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Another consequence of the exploitative use of water resources is the destruction of mangrove forests and the fragmentation of the habitats of endangered species. The United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna listed 189 endangered species in China among the 740 in the world.
Sand content is quite high in the Yellow iver. In the dry season, sand rises and flies up with the wind and soil desertization becomes severe. In addition, the iver's dri-up directly reduces the quantity of water for farmland irrigation. The supply of ground water decreases while the exploitation quantity of ground water increases. The results would include a deep crescent of ground water, a decrease of land evapo-transpiration, local climate drying, soil desertization, a reduction of biotic population and a simplification of biocommunity structure.
Another serious problem confronted in the Yellow iver is nitrogen contamination. A study found…
Federal Reserve Division. Country Profile: China. (Library of Congress, August 2006)
Retrieved April 23, 2007 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf b) Jiang, Gooming and Jixi Gao. The Terrible Cost of China's Growth. Part I. (Creative Commons, January 12, 2007)
Luo, Yufing, et al. The Lower Yellow River Basin: a System Dynamics Approach. ACIAR
Proceedings number 123. (Agricultural Water Management in China, September 2005). Retrived April 23, 2007 at http://www.aciar.gov.u/web.nsf/att/ACIA-6s79R7/$file/ACIAProc123WebPart3.pdf
Customer relationship management (CM) is an essential component of organizational management. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on a CM strategy for United Behavioral Health a subsidiary of United Health Care . . United Behavioral Health is dedicated to presenting customers with high quality, cost-effective, managed mental health and substance abuse services to its customers. The investigation suggests that the company's core values have been successfully implemented into the company's CM Strategy. The current CM strategy utilizes technology to allow customers to voice their opinions. Currently the company's website ubhweb.uhc.com provides a page that offers help to members that are experiencing problems. In addition, it provides customers with "coaches" that can help whenever problems arise. The company's customers are currently divided into three different groups; the employer division, the health plan division and the public sector. We found testimonials of customers who were extremely satisfied with the care…
Your Customers are Speaking To You. Do You Hear Them? 2002. 2 December 2004
Gupta S. Binggeli U., Poomes C.D., CRM in the Air. The McKinsey Quarterly. Page Number: 6+.
Jacobs F.A., Claire Kamm Latham, Choongseop Lee. 1998. The Relationship of Customer Satisfaction to Strategic Decisions. Journal of Managerial Issues. Volume: 10. Issue: 2. Page Number: 165+.
Spring / Summer Plating
Tomatoes, Squash, and Asparagus
The tomato crop I plan to grow is the Celebrity breed. It is good for local sales, which is where I would hope to sell my crop, primarily to local fresh food and specialty stores around the area. This will do well because of the green trend of buying local.
The seeds I plan to purchase will be fungicide treated, so they are more resilient to seed-borne diseases. I will hand seed the seeds in a greenhouse in rows about two inches apart. After about two months, they will be transplanted into the field in March. The seeds will be planted about a 1/2-inch deep into the soil.
I plan to use commercial growing media, which contains a great mixture of fertilizer and lime, as well has the ability to hold good amounts of water for the plants to drink…
Alabama Cooperative Extension System. (2013). Guide to Commercial Summer Squash Production. Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities. Web. http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-1014/ANR-1014.pdf
Agricultural Extension Service. (2011). Commercial Tomato Production. University of Tennessee. Web. https://utextension.tennessee.edu/publications/Documents/pb737.pdf
Sanders, Douglas. (2010). Commercial asparagus production. NC State University. Web. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/hil/hil-2-a.html
This also means that consumption and price will be completely and directly linked, incentivizing reductions in water uses more so than they are under current pricing structures (though consumption is still charged per-unit, the lack of marginalization distributes prices less equitably in terms of actual expenditure to supply water). This will also give clear signals as to the extent that alternative water supplies should be investigated as a means of augmenting the water supply.
The marginal costs of water will make large urban consumers (i.e. municipalities) more likely to consume and agricultural consumers somewhat less so, possibly damaging the agricultural industry in California. Pricing structures that are not attached to volume of consumption in a linear fashion might also meet with more opposition from the public. Finally, estimating long run marginal costs can be quite complex and runs the risk of underestimation, which could lead to underfunding.
As the company grew, she hired managers and put them in positions to handle operations, accounting and sales. Although these managers had those titles, it looked to me like they had little communication from the top.
When I joined, the company was having problems fulfilling orders. The purchasing people worked primarily with East Asian suppliers with a long supply chain. They had a lot of problems lining up shipments and getting our retailers what they needed. They seemed to get little help from the top.
Our warehouse was also a mess. We had three different kinds of software, and our Warehouse Manager seemed unable or unwilling to make them talk to one another. When I worked in the warehouse, no one gave me any training: I was hired in the afternoon, and started the next morning. The supervisor asked me to tag along with another employee, who took me to…
Gutteridge, T.L. (1993). A new look at organizational career development. Human Resource Planning, 71-79.
HBS. (2007). Executive Education. Retrieved December 4, 2007, from Harvard Business School: http://www.exed.hbs.edu/programs/finder.html?level=Executive+Leader&topic=Owner-Managed&type=&month=
Keough, M. a. (1992). The CEO as Organization Designer. McKinsey Quarterly, 3-10.
Sims, R. (1990). An Experiential Learning Approach to Employee Training Systems. Westport: Quorum.
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)
In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:
1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;
2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)
The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.
Change in yield (%)
Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)
Chipanshi, a., Chanda, R., & Totolo, O. (Dec 2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana. Climatic Change, 61(3).
Dhakwa, G. & Campbell, L. (Dec 1998). Potential effects of differential day-night warming in global climate change on crop production. Climatic Change, 40(3).
Isik, M. & Devadoss, S. (20 April 2006). An analysis of the impact of climate change on crop yields and yield variability. Applied Economics, 38(7).
Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J., Laza, R., Visperas, R., Zhong, X., Centeneo, G., Khush, G., & Cassman, K. (6 July 2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(27).
Fertile Crescent could be addressed as both a geographical location and as symbolic terminology. Ultimately, both options unite to refer to the region in the Middle East also identified as the cradle of civilization. Stretching in the shape of an arc from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates, the region encompasses an ancient fertile land which is said to have stood at the basis of man's evolution. Nature's contribution to the evolutionary steps of humanity was rendered indefinite which is why ancient rites sought to prevent and otherwise control the unpredictable forces. Personifying natural phenomenon enabled mankind's link to the divine forces. For the Sumerians, fertility was not ensured by one single god or goddess, rather it came about as a cooperative result of all the forces of nature. Fertility rites often encompassed sexual rituals which were sought to bring about fertility of the land. Sexuality thus was religiously…
The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by Andrew George (London, New York, Victoria, Toronto, New Delhi, Auckland, Johannesburg: Penguin Books, 1999).
People Mistrust Marketers
Why do people mistrust marketers?
