Invitro Fertilization Essays (Examples)

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Vitro' Fertilization Is One of the Applications

Words: 1218 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81617249

Vitro' fertilization is one of the applications of advanced technology that provides a solution to infertility among couples. The practice has long been in existence, and many referred to offspring of couples who have undergone this process, 'test tube babies.' In vitro ('in glass') fertilization is only one of the many treatments for infertility. The general term by which in vitro can be identified is through artificial insemination, wherein semen taken from the woman's partner or male donor is "injected" into a woman's uterus. In the technique of in vitro fertilization, however, "eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries and fertilized in a laboratory dish with her partner's sperm" (Dmowski 1991 265).

There are several reasons why infertility happens, and indications that show that a couple needs to undergo an in vitro treatment. Infertility may be due to either the man or the woman's infertility. A man becomes infertile when…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dmowski, Paul. "Infertility." World Book Encyclopedia Vol 10. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): "Test Tube Babies." 2001. Fertility Confidential Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.fertilityconfidential.com/fertilityconfidential/infertility/conventional/ivf.cfm.

IVF Program. 2000. South Jersey Fertility Center Webpage. 10 June 2002 http://www.sjfert.com/assisted_reproductive_Programs.html.

Williamson, Miryam. "Waiting Longer to Get Pregnant: The Advantages and Disadvantages for Women." 6 November 2000. Rockhill Communications. Laurus Health News Feature. 10 June 2002 http://www.laurushealth.com/HealthNews/HealthNewsFeature/hnf1110600.htm.
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Personhood Debate vs IVF in

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71572460

Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.

Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…… [Read More]

References

Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.

Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.

Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/us/robert-g-edwards-nobel-winner-for-in-vitro-fertilization-dies-at-87.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
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A R T Assisted Reproductive Technology Has

Words: 2838 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84395023

The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is some risk associated with the development of OHSS ("In Vitro Fertilization").

The NIH further explains that women who utilize IVF must take the hormone progesterone for at least two months following the embryo transfer ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The hormone is taken through daily shots or pills. Progesterone is a naturaly produced hormone produced that assists in thickenign the lining of the uterus ("In Vitro Fertilization"). This thickening makes it easier for the embryo to implant to the wall of the uterus. If there is ot enough progesterone the woman will miscarry ("In Vitro Fertilization").

In additon to the risks associated with this type of reproductive technology, IVF is very expensive ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The NIH explains that many states require that insurance…… [Read More]

References

Becker, G. (2000). The Elusive Embryo: How Women and Men Approach New Reproductive Technologies. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Bleiklie, I., Goggin, M.L., & Rothmayr, C. (Eds.). (2003). Comparative Biomedical Policy: Governing Assisted Reproductive Technologies. London: Routledge. Retrieved Burfoot, a. (Ed.). (1999). Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

In Vitro Fertilization. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved March 18 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007279.htm

Sloan, G.A. (1993). Postponing Parenthood: The Effect of Age on Reproductive Potential. New York: Insight Books.
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Assisted Reproductive Technologies Science Has

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87811639

But if you want a baby badly enough, you will do it" (The Women's Health Council). Women are subjected to a wide range of drugs which have harmful side effects. Some drugs induced to facilitate ovulation have also caused infertility in the male child. When women are put through the consumption of such drugs, the chances of multiple births increases, thus the woman gives birth to twins, triplets or even more.

In 2000, 53% of infants born through ART were multiple births, compared to 3% of births in the general population. The twin rate was 22 times higher than the general population; the triplet and higher multiples rate was 50 times higher. Their higher risk for birth defects and low birth weight add to already over-burdened health care costs." (Marie Anderson and John Bruchalski)

Many couples cannot afford to bring up more than one child at a time and hence…… [Read More]

References

1) Tomorrow's Child - Plot Synopsis [online website] Available at http://www.vh1.com/movies/movie/35838/plot.jhtml[Accessed on: 07/09/2005]

2) Magisterium of the Catholic Church. Instruction on respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation: replies to certain questions of the day (22 February 1987), Vatican City.

3) Steinbock B. Life before birth: the moral and legal status of embryos and fetuses. New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. Pages: 59-71.

4) Claudia Kalb with Karen Springen - "Brave New Babies" [online website] Available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3990134/site/newsweek/[Accessed on 07/09/2005]
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Should Parents Be Allowed to Select the Sex of Their Baby

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66052007

Parents be Allowed to Choose their Baby's Gender?

THE TWO SIDES

Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their Baby's Gender?

A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).

Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:

should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832358 

Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-

ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
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Moral Dilemma

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84436712

Moral and Medical Dilemma

As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a…… [Read More]

References

Petersen, J. (2003, June 19). "Designer baby born to uk couple." Retrieved from  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3002610.stm
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Embryos and Fetuses in Research

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491935



3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site:  http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html 

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
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Childhood Any Less Safe and Enjoyable Now

Words: 2270 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97785524

childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?

Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.

The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in…… [Read More]

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Reproductive Counseling

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31418744

Reproductive Counseling

Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)

In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Adewumi, A., Etti, E., Tayo, A., Rabiyu, K., Akindele, R., Ottun, T., & Akinlusi, F. (2012). Factors associated with acceptability of child adoption as a management option for infertility among women in a developing country. International Journal of Women's Health, 5, 365-372. doi: Pubmed

Bauer, U. (2011, Nov). 2009 assisted reproductive technology. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/art/ART2009/PDF/ART_2009_Full.pdf

Echols, D.W. (2010, Feburary 19). The effects of oklahoma city law on surrogate motherhood and child custody. Retrieved from http://family-law.lawyers.com/child-custody/blogs/archives/3994-The-Effects-of-Oklahoma-City-Law-on-Surrogate-Motherhood-and-Child-Custody.html

Goldberg, J.M., Falcone, T., & Attran, M. (2007). In vitro fertilization update. Cleaveland Journal of Medicine, 74(5), 329-338. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.74.5.329
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My Sister's Keeper

Words: 1509 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5673961

Sister's Keeper

Edward and Susan: My Sister's Keeper ethical dilemma

The film My Sister's Keeper is an emotionally wrought dramatization of what is a very real medical conundrum for some parents today, given advances in medical technology. The drama revolves around the question of the creation of a 'savior sibling,' genetically designed from birth to help her existing sibling survive (My Sister's Keeper: Science Background Talk, n.d., SCU). In the parallel case of Edward and Susan, a couple with a daughter with Acute Childhood Lymphoid Leukemia, many of the objections that people have raised to IV will not likely be persuasive to them: they have already used the technology to have their first child. Additionally, the sibling would be a wanted child, given the couple had always wanted a bigger family, but had held off because of fears of passing on a genetic disorder. The main ethical question for the…… [Read More]

References

Marcotty, Jacqueline. (2010) 'Savior sibling' raises a decade of questions. The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.com/html/health/2013019779_saviorsibling29.html

My Sister's Keeper: Science Background Talk. (n.d.). SCU. Retrieved:

http://www.scu.edu/ethics-center/cases/upload/My-Sisters-Keeper.pdf

In-vitro fertilization. (2013). Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
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Cloned Livestock Produce in EU

Words: 1114 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24475039

In his article, Derek Burke posits that "consumers' biggest concern is about risk, especially in light of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic: scientists, and the regulatory processes, are no longer trusted" (1998). This distrust in the system, both on a scientific and governmental level, is deep-rooted, in that food is part of the human experience which is personal and even intimate. People want to be able to trust their food providers. Therefore there is fear that just because cloned beef appears as edible as non-cloned beef does not guarantee that an animal with defects harmful for human consumption might be cloned (and that clone cloned, and so on), unleashing greater harm over a wider array of people than even the BSE or Foot and Mouth epidemics impacted.

