natural foods market. The competitors in the sector are large stores, supermarkets, and retail outlets with increased presence. The product range of these companies includes a number of related products along with the natural and organic foods.
The company requires maintaining its double digit growth strategy and aims to expand in global market. However the cost of natural and…
Form 10-K. United States Securities and Exchange Commission, (2011). Form 10-k annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the securities exchange act of 1934. Retrieved from Whole Foods Market website: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company Info/PDFs/2011_10K.pdf
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. USA: South-Western Pub.
Lederer, M., Schott, P., Huber, S., & Kurz, M. (2013). Strategic Business Process Analysis: A Procedure Model to Align Business Strategy with Business Process Analysis Methods. In S-BPM ONE-Running Processes (pp. 247-263). New York: Springer.
Ngai, E. (2009). RFID in operations and supply chain management: research and applications, edited by T. Blecker and GQ Huang.
oles of Directors and Duties of an Audit Committee
The Board of Directors is an organization's or company's governing body that is mandated with the task of ratifying all major decisions. Generally, the Board of Directors handles all issues of major strategic importance to an organization or company. This implies that the Board of Directors needs to be involved, engaged, and supportive in all issues of strategic importance, especially with regards to governance. However, the board comprises of directors who can play a number of several important roles as board members. In contrast, audit committees play a significant role in improving audit quality since these bodies play a crucial role in oversight and monitoring management. This paper examines the important performance-centered roles that directors may play within a board and the significant duties of an audit committee with regards to organizational governance.
Performance-oriented oles that Directors May Play within a…
Arnwine, D.L 2002, "Effective Governance: The Roles and Responsibilities of Board Members,"
Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, vol. 15, no. 1, pp.19-22.
AVC 2012, The Board of Directors: Role and Responsibilities, AVC, viewed 26 September
Promoting an Ethical Organizational Culture and the Implications for StakeholdersIn the past, corporate social responsibility was widely considered as a way to enhance an organizations reputation or brand, but some corporate leaders may be unaware that a growing number of companies of all sizes and types have identified ways to leverage these initiatives to improve their profitability as well. Likewise, although most corporate leaders are accustomed to financial audits that are used to ensure that their accounting practices are up to date and conform to all legal requirements, there are likely far fewer who are aware of the need for or importance of conducting ongoing ethics audits. To help overcome these gaps, this paper provides an explanation of the purpose of corporate social responsibility, a discussion concerning the importance of ethical leadership and a proposed ethical framework that could be used when confronted with an ethical dilemma. Finally, the paper…
ReferencesAgheorghiesei, D. T. & Iliescu, L. (2013, July). What is to be expected from an ethics audit integrated within the accreditation process of hospitals from Romania? Iranian Journal of Public Health, 42(7), 737-741.Amarasekere, T. (2011, January-February). Paper E1 enterprise operations: Philanthropy is only one face of corporate social responsibility. Financial Management, 42-44.Bannon, S. & Ford, K. (2010, July). How to instill a strong ethical culture. The CPA Journal, 80(7), 56-60.Harrington, A. R. (2011, Fall). Corporate social responsibility, Globalization, the multinational corporation, and labor: An unlikely alliance. Albany Law Review, 75(1), 483-486.Ketchner, L. (2016, January). The importance of ethics in organizations. Chron. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-ethics-organizations-20925.html .Krell, E. (2010, April 1). How to conduct an ethics audit. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/pages/0410agenda_social.aspx .Post, J. (2017, April 3). What is corporate social responsibility? Business News Daily. Retrieved from http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4679-corporate-social-responsibility.html .
Employee theft is noted by Mishra and Prassad (2006) to be a major component of private and public retail shrinkage.There is a consensus that theft in the workplace constitutes a serious offense and is a cause of serious problem (Weber, Kurke & Pentico, 2003).Employees have been noted to steal time, money, merchandise as well as other forms of company property like information in exchange for cash and other forms of favors. Wells (2001) noted that opportunity is the main reason for commissioning fraud. According to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, U.S. employees lose between $20-$40 billion annually through employee theft alone. This theft is noted to be responsible for 30% of all business failure (Condon,2003).Bamfield (2004) further indicated that employee theft is commonplace in the business today.
