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Isaac Newton was born in 1642 at oolsthorpe in England. His father died before Newton's birth and when his mother remarried, she went to live with her husband and left Isaac with her mother.
At 12, he was reunited with his mother after the death of her second husband; she desired to turn him into a farmer in order to support the family. Newton was not successful as a farmer and was able to return to school to complete his education.
He entered Cambridge University in 1661. He was an average student, but he became a scholar, which entitled him to another 4 years of future education. However, his education was interrupted in 1665, when the Great Plague came to Cambridge, forcing the closing of the university.
This resulted Newton returning home to study, and it was during his private study that he developed some of his most groundbreaking ideas,…
A&E Networks. "Isaac Newton." Biography. 1-7. 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.
Hall, Alfred Rupert. "Isaac Newton's Life." Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences.
N.p. 1998. Web. 5 Dec. 2012.
Lamb, Robert and Tristan Hopper. "Top 10 Isaac Newton Inventions. How Stuff Works. 1-11.
Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton (Bio, N.d.)
Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most recognizable names in all of science. He was a mathematician, a natural philosopher, an inventor, an English physicist, and pretty much an all around genius. His work included the study of how light reacts to reflection, formulating laws of universal gravitation and motion, and building the first ever reflecting telescope. Newton arguably contributed more to the science than any single person in the entire history of science. Newton's book, Principia, is considered to be among the most influential science books in the history of science, possibly of mankind. In this book he provided the foundation for classical mechanics. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which have been the background of classical physics for over three centuries. Since Sir Isaac Newton was such an influential mind, I thought it would be…
Bio. (N.d.). Isaac Newton Biography. Retrieved from Bio True Story: http://www.biography.com/people/isaac-newton-9422656
The Three Laws of Motion: Isaac Newton's Greatest Contribution
To the World of Science
Isaac Newton is a renowned mathematician, scientist, inventor, professor, and public official who influenced the world of science with his extraordinary and brilliant theories on different phenomena in (primarily) the study of physics, astronomy, and optics. Born on the 4th of January, 1643, Isaac Newton's life as a young man in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire in England is unremarkable, and Newton, at a young age, did not show and possess the brilliant mind that he has while attending a formal school education at the Free Grammar School in Grantham (O'Connor and obertson 2000). As a child, Newton did not seem to possess the intellectual strength that he was known for, and had a hard time living with his family during his childhood years because of the constant tension between him and his stepfather and mother.…
Following in Newton's Footsteps." 2001. European Space Agency Web site. 15 April 2003 http://sci.esa.int/content/doc/df/25311_.htm
Navaza, D. "Physics." Phoenix Publishing House Inc. 1996.
Newton's Laws." 2003. The Physics Classroom Web site. 15 April 2003 http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/newtlaws/newtltoc.html
Newton's Three Laws of Motion." 2003. An Online Journey Through Astronomy. 15 April 2003 http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html
These ideas are still taught today because the "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724).
Jay Pasachoff claims that Newton revolutionized astronomy by setting "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). Simplistically, this is the train of thought that birthed the law of gravity. Newton was the first person to ever realize the "universality" (41) of gravity. Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of this creation involves that fact that in order for this new law of gravity to work, Newton had to invent calculus. His brilliance lies in the fact that he was able to connect the fact that the same force that forced objects to the ground was the same force that moved objects in space. He was able to comprehend how the moon was "falling" toward the earth. Newton developed his law…
Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.
Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901. JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retreived October 5, 2008.
Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
Pasachoff, Jay. Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing. 1991.
Isaac Newton was the greatest and the most influential scientist of all times. orn in Woolsthrope, England on a Christmas day in 1642 Newton was a bright child with an incredible mechanical aptitude. Newton entered the Cambridge University when he was eighteen years of age and soon he mastered the science and mathematical concepts of his time and went on to continue his independent research. It was during this period that Newton laid the foundation for the subsequent discoveries that were to revolutionize the scientific world. Newton was conferred the honorable Fellow of Royal Society of London in 1671.
Previously scientific research was totally bereft of any standardized principles. It is to the credit of Newton that he established a unified theory of approach to modern science. One of his earliest findings was the startling discovery of the nature of white light. Newton was the first to discern that white…
Michael.H. Hart, "The 100, A Ranking of the Most influential Persons in History"
Isaac Newton', 1999, Meeraa publications.
Microsoft Encarta, "Isaac Newton," Accessed on 2nd, December 2002, http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/newtlife.html
D.R.Wilkins, "Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)," Accessed on 2nd, 2002
Sir Isaac Newton: The Story of a Scientist and a Scholar
The Life of Isaac Newton, by Richard estfall, is a condensation of a much more detailed work, Never at Rest. By editing out a significant portion of the mathematics, estfall provides a shorter version of his research that is more understandable to the general audience (iv). hat is left is a highly detailed portrait of the famous English mathematician, physical scientist, and theologian, that is as intimate as possible, given the distance of time and the limited records that survive. estfall tells the story chronologically, beginning with the earliest traces of the Newton family that can be found in the English tax records and tracing their gradual prominence in the village of estby, located in Lincolnshire on the est Coast of England (3). Ultimately he describes the birth, on Christmas 1642, of Isaac Newton, the only son of a…
Westfall, Richard. The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Westfall, Richard. Preface. The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993.