The arguments against cloning have a lot to do with our collective fear not of the meat itself, but also the implications of…… [Read More]

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Ethics Couples Should Not Be

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84422634

Women over 38 face both greater risk of chromosomal abnormalities and they have higher pregnancy risk in general, so they are the most likely candidate group for PGD testing (Sherbahn, 2013).

There are some drawbacks to PGD as well that need to be taken into consideration. While a common argument against the technique relates to moral hazard, that hazard originates from subsequent decisions and is not directly related to the PGD testing decision. However, Sherbahn (2013) notes that there are legitimate concerns about the use of this technique. In particular, the 3-day embryo biopsy technique is believed to traumatize the embryo, while there is evidence to suggest that other types of PGD testing do not place the embryo at additional risk.

Another negative aspect of PGD that must be taken into consideration is the risk of a false positive. It is known that mosaic embryos can self-repair, and this aspect…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Morris, R. (2008). PGD does not cause birth defects or development problems. IVFI. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from  http://www.ivf1.com/pgd-no-birth-defects/ 

Sherbahn, R. (2013). PGD and IVF -- pros and cons. Advanced Fertility Center of Chicago. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.advancedfertility.com/preimplantation_genetic_diagnosis.htm
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Family Law

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94835660

Child Support

The complex dynamics of any individual family creates certain problems for legislative processes and all-encompassing rules. The relative factors that determine any single individual's family status is often outside of that individual's control and presents multiple avenues of responsibility, and at the same time creating multiple avenues of means of success. Unfortunately, marriage in today's society is consistently threatened by the complex and varying forces that influence relationships. In some instances where marriages produce children, outside powers step in to ensure that equal protection is guaranteed for all involved in this problem. The purpose of this essay is to examine certain situations where child support obligations are in question. I'll examine the biological, legal and socioeconomic relationships that help contribute to determining what fairness is in terms of child support payments.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, "in the spring of 2000, an estimated 13.5 million parents had…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Case, A. et al. (2003). " Explaining trends in child support: economic, demographic, and policy effects." Demography, Vol 40, 1 Feb 2003: 171-189. Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/~accase/downloads/Explaining_Trends_in_Child_Support_Eco nomic_Demographic_and_Policy_Effects.pdf

Meyer, D. et al. ( 2005). " Multiple-partner fertility: incidence and implications for child support policy." The Social Service Review, Dec 2005, 79, 4. Retrieved from http://www.lafollette.wisc.edu/Courses/PA882/Meyer.Cancian.Cook.05.pdf

US Census Bureau (1999). "Custodial mothers and fathers and their child support." Current Population Reports issued Oct 2002. Retrieved at http://ncfm.org/libraryfiles/Children/child%20support/censuschildsup.pdf
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Bright Lights Lit Up the

Words: 1601 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96327975



However, with the same aforementioned idea in mind, in Vitro Fertilization technology also has it's benefits. Being able to remove all disease from human kind would be an unimaginable thing to do. With in Vitro Fertilization technology the possibilities are endless (Russell 2010). A new generation could be produced where life-debilitating illnesses would be free from them. They would not have to worry about passing certain genetic diseases on because they would be completely erased from their DNA. It makes the possibilities of medicine and health care seem endless.

The ethical issues involved in Vitro Fertilization lay hand in hand with the ethical dilemmas that Shelley was attempting to address in "Frankenstein." The very idea of creating an individual without fully knowing the consequences may not be the best way to go. It carries with it consequences that will affect an entire society, the parties involved, and most importantly, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Klitzman, Robert. "Who Made Me?' The Ethical Issues That in Vitro Fertilization Families Face." The Huffington Post. 16 Nov 2010. Web. 22 Mar 2012. < http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-klitzman-md/in-vitro-fertilization-families_b_782690.html >

Russell, Cristine. "Four Million Test-Tube Babies and Counting." The Atlantic. 7 Oct 2010. Web. 22 Mar 2012.

Sandel, Michael J. "The Case Against Perfection." The Atlantic. Apr 2004. Web. 22 Mar 2012.

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Ethics Capato

Words: 857 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16552433

Astrue v. Capato, the Supreme Court ruled that children conceived posthumously -- that is, through in vitro fertilization after the biological parent is deceased -- are not entitled to the same rights and privileges as children born while that parent is alive. The case refers specifically to the Social Security Act, which provides for the common welfare by establishing a system whereby children may be listed as dependents on their parents. Children who are born to parents during the course of the parent's lifetime, even if conceived via in vitro fertilization, are entitled to the parent's Social Security Benefits as well as to inheritance. However, in Astrue v. Capato, the court ruled that children conceived via in vitro fertilization after the biological parent has died are not classified as "dependents" or as heirs under the law. The decision has serious ramifications for health care workers who deal with cases that…… [Read More]

References

"Astrue v. Capato (11-159)." Cornell University Law School. Retrieved online:  https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cert/11-159 

Barnes, R. (2012). Court: twins conceived posthumously can't receive benefits. The Washington Post. May 21, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/court-twins-conceived-posthumously-cant-receive-benefits/2012/05/21/gIQArQoagU_story.html
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Debating the Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Words: 5533 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40902729

Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research Ethics

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research: A Nursing Perspective

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research: A Nursing Perspective

When the world-famous cloned sheep, Dolly, was euthanized at the relatively young age of 6-1/2 years she was suffering from advanced aging and lung disease (Meek, 2003). In human years, Dolly was only about 40-years old and had been suffering from arthritis for many years. This outcome is consistent with the claims of some scientists that current cloning technology does not accurately replicate natural sexual reproduction and disproportionately generates debilitating and sometimes lethal genetic defects. Dolly was the product of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), which involved removing the DNA from a sheep somatic (adult) cell, inserting it into an egg, and then transferring the egg to a receptive womb. This technology is very similar to what is currently being developed by stem…… [Read More]

References

ANA. (2007). American Nurses Association Position Statement on Stem Cell Research. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2014 from http://gm6.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements/StemCellResearch.txt.

ANA. (2009). ANA comments on stem cell research. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2014 from  http://nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/MediaResources/PressReleases/2009-PR/ANA-on-Stem-Cell-research.pdf .

Armstrong, A.E. (2006). Towards a strong virtue ethics for nursing practice. Nursing Philosophy, 7, 110-124.

Arnason, V. (2010). Bioethics in Iceland. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 19(3), 299-309.
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Health Care and Ethics

Words: 2238 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4230402

Woman Clings to Hope of Having Dead Fiancee's Baby

Today medical science is capable of things only imagined in the past. One of these possibilities stems from the technique of Invitro fertilization and cryobiology. It is now possible to freeze a man's sperm and impregnate a woman with it at some future time. This practice raises many ethical issues as far as the legal professions are concerned, primarily informed consent, ownership of the sperm and many other issues. However, it also raises issues for the medical profession as well. Now it is possible, but the primary question remains, should we? This research will examine the role of the nurse in relation to her ethical obligations and the moral issues imposed upon her concerning this tricky moral issue.