Societies are composed of people and like the health of body depend on healthy cells and the strength of wall comes from the strong bricks, society is as prosperous and educated as its individuals are. The economies today are living in a much challenging state than ever before because the population is growing and there is scarcity of resources. Thus it is very vital to live and find ways in which people can live better lives. One such self-sustaining tool that helps individuals stabilize financially is education. Education offers skills and knowledge and is required to perform a job thus it ensures productivity of economic development. Particularly in the countries where the rate of literacy is low, there exists a huge margin for growth and development. There are people that can get education and increase the performance of system. Yet, this is…
Chattopadhyay, S., (2012), "Education and Economics Disciplinary Evolution and Policy
Discourse," Oxford University Press
Externalities -- The Economic Lowdown Podcast Series, (2013), Retrieved from:
Strip Mining Project
Strip mining has long attracted the attention that "fracking" is now due to the proven or at least theoretical environmental impacts and issues that can or definitely arise when the practice is engaged in. Not unlike similar industries like timber, anything that destroys or alters wetlands/marshes, anything that leads to increase erosion and so forth is hotly contested and debated. Even basic things like irrigation of crops can raise a proverbial stink if the water is denied to people or states that happen to be downstream and they feel they need/deserve it so as to provide drinking water, their own crop irrigation or other environmental concerns. While strip mining, especially that which relates to energy like lignite and lithium, is here to stay and largely cannot be stopped, the real and tangible impacts it can and does have need to be taken seriously before the lignite-harvesting project…
EIA. (2014, June 23). Coal. EIA Energy Kids. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.eia.gov/KIDS/ENERGY.CFM?PAGE=COAL_HOME-BASICS
WSGS. (2014, June 23). Wyoming State Geological Survey. Wyoming State Geological
Survey. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/Research/Energy/Coal/Diagrams.aspx
WVC. (2014, June 23). 2013. Coal Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.wvcoal.com/coal-facts-2013.html
New home construction in the community also alters water usage issues. Bob Wilbert is the head of maintenance of the facility and oversees all internal and subcontracted maintenance and upkeep of the grounds and facilities.
The administrative structure of the facility includes:
Successful criteria employment
General Manger oversees all staff, including temporary and permanent employees in catering and facilities management
Controller facilitates all accounting and financial needs and maintains records.
The facility does not offer a box office or ticketing, but reservations for golf and tennis are suggested. The facility has 550 golf members and over 1000 sport and social members. So use of the tennis and golf facilities are in high demand. The golf shop schedules tee times every 10 minutes and the tennis facility has 30 minute to 3 hours reservations for tennis courts. Availability for walk in is always a possibility but does not take priority over…
Red Rock Country Club Website www.redrockcountryclub.com
Sunrise Company Website at http://www.sunriseco.com/
Summerlin Community Website at http://www.summerlin.com/home.html
University of LV Libraries Website at http://www.library.unlv.edu/arch/aia/awa2003/b03016.html
Inca Empire, or Inka Empire, was the biggest empire in pre-Columbian America. The organizational, political and military center of the empire was situated in Cusco in modern-day Peru. "The Inca civilization came about from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia" (Inca Civilization, n.d.).
The Incas were a powerful group in South America from the 1200s until the middle of the 1500s. Then Spanish conquistadors, who had better weapons than the Incas, arrived and defeated them. Diseases arrived, too, and killed many Incas. Incas…
Devlin, H. (2009, Jul 27). How changing climate helped the Incas to go up in the world [edition 2]. The Times, pp. 13.
Inca Civilization. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.crystalinks.com/incan.html
Incas of Peru. (2006, Jan 30). The Atlanta Journal - Constitution, pp. C.8-C.8.
Krajick, K. (1998). Green farming by the Incas? Science, 281(5375), 323-323.
A Class 8 substance is corrosive to humans and metal and should be approached with caution, especially if one is not wearing an outfit that is comprised of noncorrosive material. Additionally, the Class 4.3 Flammable Solids; Dangerous When Wet placard alerts responders to the fact that the substance which is being transported "emits a flammable gas when wet or has a violent reaction when it comes in contact with water" (Signs & Symbols, 2011). Finally the UN 1836 identifies the material being transported according to UN guidelines. The four digit code (in this case 1836) is the identifier of the specific compound being transported. 1836 denotes the fact that the compound can be identified as thionyl chloride which is comprised of chlorine, oxygen and sulfur. A responder must also consider the NFPA diamond placard that is in sight. The 0 at 12 o'clock determines the flammability of the substance;…
2008 Emergency Response Guidebook (2008) accessed on February 29, 2012 at http://www.scribd.com/doc/14491512/2008-ERG-Emergency-Response-Guidebook
Signs and Symbols (2011) Free Hazmat Placards, accessed on February 29, 2012 at http://signsanddisplays.wordpress.com/2011/07/11/free-hazmat-placards/
Economics of Production and esource Management: Assessment of the Environmental Impact Associated with Human Waste Fertilizer in Agricultural Production
The objective of this study is to conduct an assessment of the environmental impact associated with human waste fertilizer in agricultural production. National Geographic News reporter Tasha Eichenseher reported that 200 million farmers in developing countries are making use of raw sewage due to water shortages and rising costs of fertilizer to irrigate and fertilize approximately 49 million acres of cropland. It is reported by Eichenseher (2008) that this practice "carries serious health risks for many" however, it is reported that the dangers of the use of human waste fertilizer are "eclipsed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food." (Eichenseher, 2008)
The 200 million farmers reported to be using this type of fertilizer are those in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin…
Eichenseher, Tasha (2008) Human Waste Used by 200 Million Farmers, Study Says. 21 Aug 2008. National Geographic News. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/08/080821-human-waste.html
Environmental Fact Sheet (1998) Waste-Derived Fertilizers. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from:
Franceys, Pickford & Reed (1992) Franceys, R., Pickford, J. And Reed, R., A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation, WHO, Geneva, 1992. Pickford, John., Low-cost Sanitation: A survey of practical experience, IT Publications, London, 1995. WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AT LONDON AND LOUGHBOROUGH (WELL) is a resource centre funded by the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID) to promote environmental health and well-being in developing and transitional countries. It is managed by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University.
This increase in seed size probably results from the continuous use of water through irrigation.
The Moche pottery also provides insights into the agriculture of the inland valleys. Nineteen races of maize are found on Moche jars. Nine of these include the Peruvian races Confite Iqueiio, Confite, Morocho, Kculli, Enano, Perla, Mochero, Pagaladroga, Huancavelicano, and Perlilla, which had evolved by a.D. 800. Ten races identified are found today only outside Peru from Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. This dispersal suggests that the prehistoric ranges of these races were wider than is known in present times. In fact, the Moche pottery shows that most maize forms had a wider geographical distribution prehistorically than they have today. Ceramic maize replicas on Moche jars demonstrate evidence that the north coast of Peru was a major center for cultural exchange and connected the distant areas of South America perhaps extending as far as Central…
1996. The Moche, New York: Blackwell Press..
Billman, Brian R.
