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International Business Law -- ecognition
International ecognition Law -- ecognition
The number of states in the world map is constantly increasing. In the beginning of 20th century it was fifty five, in the middle it touched the figure of seventy five and by 2005 it soared up to 200 in total (Crawford, 2006). With increase in number of states, the concept of state recognition is also emerging on the international platform, where the states are recognized as an entity or legal authority. The concept has gained much importance by virtue of its consequences. It has been formally defined as a process which enables state governments to face the changes taking place internationally (Grant, 1999). The change can either be creation of new state or change in its internal situations and foreign relations.
The concept of state recognition is emerging in International Law primarily because of producing significant results. Meeting required…
Brownlie, I. Principles of Public International Law, 7th edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008.
Crawford J. The Creation of States in International Law. Clarendon Press, Oxford 2006.
Grant, T.D. The Recognition of States: Law and Practice in Debate and Evolution. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT. 1999.
Ramzan, M.B. Redefining the Requirements for the Recognition of New and Independent States. Research Report General Assembly Sixth Committee -- Legal, Accessed on February 26, 2012 from www.muimun.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/GA6_topicA.pdf
Despite offering particular benefits to post-conflict nations, increased levels of help following civil war also comes with negative upshots that entails a rise in fraud and jeopardizing one of the basic objectives of peacekeeping.
Corruption affects the peacebuilding process, institutions and people in a given nation. For instance in Herzegovina and Bosnia, corruption affected the operation of Bosnian judicial institutions (Kahler, 2013). Moreover, the strategy adapted to address fraud in Bosnia that entailed reforming judicial system, dismissal regimes and discipline were not tactical enough but responsive in temperament. The international society claimed that the reforms should be domestically led and owned where resulting rules should echo the accessible cultural and legal paradigms.
United Nations Peacekeeping and Corruption
According to Gold (2005), the United Nations is not a compassionate, but an inefficient world body. Gold asserts that the United Nations has instigated the rise and spread of global chaos. For instance,…
Aoi, C., & Thakur, R. (2007). Unintended consequences of peacekeeping operations. New York:
Billon, P. (2008). Corrupting Peace? Peacebuilding and Post-conflict Corruption. International Brysk, a. (2012). From human trafficking to human rights: Reframing contemporary slavery.
Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Press.
Carnahan, M., Durch., Gilmore, S.(2006). Economic impact of peacekeeping. United Nations
International Training and Development
International training and management development are amongst the well-known themes of business management structures. The remarkable work of different researchers on the significance and implementation of these theories is used by Multinational Enterprises (MNE's) to some extent. However, MNE's have failed to adopt the entire essence of this theme and only bits and pieces of this culture have been implemented. This paper is a representation of the conjectures on this subject and the way they have been implemented in practical world. Using the existing research work, this paper highlights the difference between the applications and philosophies of this in academic and practical world. No matter how hard one tries to bridge the gap between the two, a crack always increases the distance. International training and management development is an important tool to deal with the side effects of globalization. As companies extend their boundaries outside their…
Akanji, T. And Bankole, A. (2007), "International briefing 19: training and development in Nigeria," International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 222-33.
Ali, G.E. And Magalhaes, R. (2008), "Barriers to implementing e-learning: a Kuwaiti case study," International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 36-53.
Bartlett, C.A. And Ghoshal, S. (2000), "Going global: lessons for late movers," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 78 No. 2, pp. 132-42.
Bunch, K.J. (2007), "Training failure as a consequence of organizational culture," Human Resource Development Review, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 142-63.
International Commercial Arbitration
As the limitations among nations reduce, and the intricacy associated with worldwide industrial dealings improves, the organic result created is one which clashes with the increasing standards that are typically enclosed inside the limitations of a single legislation as well as impacts individuals all over the globe. Consequently, the actual events associated with cross-border industrial controversies possess an array of choices for adjudication of the controversies: (1) resort to the courtroom that belongs to them under the standardized legislation; (2) resort to the courtroom of the adversary's legislation; or even (3) resort for an out-of-court discussion board.
The groups that align in the worldwide industrial accords or contracts generally select the 3rd choice that signifies international arbitration, as a way associated with solving their own feasible upcoming controversies because, a minimum of within rule of arbitration, arbitration offers several benefits more than transnational litigation:
(1) A good…
Allen B. Green & Jamie L. Boucher, (1998). "International Arbitration: The Spike in Mergers Is Prompting U.S. Courts to Compel Corporate Parties Who Have Not Signed Any Arbitration Agreements to Arbitrate International Disputes," N. AT'L L.J. At B4.
Bermann, G.A. (1990). The Use of Anti-Suit Injunctions in International Litigation, 28 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 589-628.
Brower, C.H. II, (1995). "What I Tell You Three Times is True: U.S. Courts and Pre-Award Interim Measures Under the New York Convention," 35 VA.J. INT'L L. 971, 976. Congress passed the Federal Arbitration Act in 1925 to reverse this view. Federal Arbitration Act, § 1-15, 43 Stat. 883, 883-85 (1925) (codified as amended at 9 U.S.C. § 1-16 (1988)).
Buhring-uhle, c., Kirchhoff, l. And Scherer, g. (2006). Arbitration and mediation in international business 17 (Kluwer Law International 2d ed).
International Lending and Financial Crises
There has been remarkable growth in the gross and net external positions and international capital flows in the last two decades. This represents growth of nearly three times among industrialized or developed countries and has led to large effects on the valuation of asset price and exchange rates have also changed considerably with these countries having larger external assets and liabilities. This increase in international capital flows has led to increased interest in understanding the concepts and forces that drive capital flows and their effects on the economy, especially at macro level. Most of what is known about these international capital flows is within risk-free bond trading only. By presenting an analysis of the empirical reasons for the international financial crisis and the role of the International Monetary Fund using what is known about international capital flows, it is possible to understand why these crises…
Cecco, M. d. (1974). New Dimensions for International Lending. The World Today, 30(9), 388-393. doi: 10.2307/40394811
Geert Bekaert, Campbell R. Harvey, & Angela Ng. (2005). Market Integration and Contagion. The Journal of Business, 78(1), 39-69. doi: 10.1086/426519
Jain, A.K. (1986). International Lending Patterns of U.S. Commercial Banks. Journal of International Business Studies, 17(3), 73-88. doi: 10.2307/154934
Jun-Koo Kang, & Rene M. Stulz. (2000). Do Banking Shocks Affect Borrowing Firm Performance? An Analysis of the Japanese Experience. The Journal of Business, 73(1), 1-23. doi: 10.1086/209630
International Organizational Structures
Companies engaging in global business ideally adopt business structures/models that give a significant competitive edge over other worldwide companies. Four of the major structures/models employed globally focus on Product, Geographic Area, corporate Functions or specific Customer groups (also known as "verticals"). Research shows that specific business adopt one or more of these models based on corporate circumstances and with varying degrees of success.