Recently a court case surface where a woman wants to have he fiancee's sperm inseminated into her in order to get pregnant with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ANCI. National Competency standards of the Registered Nurse. Domain: Professional and Ethical Practice. June, 2002. http://www.anci.org.au/codeofethics.htm. Accessed March,

Artificial Conception Act 1985 - Section 3 (1-3). http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/aca1985203/s3.html#procedure

Accessed March, 2003.

Davies, Julie-Ann. Sandy Plans to Win Her Race Against Life. The Age Newspaper. May 27,
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Limitations of Stem Cell Research the Primary

Words: 2171 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28518489

Limitations of Stem Cell Research

The primary objection to stem cell research in the United States is based on the belief that commonly held social, moral, and ethical boundaries will be breached in the effort to ensure adequate supplies of embryonic stem cells (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Because of the potential medical and economic implications of stem cell research, executive level governmental decisions have been made regarding acceptable limits for stem cell research (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) These limits have changed as the national executive leadership has changed (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Presidents have issued Executive Orders regarding stem cell research that reflect their personal beliefs and the beliefs expressed by voices dominating the American press at any given time (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Representation of stem cell researchers and those who potentially would benefit from stem cell research have been less…… [Read More]

References

2006 Ballot Measure: Constitutional Amendment 2: Stem Cell Initiative, submitted October 11, 2005. Retrieved  http://www.sos.mo.gov 

Ertelt, S. (2009, March 2). IPS Cells, An Embryonic Stem Cell Research Alternative, Make Major Advance, LifeNews. Retrieved http://www.lifenews.com/

Gretchen Vogel (2008, September 26). A New, Improved Stem Cell Recipe. ScienceNOW. Retrieved http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/

Hoffman, D.I., et al. (2003, May). Cryopreserved embryos in the United States and their availability for research. Fertility and Sterility, 79 (5). Accessed at: How many frozen human embryos are available for research? Law & Health Initiative, (2003). Retrieved http://www.rand.org
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Morality of Cloning in Her Book Discovering

Words: 3583 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99058078

Morality of Cloning

In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…… [Read More]

Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.

Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.

Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
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Embryo Ovum Donation Embryo and

Words: 2884 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14958180

A range of side effects has been reported in donors undergoing all of the above. Donation also makes demands on a donor's time, energy, and emotions. (Burfoot, 1999, p. 269)

For women who are receiving IVF, with their own Ova these side effects and ensuing risks are likely to be palatable, as the lasting effect if all goes well is a full term healthy child. For Ova donors the incentive of a pure, altruistic act might not be enough to allow her to make a discernible decision of sacrifice vs. reward, and this would likely be particularly true in the case of young women, who are less likely to have experience with infertility and who relatively recently experienced the hormonal turmoil of puberty, which is comparatively minor, as noted by some, to the artificial hormonal syncing and stimulating that occurs prior to Ovum retrieval. Ehrensaft stresses throughout her work that…… [Read More]

References

Bender, L. (2003). Genes, Parents, and Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Arts, Mistakes, Sex, Race, & Law. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 12(1), 1.

Burfoot, a. (Ed.). (1999). Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Embryo Adoption on Increase; Donors Help Other Infertile Couples Build Families. (2006, November 29). The Washington Times, p. A03.

Ehrensaft, D. (2005) Mommies, daddies, donors, surrogates: answering tough questions and building strong families. New York: Guilford Press.
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Healthcare Strategic Management

Words: 1155 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64828413

Healthcare management (Strategic operations plan)

Several studies, including Kelly Barnes, show that healthcare generally moves from "costly settings" such as hospitals into cheaper and more flexible options, such as retail clinics and mobile health

What this actually shows as a future trend is that the global recession has played an important role in defining the customer profile. Clients are no longer interested solely in the best available services, but in low-cost services. For this, they look at flexible options and, in the same context of flexibility, they look more and more towards customization. Customization includes customized treatments and customized location (home, hospital, clinics, mobile)

At the same time, the demand for innovation remains key. The Harvard Business Review points to the demand for innovation in emerging markets, such as China and India, but this is also true, to a different degree, for the U.S. market

. Innovation can take different…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Barnes, Kelly. Factors affecting 2014 Medical Cost Trend. PriceWaterHouse Coopers. On the Internet at  http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/behind-the-numbers/index.jhtml . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014

2. Top Trends in Healthcare, medicine & pharmaceuticals. What's Next. On the Internet at http://www.nowandnext.com/?action=top_trend/list_trends&sectorId=10. Last retrieved on March 6, 2014

3. N.a. Megatrends in Global Health Care. On the Internet at http://hbr.org/web/extras/insight-center/health-care/globaltrends/2-slide. Last retrieved on March 6, 2014

4. Child Trends. (2013). Fertility and birth rates. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=fertility-and-birth-rates
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Eugenics Refers to the Social

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66101954



Currently, in the health care setting, patients are protected from involuntary acts of eugenics through laws that require doctor's to get the patient's full consent for all procedures done. Further, if a doctor fails to get such consent, they can be held liable under the malpractice laws of torts.

Eugenics and Immigration

Eugenics has also played a historical role in immigration and immigration reform during the twentieth century. Staring with the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenics was called on to play a central role in the congressional policy debate as to the allegedly "inferior stock" of immigrants coming from eastern and southern Europe.

Typically, eugenics as it applies to immigration reform deals with placing limits on the number of immigrants allowed from certain races, ethnicities or geographic locations. This practice is considered to be eugenics as it is used to systematically control or eliminate a specific population…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Downes, Lawrence. "What Part of Illegal Don't You Understand?" New York Times.

Engs, Ruth C. (2005): The Eugenics Movement: An Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Glad, John. (2007): Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-First Century. Hermitage Publishers.

Kevles, Daniel. (1985): In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. New York: Knopf.
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Ethical Eugenics Unethical Pgd There

Words: 1708 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72060914

There are too many factors that cannot be controlled. Children may develop inferiority feelings regarding their own specialness due to the choices of their parents. Many people who may be able to make contributions to society will more than likely be aborted. There is also the possibility that just because someone has a genetic trait for a malady, they may not even manifest such a condition. Additionally, the lack of clear boundaries in this field leaves the potential for catastrophes, such as that which happened during World War II.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abraham, Carolyn. "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" The Globe and Mail, 7 January 2012.

Appel, Jacob M. "Toward an Ethical Eugenics: The Case for Mandatory Preimplantation Genetic Selection." JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14:1, 2012, 7-14.

Gattaca. Dir. Andre Niccol. Perf. Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, Jude Law. Columbia, 1997. Film.

King, David S. "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and the 'New' Eugenics." Journal of Medical Ethics, 25, 1999, 176 -- ?182
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]

James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/

Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at  http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html 

Research Issues
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Stem Cells the Ethical Controversy

Words: 2407 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87608673



Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.

On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

Boston: Little Brown, 2002

Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.

Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
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Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000634813

Balestra, Dominic J. "Toward Epistemic Justice." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.1 (2002): 47+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000831235

Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning." The Ecumenical Review 54.3 (2002): 240+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000848513
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Ethics of Human Cloning in 1971 Nobel

Words: 3026 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65746623

Ethics of Human Cloning

In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James Watson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, Watson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (Watson 8).

Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. Watson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.

The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.

Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
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Tenet of the American Nurses Association Code

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18520389

tenet of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics states, "the nurse provides services with respect for human dignity and the uniqueness of the client, unrestricted by considerations of social or economic status, personal attributes, or the nature of health problems." (Howard University) That seemingly simple statement puts nurses as well as other medical professionals in an ethical quandary when they consider the issue of in-vitro fertilization that results in a pregnancy with multiple fetuses. Even the presence of twins instead of a singleton presents extra risks for both mother and babies, and those risks rise dramatically as the numbers of babies increase. However, in the recent past, fertility experts have felt it necessary to implant multiple fertilized eggs because of a low success rate (Johnson, 1999).

One option when a multiple pregnancy presents clear risks, especially to the likely viability of all babies, is selective reduction. In selective reduction,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Howard University. "American Nurses Association Code of Ethics, at Howard University College of Medicine. Accessed via the Internte 5/21/05.

Johnson, Kate. 1999. "IVF Multiples Reduced With Blastocyst Transfer." OB GYN News, December.
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Gestational Surrogacy Even Though it

Words: 2181 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56425393



A also consider that a proper legislation should protect the surrogate mother, in order to avoid situations in which her rights would not be respected. Therefore, she should be paid her medical expenses and, as a sort of benefit for her act, she should be granted a free medical insurance and the right to free medical analyses. Moreover, the legislation should stipulate that the surrogate mother should be of the same nationality - American in this case - as the future parents, in order to avoid situations as those which occurred in the Indian women case, who have thought to have been abused, a thing they have accepted because of their poor material status.

All in all, it seems that gestational surrogacy is not among the best surrogacy practice, and this is because of the ethnic, legal and cultural misunderstandings it might generate. In addition, I consider it should be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ciccarrelli, John K., and Janice C. Ciccarrelli. "The Legal Aspects of Parental Rights in Assisted." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 127-137. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.

Baker, Brenda M. "A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy." Hypatia. Bloomington 11.2 (1996): 34. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007. http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.library.tufts.edu/pqdweb?did=9766076&sid=1&Fmt=3&clien tId=28972&RQT=309&VName=PQD>.

Ciccarrelli, Janice C., and Linda J. Beckman. "Navigating Rough Waters: an Overview of Psychological Aspects of Surrogacy." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 21-43. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.

Douglas, Carol Anne. "Women as Wombs." Off Our Backs Jan. 1994: 12. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007, at http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.library.tufts.edu/pqdweb?did=592569041&sid=11&Fmt=3&clientId=28972&RQT=309&VName=PQD.
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Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.

CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
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Healthcare Ethics -- Stem Cells

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50662077

While freedom of religion absolutely guarantees the right to refrain from choosing to submit to stem cell-based treatment, the same freedoms and the concept of separation of church and state absolutely preclude religious beliefs about when life "begins" (or about anything else) from dictating laws that affect other people who may not share those particular beliefs (Dershowitz, 2002).

Beneficence and Non-malfeasance

Certainly, both the concept of beneficence and non-malfeasance absolutely prohibit the use of fetal stem cells from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to be considered a "person" as well as from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to sense pain. Medical authorities may debate where the exact point is where "personhood" first becomes an issue, but in principle, that characterization must be a function of objective criteria and never subjective beliefs of laypeople, especially based in religion (Dershowitz, 2002).

Both beneficence and the duty to avoid malfeasance prohibit…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:

McGraw Hill.
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Political Influence Over Stem Cell

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14376102

Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).

Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little

Brown & Co.

Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"

The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
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English Legal System the Law

Words: 2141 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96673053

For example, the Parliament passed the "Year and a Day Rule" Act in 1996 that changed the previous murder and manslaughter law that specified that a person could be charged with murder or manslaughter if the victim died within a year and a day of receiving his injuries. The change was made to reflect modern development in medical science, which enabled injured people to remain alive for longer periods.

Changes in the UK laws have also reflected the growing strength of the egalitarian ideal over the last two centuries. It has led to changes in laws that have encouraged the gradual emancipation of married women and the prohibition of discrimination based on race or sex. For instance, an old law applicable until recently did not allow married women to refuse sex with her husband. However, in R. v R (1991), the House of Lords decided that if a wife did…… [Read More]

References

Atiyah, P.S. (1995). Law and Modern Society (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Harris, P. (2007). An Introduction to Law (7th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Martin, J (2005). The English Legal System (4th ed.). London, UK: Hodder Arnold

Lord Justice Coke described customs as "one of the main triangles of the laws of England" (Martin, 14). Others dispute this theory and contend most of the "customs" were in fact invented by the judges themselves.
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Stem Cell Stems Cells Are

Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12906512



[Read More]

References

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982

Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
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Commercial Surrogacy the Issue of

Words: 5044 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1967115



For example, the 1984 British government committee report suggested that "it is inconsistent with human dignity that a woman should use her uterus for financial profit and treat it as an incubator for someone else's child," in part because this threatens to undermine the traditional belief in an inviolable mother-child bond.

Opponents who criticize commercial surrogacy from this perspective frequently attempt to differentiate between commercial surrogacy and "altruistic" surrogacy, in which a surrogate carries a child without a fee, but this distinction is merely nominal, because the lack of an explicit payment structure does not make the decision to become a surrogate any less transactional, and furthermore, the potential for exploitation exists in either case.

Before considering how the law actually treats surrogacy, then, it is becoming clear that a general prohibition on commercial surrogacy represents a kind of undue restriction on the personal and financial autonomy of women, because…… [Read More]

References

BERKHOUT, S.G., 2008. Buns in the Oven: Objectification, Surrogacy, and Women's

Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice,34(1), pp. 95-117.

BRINSDEN, P.R., APPLETON, T.C., MURRAY, E., HUSSEIN, M. And AL, E., 2000.

Treatment by in vitro fertilisation with surrogacy: Experience of one British centre.
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Buck vs Bell Lee M Silver's Remaking

Words: 1498 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10498583

Buck vs. Bell

Lee M. Silver's Remaking Eden and Dr. Leon R. Kass' Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity provide differing perspectives on the applicability of the issue of the case of Buck vs. Bell to today's society. In Buck vs. Bell, eugenics and Social Darwinism spurred a Supreme Court decision that allowed forced sterilization. In Remaking Eden, the perspective of Silver effectively argues that the case of Buck vs. Bell is not at all applicable to genetic issues today. Silver's optimistic stance on genetic engineering seems to indicate that human innovativeness and ingenuity will allow humans to successfully use genetic technologies to improve the world. In contrast, Kass' perspective suggests that the case of Buck vs. Bell is highly applicable to genetic issues today. Kass notes that even well-meaning and benevolent applications of technology can have devastating impacts on human dignity, echoing a theme found in the violation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kass, Leon. 2004. Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. Encounter Books.

Silver, Lee. 1998. Remaking Eden. Perennial.