He was one of the leaders behind the formation of the colonies, and tried for a long time to reason with the British Government to find better treatment for his fellow colonists. In 1775, he went as head of a delegation to the court of George III, but received no support for his petitions. He was to remember that treatment when he returned, triumphant, in 1783 to help negotiate the end of the Revolutionary War.
Franklin had a lot to lose from fighting the British. He was Postmaster General, a position appointed by the Crown, and one of the most lucrative positions in the Colonies at the time. When Franklin joined with those backing independence, he abandoned his position. Of course, he became Postmaster General of the new United States.
Perhaps Franklin's greatest accomplishment, for which I admire him the most, was his bringing the French in on the American…
Moreover, his theories regarding the gravitation were supposed not to have been made possible without the attempts of his predecessors, as Galileo, to understand the world. Thus, Newton's luck may be put on the fact that he has lived in a period of discoveries, and, as he himself stated, he had seen further than other men, it is because he stood on the shoulders of giants.
All in all, Newton has been considered for almost 300 years to be the founding father of modern physical science, his discoveries being unprecedented, just as those in mathematical research. eing a polyvalent personality, he also studied chemistry, history and theology; his main method in all domains being the investigation of all forms and dimensions.
Cohen, I. ernard, The Newtonian Revolution, Cambridge, 1980, 546 pages;
Koyre, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies, Harvard U. Press, 1965, 673 pages;
Westfall, Richard S., Never at Rest: A iography…
Cohen, I. Bernard, The Newtonian Revolution, Cambridge, 1980, 546 pages;
Koyre, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies, Harvard U. Press, 1965, 673 pages;
Westfall, Richard S., Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, Cambridge 1980;
Isaac NEWTON, "The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy," University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1999;
It is noted that the corporeal world is the context to which this discussion specifically applies, with particles at the subatomic level not abiding the same principles. That said, a diagram included in the Nave explanation of Newton's laws helps to clarify that which is meant by the above equation. A man is shown swinging a golf club into a golf ball in one image and in the next image, he is shown swinging the club into moving truck. e take as a primary understanding from these images that the mass of the object struck will have a direct bearing on the force required to accelerate it. At an identical force, the man's swing might drive the golf ball several hundred yards while perhaps only denting the moving truck.
It was supplemented even further by the Third Law of Motion that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This…
Casco, M. (1999). Newton's Laws of Motion. The M. Casco Learning Center. Online at .
Motte, A. (trans.). (1729). Axioms or Laws of Motion. Isaac Newton's Principia 1687.
Online at http://gravitee.tripod.com/axioms.htm
Nave, R. (2000). Newton's Laws. Hyperphysics. Online at http://hyperphysics.phy-
Newton did believe in God, a divine being, whom he cited as the keeper of balance in the universe. In his Principia, he states that "This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being…This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is won't to be called "Lord God" (Newton 42). He continues with a listing of the characteristics of this God: "The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, absolutely perfect" (Newton 42). Newton had, in fact, been born into an Anglican family -- but he had also come to maturity during the Age of Enlightenment, which was primarily naturalistic in its worldview. Newton's beliefs in God were similar to those of the Deists. They did not make Newton a Christian…
Newton, Isaac. Principia. NY: Library of Classics, 1953.
Westfall, Richard. The Life of Isaac Newton. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
he second law, which states that rate of change of object's momentum is proportional to the force exerted upon it is the most practical law. his law is the logical continuation of the inertia law and explanation of Galileo's principle and transformations. Second law gives a prediction to what will happen with the object when a force acts on it: object's velocity will change and object will accelerate (with negative or positive acceleration). In order to understand the meaning of this law, mass is introduced. he mass of the object is a quantitative measure of inertia, which defines amount of matter contained in object. hat's why in modern interpretation the second law says that objects acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the total force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. hat's why mass of the object also defines object's resistance to acceleration.
In terms of…
Third law states that forces, which occur in pairs, are equal in magnitude, but are oppositely directed. Third law is mathematical conclusion of the law of conservation of momentum (as it can be stated that acceleration is a derivative of velocity and force is a derivative of momentum). Third law states that though forces of interaction are equal, accelerations may be different as masses of objects may be not the same.
Laws of Newton were proved more than 200 years ago on the base of everyday experiments and they serve as excellent approximation to kinematics and dynamics of objects in everyday life. These laws form the basis of classical mechanics, or mechanics of idealized macro world. They can be applied without errors to objects, which have speeds much smaller than relativistic speeds (speeds which are close to the speed of light). But even in relativistic world the form and essence of Newton's laws is preserved if relativistic space transformations are followed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton 's_laws_of_motion
Newton's three laws of motion
In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the…
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":
The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…
Campbell, John Angus. Why Was Darwin Believed? Darwin's Origin and the Problem of Intellectual Revolution. Configurations 11.2 (2003) 203-237.