General prevention strategies against employee theft: A literature review
Vigilance is noted as the key to the prevention of corporate fraud and the…
Albrecht, WS., Albrecht, CC., Albrecht, CO. Zimbelman, MF (2011) .Fraud Examination. Cengage Learning
Anderson, R. 2007. The Credit Scoring Toolkit: theory and practice for retail credit risk management and decision automation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Albrecht, W.S., and G.W. Wernz.( 1993). The three factors of fraud. Security Management 95: no pagination as electronic article
Bamfield, J. (2004), "Shrinkage, shoplifting and the cost of retail crime in Europe: a crosssectional analysis of major retailers in 16 European countries," International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 32 Nos 4/5, pp. 235-241.
Another issue is the legal/political power that Southwest has (or does not have, in relation to its rivals). Ultimately, the company has suffered as the result of the right Amendment, and it needs to leverage its current size to fight back against American Airlines over this legislation. Not only should Southwest fight for the amendment to be repealed in its entirety and immediately, but it should fight for punitive action against American Airlines and DF airport. A civil suit against these parties for the financial harm caused to Southwest could prevent them from undertaking such illegal and unethical actions in the future and could help Southwest to put AA out of its misery. Lastly, Southwest has had problems with its maintenance. The company spends a lot less than any of its rivals on maintenance, and while its accident in Chicago was ruled the result of pilot error, concerns over the…
Chang, K. (2011). How Southwest Airlines beat the Wright Amendment. CNBC. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/43714139/How_Southwest_Airlines_Beat_the_Wright_Amendment
Jacksonville Business Journal. (2012). Union slowing AirTran, Southwest merger. Jacksonville Business Journal. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://www.bizjournals.com/jacksonville/news/2012/02/27/union-slowing-airtran-southwest-merger.html
MSN Moneycentral. (2012). Southwest Airlines. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-balance-sheet/?symbol=us%3ALUV&stmtView=Ann
Mutzabaugh, B. (2012). Southwest's new routes begin to blend in AirTran cities. USA Today. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://travel.usatoday.com/flights/post/2012/01/southwest-new-routes/610164/1
internal auditor, the external auditor and the CFO. The essay also reviews their respective responsibilities, inherent conflicts between them and ethical considerations for each. Finally the essay reviews the treatment of balance sheet items from the perspective of each position.
The internal auditor typically reports to the CFO and is responsible for reviewing work done by fellow employees, checking for errors, oversights and irregularities. The standard method used to conduct an audit involves examining a transaction or process and comparing how it was done with the way it is documented in an operating procedure or accounting convention, then reporting to management on any differences. The internal auditor may use a number of methods or tools to capture information, sometimes even designing or adapting an existing tool to track the information being reviewed (Blackburn, 2011).
Information presented in the internal auditor's report is vital to management's ability to run a successful…
Blackburn, V. (2011). What does an internal auditor do? Conjecture Corporation. Retrieved July 5, 2011 from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-does-an-internal-auditor-do.htm
Damewood, C.L. (2011). What does an external auditor do? Conjecture Corporation. Retrieved July 5, 2011 from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-does-an-external-auditor-do.htm
Institute of Internal Auditors. 2010. How do internal and external auditors differ and how should they relate? Retrieved July 5, 2011 from http://www.theiia.org/theiia/about-the-profession/internal-audit-faqs/?i=1086
Investopedia. (2011). What does a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) do? Retrieved July 5, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/04/042204.asp
large organizations, the existence and effectiveness of its internal audit function comes into question. Not only the internal audit department should exist but it shall work effectively. An effective internal audit department can serve as the backbone of an organization's success. The International Accounting Standards oard (IAS) keeps on revising its standards to make sure that external and internal auditors of an organization carry out their duties effectively. The board recently revised the Internal auditing standard that serves the purpose of assisting the external auditor's in using the work of the internal auditors. Though external auditors are mainly concerned with auditing company's financial statements but lack of time and in some cases lack of resources raises a question as to their audit quality. In order to ensure that external audit is carried out effectively, the IAAS realized the importance of internal audit and how can the internal audit be an…
Brown, P 1983 'Independent Auditor Judgment in the Evaluation of Internal Audit Functions', Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 444 -- 455.
Adams, M 1994 'Agency Theory and the Internal Audit', Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol. 9 no. 8, pp.8 -- 12.
Nagy, A 2002, 'An assessment of the newly defined internal audit function', Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol. 17 no. 3, pp.130 -- 137.