Syracuse University, Personal Home Pages. Buck Vs. Bell. http://web.syr.edu/~slbignes
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Choosing the Sex of an Offspring

Words: 1702 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34832499

Gender of a Baby:

The issue on whether parents should be allowed to choose the sex of their baby has been a major controversial issue in the recent past that has attracted huge debates between proponents and opponents of such practice. This issue has received huge attention because of long-term use of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) to help pregnant women in the United States and across the globe. This technology basically involves the transfer of fertilized human embryos into a woman's uterus through in vitro fertilization (IVF). Advances in Assisted Reproductive Technology have contributed to various innovations such as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, which enables parents to choose prenatally the sex of their offspring (Bumgarner, 2007, p.1289). This technology enables parents to select the sex of their babies through the use of medical techniques. While it is considered as a major breakthrough in reproductive health, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been surrounded…… [Read More]

References:

Bumgarner, A. (2007, June 18). A Right to Choose? Sex Selection in the International Context.

Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 14(1289), 1289-1309. Retrieved from http://c-fam.org/docLib/20100421_SSAdukelaw.pdf

Bhatia, R. (2010). Constructing Gender from the Inside Out: Sex-Selection Practice in the United

States. Feminist Studies, 36(2), 260-291.
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Bioethical Dilemma Research With Embryonic

Words: 824 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17944612

2). Stem cells "can theoretically differentiate into virtually any type of human cell, from blood cells to skin cells" (AAAS, 2009). Besides, "in the natural reproductive process, human eggs are often fertilized but fail to implant in the uterus" (AAAS, 2009).

From an ethical standpoint, proponents of stem cell research also argue that embryos are going to 'waste.' "Fertilization clinics routinely create more human embryos than are needed over the course of a fertility treatment, and are therefore left with excess embryos that are often simply discarded" (AAAS, 2009). Some individuals who are philosophically opposed to both abortion and artificial reproductive technology believe so long as such practices are legal the remaining embryos should be used to have at least some impact upon the improvement of human life. Other "opponents object to this argument, however, saying that such research would still condone the destruction of embryos" and encourage more 'waste,'…… [Read More]

References

AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research. (2009). AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). Retrieved June 16, 2010 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/#ethical

Eustice, Carol & Richard Eustice. (2006, November 17). Stem cell research: Understanding the issue. About.com Guide. Retrieved June 16, 2010 at http://arthritis.about.com/od/stemcell/i/stemcells.htm

Genesis. (2010). Bible.com. Retrieved June 16, 2010 at http://www.bibleontheweb.com/Bible.asp

Stem cell basics. (2010). National Institute of Health. (NIH). Retrieved June 16, 2010 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics5.asp
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Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96089997

Even paralysis such as from diving and motor vehicle accidents will probably be able to be cured by stem cell applications (Sagan, 1997).

Legal and Ethical Issues:

Despite their tremendous potential for benefiting human health and welfare, many oppose the use of fetal stem cells because of their religious beliefs. According to many

Christians in particular, both abortion and the use of any fetal tissue for medical purposes is immoral because human life begins at conception (Dershowitz, 2002; Levine, 2007).

According to this view, even the embryos produced in-vitro fertilization clinics must not be used for research purposes, even with the consent of the patients who donated the sperm and egg.

The previous presidential administration of George Bush outlawed the federal funding of any stem cell research of this (most valuable) type in 2001 and, as a result, the United States has lost years of tremendously important research in that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New

York: Little Brown & Co.

Kinsley, M. (2007). "Commentary: Why Science Can't Save the GOP" Time (Dec.

10/07: 36).
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Infertility the Inability to Naturally

Words: 2812 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40383504

However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.

Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…… [Read More]

References

Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.

Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html

General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1

Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at  http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
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Economic and Psychological Effects of

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4262097

Thus, the longer a woman delays becoming pregnant, the more she is susceptible to suffering psychological ramifications.

Of course, the biological clock, or that which determines the best period of time in a woman's life to become pregnant and experience a successful pregnancy, plays a major role in fertility treatments. However, some young women, due to a lack of education early in life, may not realize that such a thing as a biological clock exist. According to Michael Fox, the absence of not knowing about this clock may exclude some women from receiving fertility treatments, due to waiting too long. Fox adds that as a result doctors and fertility specialists should "be more aggressive in the counseling of women who are in (their) early to mid thirties and beyond who consider delaying childbearing" (2000, Internet).

Options:

When a woman decides to wait until her mid forties or beyond to have…… [Read More]

References

Berkowitz, G.S., et al. (1990). "Delayed Childbearing and the Outcome of Pregnancy." New England Journal of Medicine. 322.

Domar, A.D., et al. (2000). "Impact of Group Psychological Intervention on Pregnancy Rates in Infertile Women." Fertil Steril. 73.

Kearney, Brian. (1998). High-Tech Conception. New York: Bantam Books.

Fox, Michael. "Age and Fertility: The Biological Clock: Fact or Fiction?" Duval County Medical Society. Internet. May, 2000. Accessed September 29, 2005. http://www.dcmsonline.
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Does a Person's Gender Affect Their Views on Cloning

Words: 3814 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54211973

Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.

It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.

Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."

Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,

IL.
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Being Pregnant and Having a Baby

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70180844

Gen was 25 when she became pregnant, and it was her first pregnancy. She was in a committed relationship but not married, and felt a jumble of emotions including fear. Gen knew that she would want children one day, and longed for the "boundless happiness" that she believed would accompany parenthood (Redrappa, 2015). At the same time, Gen was still in graduate school. Her debts were piling up and she and her boyfriend occasionally argued about finances. At first, Gen refrained from telling Rob the news. She was worried that the pregnancy would create conflict in their relationship, and then Gen realized that it was only a matter of time before she had to tell him. She was utterly unwilling to have an abortion, partly because she knew that eventually she did want to be a mother but also because she felt the "spark of life," as she put it,…… [Read More]

References

Rudrappa, S. (2015). Discounted Life. New York University Press [Kindle Edition].

Simmonds, W., Rothman, B.K. & Norman, B.M. (2007). Laboring On. New York: Routledge.
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Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

Words: 3339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19327581

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]

References

AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human

Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/

Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"

Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
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Ethics Issues in Nursing Related to Savior Siblings

Words: 2457 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65811868

Nursing Ethics Related to Savior Siblings

This work in writing addresses the ethical issues relating to parents undergo a procedure to conceive a child that will perfectly match blood with a child who is sick for the purpose of saving the sick child's life. This procedure is known as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (POGD) This procedure, while providing hope to parents who are desperate, carries with it ethical implications and concerns.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is reported as an "early form of pre-natal diagnosis and a procedure in which a biopsy is taken from an embryo previously fertilized outside of a woman's womb to determine different characteristics about that embryo prior to in vitro fertilization and implantation." (Fasbender, 2009, p.17) This procedure was used first in 1989 and was used for the purpose of avoiding "the implantation of an embryo that was affected by a mutation or chromosomal abnormality…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Savior sibling" is born after embryo selection in the United States BMJ. 2003 June 8; 326(7404): 1416..Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1151027/ 

Devolder, K. (2005). Preimplantation HLA typing: Having children to save our loved ones. Journal of Medical Ethics, 31, 582-586.