2002. Irrigation and the Origins of the Southern Moche State on the North Coast of Peru Latin American Antiquity 13(4), 371-400
Hydrogeological eport: Lipan Aquifer, Texas
Lipan Aquifer in Texas
Located in the Lipan Flats area of the counties of Tom Green. western Concho, and southern unnels, the Lipan is a minor aquifer according to classifications of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) the Lipan aquifer is used primarily for irrigation with limited consumption for livestock and rural domestic purposes (Lee 1986). However, the chemical quality of the Lipan aquifer water does not meet drinking water standards (Lee, 1986). Drinking water may contain radon at rates just above safety levels provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Upwards of 125 feet of saturated alluvial deposits of the Leona Formation of Quaternary age make up the aquifer (Lee 1986). Part of the aquifer constitution (see Figure 1.) is comprised of the "updip portions of the underlying dolomites, limestones, and shale of Permian age" (Lee 1986). These structures, which are hydrologically continuous with…
Aquifers in Paleozoic Rocks, Ground Water Atlas of the United States, HA 730-E. http://pubs.usgs.gov/ha/ha730/ch_e/gif/E118.GIF (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Beach, James A. And Stuart T. Burton, "The Lipan Aquifer," in Ground Water Reports, R360AEPC. (Accessed October 11, 2011)
Beach, James A., Stuart Burton, and Barry Kolarik. Groundwater Availability Model for the Lipan Aquifer in Texas. (2004, June). http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/gam/lipan/
Lipan_GAM_Final%20Report_Part1.pdf (Accessed October 11, 2011)
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Gray Water System
As the world's population continues to grow, there will be an ever greater need for potable or purified water. Most people are completely unaware of just how big the problem of world water consumption is because they never think past turning on their sink or sprinkler system. Take into consideration the demands on the water supply by less obvious factors such as livestock and farming. There is an economy of scale: those massive agricultural irrigation systems that suck water out of rivers, lakes, streams and ponds consume hefty amounts of water that cannot then be used for any other purpose. Farms, cities, industry and the many other levels of human consumption place a great deal of pressure on Mother Nature. Globalization has actually increased the demand for water and has strained many regionally dry areas into even worse water deficits. For example, "industries and communities located in…
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
Al Sadeem Garden Landscape is a company that provides landscaping, gardening and maintenance services to a variety of clients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This case study provides a strategic analysis of the company, with specific attention to the operational history of the company, its internal and external environments, as well as successful strategies. The case study also identifies the challenges facing the company and provides recommendations for overcoming the challenges. The case study was compiled based on secondary data.
Al Sadeem was established in 2014 with the aim of providing landscaping, gardening and maintenance services to small, medium-sized and large organizations in the UAE. Though the company has experienced fairly impressive growth in the two years it has been in existence, it faces significant challenges relating to marketing and financing. Based on a careful analysis of the company's internal and external environments, this case…
In other words, at every seven courses of stone, a layer of reed matting was laid and weep-holes and drainage shafts were placed, thus preserving the ziggurat from water damage.
Eventually the building fell into disrepair. Later, King Nabonidus restored the Ur ziggurat, along with other temples. Stiebing believes this was because he revered his mother's gods (285). Nabonidus claims in the clay cuneiform tablets found in the tower to have rebuilt it on the same foundations and using the same mortar and bricks. Ultimately it must have deteriorated after the Persian defeat by Cyrus in 539 BC.
Construction of Tower of Babylon (ca 600 BC)
While the biblical account of this great structure in Genesis 11 is perhaps legendary, scholars have come to view the "Tower of Babel" mentioned in the text as the ziggurat of the temple of Marduk in Babylon (known as Etemenanki). Expressing the scholarly consensus,…
In this regard, Norton points out that, "Once xeriscaping becomes an element of the community's identity, and citizens encourage a change in the tastes of their neighbors, a trend toward less water use and more native habitat might build on itself, providing increasing returns on a small investment. Investments such as this could pay increasing returns in lowering per capita demand for scarce resources and buffer the economy against shortages and rising prices" (2002: 265). Likewise, Vogel reports that because the technique can help to save water in all types of climates, xeriscaping has become increasingly popular in many regions of the United States.
In reality, xeriscaping is not a mysterious or difficult process, but it does require taking several principles into account that can help reduce water usage. First and foremost, the area to be xeriscaped must be regarded as an interrelated network of soil, plants and water. Despite…
Hepner, Ruth. 2006, October 11. "Selecting Drought-Resistant Plants." The Washington Times:
Hughes, Donald J. An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role
in the Community of Life. London: Routledge, 2001.
Hydraulic Conductivity, How it Is Measured and hy it Is Important for Transient Storage
The hydraulic conductivity of soil is related to its texture. The rate is generally higher in coarser soils, but it is also influenced by structure and can be profoundly influenced by soil management operations and the exchangeable cation status (Richards 1956). The quality of irrigation water is an important consideration when determining irrigation feasibility and permanence alternatives. Rather than hazards to irrigation agriculture from the soluble constituents of irrigation water, the main problems appear to be the accumulation of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium in soil. In this regard, the salinity of irrigation water has a direct impact on such factors as crop selection, the appropriate method of application of the water, as well as the leaching required to effectively manage salt accumulations in the soil, all of which are factors subject to constraints imposed by…
Ali, S. Harris. (1999). The Search for a Landfill Site in the Risk Society. The Canadian Review
of Sociology and Anthropology, 36(1):1.
Beven, Keith J. (2004). Soil moisture. In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].
Caldwell, Robert N. (1998). Six-Packs for Subdivisions: The Cumulative Effects of Washington's Domestic Well Exemption. Environmental Law 28(4):1099.
Psychology: Environmental Problems
Facing its worst drought in 40 years, the State of California took a number of measures to conserve water. It first used positive consequences to compel a 20% reduction in water usage by homes and businesses. The disappointing results led to the addition of negative consequences to compel conservation. In addition, California is now taking emergency measures against the oil and gas industry, which was previously exempt from some of the State's environmental laws. California has shown that an environmental policy must use positive and negative consequences, along with carefully given exemptions, in order to be most effective.
ater Control During Drought
Evaluate 2 Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
The State of California is currently enduring a 3-year drought that is its worst in 40 years and is expected to continue for the foreseeable future (Associated Press, 2014). Californians continued to use water with too little…
Associated Press. (2014, July 16). California seeks to send message to water-wasters. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from sacramento.cbslocal.com Web site: http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2014/07/16/california-seeks-to-send-message-to-water-wasters/
Lustgarten, A. (2014, July 18). California halts injection of fracking waste, warning it may be contaminating aquifers. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from www.propublica.org Web site: http://www.propublica.org/article/ca-halts-injection-fracking-waste-warning-may-be-contaminating-aquifers
McCarty, J.A., & Shrum, L.J. (Spring 2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.