Global Product Structure/Model and Example
Global Product Structure configures business divisions along product lines. Allowing each division manager to handle all aspects of production and distribution for his/her division's product, the system also makes the product division manager fully responsible for worldwide success of his/her division's product. Global Product Structure is a commonly used framework because it provides several key advantages, given here in no particular order of importance. First, by controlling all functions of production and distribution for his/her product, the division manager…
Accounting CPE. (2012). Functional organizational structure. Retrieved on September 14, 2012 from www.accountingtools.com Web site: http://www.accountingtools.com/functional-org-structure
Ainsworth, R.T., & Shact, A.B. (2011, June 3). Transfer pricing & business restructurings - intangibles synergies and shelters. Retrieved on September 14, 2012 from www.bu.edu Web site: http://www.bu.edu/law/faculty/scholarship/workingpapers/documents/AinsworthR-ShactA060311.pdf
Czinkota, M.R., & Ronkainen, I.A. (2007). International Marketing. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.
Czinkota, M.R., Ronkainen, I.A., & Moffett, M.H. (2008). Fundamentals of international business. Dorset, UK: Wessex Publishing.
International Financial Contagion in Currency Crisis
The authors in the Journal of International Money and Finance argue that market crises seem to spread from one country to another in a kind of "contagion" (Caramazza, et al., 2004). Why does this happen? They wonder first of all what makes one crisis "…spill over to others," and moreover, the factors that might account for the "…temporal clustering of crises" appear to break down into four areas of concern.
First, when a financial glitch occurs in one country -- like the increase in U.S. interest rates in the 1980s, which contributed to the 1994-95 Mexican peso crisis -- it is considered a "common shock" and deserves close observation; secondly, if a country depreciates its currency, that act can negatively impact its trading partners (Caramazza, 53). The third aspect references the fact that investors quickly rid themselves of their assets when a crisis occurs,…
Beja, Edsel. 2007. 'Shaking Up International Development,' Challenge, vol. 50, 57-72.
Caramazza, Francesco, Ricci, Luca, and Salgado, Ranil. 2004. 'International financial contagion in currency,' Journal of International Money and Finance. vol. 23, 51-70.
Castaneda, Gonzalo. 2007. 'Business groups and internal capital markets: the recovery of the Mexican economy in the aftermath of the 1995 crisis,' Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 16, 427-454.
Kanaoka, Masaharu. 2011. 'Have the Lessons Learned From the Asian Financial Crisis Been Applied Effectively in Asian Economies?' International Journal of Economics and Finance, vol. 4.
International Financial Crises and the IMF
Demand failures are a major economic problem, and one that cannot necessarily be addressed by cutting interest rates as once believed. Small economies, such as those known as the Asian "tigers" are not invulnerable to international speculation. They may, in fact, resist cutting their interest rates -- raising them instead in an effort to keep their currencies from collapse. Failed economies financed poor investments with huge debt, and when the markets turned on their currencies -- causing them to plummet -- the foreign debt value grew astronomically causing an enormous number of companies to fail. The International Money Fund quickly identified the source of the crises as deeply structural and requiring fundamental financial reforms. Some pundits argue that the IMF should have focused more on the panic and less on reforms. Indeed, the variable performance of Korea (which rolled over debt) and Malaysia (which…
Brockmeijer, J., Marston, D., and Ostry, J.D. (Eds.) (2011, March 13 ). Liberalizing capital flows and managing outflows. International Monetary Fund.
____. (2012). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved http://www.imf.org/external/about.htm
____. (2011). Getting the Most Out of International Capital Flows (Chapter 6). OECD Economic Outlook, Volume 2011/1.
Krugman, P. (2000). The Return of Depression Economics. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
It also creates consumer loyalty thereby ensuring dominance in the international market.
Branding helps to create consumer attachment to products Myers H., 2004.
Samsung electronics gives more meaning to products and customer through branding its products. Branding according to umelt (1991)
brings in the aspect of trust, loyalty and excellent value to customers. To venture in the international market branding is important for sustainability and survival Finch P., 2004.
It is also an innovative way of improving the customers' experiences in using products and reserving identifying with the products. Branding by Samsung has ensured that customer identification of the products is easy and they can easily accord a value on the product.
Overview of Samsung's Strategy
In choosing its preferred internationalization strategy Samsung electronics deploys emphasis on three major aspects. These aspects give a summary of strategies discussed earlier. They include Adaptation, Aggression, arbitrage (AAA triangle).
Adaptation is concerned…
BARNEY J.B. & HESELY W.S 2008. strategic management and competitive advantage concepts and cases second eds, upper saddle river, pearson prentice-hall.
BAXTER, I. 2007. Workforce Management: The next greatest contributor to increasing retail performance. The European Retail Digest Oxford Institute of Retail Management: Oxford University Press.
FINCH P. 2004. Supply chain risk management, Supply Chain Management. An International Journal,, 33, 23-48.
KUGOT, B. & ZANDER U. 1993., 'Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation',. Journal of International Business Studies, 24, 56-78.
The management layer helped keep all the local leadership in line. Here, the case study states that: entrepreneurship was in the company's DNA. But professional management practice had been needed for the company to deliver increasingly large and complex projects" (Williams & Davis, 2011, p 13). It became more and more important to focus on strategies that would structure the company to efficiently operate, while continuing to foster the creativity that drove it forward in the first place.
There are several ways the company can remain nimble and innovative enough to compete along with constantly emerging technology, despite its maturing organizational structure. The primary importance is a structure which relies on local leadership. Having locally centered power will allow the company to adapt as it needs to in a very diverse global marketplace. Infusion needs to focus on not falling into the trap of old molds, where the international business…
Calt, Virginia. (2006). A new generation discovers the benefits of giving back. Globe and Mail.
Lord, Michael D., deBethizy, J. Donald, & Wager, Jeffrey D. (2005). Innovation that Fits: Moving Beyond the Fads to Choose the Right Innovation Strategy for Your Business. Prentice Hall.
Oyson, Manuel Jose. (2012). The opportunity-based approach to international entrepreneurship: An integrative approach to small firm internationalization. University of Auckland, New Zealand. Web. http://staff.business.auckland.ac.nz/DesktopModules/StaffProfiles/Publications/8542.pdf
Williams, Christopher & Davis, Melissa. (2011). International entrepreneurship at Infusion. Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation.
Czinkota urges those he consults for as well as the readers to cultivate awareness about themselves and about their assumptions. Czinkota communicates the reward and the utility of considering ideas outside the realm of established assumptions. A basic assumption that Czinkota asks us to consider is the international marketing industry has not changed or is not changing as rapidly as other industries. His first main argument of the article is that the international marketing industry has made many shifts during the 21st century. He also presents the connections between domestic economic activity and international marketing. Increased awareness is helpful and relevant in any industry. Professionals of any industry should be aware of their assumptions and seek ways to strategize outside of them. His point about the connection between economics and marketing is very interesting. His statement is intuitive and simple, yet innovative. Any economic activity has affects that…
Czinkota, M.R. (2011) Why International Marketing? Five Core Benefits Explain Rationale. Marketing Management, 14 -- 15, Retrieved from http://michaelczinkota.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/MM-Summer-2011_MICHAEL-R.-CZINKOTA.pdf . 2012 March 25.