Cosans, Chris. Was Darwin a creationist? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.3 (2005) 362-371.
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Sixth Edition. Project Gutenberg. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2009/2009-h/2009-h.htm
Diderot, Denis. "Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Richard N. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.084
He looks at thee methods: histoy (melding infomation about the divese geogaphical oigins of algeba with the poblems themselves), multiple epesentations (using notation, naative, geometic, gaphical, and othe epesentations togethe to build undestanding), and the object concept of function (teaching functions without genealizing about how taits of an individual elate to taits of a goup). The aticle seves to offe some inventive solutions to a common poblem in math education: How to make mateial elevant and compelling to a beadth of students.
Matinez, a.A. (2010). Tiangle sacifice to the gods. 1-11.
The aticle looks at Pythagoas, paticulaly the mythology suounding his life and his most famous discovey, the Pythagoean theoem. It calls into question the histoical evidence on which mathematics teaches base thei teaching of this theoy. The autho points out how vey little is known about Pythagoas and how he has been canonized by the math discipline because his…
references the impact that Newton's work had on mechanical applications. Lastly, the piece points out how Newton used the thought patterns associated with calculus in what appears to the modern reader as a work of geometry (with respect to his book "The Principia"). In this way, the article functions as a reminder of how scientific discoveries are created, which is by building upon the theories of others and by giving weight to the importance to mathematical principles.
morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.
Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.
One of the first steps…
McClellan, James E. III and Dorn, Harold, "Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction," (JHU Press, Apr 14, 2006)
"The Age of Classical Science," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860978.html
"The Scientific Revolution," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860977.html
Doctrine of the Holy Trinity
The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:
Servetus, Milton, Newton
The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Arian Heresy
Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus
Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton
Sir Isaac Newton
The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…
Bouwsma, William J. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Catholic Encyclopedia, "Nicene Creed." http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11049a.htm (accessed 21 March 2011).
Grudem, Wayne. Sytematic Theology. Grand Rapids; Zondervan, 1994.
Hill, Christopher. Milton and the English Revolution. New York: Viking, 1978.
An Exegesis of Daniel 9:24-27
Various approaches to Daniel 9:24-27 reveal a iblical prophecy that divides iblical scholars upon the matter of exact meaning. The most common understanding from the days of early Christianity to modern times has been that the text is one that prophecies the coming of Christ; but other interpretations, like the eschatological interpretation, view the prophecy as one that concerns the end times. This paper will show how a synthesis of the traditional interpretation and the eschatological interpretation provides what may be called a fuller, or perhaps more complete, view of Daniel 9:24-27.
As Francis Gigot notes, "linguistics, the context, and the ancient translations of Daniel are most of the time insufficient guides towards the sure restoration of the primitive reading"; however, exegetes are able to form a limited idea of a possible meaning to Daniel 9:24-27 by familiarizing themselves with the ook of…
Ford, Desmond. In the Heart of Daniel: An Exposition of Daniel 9:24-27. Lincoln, NE:
Gigot, Francis. "Book of Daniel." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 4. NY: Robert
Appleton Company, 1908.
This new calculation proved bodies of mass could orbit the sun in an elliptic pattern. Newton also put a name and a definition to gravity. Like Galileo, Newton's discoveries forced man to think beyond what he already knew. His theories opened doors to understanding motion, matter, and space. Many of these theories are still taught today because they "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724). People had to once again let go of familiar thought and embrace new ideas.
Newton transformed astronomy because he set "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). These laws are the groundwork for what eventually led to the law of gravity. Newton was open-minded enough to understand that gravity was not something confined to this earth. It was universal and it applied to all objects in space. The same…
Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.
Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901.
JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retreived January 6, 2010.
Goldsmith, Mike. Galileo Galilei. New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers. 2001.
Mechanics and Dynamics
Life without motion is better explained as death. A living being is said to be having life only when the walls of the heart engage in pumping the blood, when the blood circulates through the entire body, when nerves impulse electrically from brain to toe, lungs move to bring oxygen, food transports through the stomach and intestines, when the iris expands and contract, when the eyeball rotates, etc. Not only in the living beings, the riddles of the non-living items like recoiling of a fired gun, acceleration of an automobile, action of a spinning top, the motion of a space rocket can also be broken down in terms of the analysis of motion.
Dynamics" is a branch of study of motions and "Mechanics" contrary to the general idea of referring to people in uniforms with name over his pocket and having a tool box in his hand,…
Introduction to Physics" Retrieved at http://www.mcasco.com/p1intro.html . Accessed on 03/27/2003
Statics and Mechanics" Retrieved at http://www.engineering.auckland.ac.nz/mechanical/EngGen121 / Pages / P1M_CONCEPTS.html Accessed on 03/27/2003
Engineering Mechanics" Retrieved at http://www.esm.psu.edu . Accessed on 03/27/2003
Engineering Mechanics" Retrieved at http://www.tutorgig.Com/encyclopedia / getdefn.Jsp Accessed on 03/28/2003
Enlightenment on the French evolution
evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.