Fasbender, Whitney (2009) The Savior child: Having a Child to Save a Sibling…Is This Right? The Journal of Undergraduate Nursing Writing. Volume 3, Number 1, October 2009. Retrieved from: http://archie.kumc.edu/bitstream/handle/2271/746/STTFasbender.pdf?sequence=1

Hashioni-Dolev, Y. & Shkedi, S. (2007). On new reproductive technologies and family ethics: Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for sibling donor in Israel and Germany. Social Science & Medicine, 65, 2081-2092.
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Stem Cell Cience Must Be

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86882230



Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.

The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…… [Read More]

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Life Science Current Event Report Current Events

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69136107

Life Science Current Event Report

Current Events on Cloning and Evolution

Topic and Date: The Ethics of Egg Manipulation (Evolution), August 27, 2009

Nature

The article "The Ethics of Egg Manipulation" published in Nature investigates the research challenges in reducing diseases that can be identified prior to egg fertilization. Scientists have questioned if it is necessary for humans to give birth to offspring that are at high risk for genetic diseases. Their hypothesis is: If we remove the bad parts of the DNA from one egg and replace it with good DNA from another egg and use the new egg for in vitro fertilization, can we reduce the number of babies born with disease (Anonymous, 2009)?

Current experiments have been performed on monkeys. The experiments have been successful and scientists believe the research is ready to move to humans, but many laws are in place to deter this type of…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2009, August 27). The ethics of egg manipulation. Nature, 460(7259), 1057. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.

Anonymous. (2008, November 13). Clones of the dead. Nature, 456(7219), 144. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
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Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. Researchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
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Albert Schweitzer Once Stated A Man Is

Words: 1856 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68251539

Albert Schweitzer once stated, "A man is truly ethical only when he obeys the compulsion to help all life which he is able to assist, and shrinks from injuring anything that lives" (n.d.). A pronouncement that in 1952 - when he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life" -- may have had a different meaning than it does today. Nowadays, one lives in a world where artificial insemination is a normal practice, where in vitro fertilization is a common practice, where life has the potential to begin outside the womb in a test tube, where the very definition of "life" has become increasingly complex. Consequently, the issue of what is considered "ethical" and what is considered "unethical" with regards to human reproduction methods has also become more complicated. To understand the ethical minefield that is modern human reproduction, one should consider the situation of Nadya…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dobuzinskis, A. (1 June 2011). Octomom Doctor Loses California Medical License.

Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/01/us-octomom-

idUSTRE7507TL20110601?feedType=RSS

Komaroff, A. (1999). Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. Boston,
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Funding Stem Cell Research Embryonic

Words: 1888 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26747025

Analysts agree that Proposition 71 will at least pay for itself over the life of the bonds.

According to Somers (2004): "The economists from Stanford University and the Analysis Group predict that the initiative would generate at least $6.4 billion. They say it would generate $2.2 billion to $4.4 billion if it could expand the state's biotechnology industry by about 5%, with new jobs, construction of new buildings and increased revenue. If the research could reduce health care spending by 1% to 2%, the direct savings in health care costs to the state government would be $3.4 billion to $6.9 billion, on just the care and treatment of patients suffering from six of the medical conditions scientists think could benefit from new stem-cell therapies."

Still, there is no guarantee that life saving, cost-saving therapies will be found (Somers, 2004). Even if they are, scientists say it is many years away.…… [Read More]

References

Associated Press. (November 4, 2004). Californians approve stem cell research funding. USA Today. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/vote2004/2004-11-02-ca-initiative-stem-cell_x.htm.

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. (2001). Stem Cells: A Bioethical Balancing Act." America 184.10: 14-19.

Friedrich, MJ. (2000). Debating Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Research.JAMA 284.6 (2000): 681-82.

Honolulu Advertiser. (October 27, 2004). Stem cell research is worth exploring. Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2004/Oct/27/op/op02p.html .
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Genetics Case Study

Words: 2558 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31535048

Genetics Case Study

Genetic Case Study: The Rita and Peter Trosack and Tay-Sachs Disease

Genetic testing is becoming a much more common practice in medicine today. This presents a unique set of challenges for medical professionals in virtually all specialties. The practical aspects of determining which test to order, and in interpreting the result accurately in the context of the family history, can be difficult.

Additionally, the ethical conundrums that frequently present themselves when genetic risk assessment and/or genetic testing is being considered can be daunting. These challenges present real concerns for medical professionals and patients alike.

Included in this paper is a review of some of the practical and ethical complexities associated with genetic testing. Pretest and posttest genetic counseling is also emphasized as an important and essential process in today's medical practice.

The Interdisciplinary Team

The interdisciplinary team members should include an obstetrician, a genetic counselor, a psychologist/psychiatrist,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Branda, K.J., Tomczak, J. And Natowicz, M.(2004) "Heterozygosity for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff Diseases in Non-Jewish-Americans with Ancestry from Ireland, Great Britain, or Italy." Genetic Testing 8: 174-180.

Ensenauer, R, Michels, V and Reinke S. (2005) "Genetic Testing: Practical, Ethical, and Counseling Considerations." Mayo Clin Proc. 80(1):63-73.

Gravel, R.A., Kabak, M.M., Proia, R.L., Sandhoff, K., and Suzuki, K. (2001). "The GM2 gangliosidoses." In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 8th ed.

C.R. Scriver, A.L. Beaudet, W.S. Sly, and D. Valle (eds.). McGraw- Hill, New York, vol. 1, pp. 3827-3876.
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Ethical Debate on Savior Siblings Ethics and Morality

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48635101

Savior Siblings: The Ethical Debate

At a hospital, one of the most fulfilling tasks carried out daily is that of helping mothers usher in newborns into the world. Proud parents of beautiful healthy babies cannot contain their joy as they take their bundles of joy home ready to embark on a journey full of endless moments of happiness. However, some parents' joys are short lived when their children develop life threatening illnesses and complications that leave them struggling each day to finding the best treatments. Although they make the decision to do all it will take to save the child's life, their options are limited particularly because most of the most common illnesses, such as Diamond Blackfan Anemia or leukemia, often require blood or bone marrow transfers which they are not in a position to give as they are not necessarily the exact tissue matches for the concerned child.

Confronted…… [Read More]

References

Overall, C. (2012). Why Have Children? The Ethical Debate. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Paola, F.A., Walker, R & Nixon, L.L. (2010) Medical Ethics and Humanities. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.

Whitehouse, B. (2010). The Match: Savior Siblings and One Family's Battle to Heal Their Daughter. Boston: Beacon Press
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Savior Baby Lit Review

Words: 731 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14212092

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: State of the Art

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used to analyze embryos genetically before their transfer into the uterus and offers couples at risk the chance to have an unaffected child, without facing termination of pregnancy. Embryos are obtained by in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and are biopsied mostly on day 3; blastocyst biopsy is mentioned as a possible alternative; the genetic analysis is performed on one or two blastomeres, by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic diagnosis, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for moleculardiagnosis (Basille, et al., 2009). PGD requires a close collaboration between obstetricians, fertility specialists, IVF laboratory and human geneticists. It needs intensive effort, expensive techniques and is demanding for the patients, but it offers tremendous opportunity for couples whose previous child has exhibited genetic abnormalities.

Children as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors

This article isn't directly related to PGD…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Basille, C., Frydman, R., Abdelwahab, E., Laetitia, H., Renato, F., Gerard, T., . . . Achour, N. (2009). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: State of the art. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 9-13.