The Dupont analysis identifies three key equity value drivers. These are operating efficiency, asset use efficiency, and financial leverage. Operating efficiency is measured by the (net) profit margin, asset use efficiency by total asset turnover and financial leverage by the equity multiplier (Investopedia, 2013). Operating efficiency is clearly one path to healthy returns, because firms with higher margins are more likely to earn profit. They can withstand price shocks in their industries as well, allowing them to earn profit even under adverse circumstances. The total asset turnover represents the degree to which the company's assets contribute to profits. hile the first two are good for the value of the firm as a whole, the equity multiplier reflects how much of the firm is actually owned by the shareholders. Thus, the equity multiplier is critical to the Dupont formula in order to determine how the company's performance drives equity…
Investopedia. (2013). Definition of DuPont analysis. Investopedia. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/dupontanalysis.asp
Douglass, K. (2010). Foreign currency translation under FAS 52. Eisner Amper. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from http://www.eisneramper.com/Foreign-Currency-Translation-FAS-52.aspx
International Financial Markets and Institutions:
Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…
Accounting Education (2010), International Capital Market, Accounting Education, viewed 7
Australian Securities Exchange (n.d.), Absolute Return Funds, Australian Securities Exchange,
viewed 7 June 2012,
International HM -- Women on International HM assignments
International HM has gained a lot of importance in the last few years, thanks to globalization and the opening up of many economies. It is more complex than domestic HM and this can be attributed to six factors, namely, the increased number of activities such as taxation, relocation and orientation; need for a broader understanding and perspective of different nations, the higher role of H managers in the personal lives of employees to ensure they are happy and satisfied, dealing with the cultural changes of a diverse workforce, higher risk and extensive influence of factors that are beyond the control of H managers (Dowling, Festing & Engle, 2008).
In the context of such a situation, international assignments have assumed greater importance and more people are traveling to foreign countries as a part of their job. A closer analysis of international assignments would…
Harel, Gedaliahu; Tzafiri, Shay; Baruch, Yehuda. (March 2003). Achieving organizational effectiveness through promotion of women in managerial positions. International Journal of HRM. Vol 14(2). pp 247-263.
Stahl, Gunter; Bjorkman, Ingmar. (2006). Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management. Cheltenam, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dowling, Peter; Festing, Marion; Engle. (2008). Allen. International Human Resource Management. London: Thomson Learning.
Harris, Hillary. (2004). Global careers: Work-life issues and adjustment of women international managers. Journal of Management Development. Vol 23(9). pp 818-832.
International expansion is one of the growth strategies that are embraced by companies in order to improve their bottom-line/profitability. In this paper, we present an elaborate international marketing strategy for ed Bull energy drink. The marketing plan begins with an introduction into the concept of international expansion and marketing and a brief overview of the company. A review of the main conclusions and recommendations is then presented. This is then followed by a discussion of internalization strategy. In this section, the context as well as context and reasons for the firm's internationalization initiation or expansion decision, as well as a discussion of the stage of internationalization at which your chosen firm finds itself. The next section is a discussion of the foreign market segmentation and targeting strategies. Under this section, we justify our choice of a market concentration or diversification strategy, incremental vs. simultaneous entry, the number of countries you…
Doodle, I. And Lowe, R., 2004. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, ThomsonLearning, London.
EastBridge Import & Export Co., LTD, The Import Procedure of Food and Drink, Viewed 14 March 2012, http://www.eastbridgechina.com/En/Show.asp?id=33.
Encyclopedia of the Nations, China Country overview, Viewed 30 April 2012, http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/China.html .
Euromonitor International, Red Bull plans Asian expansion, Viewed 14 March 2012, http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1232&Itemid=77
International Monetary System and Exchange ate Policies
A report/essay: chapter 17, multinational companies. select topic research write: Multinational vs. domestic financial management exchange rates international trade international monetary system exchange rate policies trading foreign exchange european monetary union interest
rate parity/purchasing power parity international capital structures.
The international monetary system and exchange rate policies
International Monetary systems
These are a set of rules and that regulate how international trade and payments are handled. It facilitates the exchange of capital, goods and services among countries. However, this system does not have a physical presence but, it consists of interlacing rules and procedures and is influenced by the market of foreign exchange. An example of an international monetary system is the International monetary fund. These interlacing rules and procedures are referred to as exchange rate Policies.
Exchange rate policies
These are rules that officials of public finance from different nations have developed…
Eichengreen. (2011). Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System
Goyal, M., Raman, Wang, and Ahmed; . ( 2011). Financial Deepening and International Monetary Stability.
Michael C. Ehrhardt, & Eugene F. Brigham. (2011). Corporate Finance (4th ed.): Cengage.
OECD. (2011). The Effects of Oil Price Hikes on Economic Activity and Inflation.
International Clinical Harmonisation
PROPER SYSTEMS IN PLACE
The International Congress Harmonisation
WHO Principles of Good Clinical Practice
Clinical research is conducted to insure the safety and efficacy of health and medical products and practices (WHO 2002). In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards. These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research. These were based on the guidelines provided by major international organizations, such as the International Conference on Harmonization or ICH GCP, and used as reference (WHO).
GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…
Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.
Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.
Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
As Ikenberry points out in his book's first chapter, institutions play different roles depending on the order structure currently in place, with hegemonic systems of governance relying on institutions to consolidate power and destabilize potential sources of opposition, and constitutional systems employing institutions to empower the citizenry and provide "checks and balances" to governmental authority (15).
Any comprehensive analysis of international order must also address the issue of disorder, and Ikenberry covers this aspect of the issue by examining historical instances of anarchistic rule. For as long as human beings have transformed naturally ethnic and cultural factions into organized nation states, the politically charged process of dividing the planet's limited territory has left certain groups without native land to call their own. The phenomenon of these so-called stateless nations has been produced by a confluence of geopolitical circumstances, but in all areas of the world there are cultural groups who…
Ikenberry, G.J. (2009). After victory: institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars. Princeton University Press.
International Corporation Walmart
Because of the abilities of the internet and the expansion of global interests, there are many more international corporations today than there were in the past. One of the largest and most recognized of those corporations is Walmart. It operates in nearly all developed countries in the world, and is one of the largest retailers on the planet (Fishman, 2006; Zook & Graham, 2006). While it started out small, the company has grown to enormous proportions. It has become so large that some countries and some communities have taken strong and significant steps to keep the company out. Not everyone is a fan of the company, and not all countries think Walmart is good for business. The way the company comes in and "takes over" is sometimes a problem for much smaller, "mom and pop" businesses that are not able to sell as inexpensively as Walmart. For…
Fishman, C. (2006). The Wal-Mart Effect: How the World's Most Powerful Company Really Works -- and How It's Transforming the American Economy. NY: Penguin.
Ingram, P., Yue, L.Q., & Rao, H. (2010). Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal-Mart, 1998 -- 2007. American Journal of Sociology, 116(1): pp 53 -- 92.
Lichtenstein, N. (2009). The Retail Revolution: How Wal-Mart Created a Brave New World of Business. NY: Macmillan.
Vance, S.S. & Scott, R.V. (1997). Wal-Mart: A History of Sam Walton's Retail Phenomenon (Twayne's Evolution of Modern Business Series). NY: Twayne Publishers.
International Accounting Undergraduate degree Accounting & Finance 1. The Assignment "Several organisations involved efforts harmonise accounting practices rregionally internationally. The important players effort European Union (regionally) International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) ( IASB) (internationally).