Introduction to the French evolution
When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…
Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000). http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html.
Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke
University Press, 1991.
Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.utm.edu/ressearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm.
Newton explained that apples fell from trees by virtue of the same universal attractive natural force that caused the planets to orbit the skies.
In his 1687 book, Philosopiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Newton presented complex mathematical formulae that described the observed orbits of the known planets fairly accurately. Newton also provided an explanation for why the attractive force of gravity did not cause the planets to fall in on themselves the way the apple falls to the ground. Since all the planets and stars in the universe exerted mutually attractive force and because there were an infinite number of planets distributed uniformly throughout the universe, there was no "center" of the universe and the planets and stars are all pulled in many directions, all of which, in effect, cancel out their tendency to fall together (Hawking, 1991).
Almost eighty years earlier, in 1609, Galileo Galilei invented the world's…
Feynman, R. (1995). Six Easy Pieces. New York: Helix.
Goldsmith, D. (1997). The Ultimate Einstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hawking, S. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. New York: Bantam.
Hawking, S. (2002). The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe. Beverly Hills, CA: New Millennium Press.
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…
Aelarsen. A Royal Affair: Enlightenment and Adultery in 18th Century Denmark. June 2014. https://aelarsen.wordpress.com/2014/06/30/a-royal-affair-enlightenment-and-adultery-in-18th-century-denmark / (accessed December 13, 2015).
"Age of Enlightenment." Pedia Press, 2011.
Curtius, Quintus. Speaking Out Against Injustice: The Case Of Jean Calas. October 12, 2015. http://www.returnofkings.com/72129/speaking-out-against-injustice-the-case-of-jean-calas (accessed December 12, 2015).
Halsall, Paul. Medieval Sourcebook: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): Republics and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, 55. October 1998. (accessed December 14, 2015).
Eternal Circle of Time
Electrons circle the nucleus of an atom. Untold trillions of atoms collide together and explode. The universe expands. Electrons race down the copper wires of an electric cable. The sun shines. Leaves digest the sunlight, produce nutrients, live, grow, die, and fall to the ground. The wind bears aloft the leaves, scatters them over earth and sea. The tide moves them, pushes them up into rivers where at last they settle into the mud. Salmon swim upstream; lay their eggs on the muddy bottoms of lakes and rivers. A powerful grizzly bear nuzzles the icy water of a mountain brook. His great paw sweeps into the water and catches a darting salmon. Men come; establish a city on the banks of the stream. They drive the bear off. Their boats coast upon the surface of the sparkling water. Nets plumb the frigid depths, resurface filled with…
Bleier, Ronald, Ed. From Thomas Malthus, (1798) "Essay on the Principle of Population." The International Society of Thomas Malthus. http://www.igc.org/desip/malthus/
Pasachoff, Jay M. (2001) Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Russell, Steven. (2001) "The Evolution of Gods." Your Own World USA. http://www.yowusa.com/index.html
Schaefer, Dr. Henry III. (Jan. 1994). "Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God." The Real Issue. Leadership University. http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9404/bigbang.html
Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education
Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.
From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.
In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."
uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…
Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.
Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.
Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.
While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/ . Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009)
4. Thomas Dereham to James Jurin. 22 June 1722, in Early Letters, Royal Society in London, D.2.12
This would become the basis of a profound shift in European knowledge: classical mechanics (Hooker).
Francis acon (1561-1626), added a key element to the genesis of the mechanical universe in his attacks on traditional knowledge. He proposed the Aristotelean model of induction and empiricism as the best model of human knowledge. This model of systematic empirical induction was the piece that completed the puzzle in the European world view and made the scientific revolution possible (Hooker).
The mechanical universe would emerge from Sir Isaac Newton's work (1642-1727). He based his entire view of the universe on the concept of inertia: every object remains at rest until moved by another object; every object in motion stays in motion until redirected or stopped by another object. He argued that all the planets and other objects in the universe moved according to a physical attraction between them, which is called gravity; this mutual…
Hatch, Robert. "Scientific Revolution." August 2002. University of Florida. 3 April 2009 .
Hooker, Richard. "The European Enlightenment: The Scientific Revolution." 1996. Washington State University. 3 April 2009 .
"The Scientific Revolution." n.d. History Online. 3 April 2009 .
Man has always asked questions about how the world began. All cultures in the ancient world had origin myths. People looked to higher powers, or deities, or life forces, to explain what they could not understand. esearchers do not know where humankind's need for spirituality comes from, but it is clear, looking at history, that faith and the need to believe in something greater than ourselves are part of what makes us human.
The late Stephen Jay Gould, professor of zoology and geology at Harvard University, believed that science and religion were not in conflict. Because they are entirely different, he argued, they could not be synthesized into any common theme (Mitchell & Blackard 2009, p. 146). His is a view that is shared by many scientists who draw a distinction between science and scripture. Science and scripture offer us two different things. One does not have to…
Carter, K.L. And Welsh, J. 2010, 'The pedagogy of the debate over evolution and intelligent design', Liberal Education, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 46-53.