State of California. (2014). California drought. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from ca.gov Web site: http://ca.gov/drought/
Women and water in India. In the villages of North Gujarat in India, so much groundwater has been removed that water supplies are now becoming scarce, according to hawana Upadhyay, writing in the journal Agriculture and Human Values. Women in North Gujarat are basically looked upon as "…domestic water users while men are seen as productive water users, despite the fact that women make significant use of water for productive purposes as well"
(Upadhyay, 2005, p. 411). Domestic water usage in India goes well beyond drinking and cooking, Upadhyay writes. Dalit women in Nepal for example grow commercial vegetable crops with the water they draw; they utilize a drip system, which costs just $12 to install, and it results in a profit of around $80 annually. Without a source of safe water, the livelihood of these women would disappear. Still, women's use of water tends to be classified as domestic,…
Buckingham, Susan, 2004, 'Ecofeminism in the Twenty-First Century', the Geographical Journal, Vol. 170, No. 2, 146-154.
Crow, Ben, and Sultana, Farhana, 2002, 'Gender, Class, and Access to Water: Three Cases in a Poor and Crowded Delta', Society and Natural Resources, Vol. 15, 709-724.
Dobscha, Susan, and Ozanne, Julie L. 2001. 'An Ecofeminist Analysis of Environmentally Sensitive Women Using Qualitative Methodology: The Emancipatory Potential of an Ecological Life', Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 2, 201-214.
Eaton, Heather, 'Ecofeminism and Globalization', Feminist Theology, Vol. 8, No. 41, 41-55.
Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.
Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation…
The authors questioned the role of Povidone-iodine vs. other antiseptics, noting that no detailed survey like the current one had ever been conducted on a large patient population. Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.
Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation affected the rates of infection. In fact, the antibiotics might have had a major bearing on the rates of infection and could abnegate the results of the current study.
However, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) do draw attention to the need for hygienic, aseptic surgical procedures including the use of topical antiseptics like Povidone-iodine. Especially when devices like PMs and ICDs are being implanted, the potential for infection rises. A more informative study might reveal which patient populations are at the highest risk of developing staph or other infections. Those patients who are the most at risk might benefit the most from prophylactic antibiotics as well as standardized, sterilized surgical procedures.
For example, the possibility exists that one site was a specialized food production area; it remains unknown if the occupants were farmers, herders or involved in a variety of activities. Similarly, another site may be a specialized elite compound. Evidence of food processing in rooms located at the bottom of the mound and storage jars in the center of the building, indicate that the elite may have fulfilled more than one function or specific individuals had access to certain areas of the building for food processing.
In addition, the elite and farmers were dependant on each other. The theory is if one of these sites produced food daily for the other, elites most likely had the means to ensure that food supplies were provided. Thus, it can be supposed, notes Dionne (2002) that the elite power was based on a redistribution system and exchanged services or resources against food. That…
1969 Introduction. In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, edited by Fredrik Barth, pp. 9-38. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.
1996 the Moche. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Economy of the Euphrates iver From 1805 to Present
The Euphrates iver is considered one of the most important water resources both economically and therefore politically for many Middle Eastern countries, particularly Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Since the dawn of time the Euphrates along with the Tigris iver have provided a substantial portion of the water that was used to support development of both ancient and modern cultures (Holt, et. al, 2000).
The Euphrates iver is currently the primary source of hydroelectric power for the countries bordering it, and is also used for irrigation and promotion of agriculture, critical to the economy of the countries surrounding it. Much tension has been created as each country over the years has vied for access and control of the waters passing through the Euphrates and Tigris iver basin (Holt, et. al, 2000). From the early 1800s Turkey, Syria and Iraq have been vying…
Blanche, Ed. "Mid East Water Crisis: Time is Running Out." The Middle East (April
Holt, Zach; Clark, Marggie; Duckworth, Pam; Howes, Grant. "Euphrates River
History." Bryant College, (2000). Retrieved February 15, 2005:
The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).
This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…
Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.
Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at http://www.iuinfo.indiana.edu/HomePages/120498/text/conrad.htm
ice Production in Arkansas
ice production in the U.S.A. is reported to have started in Arkansas. It stated with a single acre of the crop that was planted in Lonoke County. Other indications suggest that the crop was grown in some locations in Arkansas prior to WWII. official record keeping by the state started in 1905. These reflect the yields in acres and the respective prices per unit weight (Arkansas ice -- Commercial ow Crops -- Production Practices).
Acreage of rice rose until 1955 when the government control on acreage peaked the production of the crop at 500 000 acres. Marketing quotas were stopped in 1974. The acreage of rice rose and hit the peak in 1981. 1.54 million acres were harvested. This amount of harvest was not exceeded until 1999. The highest harvest ever harvested in Arkansas was realized in 2010 in which 1.785 million acres were harvested. Arkansas…
"Arkansas Rice -- Commercial Row Crops -- Production Practices." University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service. Web. 7 Apr 2016. .
"Arkansas Rice Farmers Race Against the Calendar." AG Web. N.p. 2013. Web. 8 Apr. 2016. http://www.agweb.com/article/Arkansas_rice_farmers_race_against_the_calendar/
Davis, Diana. "Annual Arkansas Rice meeting in Jonesboro to focus on research, - KAIT Jonesboro, AR - Region 8 News, weather, sports." KAIT-TV Region 8 News Weather Sports for NE AR and SE MO - KAIT Jonesboro, AR - Region 8 News, weather, sports. 2016. Web. 8 Apr 2016. .
Guerber, and TeBeest. "Infection of Rice Seed Grown in Arkansas by Pyricularia Grisea." Plant DIsease 90.2 (2006). Web. 9 Apr. 2016. .
1). Ironically, these workers who feed others are often hungry themselves, even when they bring home some of the rejected crop they harvest to feed their families. A 2007 study of agricultural workers in the area found that nearly half (45%) met the criteria of food insecurity. 34% of respondents were food insecure without hunger while an additional 11% were food insecure with hunger (irth et al. 2007, p.1). "Nearly half (48%) of eligible respondents reported utilizing the food stamp program, which is comparable to 53% of eligible Fresno County residents. However, food stamp participation varies by season. hereas 55% of eligible respondents utilized the program in the winter, only 37% of eligible respondents did so in the summer. Many respondents interviewed during the summer believed they were not eligible for this program because they were working or earned too much" (irth et al. 2007, p.24). They had little or…
Fresno California. Greenwich Mean Time. February 29, 2009. November 29, 2009.
Drury, Pauline. "Fresno." Ancestry.com. November 29, 2009.
"One possible reason," he says, "for this is that most models don't include factors such as irrigation which can influence regional climates," meaning that the increase in large-scale irrigation during the 20th century has not been accounted for in current meteorological models. onfils adds that researchers have found "empirical evidence that irrigation has a large cooling effect on local summer daytime temperatures but minimal effect on nighttime temperatures."
David Lobell, one of the authors of the study issued by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, declares that "If this hypothesis is verified, the acceleration of CO2 emissions combined with a leveling of irrigation may result in a rapid summertime warming in the Central Valley in the near future." Exactly how this complex scenario will work itself out in the near future is not currently known, but as onfils sees it, "The 21st century may be less climatically complex than today" and that…
Human Activities Contribute to California's Global Warming." Science Daily. Internet. January 18, 2008. Retrieved at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080118093350.htm .