There have been a series of efforts during recent years with the aim of developing a common agenda of accounting standards. The fact that there are several alternatives of accounting practices, for example, contributes to making it difficult for influential bodies to reach common ground concerning the matter. Institutions such as the European Union and the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) (currently called the International Accounting Standards Boards -- IASB) have played significant roles with the purpose of emphasizing the importance of international accounting standards.
ith society being composed out of distinct national economies, there has been little need for common accounting practices in the past. However, as the global economy has come to dominate international…
1. Alexander, D., & EBERHARTINGER, E. 2009. 'The True and Fair View in the European Union'. European Accounting Review Vol. 18, No. 3, 571 -- 594
2. Alexander, D. & Nobes, C. 2007. Financial Accounting: An International Introduction. Pearson Education.
3. Cool, K., & Goddard, G.J. 2006. International Business: Theory and Practice. M.E. Sharpe.
4. Fischer, P., Tayler, W., & Cheng, R. 2011. Advanced Accounting. Cengage Learning.
This paper provides further illustration of trade barrier to provide greater understanding on the method barrier to trade hurts economy. Fig 1 reveals the effects of international trade without trade barrier. From the graph, DD refers to domestic demand and DS means domestic supply, and the price of good is found at P, and the world price is found at P. However, domestic consumer will consume at Qw because the home country could only produce Qd. Thus, the home country must import Qw-Qd worth of goods to enhance efficiency in the economy.
Figure 1. Price without Trade Barrier
However, Fig 2 reveals the economy with trade barrier. It is revealed that the economy will not achieve maximum allocation of scarce resources because trade barriers reduce efficiencies because it would allow companies that would not have existed in a more competitive market environment to exist.
Figure 2. Price with the…
Anderson, Kym. Subsidies and Trade Barriers. University of Adelaide. The Centre for International Economic Studies.2004.
Elwell, C.K (2006). Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare. CRS Report for Congress.
Jeffery Frankel and David Romer, Does Trade Cause Growth?, NBER Working Paper No.
5476, June 1999.
"Opening up the financial system to foreign capital flows can lead, and has led, to disastrous financial crises, which have resulted in great pain, suffering and even violence" (Mishkin, 2006, p.9).
Directly linked to the previous disadvantage and the basic definition of globalization, is the fact that the interdependence of sectors and institutions increases in a global market. In this instance then, a financial crisis within one country or within one institution is likely to generate negative effects upon its partners. The most relevant example of chain reaction to a financial crisis is the current situation, in which the global community is threatened with economic collapse due to the financial difficulties of the United States. The situation is similar in terms of politics or the social environment.
Globalization has often been assimilated with Americanization, meaning by this the desire of the American corporations to transcend boundaries and get access to…
Ervin, J., Smith, Z.A., 2008, Globalization: A Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO
Geddes, P., 2004, the Benefits of Globalization, Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment, http://www.free-eco.org/articleDisplay.php?id=378last accessed on January 19, 2009
Holm, H.H., Globalization and What the Governments make of it, European Institute Firenze, Retrieved at http://www.djh.dk/pdf/forskning/global.pdfon January 20, 2009
Kolodko, G.W., 2003, Emerging Market Economies: Globalization and Development, Ashgate Publishing
International Risk Management
No profit was ever made without taking some financial risk. However, economists such as John Eatwell and Lance Taylor have argued in their text Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation that international financial markets are intrinsically and particularly apt to pose the threat of risk to potential investors on an individual and a corporate level. Investors in finance base their decisions on guesses, not only about how other investors within a nation will behave, but also about national stability, which affects the stability of the currency. As markets have grown more global in scope, industrialized countries often have pursued a more cautious monetary policy regarding other nations. However, too much caution can be risky too, Ultimately hesitancy in investment results not only in lost opportunities, but a climate of fear that can at its extremes generates international deflation, a depression in economic growth, and…
Eatwell, John & Lance Taylor. (2000) Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation. New York: New Press.
Kelly, Michael P. (June/July 2001.)"Foreign Currency Risk: Minimizing Transaction Exposure." International Law. http://www.vsb.org/publications/valawyer/june_july01/kelley.pdf
Schnaue, Frank. (2004). "U.S. trade gap widens as production rises." UPI. http://app.quotemedia.com/data/newsItem.htm?storyId=1533543
" (Veeramani, 2004)
Stated as contributors to the export success of China are those as follows:
1) Favorable exchange rate;
2) Low wages;
3) Availability of labor;
4) Large domestic market;
5) Huge volume FDI inflows etc. (Veeramani, 2004)
India is not far behind except the gap existing in the FDI volume into China and India, which remains a large gap. The FDI for India has been of much less importance as compared to China except in view of information technology. Sinha (2007) states: "In short, while the multinationals mostly engage in the export activities with China, they target the domestic markets in India." (Sinha, 2007) the following chart shows that China is 'above average' in goods while India is 'above average' in services.
Source: India and China's Developmental Paths (2008)
The differentiations of multinational behavior likely include "the relatively high trade barriers in India (which encourages market seeking FDI)…
Wong, Lung-Fai (1987) Agricultural Productivity in China and India: A Comparative Analysis Presented at the Symposium on Feeding the People of China and India, American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, February 15, 1987. Online available at http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/7510/1/edc87-03.pdf
Das, Dilip K. (2006) the Chinese and Indian Economies: Comparing the Comparables Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Volume 4, Issue 1 February 2006, pages 77-89 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group Abstract Online available at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a743880372?back=%2e%2frelated%7edb%3dall%7econtent%3da713684741%7efirst%3d1%7evaa%3d0%3fbookmark%3d1&words=&hash=
Emerging Markets outlook for 2007 - India, China, Russia, Eastern Europe and Brazil (2007) the Market Oracle. Online available at http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article185.html
Balasubramanyam, V.N., and Wei, Yingqi (2005) Textiles and clothing exports from India and china: a comparative analysis Taylor and Francis Journals in its journal
Additionally, its taxation advatantages may erode due to pressure from EU and implicitly its wages will increase as taxes increase. Competition from emerging countries, namely Eastern Europe will become stronger as Ireland allings its strong points to EU standards. Moreover, the country's inflationary problem persistance may strengthen EU pressure on the authorities to reduce it through its fiscal policy.
BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm.
Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/
Berry, . 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.
Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: ecent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, ., Munley, V., Thornton, . (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp.…
BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm .
Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/
Berry, R. 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.
Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: Recent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, R., Munley, V., Thornton, R. (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp. 5-30.
9. eturns - defines the condition under which the product can be returned, what procedures must be used, advance notice requirements, shipping issues and the like.
10. Damages - defines procedures for reporting, estimating and recovering damages if suffered by any party. This may include penalty payments with a defined upper limit for recovery.
11. Governing Law - defines the location where litigation will occur in the event that a breach of contract suit must be pursued through the court. The Mooters interest: This contract component would have defined Britain or France as the court for litigating recourse and recovery. With regard to the Mooters situation, different jurisdictions and applicable laws apply if this suit progresses to court.
The following contract components could have been included in the Mooters' sales contract; however, given its likely low monetary exposure, these contract components are likely unnecessary.
Entire Agreement - defines that no…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods. (1980). [Online]. Available: http://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts/sales/cisg/CISG.pdf.
Uniform Commercial Code - Article 1. (2008). Cornell University. [Online]. Available: http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/1/ .
International Pol. Ec.
The four different scenarios laid out by the orld Economic Forum in 2009 paint distinctly different visions of the development of global financial markets. The four scenarios are financial regionalism, re-engineered estern centralism, fragmented protectionism and rebalanced multilateralism (yman, 2009). Of these four different scenarios, there is evidence late in 2010 that would support the evolution of two of these different scenarios. These scenarios, in particular the one with the most support, will be given primary consideration in this paper. The implications for these scenarios for my chosen company, an IT firm with a local focus, will also be discussed in this paper.