Hlodan, O. 2011, 'Molecular insights into classic examples of evolution', BioScience, vol. 61,
no. 4, pp. 264-267.
Miller, K. Darwin and Christian Faith. . [Distinguished Lecture Series, Pepperdine
ability to measure and track the results from any scientific experiment is extremely important to both the validity and truthfulness of the work. Scientists often have problems in certain sciences due to the scope of their investigation. As a result of these mismatches, indirect avenues of approach become necessary to measure and grasp the items of inquiry.
In physics, the atomic theory is based upon indirect measurements. The neutron, proton and electron are merely ideas that have been modeled due to the technology that is available to scientists. An electron has never been physically produced and only its characteristics have been noticed. This is an important distinction, because too often scientists take many of these long standing practices for granted and have assumed the presence of these particles, when there is compelling evidence there is not. Jessa (2009) reminded us that "This understanding the atom helped to fuel many other…
Jessa, T. (2009). John Dalton's Atomic Model. Universe Today, 24 Aug 2009. Retrieved from http://www.universetoday.com/38169/john-daltons-atomic-model/
Keyes, J. (1946). Newton The Man. JOC/EFR 2006. Retrieved from http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Extras/Keynes_Newton.html
NASA (nd). What is a Spacesuit? Viewed 27 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-spacesuit-k4.html#.U2ED5qLiyf4
Weinstein, G. (2012). Albert Einstein's Methodology. Cornell University, 24 Sep 2012. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.5181
These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…
Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."
Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole
Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
The Case for God's Existence
The Case Against the Existence of God
Many people go to churches, mosques, and synagogs each week to worship God and to pray. ut does God hear those prayers? Does he exist? The debate over God's existence has gone on for centuries and is alive and well in our time. Philosophers, theologians, scientists, and ordinary people have weighed in on the argument. Theologians such as Aquinas and Anselm argued for the existence of God in the Middle Ages, but even in that time, others disputed their contentions. Even some who believe in God argue that proving God's existence through logic, science, or reasoning is impossible because even hard evidence has nothing more than faith behind it. Are the people who worship God wasting their time then? Does God impact their lives? That question can be difficult…
Anselm of Canterbury." The Internet Encyclopedia of Knowledge. 1996. Retrieved 10 December 2002 from www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/anselm.htm.
Bradley, Walter. "The Real Issue: The Scientific evidence for the Existence of God." 14 July 2002 Retrieved 10 December 2002 from http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9403/evidence.html.
Burr, David. "Anselm on God's Existence." Medieval Source Book. 1996.
Retrieved 9 December 2002 from www.fordham.edu/halsall / source/anselm.html
William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,
Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.
Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…
Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.
Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.
Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
Jean-Francois Lyotard (the Postmodern condition: A Knowledge eport 1979) describes postmodernism in the context of nature of social bond. He argues that due to the advent of the technology and with the invention of computer, information has been more restricted in the form of procedures and program. According to him some one must have access to all the information to check whether the decisions are madder correctly. He discuss in this paper about the language games which are gaining importance day by day as the communication is becoming so prominent and efficient. We can see the connecting point between Lyotard and Kuhn as well as Popper which also agree that truth is language dependent and textual interpretation vary from person to person so whole truth of knowledge is not absolutely conveyed.
PESONAL EACTION and CITIQUE:
Postmodernism seems to be overwhelmingly push everything into vagueness. The only thing according to postmodernism…
1-Dr. Dave Teague: Introduction to postmodern philosophy: Postmodern preaching
2-Geoff Haselhurst (May, 2005): Philosophy Karl Popper: Discussion Popper's Problem of Induction. http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Philosophy-Karl-Popper.htm
3- Gary Aylesworth First published Fri 30 Sep, 2005: Postmodernism:Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/postmodernism/#8
William of Occam formulated the principle of Occam's Razor, which held that the simplest theory that matched all the known facts was the correct one. At the University of Paris, Jean Buridan questioned the physics of Aristotle and presaged the modern scientific ideas of Isaac Newton and Galileo concerning gravity, inertia and momentum when he wrote:
...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion (Glick, Livesay and Wallis 107)
Thomas Bradwardine and his colleagues at Oxford University also anticipated Newton and Galileo when they found that a body moving with constant velocity travels distance…
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…
Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.
Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp
Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm
Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
Scientific Principles: "Timeline in Optics"
It is very clear that Optics is the physical science that examines the source and broadcast of light, how it fluctuates, what effects it yields, and other marvels that are connected with this interesting science. Many science nerds may be unaware that there are two divisions of optics. One of those divisions is called the Physical optics. The physical optics is related to the properties and nature of light itself. Also, it is clear that the geometrical optics are what concentrates with the principles leading image-forming assets of mirrors, and lenses, other devices, for example optical data computers.