China is still regarded as a developing country, its rapid growth has put it in a position to compete with the top players in the world economy. With the advancement of technology and globalization, for example, China has been able to communicate and do business around the globe. This has enabled the country and its people to benefit from prosperous partnerships. Although China has advanced to a top position in the world economy, it is also true that the country faces severe problems, which could affect this position in the long-term. Chinese officials and businesses will have to give urgent attention to problems such as the water shortage, the economic strength of its local currency, and the drug problem in the country if China is to keep up its long-term success.
One of the most important impacts that the rapid development in China has had is the environment. In addition…
Barr, C. (2010, March 22). Enough about the Yuan already. CNNMoney. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2010/03/22/news/economy/china.tension.fortune/index.htm
Beech, H. (2006). Chinese Junk. Time Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.time.com/time/asia/covers/1101020520/cover.html
Gerth, K. (2011, January 1). Can China Save the World, Twice? World News. Retrieved from: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/01/01/chinas-environmental-problems-and-economic-growth.html
The New Agriculturist. (2004, September) China's Water Problems. Retrieved from: http://www.new-ag.info/en/focus/focusItem.php?a=1302
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
***Sample Title Page
Consultation eport: Homes' Blue Oaks
Consulting Arborists, Inc. was called by ASAP Enterprises to assess the damage to species Quescas douglasii on the property of Steve and Christine Homes because they have recently become brown and show signs of dying. The initial program was to walk the property and visually examine the trees to determine the extent of the damage and see if any other species are similarly affected. It appears that all Blue Oaks on the property, both those that are in the actual landscape and those in the surrounding forest, have been affected but no other plant species appear to be in distress. The homeowners were then questioned as to their actions to try and alleviate the issue, and they said that they have only pruned the dead branches but have not used any fungicide or other herbicide. The landscape includes irrigation…
Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory. (1999). Plant healthcare program: Blue Oak. Retrieved from http://www.ufei.org/ForesTree/files/collected/Blueoak.pdf
Blue Planet. (2010). Blue Oak. Retrieved from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/blue_oak.htm
Garbelotto, M, & Schmidt, D.J. (2009). Phosphonate controls sudden oak death pathogen for up to two years. California Agriculture, 63(1), 10-17.
NASWC. (2000). Oak tree diseases. Retrieved from http://www.naswc.org/docs/oak_tree_diseases.pdf
Moreover, the health of the water in Lake Okeechobee, the main reservoir for South Florida, is in jeopardy as a result of human intervention in the Everglades (Ibid.)
There are other agricultural uses for Everglades water. Nurseries grow for use in home gardens. Demand for their product is affected by water shortages that arise from poor management of the Everglades water. This issue is significant in Miami-Dade and Broward counties. In Palm Beach County, sugar is the main agricultural crop, dependent on the Everglades for irrigation (Frogameni, 2008).
ater from the Everglades also impacts several other industries as well. Some fishing industries rely on the Everglades to provide clean water and nutrients to estuaries and bays. The mix of salt and fresh water results in a unique ecosystem that supports a rich variety of wildlife, including commercial seafood species including shrimp and stone crabs. The economic impact of Everglades-dependent fisheries…
USGS Circular 1182. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/circular/1182/
Cave, Damien. (2008). Florida to Buy Sugar Maker in Bid to Restore Everglades. New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/25/us/24cnd-sugar.html?hp
No author. (2002). Everglades Information: Water Resources. South Florida Water Management District. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://glades.sfwmd.gov/empact/home/02_everglades/05_water_resources/index.shtml
No author. (2007). The Southern Everglades and Florida Bay. The Audobon Society. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://www.audubon.org/states/fl/fl/PDFs/pubs_policydocs-florida_bay_report_main.pdf
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
The transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary cultivation demanded a whole restructuring of the society and enhanced the need for solidarity. Farming requires division of labor as well as gender role differentiation ("Hopi Agriculture: Introduction").
However, Sekaquaptewa describes a more egalitarian division of labor, at least regarding the corn harvest (Udall). Men were entrusted with the performance of the Snake Dance; women with heading matrilineal clans. Children also fully participated in the communal activity of corn cultivation by scaring away crows or chasing rodents (Udall). Knowledge that the survival of the community and its children depended on a successful harvest provided the firm foundation for Hopi community organization.
After contact, Hopi agriculture grew more diverse. Squash, beans, melons, and even orchards became as much a part of Hopi agricultural life as corn. In spite of the increased crop diversity the connection between agricultural bounty and rain remained central to…
Ancestral Art." (2003). Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.ancestral.com/cultures/north_america/hopi
Curtis, F.G. & Boesen, V. (nd). Hopi Rain (Snake) Dance. The Curtis Collection. Vol. 12. Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.curtis-collection.com/hopiraindance.html
Hopi Agriculture: Introduction." Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.nau.edu/~hcpo-p/culture/agric.htm
Smith, M. (2000). Hopi. Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://www.ausbcomp.com/redman/hopi.htm
It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.
Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."
In a number of instances, the finds are linked…
Bawden, Garth. 1996 the Moche. Blackwell, Oxford.
Berezkin, Juri 1983. Moche Nauka, Leningrad.
Chapdelaine, Claude nd the Moche Occupation of the Lower Santa Valley and the nature of the Southern Moche State Anthropology Department. University of Montreal.
____The Growing Power of the Moche Urban Class. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru. pp. 69-85 National Gallery of Art: Washington, D.C.
cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/).In some cases it has happened that the entire reservoir becomes filled with silt and the investment in the dam is lost (the Aswan Dams (http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/)."
World news from the Washington Post's Foreign Service.
The Aswan High Dam, completed in 1970.
Alexandra Garcia - washingtonpost.com
The Aswan High Dam is one of the largest dams in the world and it provides a multitude of benefits to those who live in the surrounding area.
The electricity it generates is clean, and does not contribute to air or environment pollution. It maintains the river to control flooding which allows the environment to grow and prosper without fear of destruction.
The problems it created while being constructed included the destruction of artifacts that were thousands of years old. In addition it flooded a nation and the entire population had to be moved with their lifestyles and history destroyed.…
The Aswan Dams (Accessed 5-1-07)
The Aswan High Dam (Accessed 5-1-07)
Other techniques for improving the yields of agriculture included rudimentary means of employing pesticides to keep crops from being destroyed by insects and other such parasites. The development of improved tools for farming would also play a significant role in the increase of production.
As a direct role of changing from a hunter-gatherer society to an agriculturally-based society, there would be a number of specific changes to the way that particular group of people functioned. In many ways, agricultural societies are responsible for capitalism, or at least responsible for the need for capitalism. Once crops are produced at a level in which there can be a surplus created from their yields, there then becomes two forms of goods with which existence in such a society is based upon. The first would be consumptive goods, which are materials than can be consumed and which are, in the example of an agricultural…
Culturally Competent Teaching in Healthcare
As patients want to adjust back into some sense of normalcy after a hospital visit, patient education becomes crucial in empowering them within the context of their own recovery. In modern healthcare practice, patient education is crucial out of the necessity for effective learning strategies and interventions as a method to promote the best quality of care and optimal health outcomes. Providing the best level of support to patients through the most effective patient education strategies is one of the most difficult objectives of the modern nurse, because of the unique individual nature of each particular patient.