This role is in response to clients' demands for a single trustworthy individual or firm to meet all of their financial needs. However, accountants are restricted from providing these services to clients whose financial statements they also prepare." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2009)
1. Public Accounting
The work entitled: "The Reality of the CPA's Role" states that modern CPAs work "behind the scenes as trusted advisors in nearly all significant business decisions. Successful accountants display the ability to think strategically and creatively and to be problem solvers and business advisors." (Douglass, 2006) Douglass states that the views of the CPA are widely varied "...whether from the viewpoint of the investing public or from the perspective of the companies that engage CPAs to audit their financial statements or perform other functions. In fact, many people not involved in the business management or accounting profession may perceive CPAs…
Douglass, Kevin (2006) the Reality of the CPA's Role New Jersey CPA Magazine, April 2006. Accounting and Auditing. Online available at: http://www.amper.com/publications/amper-cpa-role.asp
Erard, Brian (1992) Taxation with Representation: An Analysis of the Role of Tax Practitioners in Tax Compliance. Journal of Public Economics 52 (1993) 163-107. North-Holland. Online available at: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/files/ISP_SUMMER_SCHOOL_2008_ERARD_TAXATION_WITHOUT_REPRESENTATION.pdf
Financial accounting for Local and State School Systems (2005) Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Online available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/h2r2/ch_4.asp
Garrison, Ray H. And Noreen, Eric W. (2009) What is Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting. Accounting Management. Online available t: http://www.accountingformanagement.com/
Statistical Process Control
What is the correct relationship of internal audit to senior management?
The correct relationship of internal audit to senior management is a supportive relationship. It is imperative that senior management makes it known, through is ways and actions, that it supports internal audit. One piece of evidence consists of senior management granting internal audit easy access to senior management and the audit committee. The process of senior management providing easy access for internal audit guarantees the correct relationship of internal audit to senior management.
How should conflict be managed? Is conflict inevitable?
Conflict is always inevitable between internal audit and senior management. When internal audit interact with senior management, there is always a potential for conflict. In fact, it is virtually impossible for people with diverse background skills and norms to work together; make decisions, and try to meet project goals and objectives without conflict. Internal audit…
easyJet Financial eporting
ecent History egarding Corporate Accounting Policy
The recent corporate accounting practices of easyJet Airlines reflects financial accounting policies at the company, which were in disapproval by Sir Stelios Haji-Ioannou, founder -- easyJet (Waller, 2008) . The Board of Directors are responsible for drafting and adopting of company accounting policies. Sir Stelios' rejection of the boards annual accounts is reflective of the agency/principle problem such that the board is now potentially viewing the corporation in a different light than from the founder.
The founder proclaimed the accounting policies adopted by the board of easyJet to be inaccurate and not reflective of the "current commercial realities and the macro-economic climate" says Sir Stelios (Waller, 2008). Stelios recommends changes to the policies in place and suggests appointment of two directors of non-executive capacity to serve on the board to provide financial accounting insight into the policies established and set forth…
"A new departure for EasyJet with Airbus," 2003, FT.com,, pp. 1.
EasyJet Annual Report (2010). http://2010annualreport.easyjet.com/files/pdf/ConsolidatedFinancialPosition_easyJet_AR10-3-5.pdf
EasyJet Resolves Dispute With Founder 2010,, Dow Jones & Company Inc.
"Filling the gaps with a new SAFETY EVENT," 2004, The Safety & Health Practitioner, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 78.
egarding Manpower Planning, ichard had cut staff levels to the point where the departments themselves were being compromised. However, it should be noted that this was being done by ichard due to his own unsavory goals and plans, but at any rate, ichard's actions make an important point. When manpower levels are cut to unsafe levels, for whatever the reason, disaster is likely to follow.