This "Timeline in Optics" puts the emphasis on important developments and events in the science of optics from prehistory to the start of the 21st century. It likewise consist of associated expansions in other fields (the evolution of processors) and interconnected highpoints in the human worldview.
Darrigol, O. (2012). A History of Optics from Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1 edition.
Fowles, G.R. (2009). Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover Books on Physics). New York City: Dover Publications; 2 edition.
J.Valasek. (1997). Introduction to Theoretical and Experimental Optics. Journal of Optics, 23(9), 34-45.
S, F.L. (2007). Introduction to Optics. Lansing: Prentice Hall.
Christianity in Europe
The Decline of European Christianity, 1675-Present
The demise of Christianity in Europe coincides with the rise of the Age of Enlightenment at the end of the 17th century.
Up to that moment, Europe had been relatively one in religious belief. True, religious wars had been raging for more than a century, with the fracturing of nations in the wake of the "Protestant Reformation." ut even then, Europe had acknowledged a single Savior -- wherein lay His Church was the major point of contention. ut today Europe exists in a post-Christian state. Its Christian identity has collapsed under the weight of Romantic-Enlightenment ideals, expressed dramatically in the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century and adopted politically throughout the continent as a result of a more man-centered, rather than God-centered, vision of life. This paper will trace the decline of European Christianity and provide three reasons…
Israel, Jonathan. Radical Enlightenment Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-
1750. UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Jones, E. Michael. Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. IN: St.
Augustine Press, 2000.
The nature of science
A number of scientists have the feeling that philosophical inquiries are well outdated. They purportedly can handle matters in a better way than their social constructivists counterparts. Philosophers and physicists are very different from each other, especially taking into account what some renown physicist recently commented on philosophy. Stephen Hawking for instance is on a campaign to tarnish philosophers. He might not be so convincing in whatever points he puts across, but he is winning the heart of the public by his jokes on philosophers. Jokes have for a long time been known to really move the masses. His most recent book, The Grand Design, co authored by Leonard Mlodinow, starts by scrutinizing the nature of reality, the beginning of all things and the purpose of God. He then claims these to be matters of philosophy, which is in itself dead. Philosophy, according to him, is…
Previous research shows that giftedness shows up in all populations, but the fact is that well over three-quarters of the American teaching force are of European descent.
A study by Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh and Holloway (2005), used stratified cluster sampling to ascertain just that question. The sample was drawn from 16 elementary schools from three distinct geographical quadrants of a large Midwestern city school district. The sample included 207 elementary school teachers; 92% of whom were female and 83% of European descent. The study instrument was a short descriptive vignette about a student who possessed the research-based profile of a gifted and talented student. 1/3 of the participants were told this student was European-American, 1/3 that the student was African-American, and 1/3 no information on ethnicity (control group). After reading the prose, teachers were asked to rank levels of agreement towards statements recommending that student into a gifted program.
Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh and Holloway. (2005). "Effect of Children's Ethnicity on Teachers'
Referral and Recommendation Decisions in Gifted and Talented Programs." Remedial
And Special Education. 26 (1): 25+
Winner, E. (1996). Gifted Children: Myths and Realities. New York: Basic Books.
Given the limitations mentioned above, researchers studying intercessory prayer are also banging their heads against reality because they are claiming to make discoveries that are "incompatible with current views of the physical universe and consciousness" (Sloan, p. 504). That having been said, if IP studies are held to the "standards of science" and if "more precise hypotheses are tested" then a "scientific revolution" is not beyond imagination (Sloan, p. 513).
Using personal prayer for health reasons. An article published in 2004 reports on a national survey that was conducted in 1998; in that survey researchers found that 35% of participants used prayer for "health reasons" (McCaffrey, et al., 2004, p. 858). Of those respondents, 75% prayed for "wellness" and 22% prayed for "specific medical conditions" (McCaffrey, p. 858). Of the 22% who prayed for specific medical conditions 69% "found prayer very helpful,' McCaffrey reports on page 858. This research…
Benson, Herbert, Dusek, Jeffery a., Sherwood, Jane B., Lam, Peter, Bethea, Charles F.,
Carpenter, William, Levitsky, Sidney, Hill, Peter C., Clem, Donald W., Jain, Manoj K.,
Drumel, David, Lopecky, Stephen L., Mueller, Paul S., Marek, Dean, Rollins, Sue, and Hibberd, Patricia L. (2006). Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer
(STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer. American Heart Journal, 151(4), 934-942.
Moving beyond the plot and the intricacies of life at the New epublic though, and into the world of Hollywood producers, writers, and actors, one must also ask about the veracity and credibility of the portrayals of journalistic acumen for the general public. Films such as Alan Pakula's All the President's Men (1976), Peter Weir's the Year of Living Dangerously (1982), or oland Joffe's the Killing Fields (1984), all present the journalistic morality surrounding slant, sourcing, and frankly, what to exclude to ensure the acceptance of the story. There are more examples about aggressive and expose' hunting reporters, but one asks if Glass is not being shown as the typical, epitomizing print journalism through the eyes of Hollywood, as opposed to the rouge, well-intentioned, but naively arrogant, reporter? (Bowden).