The EF scenario that fits the world best as of late 2010 is the first scenario, financial regionalism. This scenario relies on post-crisis blame-shifting, something that can be seen in the global political environment at present. The United States has raised serious issues about…
Chan, S. & Ewing, J. (2010). Echoing Obama, Bernanke presses China on imbalances. New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/19/business/economy/19fed.html?_r=1&hp
Euro Intelligence. (2010). European panic over QE2. Euro Intelligence. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.eurointelligence.com/index.php?id=581&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=2948&tx_ttnews[backPid]=743&cHash=8bec5d30ed
Garrett, G. (2010). G2 in G20: China, the United States and the World after the global financial crisis. Global Policy. Vol. 1 (1) 29-39.
IMF. (2010). Reports for select countries and subjects. IMF. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/weodata/weorept.aspx ?
Notwithstanding these similarities in the marketing function, there are some important differences that must also be considered. For example, even enormous countries in geographic and population terms that have relatively homogeneous populations may require more straightforward domestic marketing techniques and small city-states will require more elaborate international marketing techniques. For example, as ao (2000) points out, "Given its strong tourism base and an open economy, Singapore has modern international retailing and other marketing institutions, making this country a truly global or international city, while India represents primarily a traditional, domestic marketing environment with considerable isolation from international markets" (p. 188).
According to Hills (1994), the ecological model shown in Figure 1 below indicates that there is no single, successful ongoing or steady-state strategy for small companies involved in international marketing initiatives. This author emphasizes that, "Standardization vs. local differentiation is the single most important issue in ongoing international…
Alon, Ilan. (2004). "International Market Selection for a Small Enterprise: A Case Study in International Entrepreneurship." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 69(1), 25.
Andersen, Otto. (1993). "On the Internationalization Process of Firms: A Critical Analysis." Journal of International Business Studies, 24(2), 209.
Andrews, Tim G., Nartnalin Chompusri and Bryan J. Baldwin Obe. (2003). The Changing Face of Multinationals in Southeast Asia. New York: Routledge.
Beckman, Theodore N. And William R. Davidson. (1967). Marketing. New York: Ronald Press Co.
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
Competitive strategy is the bedrock on which companies base business decisions to reach their targets and achieve profitability. Formulating and implementing strategies in international business is much more complicated and difficult task than doing so in home or familiar markets. Competitive strategy deals with the development of abilities by a firm to keep ahead of competitors in the fields in which it operates. Firms develop competitive edge in global markets by possessing certain assets, abilities or characteristics. The primary elements of competitive advantage are the critical offer, the significant operating factors and the firm's strategic resources. (ennett and lythe, 2002) Corporate strategies and international marketing strategies are linked closely and have a bearing on business performance. (rown, 1994)
While some companies focus on a single source of competitive advantage, it is common for many firms to opt for a combination of options to be flexible and attain the…
Ahlberg, J; Garemo, N; Naucler, T. (1999) 'The Euro: How to keep your Prices Up and your Competitors Down', The Mclliney Quarterly, Volume: 2
Bennett, R. (1996) 'Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional analysis vs. The behaviorist approach', Journal of Marketing Management, Volume: 12; No: 6
Bennett, R. (1999) 'International Business Frameworks', Second Edition, London: Financial Times/Pitman
Bennett, R and Blythe, J. (2002) 'International Marketing: Strategic Planning, Market Entry and Implementation', London: Kogan Page
The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.
When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…
Franck, Thomas. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
Goldsmith, Jack. "The Limits of Idealism." Daedulus. 132, no. 1. (2003): 47 -- 63.
Higgins, Rosalyn. "Policy and Impartiality." 915 -- 931.
Thomas Franck. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).
Myanmar: Effective or Not?
The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).
Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…
CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm
Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International
Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal
International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
It is very difficult understanding the class assignments. Sometimes they are very complex and I get worried that I will not be able to do my assignments. I do not know if I would have made it without the international assistant and would have to go home again.
When I met my international assistant and the world was much brighter. The student was there to guide me and teach all the things you need when first arriving at a college, such as getting my dorm room in place, helping me get a new cell phone, and showing me how to get around Boston. This student also answered my many questions about Americans. I wanted to fit in as best I could, but it is difficult when you look and act differently than a lot of the other people. I learned how I was both similar and different to the Americans…
Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.
The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…
Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org
Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.
Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.
Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…
Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office
Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College
Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association
Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
This is an important issue and a number of commentators and critics have decried this loss of respect for international law. One commentator refers to the words of the politician and sociologist, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, who said that, "...there is nothing quite to compare with the falling from the American mind of the idea of the law of nations" (Kinsley). He also stated that,
At the beginning of Gulf ar II, we forgot... international law. e forgot international law once again. hen the U.N. Security Council would not play ball, we declared that our own invasion of Iraq was justified as a sovereign act of long-term self-defense against potential weapons of mass destruction, by the human rights situation within Iraq,
Therefore, this is a cardinal area of international law that is in danger in the present age.
On the other hand, there are areas of international law that have…
Horton, Scott. A Decent Respect: What does international law mean to us today
January 20, 2008. http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/04/horton-20070428vgjt
Kinsley M. Today We Obey. Invoking international law -- when it suits us.2003.
January 20, 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2080777/
It has given a clear signal to unscrupulous tyrants and murderous dictators around the world that they have no place to hide. Earlier, they could escape prosecution for their crimes by brow-beating or manipulating the judicial system in their own country; the expanding reach of international law has now made it possible for them to be answerable for such universally unacceptable crimes (Kenneth Roth).
The benefits of international law are also recognized by private business. For example the U.S. Apparel Industry Partnership has voluntarily agreed to a standard code of conduct that prohibits forced labor, child labor, and workweeks exceeding 60 hours. This has had a significant effect on the operation of U.S. companies in poor countries and helped to prevent the cruel exploitation of cheap labor (Ratner 71). The signing of the "Sullivan Principles" by more than 100 U.S. companies in 1977 that call for desegregation in the workplace,…
Hathaway, Oona a. "Two Cheers for International Law." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2003: 50+.
International law." The Free Dictionary. 2008. January 14, 2008. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/international+law
Kissinger, Henry. "The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction: Risking Judicial Tyranny." Foreign Affairs. July/August 2001. January 14, 2008. http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/general/2001/07kiss.htm
Mcwhinney, Edward. "1. Shifting Paradigms of International Law and World Order in an Era of Historical Transition." International Law in the Post-Cold War World: Essays in Memory of Li Haopei. Ed. Sienho Yee and Wang Tieya. London: Routledge, 2001. 3-17.
S. policymakers about the international consensus on questions and issues. The U.S. thus uses international law in its foreign policy and also contributes to its formation and development. This is why it formally recognizes and respects fundamental rules and principles as guide to its foreign policy (Joyner).