Committee on Bioethics. (2010). Children as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors. Pediatrics, VOLUME 125 / ISSUE 2.

Johnson, J. (2010). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis at 20 years. Prenatal Diagnosis, 682-695.

Renwick, P., & Ogilvie, C. (2007). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for monogenic diseases: overview and emerging issues. Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn., 33-44.
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Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5206357

The ban needs to be used to prevent the sale of embryos, use of cloning and the production of embryos for the sole purpose of research. Cures for debilitating diseases will hopefully result and healing is supposed to be the driving factor in medicine. It is a poor argument to talk of murder, destruction and disrespect of human life when the United States continues to utilize capital punishment, the legal murder of a human being for purposes of criminal punishment. This type of dichotomy results in irrational or illogical positions in contrast to developing a truer position. In addition, legal issues are at stake and the fact that abortion is legal in the United States should be a critical part of the discussion. Since personal choice is the key to legal abortions, it seems that the same person can and should be allowed to consent to medical research following the…… [Read More]

References

Fumento, M. (n.d.). Michael Fumento: Embryonic Research Driven by Greed, not Science. Michael Fumento.com. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from  http://www.fumento.com/biotech/greatstemcell.html 

Guenin, L. (n.d.). ISSCR:: Public: Perspective: Ethics of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research . International Society for Stem Cell Research. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.isscr.org/public/ethics.htm

Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. (n.d.). The National Academies Press. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11278&page=45

Santa Clara University Web Site. (2001, October 21). The Ethics of Human Cloning and Stem Cell Research. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/cloning.htm
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Knowledge Since the Colonial College

Words: 2672 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61296774

" (Downey, 2000, p.307) This aspect of the university, or that of the community is characterized by having less structure that the corporation or collegium of the university and is such that includes everyone as a member as everyone "belongs to and has equity in the university as a community." (Downey, 2000, p.307) This is a community characterized by disorder, ambiguity, and little in the way of definition. The university community is ever-growing and continuously changing and adapting to changes.

V. Synthesis and Evaluation of Three Critical Tensions by the Academic Leader

One critical aspect of the university is that of funding resources. As government funding either increases or decreases for the university so too does the requirements of how that funding will be allocated increase or decrease. As well, the university is forced in times of decreased funding to decrease such as:

(1) the number of employees;

(2) wage…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Downey, James. The University as a Trinity: Balancing Corporation, Collegium and Community. Reprinted from Innovative Higher Education, Winter 1996, Human Sciences Press.
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Nationalism Gender and the Nation

Words: 5424 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31370211

But help is on the way. A Belgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.

The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004

Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf

Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004

Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
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Photograph Hurricane Katrina 2005

Words: 1541 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89067875

questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816

Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816.

Images of Hurricane Katrina, found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,2005,retrieved 1 March 2009.

Images of Brittany Spears, found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAWV16M6qW9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.

Bloggerhead.com, found online at, retrieved 1 March 2009.… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816

Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816.

Images of Hurricane Katrina, found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,2005,retrieved 1 March 2009.

Images of Brittany Spears, found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAWV16M6qW9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.
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Rebecca Dresser and John Robertson

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39649138

I do not believe that wearing glasses or make-up is wrong, even though this is an enhancement of the human body by improving one's life by being able to see, or covering blemishes and unsightly birthmarks that might make an individual self-conscious. Is selecting the best sperm donor really so much different than a man or a woman basing his or her choice of a mate upon that individual's appearance, intelligence, and lack of unpleasant 'skeletons' in the genetic closet? Svaulescu's idea that one has a moral obligation to screen for genetic defects or to personally improve the human race through reproduction makes one queasy, but the idea of leaving everything up to nature, in theory, would mean an end of folic acid for pregnant women or even birth control.

But really, the ultimate argument for allowing patients to attempt to engineer their offspring by selecting 'better sperm' may be…… [Read More]

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Baby Ebay the Need to

Words: 1422 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54064744



The proclaimers of baby selling argue that the moral implications are not as negative as generally perceived by the society, but that trade with babies exists in numerous markets and in numerous forms and the legalization and embracement of such procedures would only be natural. "These markets are centered around the production and acquisition of babie - babies in the form of component sperm and eggs, babies in the form of fresh or frozen embryos, babies in the form of tissues and organs, and babies as full-term living infants" (Hirschman, 1991). As such, from the technological stand point, the selling of life babies would only be an extension of the modern procedures implemented to help conceive babies.

Then, there is the legal aspect of it. However the current legislature prohibits the trade of babies, the process should be best perceived as a contract between parties and it should be respected…… [Read More]

References

Colen, B.D., 1987, Bringing Up Baby M., Health, July Edition, pp. 64-68

Eliot, T.S., Where Have all the Babies Gone?, Future Tool Kit, Retrieved from www.futuretoolkit.com/birth97.docon April 1, 2008

Fox, R., 1993, Babies for Sale, Public Interest, Number 111

Hirschman, E.C., 1991, Babies for Sale: Market Ethics and the New Reproductive Technologies, Journal of Consumer Affairs, Volume 25
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Hospital Ethics to Do or

Words: 5897 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97807504



The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.

Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).

From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group

Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.

Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association

Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
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Speech on the Benefits of

Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1325449



Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.

Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.

Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).

Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:

Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.

The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).

This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…… [Read More]

References

Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York

Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
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1950s to Scientific Technology of

Words: 1839 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96695070



Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (Robertson, 2000). However, authors such as Rosenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:

No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.

Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.

Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.

Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.

The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell
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Start Off With an Introductory

Words: 4948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54115181

Ian Wimut and Keith Campbell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated embryo cells. (History of Cloning)

Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to be cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly by Ian Wilmut, an extensive debate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on December 5, 1997 about his objective of cloning a human being prior to ban of the process by enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lamb from skill cells grown on a lab and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…… [Read More]

bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at  http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
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Women With HIV Have Reproductive

Words: 3942 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18245249

" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)

However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.

3.2. Different perspectives

The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albury, R.M. (1999). Beyond the Slogans. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.

Almond, B., & Ulanowsky, C. (1990). HIV and Pregnancy. The Hastings Center Report, 20(2), 16+. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Amaro, H., & Raj, a. (2000). On the Margin: Power and Women's HIV Risk Reduction Strategies. 723. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
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Providing Nationalized Health Care

Words: 1601 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17006150

Nationalized health care is the responsibility of a modern nation to its citizens as many of them are not able to afford the costs of healthcare in United States. The direct effects of the lack of provisions of healthcare by the government has led to a situation where more than 40 million Americans do not have health insurance and the expenditure by private citizens of health expenses is as high as 15% while in the other industrialized countries, it is only 10%. These clear situations make it essential that there must be a provision of nationalized health care. (Bailey, 2005)

Explanation

There are relationships of health problems in relation to many social conditions which are present and their solution being provided. One of the problems we are witnessing in the cities today is in relation to people living in open places and the result is that they generally end up…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bailey, Ronald. (June 15, 2005) "What universal health care would really bring" Retrieved

From http://www.reason.com/rb/rb061505.shtml Accessed 19 August, 2005

Munyon, Grant. (May 20, 2005) "Is Health Care Truly a Right?" The Stanford Review.