When one replays some of the key scenes in the movie, one is struck by the calm, but budding nervousness Christensen…
Beckerman, G. "Facts and Fictions: Shards of Glass." Columbia Journalism Review.
42.3 (2003): 54. Print.
Bowden, M. "When the Front Page Meets the Big Screen." The Atlantic Monthly.
293.2 (2004): 146. Print.
Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize his line of reasoning that related to morality for he added that "the truth and certainty of moral discourses abstracts from the lives of men, and the existence of those values in the world, whereof they treat." Locke believed in inquiring everything and denying the authority either of the past or of the clergy for he desired everyone to depend on their own judgment and reasoning which is exactly the he created an contention to defend believing in God, and made sure to rebut the thought that reason is different to faith, saying that faith can never sway us of anything that opposes our knowledge and disagreeing that, apart from in the instance of divine revelation, people must constantly look first…
Binga, T. (2000). Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from Council for Secular Humanism: http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=hall_of_fame&page=voltaire
Hewett, C. (2006). The Life of Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate:
Hewett, C. (2006). John Locke's Theory of Knowledge. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate: http://thegreatdebate.org.uk/LockeEpistem.html
Apple is vey inteested in the selling pocess. As a consequence, Apple has made significant investments in pogams designed to impove eselle sales. One of these pogams is the Apple Sales Consultant Pogam. This pogam consists in placing Apple employees and contactos at selected thid-paty eselle locations.
The eason behind this stategy consists in the fact that Apple's manages conside that one of the key factos that sustain a successful geneal stategy is epesented by diect contact with tageted customes. This is a geat way fo Apple to pove the advantages of its poducts in compaison to the poducts of the company's competitos.
In ode to incease the numbe of customes, Apple stoes ae vey impotant. Regading the company's stoes, location is vey impotant Apple stoes can be found in high taffic locations, quality shopping malls, and uban shopping disticts.
The company's poduct line is consisted of the following categoies:…
references are constantly changing, developing, and expanding. Therefore, the products they want to buy must also change, develop, and expand.
Also, the company is investing in opening new stores in several geographic areas. This is one of the most important parts of Apple's strategy. By increasing the number of stores and by expanding the geographical area, Apple manages to increase its number of customers.
Apple Inc. (2009). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Computer .
Annual Report (2008). Apple Inc. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.apple.com/investor/ .
If the satellite had successfully entered orbit, this would have put the United States more than a year ahead of the Soviets in the endeavor, which added
In fact, this was not the only rocket and satellite project that many United States scientists and government officials felt had been failures, or at least under-utilized successes. The Soviets increased the pressure on the American rocket program with their launch of Sputnik II on November 3, less than a month after the launch of their first satellite, and political urging from Eisenhower and others forced the early launch of an American Vanguard satellite.
The Vanguard project had actually anticipated a launch date ahead of the Soviets, which may in part have spurred on the Soviet team and helped them to set their deadline, but a series of setbacks delayed the various test launches of the vehicles meant to deliver the Vanguard into…
Borz, Fred. "Review of Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, http://www.fredbortz.com/review/Sputnik.htm
Caviness, Rochelle. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, Large Print Reviews, http://www.largeprintreviews.com/sputnik.html
Curtis, Nancy R. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century," Library Journal, http://wbrl-lssvr.dnsalias.org:8000/decatur/kcContent?isbn=9780802713650&type=review&controlnumber=dec00086898&referedby=titlelist
Dickinson, Paul. Sputnik: The Shock of the Century (New York: Walker & Co, 2001)
Other measures could be to freeze the doctor's assets which would effectively stop all research due to lack of funding.
Other actions could include working with those foreign countries to establish, create and enforce laws that would make it illegal to conduct research in those countries, especially if the researcher was a citizen of the United States.