However, American foreign policy has not focused very much on international law (Rivkin and Casey 2000). Since the end of the Cold War, many international organization have struggled to modify the traditional law of nations governing the relationships between States into an international regulatory code. This intended and new international law would also govern the relationship between citizens and their government. It would regulate primary domestic issues, such as environmental protection and the rights of children. It would also virtually eradicate the use of military force, avoid all civilian casualties during combat, promote the equitable criminal prosecution of individual state leaders or officials…
Joyner, Christopher C. International Law. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/ p/articles/mi_qx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132421
Mitchell, Paul Andrew. Citizenship is a Term of Municipal Law. Supreme Law Firm:
Supreme Law Library, 2005. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://www.supremelaw.org/rsrc/privlaw.htm
Rivkin, David. B., Jr. And Lee a. Casey. The Shoals of International Law. The National
g. culture shock, potential solutions and/or considerations to better overcome potential negative consequences are examined during the proposed literature review.
Research Questions to Guide Exploration
The research questions proposed for this study, presented in the previous chapter will help ensure sources remain in tune with proposed aims and objectives.
1. hat challenges/scrutinizes currently confront Middle Eastern Students attending George Mason University, located in the heart of Northern
2. How did 911 impact policies related to Arabian students?
3. Do Arabian students and/or the U.S. gain any intrinsic value(s) from time invested to study in the U.S.
Along with answering these research questions, additional consideration will be invested in culture shock, George Mason University; U.S. government policies following the 911 disaster; positive counters to culture shock and other relevant current concerns.
2.2: In the U.S.A.
U.S. Government Policies Following the 911 Disaster
George Mason University actively promotes positive cultural interactions.…
Arensberg, Conrad M. (1964). Introducing Social Change. Aldine Publishing Company. Chicago, IL
Campus Blues. Campus Center. (2001) Some Facts Psychologists Know About Foreign Student' Adjustments. Retrieved (7/16/02) at http://www.campusblues.com
CNN Law Center. (May 2002). INS Aims to Better Track Foreign Students in the U.S. Retrieved (7/19/02) at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/ins.students
Cushner, Kenneth. (1996) Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide.
The Air Navigation Bureau has the responsibility of creating and developing technical studies for the Air Navigation Commissions, and also for developing recommendations that are meant to be used by the air navigation board. These recommendations, grouped under the heading Standards and ecommended Practices or SAPs are related to the efficiency, safety and the regularity of the International Aviation Council. The Air Transport Bureau, on the other hand, is charged with, by the Air Transport, Unlawful Interference and Joint Support Committees, for providing expert assistance for the Assembly, Council, Air Transport Committee or the ATC, the Committee on Unlawful Interference or the UIC, the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services or the JSC, and the specialized conference, divisional, panel and working group meetings that may be convened in the air transport field. The Legal Bureau would provide legal assistance and aid to the Secretary General, and through him,…
Kapteyn, P.J. (1984) "International Organization and Integration, Functional Organization"
N.A. (2004, Feb) "International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO, History and present status"
Retrieved 4 December, 2007 at http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/Multilateral/inter/icoa.htm
27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.
Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:
1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…
Bekaert, G., Harvey, C. And Lundblad, C. 2005. Does financial liberalization spur growth? Journal of Financial Economics 77, 3 -- 55.
Edison, H., Klein, M., Ricci, L. And Slok, T. 2004. Capital account liberalization and economic performance: survey and synthesis. IMF Staff Papers 51, 111 -- 115.
Kaminsky, G. And Reinhart, C. 1999. The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of payments problems. American Economic Review 89, 473 -- 500.
Klein, M. 2005. Capital account liberalization, institutional quality and economic growth: theory and evidence. Working Paper No. 11112. Cambridge, MA: NBER, pp.19-21.
On the other hand, the International Rescue Committee focuses on promoting human rights as one of the core of every innovative programs carried out by the organization. This major focus on human rights through the restoration of safety, hope and dignity to millions of refugees is one of the major relations of this organization with the ISCOR major at San Diego University.
Finally, the third major relation of the organization with the ISCOR major is that it serves as an opportunity where graduates of the program can apply their knowledge in helping IRC to accomplish its mission. This is largely due to the fact that students completing the major are prepared for careers that relate to international security and conflict resolution. Since the International Rescue Committee hits the ground in places with conflicts across the globe, graduates of this program can be used to help provide a way from harm…
Graubart, Jonathan. "Program Information." San Diego State University: International Security and Conflict Resolution. San Diego State University, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"History of the International Rescue Committee." International Rescue Committee: From Harm to Home. International Rescue Committee. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Rescue Committee." Idealist.org. Action Without Borders, Jan. 2011. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Security and Conflict Resolution." San Diego State University: SDSU 2011-2012 Catalog. San Diego State University. Web. 15 May 2011. .
The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to justify using force for the invasion of Iraq. On the 10th of November of 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell indicated that the United States believed that there were material breaches in the past, as well as new and current material breaches that necessitated enough authority to take action.
Iraq consistently violated many of the Security Council resolutions created by the United Nations and many of these dealt primarily with inspection of facilities and disarmament. Because Iraq continually violated these resolutions the rationale for military action came about largely from this issue. The fact that the terrorist attacks had taken place and there were possible links between Iraq and Al Qaeda also caused much of the tension. The disregard for these resolutions,…
International Monetary System
In world trade, varied national currencies are swapped for each other by means of rules and procedures set by a system called the international monetary system. To delineate a general standard of value for the world's currencies, such a system is believed to be necessary.
The global monetary structure has always adhered to the organizational framework of the international discipline. In each stage of the financial capitalism there exists a corresponding monetary approach. The monetary structure during the postwar periods catered to the dominance of the United States. This was applied as a tool during the period to enforce the U.S. dominance over all its allies and the developing countries, irrespective of the socialist countries isolated themselves being unconnected from the influence of the financial and monetary disciplines of the global capitalism.
Gold standard was the first contemporary international monetary system. The gold standard contributed for the…
Amin, Samir. Replacing the International Monetary System? - Current Failures of Global Economic Policy. Monthly Review. Volume: 8; No: 1; October, 1993. pp: 93-98
Holloway, Thomas. M. The International Monetary System: Essays in World Economics. - Book Reviews. Monthly Labor Review. Volume: 12; No: 1; January, 1998. pp: 158-164
International Monetary System. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/65/in/intlmone.html Accessed on 12 November, 2004.
Little, Jane Sneddon; Oliveri, Giovanni. P. Rethinking the International Monetary System: An Overview. New England Economic Review. Volume: 16; No: 1; November, 1999. pp: 24-29
In the case of United States, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides for practically all types of security agreements for owned property that are both for own use as also for commercial purposes. This type of agreements includes fixtures which mean personal property that is attached to the property, and the ready example can be a water heater. This does not include other liens taken on the property like the lien of a mechanic are not covered by this act, but are covered by the individual laws that govern them. There is also a statute of frauds and that requires a security agreement to be in writing for it to be valid, unless the property has been pledged for getting the loan. This sort of a pledge takes place when the borrowing party shifts the collateral to the lender of money in exchange for the loan that he…
9-203. Attachment and Enforceability of Security Interest; Proceeds: Formal Requisites.
Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/9/9-203.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
Bailey, Sue. PM defensive over election threat. Retrieved at http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2005/11/03/1291616-cp.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
Banking: An overview. Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/banking.html . Accessed 10 November, 2005
Efficiency of the international laws
There has been a growing concern over the international law and the application of the same bearing the different settings and backgrounds against which these laws are applied. As they are international laws, so they are taken to be universal with the difference in the reality one the ground differing from one country to another, one continent to another, being of little or no significance at all. Here then comes the issue of the efficiency of these international laws and their universal relevance hence the sustained questioning of the relevance of some of these international laws in given setting.