In this particular case, the nurse must educate a first generation Latino male on how to irrigate his own colostomy. The patient is approximately 19 years of age. As a young adult, he is a much stronger problem solving and analytical thinking skills when compared to…
Krames Patient Education. (2012). Discharge instructions: Irrigating you colostomy. Krames StayWell. Palms of Pasadena Hospital. Web. http://krames.palmspasadena.com/HealthSheets/3,S,86536
Product Liability: Warranties and Torts
Facts: Maria Gonzalez rented an apartment from Maria Garcia. Garcia installed a Morflo water heater, which was kept in an area inaccessible by tenants. The water heater and its manual contained extensive warnings indicating that burns could occur if the water was above 120 degrees. Gonzalez's 15-month-old child Angel was scalded while being bathed by his 15-year-old brother, in a manner contra-indicated by the warnings on the heater and in the manual. Angel and his mother brought suit against Morflo and its distributor, alleging defects in the design of the water heater and the failure to warn.
Should they recover?
Reasoning: A party cannot recover from a manufacturer when a product has been used in a non-conforming manner. A manufacturer meets its duty to warn by placing warnings on the product and in the manual provided for its use.
Facts: Avery purchased a…
For example, the soil in the Loess Plateau area is notoriously erodable and it is difficult to revegetate the steep slopes with a sufficiently dense cover of plantation and grass. Moreover, rainfall in the area is generally insufficient to support the growth of trees and plants even after their plantation; grazing by animals worsens the situation. Silt retention dams and structures in the silt-carrying gullies and valleys have proven more effective and thousands of dams have been built. As these dams are gradually filled up, the dam heights have to be raised. Such high retention dams, however, are a double-edged sword. Heavy once-in-a-century rains or powerful earthquakes could cause dams to break and initiate catastrophic landslides that would create even bigger floods that would do immense damage. Similarly, the Chinese have managed to control floods in the river by periodically raising the levees and the dykes but the unrelenting silt…
Chengrui, Mei, and Harold E. Dregne. "Review Article: Silt and the Future Development of China's Yellow River." The Geographical Journal. 167.1 (2001): 7.
Haihua, Tong. "Yellow River sewage spill spawns fish kill." China Daily. 2004-07-03. October 7, 2006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/09/content_346769.htm
Hoh, Erling. "Yellow River in Death Throes?" The Washington Times. August 31, 2001: 17.
Liang, Qiuhua. "Yellow River -- China's Sorrow" March, 20, 2002. October 7, 2006. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~wolf1016/yellow_river_flooding.htm
River of Traps: The Power of ater
In the opening of River of Traps Jacobo Romero admonishes his neighbors (a couple of novice farmers who also happen to be the authors of this book) when they carelessly allow water to trickle to waste. "He [Romero] chided us relentlessly never to 'give holiday to the water,' but to put every drop to work." (DeBuys and Harris 11). This reverence for water is one of the focal points of Alex Harris' photography in River of Traps, a documentary of 80-year-old Romero, an Hispanic farmer who lived and worked in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico.
In fact, this connection to the land is one of the themes that flows through these photographs and is probably a cornerstone of southwestern art. According to essayist Michael Grant, "A connection to nature is the very theme of southwestern art" (156). However, it's…
Bix, Cynthia. Art of the State of New Mexico. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
Grant, Michael, and Till, Tom. A People and Their Landscape. American Southwest. San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press, 1992.
Kittredge, William. Southwestern Homelands. Washington D.C.: National
Long before the Maya, Aztec or Toltec flourished in Central America, there lived the Olmecs, a civilization that has come to continue to intrigue and amaze the world. They were the most prevalent group in Mesoamerica and a highly developed and well organized society with a complex calendar and hieroglyphic writing system. The Olmecs were the mother civilization in Mesoamerica.
The Olmec lived around the areas of La Venta in Tabasco, San Lorenza Tenochtitlan, and Laguna de los Cerros in Veracruz during the pre-classic period. They built their cities around a central raised mound. These mounds, used for religious ceremonies, were replaced with pyramid-shaped structures around 900 B.C. The Olmecs used basalt, found in the Tuxtla Mountains, to construct plazas and religious pyramid structures. Houses were made of wooden walls with clay and palm roof tops, and a hierarchical society separated the elite from the common groups in…
Indian Empires." http://www.american-indians.net/empires.htm.(accessed 11-24-2003).
Lemonick, Michael D. "Mystery of the Olmec: Ancient Culture of Mesoamerica."
Time. July 01, 1996. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1G1:18419168&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=Time&author=Lemonick%2C+Michael+D%2E&title=Mystery+of+the+Olmec%2E+%28ancient+culture+of+Mesoamerica%29&date=07%2F01%2F1996&query=Olmecs&maxdoc=30&idx=1&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 11-24-2003).
Olmec Civilization: 1200 B.C.- 600 A.D." http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html .(accessed 11-24-2003).
Hohokam Culture and Traditions
The Hohokam culture was one of four "major cultural groups that dominated the southwest," which included like minded native American groups such as the Anasazi, Mogollon and Patayan (McGuire, 1996; Cordell, 1984). The Hohokam culture is often referred to as the sibling of the Anasazi (Kroeber, 1962), having many cultural similarities with its better known cousin. The Hohokam lived among the entire region of the "lower Sonoran desert within Arizona, part of the asin and the Range in this region" (McGuire, 1996). The Hohokam contributed many different ideas and cultural practices that changed the way of traditional native Americans. They are most well-known for their agricultural fervor, artistic ability and ceremonial rituals which involved cremation of their dead rather than burial.
The name Hohokam is synonymous with "the ancients" (Kroeber, 1962). The tribe were neighbors to the Anasazi, somewhat similar to Pueblo cultures (Kroeber, 1962), and…
Cordell, Lisa. "Prehistoric Demography." Addison Wesley, Modular Publications: 1972
Erickson, W. "Sharing the Desert: The Tohono O'odham in History." University of Arizona Press: 1994
Gregonis, Linda & Reinhard, Karl. "The Hohokam Indians of the Tucson Basin." University of Arizona Press, 1997. Available: http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/online.bks/hohokam/
Kroeber, A.L. "A Roster of Civilizations and Culture." Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research: 1962
Agriculture represents the lifeblood of any civilization -- we settled into communities for the purpose of growing crops and thereby making our lives easier. For most of the history of civilization, agriculture was the dominant form of economy. Wealth was measured in growing land, or in the number of animals owned. Even after the invention of money, agriculture remained a critical source of wealth. In pre-Italy, the city states often gained wealth through trade, but in the countryside wealth remained related to agriculture, as food was the most important thing to most people. In the 20th century, food scarcity became rare, and agriculture diminished in importance -- nobody was truly worried where their next meal would come from, so other goods took on more value. Today in Italy, agriculture is worth 2% of the economy, or $3.6 billion, and it employs 3.9% of the labor force of the country,…
Bartolini, F., Gallerani, V., Raggi, M. & Viaggi, D. (2010). Water management and irrigated agriculture in Italy: Multicriteria analysis of alternative policy scenarios. Water Policy Vol. 12 (2010) 135-147.