Employee Motivation was crushed by ichard both by his policies and his actions. When he cut staff levels as was mentioned before, those who remained in the staff were displeased at being forced into assuming more work volume, suspicious of ichard's motivations in slashing the staff levels, and left to fear for their own positions. Beyond this, once it was apparent that there were ulterior motives for ichard to be doing what he was doing, the staff members became more and more disillusioned with the…
Unifying all compliance strategies throughout a business and placing internal auditors in the position of managing variations in processes and reporting results has emerged as a critical success factor for GC strategies (Michelman, Waldrup, 2008). The businesses that are minimizing the disruption of SOX-related it, process and strategy changes have successfully implemented internal auditing oversight programs. This aspect of internal controls is struggling in some businesses as resistance to change and the oversight function is seen as a threat to political power (Michelman, Waldrup, 2008). CEOs and the senior management team of an organization however must be in compliance to Section 302, Corporate esponsibility for Financial eports, which states they have audited and personally verify the accuracy of their financial statements (Bedard, Graham, Hoitash, Hoitash, 2007). Section 404 holds a company officer liable for the accuracy and veracity of the data on financial statement (Hemani, 2005).
SOX initially led…
Linda Devonish-Mills. (2007). Updates on XBRL and SOX. Strategic Finance, 88(8), 14-16.
Bashir Hemani. (2005). What is Sarbanes-Oxley, and What Does it Have to Do with Supply Chain Management? Journal of Validation Technology, 11(2), 134-143.
Bedard, J., Graham, L., Hoitash, R., & Hoitash, U.. (2007). Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404 and Internal Controls. The CPA Journal, 77(10), 34-37.
Michelman, J., & Waldrup, B.. (2008). Improving Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. The CPA Journal, 78(4), 30-34.
The statute of limitation for the discovery of fraud is increased to two years from discovery date and five years following the act. Criminal penalties for securities fraud was increased to 25 years, by SOX.
Each public company's CEO and CFO must certify financial statements and reports. Personal loans are banned, to executive officers and company directors, with the enactment of SOX. It is also now required to accelerate reporting of insider trading ("H.. 3763").
In addition, SOX now prohibits insider trading during pension fund blackouts. Compensation and profits for the CEO and CFO must be made public.
Auditor independence is now specifically required. and, American companies must have an internal audit function, that is certified by external auditors. Audit firms are prohibited from providing services, unrelated to their audit work, to clients. One of the most important provisions is an increased accountability, holding CEOs and directors accountable, for crimes…
Beard, D. & Wen, H. "Reducing the Threat Levels for Accounting Information Systems." The CPA Journal. May 2007. New York State Society of CPAs. December 3, 2007 http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2007/507/essentials/p34.htm .
Collins, J. "15 Key Provisions of Sarbanes-Oxley." Microsoft Dynamics. 10 Nov 2004. Microsoft. December 3, 2007 http://www.microsoft.com/dynamics/nav/product/navision_15_major_sox_provisions.mspx.
H.R. 3763. 23 Jan 2002. Government Printing Office. December 3, 2007 http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_bills&docid=f:h3763enr.tst.pdf .
Lucci, J. "Enron - the Bankruptcy Heard Around the World and the International Riccochet of Sarbanes-Oxley." Albany Law Review 67(1) 2003: pp. 211-249. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 2, 2007 http://web.ebscohost.com .
An analysis of IT policy transformation
The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems, Inc. With presence in Africa, Australia, Canada, England, Malaysia and the United States, OSI Systems, Inc. is a worldwide company based in California that develops and markets security and inspection systems such as airport security X-ray machines and metal detectors, medical monitoring anesthesia systems, and optoelectronic devices. The company is also represented by three subsidiary divisions in offices and plants dedicated to the brands, apiscan Systems, OSI Optoelectronics and SpaceLabs Healthcare.
In 2010, OSI, Inc. had sales of $595 million with net income of over $25 million. As of June 2010, the company was comprised of 2,460 personnel globally. The parent company provides oversight and fiscal control to the different divisions, and is connected through its virtual network world-wide intranet system;…
Allen, J. (2005). Governing for Security: Project Stakeholders Interests. News at SEI. Retrieved on 5SEPT10 from http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/news-at-sei/securitymatters20054.cfm
Computer Misuse Law, 2006. Parliament UK. Retrieved from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm090916/text/90916w0015.htm#09091614000131
Diver, S. (2006). Information Security Policy -- A Development Guide for Large and Small Companies. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room. Retrieved on 30 Sept 10 from http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/policyissues/information-security-policy-development-guide-large-small-companies_1331
Global IT Policy (2009) OSI, Inc.
ecent Developments in the Barry Minnow Case: Ongoing Implications and Lessons of the ZZZ Best Company
This article outlines three different past cases of significant accounting issues that led to collapses of various levels, from single companies (and some of their investors) to (potentially, at least in part) the entire global economy. The first of these cases is that of Barry Minkow, beginning with his ZZZZ Best carpet cleaning company, which Minkow founded when he was only 16 years old and quickly took public at a valuation of over $200 million. As time wore on, however, it quickly became clear that the business was largely a fraud, an in fact Minkow had been running a Ponzi scheme for quite some time with the business largely a shell (though it did actually make some profit from cleaning carpets, as well).