It is presumptuous to insinuate that the international laws can apply in a universal applicability of the international law since to some extent it is bound to lose touch with the realities of member states hence rendered irrelevant and inefficient. The international law and…
Yusuako, O., (2003). International Law in and With International Politics: The Functions of International Law in International Society. EJIL Vol. 14 No. 1.Pp114 http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/1/105.full.pdf
International Human Resources
Culture, Political, Economic and ocial Contexts of Nigeria Under the ubject of International Human Resource Management.
This paper is solely related to the International human resources practices, the uses of international human resources aspects as well as implementation within Nigeria. The paper has been explored several positive and negative aspects of Nigeria related to IHRM and whether it is feasible for global companies to operate and use the labor of Nigeria for making higher profits over there.
International HRM growth and significance
After attaining global scale, any company may be bound to utilize numerous resources and opportunities like global scale, scope, local differences adaptation and tap into best resources and locations associated with global presence in Nigeria and other countries. These are important opportunities in Nigeria because after exploiting such opportunities, the global image can be transformed into top global image (Hollinshead 2010, pp.233-262).
The opportunities can…
Schuler, R., Dowling, P., & De Cieri, H. 1993, 'An integrative framework of strategic international human resource management', deciding An IHRM Approach 449 International Journal of Human Resourc Management, Vol.1, pp.717 -- 764.
Taylor, S., Beechler, S., & Napier, N. 1996, 'Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management', Academy of Management Review,, vol21, pp. 959 -- 985.
Tomkins, R. Battered 1997, PepsiCo licks its wounds. The Financial Times, vol.26.
International Energy Law
International Energy Arbitration
This paper will examine the role of arbitration in the international energy sector over the past 50 years. Discussion is organized around the five decades leading up to the current state of affairs in the international energy sector. In each section, major arbitrations are identified and tied to the categorical intention of arbitrations of that period. For instance, arbitration awards that occurred during a period of substantive concession agreements -- termed the first generation of concession agreements by Kosheri (n.d.) -- include the Abu Dhabi award of 1951, the Qatar award of 1953, and the Aramco award of 1958.
The next period, which occurred roughly in the 1960s and 1970s, was characterized by arbitration awards that evidenced a climate of confrontation, during which host nations took the position of abstaining from participation in arbitration proceedings. These nations were unilaterally interested in bringing the earlier…
Bishop, R.D. (2000). International arbitration of petroleum disputes: The development of a "Lex Petrolea. The Journal, [Website] The Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP).
Brower, C.N. And Sharpe, J.K. (2003, July). International arbitration and the Islamic World: The third phase. The American Journal of International Law, 97 (3).
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, New York, (1958, 10 June). 330 United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), 38.
Dundas, H. (2004, July). Dispute resolution in the oil and gas industry: An oilman's perspective. Oil, Gas, & Energy Law Intelligence, 2 (3).
The objective of this work in writing is to examine what it means to 'keep the peace' in the present age and the world facing challenges and threats of unprecedented scope, scale and complexity. The question addressed in this research is that which asks where in such endeavors are the existence of international institutions and legal doctrines likely to suffice and where are international institutions and legal doctrines likely to fall short?
The ole of International Law in the Modern World
In the National Strategy for Homeland Security it is stated that "virtually every community in America is connected to the global transportation network by the seaports, airports, highways pipelines, railroads, and waterways that move people and goods into, within, and out of the Nation. We must therefore promote the efficient and reliable flow of people, goods and services across borders, while preventing terrorists from using transportation conveyances…
Besson. S. And Tasioulas, J. (2010) The Philosophy of International Law. Oxford University Press. 2010.
Cassels, A. (1996) Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. London and New York. Retrieved from; http://m.friendfeed-media.com/16091f1cfb5c64ee8145abc0116d37a065575b7d
Coleman, Katharina P. (2007) International Organizations and Peace Enforcement Operations: The Politics of International Legitimacy. Cambridge University Press 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/ssq/bookreviews/coleman.pdfBrunnee, Jutta (2005) Enforcement Mechanisms in International Law and International Environmental Law. Ulrich Beyerlin et al., eds. Ensuring Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Dialogue Between Practitioners and Academia (2005) Environmental Law Network International Review 3-14]. Retrieved from: http://www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/brunnee/BrunneeEnforcementMechanismsInt_lLaw.pdf
Hathaway, Oona A. (2005) Between Power and Principle: An Integrated Theory of International Law. Chicago Law Review 2005.
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
Intenational Peace and Teoism
What changes to existing legal egimes may educe the incentive and make the law moe effective in peseving peace?
Teoist goups can be disupted and destoyed though continuous and diect legal actions. The focus includes the use of national and intenational elements of powe. Immediate focus should be on the teoist oganizations with global each as well as teoists o states sponsoing teoism activities. Thee ae attempts of gaining and using weapons of mass destuction o pecusos. The law defends the national inteests, the native people, and intenational goals. Achievements in this case ae deived though identification and destuction of peace theats pio eaching national bodes. While most govenments continually stive towads enlisting intenational community suppot, they do not hesitate to act alone whee necessay. The goals at stake include execising thei ights to self-defense though peemptive action against teoists. The actions pevent them fom inflicting…
references ultimately tie broader projects leading to generalized legal understandings, the goal is to have central strategies of disseminating such law.
Law promotes equity and respects for people. Law advocates treatment of all human beings as members of the family. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity share this value. Hinduism embraces divine spark for all human beings while Buddhism talks of the human race are having similar distinctions made by humankind from all other animal varieties. There are numerous species across board distinguishing their category based on fundamentalism. The teachings make emphasis on oneness in which people work towards common goals of perish together. International law plays a role in fostering cooperation. Law consists of sets of rules that ensured passive co-existence of nations. Today, the concept of world governance is moving towards active cooperation among all countries. The concerns about matters of human welfare, international travel, outer space, health, the environment, disaster relief, and transport, are addressed by international law. There is facilitation of the external and internal affairs for a given country.
In conclusion, international law promotes economic justice to equality practices. Law elevates conditions for impoverished nations as well as deprived world populations. Critics estimate that in the last five decades, there is more than four times the population of people dying in wars happening in the 20th century. Others die due to poor sanitation and hunger. Part of the underlying numbers did not have to die if their issues were subjected to relevant concentrated attention. The concept relates to the application of international law principles.
Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…
Kreh, W. (2008). Money, Debt and Wealth of Nations. Canada: COMER publications
Lipsey, R. & Chrystal, K. (1997). An Introduction to Positive Economics. London: Oxford University Press.
Zweig, D. & Jianhai, B. (2005). China's global hunt for energy. Foreign Affairs, 84(5), 25-38.
Hale, D. & Hale, L. (2003). China takes off. Foreign Affairs, 82(36).
Historical Trends and Developments. Eichengreen (2004) argues that there have been several major historical "regimes" that have had differentiated approaches to international capital flows. Prior to I, the free flow of capital across borders reached heights never seen before of since. This was followed by effort in the 1920s to establish international controls for the international flow of capital. The financial disaster of the 1930s began a period of tight regulation of international transactions. In the 1970s another period of free-flowing capital was begun, culminating in the boom of international capital flows of the 1990s (4).