CIA World Factbook: Italy (2014). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html
EU (2014). Review of the concentration processes in the agricultural sector and inside the downstream sectors of the agrofood chain. European Union. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/chap41_en.pdf
No author (2014). Italy -- agriculture. Nations Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Europe/Italy-AGRICULTURE.html
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
This category is made up of people who have nothing and are in need of support from other in order to meet their basic needs. Given that they are the poor people who beg, they have the rights of asking for and receiving zakat even though some people believe that they have some of their basic needs.
Zakat is paid to draw the hearts of those people who have been inclined towards the Islamic faith. The amount is also paid to prevent or protect non-Muslims living in Muslim states from any harm. According to the opinion of many scholars, this amount should always be considered in cases where there is a need for it. Muslim converts sometimes become disconnected from their families and are deprived of any source of income ("Zakat or Charity" par, 26). Consequently, these people have the right of receiving the zakat tax…
Abdullah, Abdul a. "Treatises: Zakat and Fasting." Islam Future ? The Future for Islam. WordPress.com. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
Al-Bukhari, Sahih. "Five Pillars of Islam." Mb-soft.com. Mb-soft.com, 9 June 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
"RECIPIENTS of ZAKAAT." Bihar Anjuman: Nuturing a Culture of Mutual Respect. Bihar Anjuman. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
"Zakat (Alms)." Mission Islam. Mission Islam. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
He stated that, "I mean printed works produced ostensibly to give children spontaneous pleasure and not primarily to teach them, nor solely to make them good, nor to keep them profitably quiet." (Darton 1932/1982:1) So here the quest is for the capture and promotion of children's imagination through stories and fables that please as well as enlighten. There is always the fallout that once a child learns to love to read he or she will read many more things with greater enthusiasm than before.
The children's literature genres developed in Mesopotamia and in Egypt over a roughly 1,500-year period - proverbs, fables, animal stories, debates, myths, instructions (wisdom literature), adventure and magic tales, school stories, hymns and poems - pass down to the Hebrews and the Greeks. The Old Testament owes much to both Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature (Adams 2004:230)
One can see that, as stated previously, children's literature is…
Adams, Gillian. 2004. "16 Ancient and Medieval Children's Texts." pp. 225-238 in International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, vol. 1, edited by Hunt, Peter. London: Routledge.
Ancient Babylonia - Gilgamesh Tablet. 2009. Bible History. Retrieved 2 August 2010 ( http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaGilgamesh_Tablet.htm .).
Bell, Robert H. 2005. "Inside the Wardrobe: Is 'Narnia' a Christian Allegory?." Commonweal, December 16, pp. 12-15
Bible Maps. 2009. Genisis Files. Retrieved on 6 August 2010 ( http://www.genesisfiles.com/Mtararat.htm )
The most disturbing part of the website is its explanation of the process by which the human colon supposedly "retains" fecal matter and other "coatings" on the walls of the colon. According to the site:
"The colon is the waste pipe of the body. Once the nutrients are taken out and processed, the waste from your food intake is passed through the colon and expelled from your body. What many people don't realize is that this fecal matter can get backed up and solidified in your colon, and without a regular cleansing program can get trapped there for years or decades, slowly releasing toxins into your system. The waste matter hardens, fixing itself to the wall of the colon. Sometimes an unhealthy colon will have attached to it up to 20 pounds of this matter that just won't go away! Ever wondered why you sometimes feel heavy and bloated?"
This new identity provided them with both the symbolic and material means to distinguish themselves from the masses." (Rounds, 74)
This strategy would prove ingenious. The result was such a greater fluidity of trade and transport of goods that though a class system did persist, the connectivity would improve the opportunity for personal acquisition in all classes. Of course, this would not alter the essential nature of society which, in the details pertaining to its sophistication, is shown to have had a clearly structured and enforced inheritance system. To the point, archaeologically consulted "wills reveal a functioning, coherent inheritance system in which the sex of the testator was probably the single most relevant factor in understanding how rights to property were divided." (Kellogg, 314) In a clear ownership and material-based society, the relevance of economic realities under the rule of the Aztec Empire would be significant. To be sure, the…
Barlow, R.H. 1945. Some Remarks on the Terms 'Aztec Empire'. The Americas, 1(3), 345-349.
Brumfiel, E.M. 1983. Aztec State Making: Ecology, Structure, and the Origin of the State. American Anthropologist, 85(2), 261-284.
Elzey, W. 1991. A Hill on a Land Surrounded by Water: An Aztec Story of Origin and Destiny, History of Religions 31(2), 105-149.
Isaac, B.L. 1983. Aztec Warfare: Goals and Battlefield Comportment. Ethnology, 22(2), 121-131.
Like the Old World civilizations, the Moche depended on their own irrigation systems to water their crops. Regardless of the harsh climate, the Moche managed to do this quite well. Fagan (nd: 123-124) notes the excellence of the Moche farmers, how they were able to use the difficult terrain to their advantage, creating irrigation systems and using fertile soil. Despite the fact that natural disasters would eventually ruin the civilization, the Moche's honed survival skills could generally find them plenty of nourishment from their irrigated fields or relevant use of the oceans (Fagan nd: 123-125).
esides farming, the Moche proved themselves far more than adequate warriors, able to survive in the midst of land disputes and other instances of conflict among neighboring tribes. Interestingly, the Moche managed to attain a sort of federalism, with several tribes ruling over different geographical areas, although they seemed to be ruled by a Moche…
All faxed sources were used, as indicated in-text citations, but enough information does not exist to create a bibliographic entry.
Materials must be durable in order to withstand the test of time and costly replacements which further pollute the environment with waste, (Chiras 2008). In general, manufacturers try to present a variety of usable green materials which are produced with the least amount of energy possible. When thinking of the energy needed to create a product, one must take into account that of extracting raw materials, processing, and transportation of the finished product to the building site, (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). Recycled materials are also highly favored in the construction of green roofing. Such recycled materials include newsprint, sawdust, cement, recycled rubber, and agricultural fibers, (Snell & Callahan 2005).
A climbing trend in green roofing building is the use of soil and vegetation planted on top of a membrane which waterproofs the lower levels beneath, (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). his soil then serves as a barrier between the elements, along…
There are several national guidelines set by a variety of public and government agencies on green roofing procedures and materials. It is advised by the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) to use previously cut building materials, including a pre-manufactured floor and roof framing package. All waste materials coming out of a green building site must be recycled off site, which includes lumber, drywall, and old asphalt roofing singles, (NAHB 2008). At least 50% of the construction waste must be relocated to a recycling facility. Green builders are also rewarded for including a "24-inch on-center framing roof systems," (NAHB 2008). This then allows for the greatest maximization of roof space. Roof sheeting material must take into account natural distortion though deflection. The roof overhang of the region working on must also be taken into consideration during a green roof construction.