Eventually arrested and sentenced to twenty-five years in prison…
Steinberg, R. (2011). We Won't Get Fooled Again ... And Again, and Again. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://insurancenewsnet.com/article.aspx?id=293087
Total Quality Management (TQM) is the practice of continuously and thoroughly working on improving the proficiency and excellence of the product or service so that it exceeds customer expectations. TQM involves the involvement of anyone associated with the product / service - management, workforce, suppliers, and customers -- in order to ensure its continued excellence.
In its essence, TQM would be defined as a management approach to product excellence in order to achieve customer satisfaction.
Enterprise risk management (EM)
Enterprise risk management is the sector that deals with recognizing possible risks within the operation of the enterprise, assessing possibility and magnitude of these risks, controlling these risks, preventing other risks from occurring, and monitoring occurrence and reiteration of these partial risks.
Quality assurance is the act of analyzing processes and monitoring operations to ensure that high quality standards are being met at all times. In contrast to 'quality…
Alexander, Carol and Sheedy, Elizabeth (2005). The Professional Risk Managers' Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Current Theory and Best Practices. PRMIA Publications
Brigitte J.C. Claessens, Wendelien van Eerde, Christel G. Rutte, Robert A. Roe, (2007) "A review of the time management literature," Personnel Review, Vol. 36 Iss: 2, pp.255 -- 276
Chron,.com. Advantages & Disadvantages of Total Quality Management Strategies
accounting questions while the rest centers on the characteristics of two certain companies, those being Apple and Philips.
Accounting Questions & Answers
The first accounting question is why revenue recognition is a significant issue. ecognizing when revenue comes in, what specific revenue stems from and the exact amount of all of the above is a very vital part of the accounting process because it has a direct correlation and effect on the profit/loss of a company, the income statement, the cash flow statement and, to a lesser extent, the balance sheet. evenues are used to defray the costs of the goods/services that were disseminated and they need to be properly measured and accounted for, and in the time period to which they apply, so as to ensure that all of the affected and relevant financial statements reflect what is truly going on and when precisely it happens (McQuaig & Bille,…
Apple. (2012, December 6). Apple Inc. - Overview. Apple Inc. - Overview. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from http://investor.apple.com/
McQuaig, D.J., & Bille, P.A. (2008). College accounting (9th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Philips. (2012, December 6). Philips Investor Info. Philips Electronics. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from www.philips.com/about/investor/index.html
Yahoo Finance. (2012, December 6). Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from http://finance.yahoo.com
Aside quality and financials, control techniques are also present in other organizational departments, such as engineering, logistics, information systems, pre-series center, production technical support, purchasing and sales and marketing. While all these organizational processes are thoroughly controlled, incremental emphasis is placed on control techniques at the level of logistics operations. At this organizational stage, the control functions refer to the following:
Timely delivery of the vehicles
Adequate supply of automobile components (achieved through an ongoing fruitful relation with the purveyors)
The sequence of vehicles and forecasting of future needs
The creation and verification of time schedules before production is launched and ensuring that the times are respected (during production)
At the level of automobile distribution: correctness of the receipts, verification of product sufficiency or shortness, global distribution of products through global access to the Bentley automobiles and finally, freight upon delivery, such as road freight, sea freight or air freight…
Quality Control, Tutor2U, http://tutor2u.net/business/production/quality_control.htm last accessed on June 28, 2010
Volkswagen: Bentley Motors, Automotive Intelligence, http://www.autointell.com/european_companies/rolls-royce-bentley/rolls_royce_bentley.htm last accessed on June 28, 2010
2010, Bentley Motors Limited, Hoovers, choice of both nouveau riche rap artists and the old money aristocracy last accessed on June 28, 2010
2010, Website of Bentley Motors, http://www.bentleymotors.com last accessed on June 28, 2010
United Continental does not have a mission statement or a vision statement, either on its website or in its annual report (10-K). Cochran, David and Gibson (2008) argue that the mission statement is a critical first step in the strategic management process. It sets the framework for what the firm's strategies are supposed to accomplish, especially in conjunction with the vision statement. hen a company lacks these things, it can lack strategic focus. Elements of the strategy can lack coherence, and be a poor fit with one another. A mission statement is also the most visible and public element of the strategic plan, so without it the company is not communicating its plan to the public. Nor is the mission communicated to employees, when there is not one.