XXXIV; No: 9. Retrieved From http://www.stanfordreview.org/Archive/Volume_XXXIV/Issue_9/Opinions/Opinions14.shtml Accessed 19 August, 2005
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Fear Is an Emotion That Often Paralyzes

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41768188

Fear is an emotion that often paralyzes people and fear of the unknown often precipitates irrational thoughts and behavior. One hot topic that illustrates this point is cloning. Many opponents to the subject of cloning are basing their arguments on fear. This fear is irrational and totally unfounded and extremely damaging to the cause of science. As a society, we are on a path that is leading us to embark on nothing short of fantastic discoveries and allowing fear to hinder this growth would be a dreadful mistake. Cloning is not bad or wrong -- the fear that accompanies it is.

Alun Anderson brings to mind several reasons why human cloning could be beneficial. One example can be seen in the couple who carries a recessive gene for disease. In this scenario, one of the parents cloning him or herself would remove the risk of their child being born diseased.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,

Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Baum, Rudy. "Human Cloning is Inevitable." Cloning. Winters, Paul, ed. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press. 1998.
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Against Same Sex Marriages This

Words: 2525 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51092902

What right do these people have to take away these rights of a child? Children without a fatherly figure are more likely to end up breaking the law.

Same sex marriage denies them the right to have the normal environment for socio-emotional development or a normal family and it is their right to start their life with a father and a mother. The children are being raised by parents who are not their biological parents. There can never be a substitute for being raised by the mother and father who brought you into the world and are your biological parents. Most human societies have honored the norm that special responsibility for children lies with the biological parents. Same sex marriage is going against this norm, and the society's values attached with this norm. Whatever else it may accomplish, marriage acknowledges and secures the relationship between a child and his or…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

(1) Stephen J. Pope -- Article Title: The Magisterium's Arguments against "Same-Sex Marriage": An Ethical Analysis and Critique. Journal Title: Theological Studies. Volume: 65. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2004. Page Number: 530+.

(2) Jonathan Rauch - How Will Same-Sex Marriage Affect America's Children? [Online website] Available from: http://www.ssw.umich.edu/events/fauri/2004 / [Accessed on: 17/9/2005]

(3) Susan Holt -- "Ending the cycle of domestic violence," Gay Lesbian Times, 9126196. Page Number: 39.

(4) Christopher Hewitt - Article Title: Homosexual Demography: Implications for the Spread of AIDS. Contributors: Christopher Hewitt - author. Journal Title: The Journal of Sex Research. Volume: 35. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 1998. Page Number: 390.
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Health Care Ethics the Ethical

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30215427

Many of the chapters relate to medical research as well as medical procedures, with the informed consent issue in particular affecting both human beings involved in medical research and those facing a medical crisis and wanting to now what their treatment will entail.

Throughout, the authors present ways of thinking about these ethical issues and also encourage medical personnel to consider these matters and to have a means for making decisions in mind at all times and to follow certain procedures in analyzing a situation and making a determination as to what behavior is acceptable and what is not. Some of the issues discussed are more controversial than others, with abortion being perhaps the most controversial and so the most in need of an ethical structure to decide between competing interests. The death and dying issue is another with two clear positions polarizing the argument and with a range of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Garrett, Thomas M., Harold W. Baillie, and Rosellen M. Garrett.

Health Care Ethics: Principles and Problems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2001.
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Contraception in Accordance With Your Needs Is

Words: 1501 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80237500

contraception in accordance with your needs is associate with physical and mental well-being throughout the lifespan.

Although the argument can be made that people are never truly ready to have children, it is clear that timing is everything for humans when it comes to reproduction. Unplanned teen pregnancies create a vicious cycle of welfare motherhood that is difficult to break unless contraception is used to prevent these pregnancies in the first place. Using contraceptives responsibly can clearly contribute to the mental well-being of single young people who enjoy sex but do not want the lifelong responsibility of children yet. It is reasonable to suggest that a single young mother with three or four screaming babies and infants will not enjoy the same level of mental and physical well-being at their peers with no children, and the demands associated with raising these children to adulthood never really go away entirely but…… [Read More]

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Father Figures Arabic Asian Literature

Words: 3208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62648094

Father Figures Arabian Asian Literature

Father Figures: Arabic / Asian Literature

Father figures all across the world embody a phenomenon which encompasses all attributes of a role model. They are meant to stand for discipline, caution, protection, guidance, and of course, love. The perfect amalgamation of all these can be found in the patriarch of any household, or any culture, for that matter. As such, the perfect patriarchal example is nothing short of a literary archetype. From Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" to Puzo's "The Godfather" we can find numerous examples of father figures establishing the age-old belief in fatherly conduct.

It is true, that the general conception of father figures is more or less the same in all areas of literature. However, one must pay heed to the fact that just like miscellaneous traditions; the perception towards father figures varies from culture to culture. Needless to say, the significance of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kanafani, Ghassan. "A Hand in the Grave." Roberta Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 427.

Mukherjee, Bharati. "A Father." Robert Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 660.

Ramanujan, A.K. "Self-Portrait."
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Nietzsche's Statement Sartre

Words: 978 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64123622

Anti-Christian

Explain Nietzsche's statement in the section on "The Will to Power" that Christianity is an "impious lie" and that "we ought to declare open war against it"?

The Holy Bible teaches that one should love thy enemies. However, Nietzsche finds this to be a major problem. In addition, He believes that by saying that one should love their enemies like they love their friends, is a big lie. This is true because this is something that my parents told me growing up, though now at an older age, I see it as something stupid. Why should I love or care for someone who has done me wrong. I see it as if someone did me wrong, then forget them and let them live their lives away from me. As long as they get away from me and do not ever get near me I will not try to get…… [Read More]

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Gay Donor or Gay Dad

Words: 1792 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43415355

Gay Donor or Gay Dad?

Challenges Faced by Same-Sex Parented Families

The prototypical U.S. family has historically been defined as a heterosexual arrangement that divided responsibilities by gender (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). Men were responsible for earning enough money to keep the family economically viable, while women were responsible primarily for childrearing and household chores.

In the decades since WWII, the prevalence of the traditional U.S. family has decreased as nontraditional arrangements have increased (Farrell, VandeVusse, and Ocobock 284). Women now make up almost 50% of the workforce, in part because a single wage earner is often insufficient to meet the economic needs of many families. The pervasive use of contraception has increased the age at which marriage and pregnancy occurs, and cohabitation, single parents, and same-sex parents are becoming more common.

Based on the 2010 U.S. Census data, heterosexual married parents represent 67.4% of all U.S. families, while…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowe, John. "Gay Donor or Gay Dad?" New York Times Magazine 19 Nov. 2006. Web. 29 May 2012.

Farrell, Betty, VandeVusse, Alicia, and Ocobock, Abigail. "Family Change and the State of Family Sociology." Current Sociology 60.3 (2012): 283-301.

Lofquist, Daphne, Lugaila, Terry, O'Connell, Martin, and Feliz, Sarah. "Households and Families: 2010." U.S. Census Bureau Apr. 2010: 1-21. Web. 29 May 2012.
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Animal Production

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44705114

Animal Production: Biotechnology

Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
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Ethical Argument

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36427916

Ethical Argument

Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.

The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.

James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.

Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.

R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
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Umbilical Cords Blood Stem Cell

Words: 4604 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68647678

Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.

Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. While it is a difficult…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.

Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.

Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.