All materials used within green roofing constructions must take great measures to minimize moisture intrusion, (NAHB 2008). Green roofing using soil relies on a complex system of drains and irrigation flows in order to direct run off water where it is needed, (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). Materials must be durable in order to withstand the test of time and costly replacements which further pollute the environment with waste, (Chiras 2008). In general, manufacturers try to present a variety of usable green materials which are produced with the least amount of energy possible. When thinking of the energy needed to create a product, one must take into account that of extracting raw materials, processing, and transportation of the finished product to the building site, (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). Recycled materials are also highly favored in the construction of green roofing. Such recycled materials include newsprint, sawdust, cement, recycled rubber, and agricultural fibers, (Snell & Callahan 2005).
A climbing trend in green roofing building is the use of soil and vegetation planted on top of a membrane which waterproofs the lower levels beneath, (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). This soil then serves as a barrier between the elements, along with providing a whole different space for gardens and also provides a brilliant attack on the problem of storm water management, (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). Other layers of the roof include root barriers, drainage, and irrigation systems. These soil-based roofs of vegetation also help reduce sewage loads, absorb air pollution and CO2, along with help insulating the residence to reduce outside noise entering into the context of the home. Especially seen in buildings utilizing soil roofs, there is a natural increase in the weight of the roof to the overall building below it. This soil-based system adds an extra 80-150 lbs per square foot onto the previous load of the building itself, (Environmental Protection Agency 2008). One can still use lumber in
The project also has operable windows
to allow for natural ventilation and daylighting reduces the need for
artificial lighting according to the Leed's certification. An interesting
feature to conserve electricity is the use of daylight and motion sensors
that activate or de-activate individual classroom and office lighting.
"The building's mechanical systems include photovoltaic panels and off-
peak, ice-based thermal energy storage" (U.S. Green, 2008). Integrated
into the buildings are green features that are highlighted in order to
display those features to visitors, teachers and students. Those features
include window walls, color-coded heating and water pipes.
Asthetic features were also taken into account when creating the plans
for the project and have held through upon completion. The site has been
xeriscaped with native plants on a lot size of 90 acres that was previously
undeveloped. The buildings are a mixture of brick, stone and glass with
half of the products used…
Fcgov.com, (2008) Doing business in Fort Collins, http://www.ci.fort-
collins.co.us/business/, accessed May 23, 2008
U.S. Green Building Council, (2008),
http://leedcasestudies.usgbc.org/process.cfm?ProjectID=672 , accessed
May 23, 2008
Diamond disagrees on two counts: The first is that technology has created "an explosion" of problems and the potential for solving them. Yet, the first thing that occurs is technology creates the problem and then maybe later it solves it, so at best there is a lag (or as noted above a reaction, rather than a proactive stance). Second, an environmental lesson repeated again and again is that it is much less expensive and more effective to prevent a problem from the start than to solve it by high technology later on.
Environmentally, much of the world is in both of these situations noted by Diamond. First, people are just beginning to recognize the environmental problem. Years of concerns by environmentalists did not influence the average consumer. Al Gore's movie and other media pushes have put the idea of global warming and the need to be "green," into the forefront.…
Carey, D. (July 31, 2007) Who's Minding the Mind? New York Times February 29, 2008 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/31/health/psychology/31subl.html
Diamond, J. (2006) Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Penguin Books.
Garrett, K. (January 12, 2003). Why societies fail: An interview with Jared Diamond. ABC National Radio. February 28, 2008. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/bbing/stories/s743310.htm
Glendinning, C. Technology, trauma and the wild (1995) in Ecopsychology: Restoring the Earth, Healing the Mind Washington, DC: Sierra Club Books
During hearing of the Appeal, the 9th Circuit Court, while acknowledging that the 1963 contract was entered into with the farmer's interests in mind, found that the contract language was not clear enough to support an "intended third-party beneficiary" who could sue for a breach of contract. it, therefore, affirmed (Ibid.)
In their rulings, the District as well as the Appeals Court relied on the 9th Circuit decision in Klamath (1999) in which the Court had denied "third party" status to the appellants. hile affirming, the 9th Circuit also recognized that it "may be at odds" with the Allen (1984) decision.
The Supreme Court, in its unamanous decision, held that the relevant part (390uu) of the Act merely permitted parties to join the United States in an action between other parties when the action required interpretation of a contract; it does not permit a plaintiff to sue…
ORFF et al. v. UNITED STATES et al. Find Law for Legal Professionals. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&navby=case&vol=000&invol=03-1566
Seigle, Max. Orff, Francis, et al. v. U.S., et al. Medill News Service. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://docket.medill.northwestern.edu/archives/001853.php
Klamath (1999) was a case in which a power company and the Reclamation Bureau had re-negotiated a contract and the irrigators, who were serviced by the dam, but were not privy to the modification and sued for breach of contract based on their "third-party beneficiary" status.
This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the worms to remain alive. The bacterium which is present in the alimentary canal of the earthworm converts organic water to natural fertilizers. The chemical alterations that the organic wastes are put to consist of deorderising and neutralizing. This implies that the pH of the castings is 7 which is neutral. (the tasteful garden)
The Latin meaning of vermes is worm from which the term vermiculture has been derived. Vermiculture is a process wherein the process of composting, containing the addition of some species of earthworms used to improve the process of conversion of waste and produce an improve product. Vemicomposting varies from composting in a number of ways. Mainly, vermicomposting consists of a mesophillic process in which the microorganisms are…
Delahaut, Karen; Koval, C.F. Earthworms: beneficial or pests?
N.A. Advantages of Vermicompost. http://www.organicneem.com/neemvermicompost_advnt.htm
N.A. Beautiful gardens begin with great compost. http://www.happydranch.com/articles/reference.html
Consequently, the social distinctions were not as static as their European counterparts.
Religion was also a major aspect of Aztec life and it has become, perhaps, what they are best known for:
The Great Temple was a place for human sacrifice. Prisoners captured in battle were led up the steps to the platform on top. Here, the prisoners were stretched on their backs over a stone block. That an Aztec priest cut out their hearts with a stone knife. The hearts were burned as offerings to Huitzilopochtli, god of war and the sun, and the bodies were thrown down the steps (Chrisp 2000:16).
This practice was clearly what the conquistadores found most deplorable, most barbaric, and the most incongruous with the rest of Aztec society. The obvious monuments to Aztec achievement -- the towering temples of the sun and the moon -- were used for bloody and horrific shows on…
Berdan, Frances. Indians of North America: The Aztecs. New York: Chelsea House, 1989.
Chrisp, Peter. The Aztecs. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2000.
Fagan, Brian M. The Aztecs. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1984.
Hicks, Peter. Look into the Past: The Aztecs. New York: Thomson Learning, 1993.