A mission or vision statement can be simple and vague, but provide a sense of direction. It can also be…
BRS. (2012). Mission statement. Business Resource Software. Retrieved March 16, 2012 from http://www.businessplans.org/mission.html
Cochran, D., David, F. & Gibson, C. (2008). A framework for developing an effective mission statement. Journal of Business Strategies. Vol. 25 (2)
MSN Moneycentral. (2012). United Continental Holdings. Retrieved March 16, 2012 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/key-ratios?symbol=UAL
QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved March 16, 2012 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
“Pulling Strings” in Internal Auditor Magazine
The article by Russell Jackson (2018) entitled “Pulling Strings: High-level hackers are using social engineering tactics to manipulate employees into giving up vital information,” the subject of hackers using deceptive practices to trick employees into giving up company data is discussed. Jackson (2018) describes how hackers have now realized that it is easier to use deception and fool workers into granting access to organizational data than to actually try to hack their way into an organization’s system and steel information. As Jackson (2018) points out, “well-intentioned employees will offer account numbers, volunteer passwords, and even open locked security doors if the request seems reasonable or the threat seems real?—?or if the stranger seeking physical access is a decent actor with an adequate disguise.” Workers fall for four basic social engineering ruses—(a) content in a strange email that looks inviting, (b) provocative social media messages…
was invited to assist in all aspects of Riyad Capital management as directed by the CEO, to advise and coordinate the development and implementation of special projects related to Riyad Capital's various businesses. According to the CEO of Riyad Capital, "helped change direction" for the first time in the company's history.
This required definition of Riyad Capital's strategies and objectives, so the CEO and developed a three-year strategic plan for the period 2011-2013. Assisting the CEO in carrying out his management responsibilities took advice, coordination and support on designated projects, and representing the executive office vis-a-vis other departments. actively contributed to efficiency, SWOT analysis, HR policies, operational effectiveness and the establishment of a strategic position.
worked with the head of Risk & Compliance to develop an action plan to the capital market authority, updated and initiated many Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with Riyad Bank, and closed 28 past-due internal audit…
I was invited to assist in all aspects of Riyad Capital management as directed by the CEO, to advise and coordinate the development and implementation of special projects related to Riyad Capital's various businesses. According to the CEO of Riyad Capital, I "helped change direction" for the first time in the company's history.
This required definition of Riyad Capital's strategies and objectives, so the CEO and I developed a three-year strategic plan for the period 2011-2013. Assisting the CEO in carrying out his management responsibilities took advice, coordination and support on designated projects, and representing the executive office vis-a-vis other departments. I actively contributed to efficiency, SWOT analysis, HR policies, operational effectiveness and the establishment of a strategic position.
I worked with the head of Risk & Compliance to develop an action plan to the capital market authority, updated and initiated many Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with Riyad Bank, and closed 28 past-due internal audit outstanding control exceptions company-wide in 25 days. I edited Arabic and English sell-side reports for our research department, wrote the 2011 objectives for 10 department heads who report directly to the CEO, and reviewed and corrected the company's HR manual. I submitted a peer comparison for our company to the Board of Directors and worked as acting head of the it department, to restructure the department and push two crucial projects through bottlenecks that had kept them pending for two years. My work during this period was deeply appreciated by the board members.
It was tough the first year of being in business for himself.
Although his mother was unsupportive of his decision to be a designer, David persisted through the lean times. One day, he spotted an ad for the Elle New Talent Competition. He started to apply, and then realized that he needed to submit full storyboards and materials overnight. Like a scene from Project Runway, David pulled an all-nighter and made it happen. Three days later, he was in the top twelve. Three months later, he was in the finalists, and then…he won.
Winning the Elle New Talent Competition launched David's career in earnest, but it did not mean instant success. He still had no full-time, dependable clients. As he considered returning to teaching, David had a lucky break. The House of Montiac called him to work in Cape Town. Rather than leave his budding business in Johannesburg,…