In the 1990s, financial crises in Asia, Mexico, Turkey, and Russia led to a period of increased interest in international controls, as the level of global economic development was shown to be effected by problems in different regions of the world and the shockwaves these crises sent to other regions (Taskin and Muradoglu, 2003).…
Eichengreen, B. (2004). Capital flows and crises. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
Feldstein, M. (1997). International capital flows. National Bureau of Economic Research. 12 December 2009. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/feldstein/woodstock_intro.html .
Ott, M. (2008). International capital flows. Library of Economics and Liberty. 12 December 2009. Retrieved from http://www.econlib.org/index.html .
Taskin, F., and Muradoglu, G. (2003, September-December). Financial liberalisation: from segmented to integrated economies. Journal of Economics and Business, 55 (5-6): 529-555.
Music is something that reaches the soul. In other more pragmatic words we could state that its role is to answer psychological needs. From this pint of view the greatest opportunity that the artist benefits from is the one of making good quality music. Normally the high quality product should sell itself. In reality it will need a bit of promotion and advertising to achieve its purpose of becoming successful abroad.
Now that we have taken into consideration a multitude of strong points and opportunities, we should probably underline the fact that there are important threats that one must take into consideration. The first threat that we must analyze is represented by the competition. It is true that being a male could be an advantage on the international music market.
One may become the idol of the boys and a desired partner for the girls. Especially under the circumstances in…
Belch G.E., Belch M.A. (2008) Advertising and promotion: an integrated marketing communications perspective. McGraw Hill Higher Education
Benbasat, I., Gefen, D., Pavlou, P.A., (2008) "Trust in Online environments," Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 24, no.4, pp.5-11
Doole, I., Lowe, R. (2008) International Marketing Strategy: analysis, development and implementation. South Western Educational Publishing
Graham, J, Cateora, P. (2008). International Marketing. McGRaw Hill Higher education
Another reason why corporations choose to hold cash balances in a centralized repository is that the variety of accounts can be better managed as a mutual fund more complex investment structure than would be the case if the subsidiary alone managed the funds. A greater quality of information is available for example in the leading financial centers globally that would otherwise not be the case in more remote regions, making it possible to make more informed and correct decisions (Mitsos, 1997). The accuracy, efficiency and speed of decision-making based on more efficient use of information has led to more advanced forms of cash management than would have been the case on a per-subsidiary level (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Lastly, by having a centralized depository of cash for all subsidiaries, firms can hold less accumulated total cash, freeing up financial resources for other investments (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Companies become more efficient at…
Elliott, Graham, & Bewley, Ronald. (1994). The transmission of monetary policy: The relationship between centralized depositories and Monetary policy. Economic Record, 70(208), 19.
Fresard, L., & Salva, C.. (2010). The value of excess cash and corporate governance: Evidence from U.S. cross-listings. Journal of Financial Economics, 98(2), 359.
Hill, C.W.L. (2011). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Nicholas Mitsos. (1997, November). Virtual Group Treasury. TMA Journal, 17(6), 24-30.
International Business in South Florida
Premise and Conclusion
The location of any business entity, but especially one engaged in international commerce, is a complex and critical pre-condition for serving customers, providing a nurturing and productive environment for employees, and achieving profitable operations. Of the many factors management must consider, the following are generally thought to be the most influential: access to capital, favorable tax advantages, excellent transportation and technological infrastructure, and a skilled multilingual and multicultural workforce. (web eFlorida 2010)
South Florida, comprising Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, does not present a perfect record on any of the success factors, but a close examination of the efforts made and the resulting accomplishments leads to a favorable recommendation for the formation or expansion of international business functions in the region.
Access to Capital
Depending on the stage of company development, a business may need venture capital, commercial bank lenders, or…
Enterprise Florida, Inc., 2010, a public-private partnership serving as Florida's primary organization devoted to statewide economic development. www.eFlorida.com
Florida International Bankers Association, 2010, a non-profit trade association founded in 1979. http://www.fiba.net
Florida Development Finance Corporation. 2010 Created by special state statute as an issuer of tax-exempt revenue bonds. www.floridafinance.org
Fodor's South Florida, 2010. Word of mouth tips from fellow travelers. www.fodors.com/guidebooks/9781400004775/
International Channel Management
The Japanese Distribution System has been under a lot of scrutiny and assessment and analyses by foreigners, and these analyses have attempted to find out the reason behind the absolute 'no go' principle that they find when they attempt to export any product to Japan. In a basic comparison between Japan and the United States of America, for example, while there is one single retail store for every 68 persons in Japan, in America, there is one retail store for every 120 persons. (Japanese Business Environment) The Japanese Distribution is virtually in the midst of a big controversy today, wherein the distributive structure and the various trade practices followed by the Japanese are under question. (A new perspective on the Japanese distribution system: structure and trade practices) The fact is that the Japanese Distribution System came into being during the early years of the seventeenth century, when…
Auckerman, William. Japan Net Penetration doubles in past year. Retrieved From
http://isp-planet.com/research/japan_net_grows.html Accessed on 18 March, 2005
Bilateral Trade Relations: Japan. Retrieved From
http://europa.eu.int/comm/trade/issues/bilateral/countries/japan/index_en.htm Accessed on 18 March, 2005
"There is never a time when I miss home the most than when I look outside and I see feet of snow on the ground. I don't think I will actually get used to the weather in the U.S.A. I always seem to forget to bring heavy coats and buy myself thick useful boots. I do have come to really enjoy the snow. Who would have said that about me just two years ago? No one! For me, and I bet for many Mexicans, living through this cold is just not something in our plans," writes Laura Herrejon, an international student in the U.S. from Mexico (Herrejon). The experiences of international students in the U.S. are in the eyes of students in the U.S. quite incredible; but, through the lens of the international students, there are many struggles that people are unaware of. It is important for students…
Chuan, Lin. "Support for International Students during their First Year of College." Vanderbilt University, n.d. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .
Gao, Fangfang. "International Students." Academic Difficulties for International Students. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .
Herrejon, Laura. "Winter Time...." Study in the U.S.A.: Student Blog. 09 Feb 2011. Web. 1 Jul 2011. .
Velinova, Mila. "Counseling and Wellness Services." Possible Adjustment Issues for International Students. Wright Counseling, n.d. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .
When business internationally issues settling legal disputes international transactions. What practical consideration taking legal actions a foreign business partner-based country? Which laws precedence.
Dealing with conflict in the new global economy
The rise of the new global economy has generated profits for many enterprises because of the connections it has fostered. However, in addition to the positive benefits of international agreements, there has also been a rise in international disputes. "As international commerce increases, so does the volume of international business disputes…new inbound and outbound foreign investment surpassed previous levels. Some of these deals will fail, and not all contracts will be performed as planned" (A new way to resolve international business disputes in Illinois, 2013, CIDA). Two of the most common methods of dealing with international disputes between business entities are international litigation and international arbitration. Litigation has certain superficial advantages, from the point-of-view of a firm:…
Aliment, R. (2009). Alternative dispute resolution in international business transactions. The Brief, 38.4
Knop, K., Michaels, R. & Riles, A. (n.d.). International law in domestic courts: A conflict of laws approach. scholarship.law.duke.edu. Retrieved:
A new way to resolve international business disputes in Illinois (2013). Chicago International