"Much has been written on the increasingly international generation, transmission and diffusion of technologies, with the phenomenon having been given its own term -- techno-globalism -- and interpreted by some as displacing national systems of innovation and making redundant and futile any attempt by national governments to foster technological development domestically." (Archibugi 1993-page 121)
Fostering development domestically is not the only thing difficult in this increasingly global world, also difficult is the controlling of that development especially in regards to the type of research being conducted. It is probably worth the time and…
Archibugi, Daniele, Michie, Jonathan (1993) The Globalisation of Technology: A New Taxonomy, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 19, Number 1, pp 121-140
Scotchmer, Suzanne (1991) Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Cumulative Research and the Patent Law, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 5 Number 1, pp 29-41
job aid that reduces human error and lack of attention to detail by providing a list of policies, procedures, or items that are needed to produce a consistent job or product. There are checklists used in transportation to ensure the vehicles are ready, in clinical medical practice to organize charting and patient history, in software engineering to check process compliance and code, in litigation to deal with the complexity of discovery, in biology/science to list standardized practices and names, and even in everyday hobbies and life to organize materials, shopping, or contents. This tool of organization and operation may seem simple, but it provides a template and framework for innumerable tasks in almost endless ways (Gawande, 2007). It is interesting to note that this simple tool -- so logical and valuable, has saved so many lives in medical care (e.g. surgery, medication, etc.) by simply trying to understand a multistage…
Felder, K. (1996). One of these things is not like the other. NCSU.edu. Retrieved from:
Gawande, A. (December 10, 2007). The Checklist. The New Yorker. Retrieved from: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/12/10/071210fa_fact_gawande
Gopalan, P. (April 29, 2011). Avoiding the checklist monkey. On Product Management. Retrieved from: http://onproductmanagement.net/2011/04/29/avoiding-the-checklist-monkey/
associationism remains not only one of the earliest theories of leaning but it also comes across as being one of the most enduring. Basically, associationism holds that association of ideas can be used to explain mental processes. In this text, I will mainly concern myself with associationism as a learning theory. In so doing, I will highlight the main principles associated with the theory while making a mention of three theorists whose contribution towards the development of this theory as we know it today cannot be overstated. Further, this discussion will invoke associationism in explaining mental processes associated learning. I will also attempt to explain how associationism utilizes prior experience in explaining how learning in individuals takes place. Also, I will seek to explain how permanent change in behavior comes about by depicting the application of the theory. Lastly, a number of settings in which learning takes place will be…
Ebersohn, L. & Eloff, I. (2004). Keys to Educational Psychology. Juta and Company
Hays. R.T. (2006). The Science of Learning: A Systems Theory Perspective. Universal-Publishers
Harnish, R.M. (2002). Minds, Brains, Computers: An Historical Introduction to the Foundations of Cognitive Science. Wiley-Blackwell
Mishra, B.K. (2008). Psychology: A Study of Human Behavior. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. etrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. etrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing esearch, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186
Ludwig Wittgenstein is particularly interesting because in Philosophical Investigations (PI) he repudiated all of his earlier work in logical positivism and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP), along with much of what was traditionally thought of as philosophy, and took a radically new track in the last twenty years of his life. Young Wittgenstein was more certain that he had solved all major philosophical problems, while the older Wittgenstein had completely lost all such certainties. There were even hints in his earlier work of this later, more explicit existential despair, pessimism and even cynicism about the limits of philosophy, which certainly became more profound over the years. He was no longer able to view the world as consisting of facts that were logical representations of objects that really existed or at least had the potential to exist. Thoughts and ideas formed pictures that were models of reality, while everything outside of…
Biletzi, A. (2003). (Over)interpreting Wittgenstein. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Leung, S.K. (2002). Language and Meaning in Human Perspective. Janus Publishing.
Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press.
Wittgenstein, L. Philosophical Investigations, 4th Edition (1953, 2009). P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte (eds.). Oxford University Press.
Philosophy Inherent in Science
Explanation in Science
This summary was a review of Carl G. Hempel's "Explanation In Science," which was reprinted from "Scientific Knowledge" and was edited by Janet A. Kovoany. Carl Hempel was well-known for his scientific explanation concept which has become the foundaton of many modern day philosophical discussions on the purpose and logic of science. Hempel's work was insightful and it was founded on the basis that man uses science to continually improve his current situation or 'strategic position' by either prediciting or controlling events and things around us. Hempel professed that we as a species are impelled to satisfy an inner curiosity and need to explain all that is around us and all that is unexplainable. In my researching Carl Hempel I discovered that his peers saw him as a man who was on the level of Socrates and his true genious can has…
Feynman, Richard (YEAR). "Seeking New Laws of Nature." What Does Science Tell Me About the World.
Hempel, Carl G., edited by Janet A. Kovoany (1998). "Explanation In Science." Reprinted from Scientific Knowledge.
Russell, Bertrand (1959). "Understanding the Cosmos." My Present View of the World.
The word 'man' is used throughout Pope's poem and refers to humankind as a whole, not necessarily the male species. As Pope states in the beginning of Epistle I, his intent is to "But vindicate the ways of God to man" (Pope pp). He sets out to demonstrate a Christian-based cosmogony, or rather his theory of how the universe was created (Cody pp). Pope draws on the contemporary scientific discoveries of the day, especially those of Isaac Newton (Cody pp). This first Epistle concerns the nature of man and his place within the universe, while Epistle II deals with man as an individual, his basic nature and state of being (Cody pp). Epistle III concerns man, the individual, in relation to human society as a whole, as well as to the political and social classes, and Epistle IV, concerns humankind's pursuit of happiness (Cody pp).
Alexander Pope's "Essay on…
Pope, Alexander. "An Essay on Man." Read Book OnLine.net. pp. I:16,
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en& ; q=alexander+pope%27s+essay+on+man.
Cody, David. "Alexander Pope's Essay on Man: An Introduction." Victorian Web.
Robespierre had Danton and his followers arrested, convicted, and beheaded.
A movie produced on Danton by Poland's Andrzej Wajda in 1983 clearly showed the zeal of the revolutionaries against this Rule of Terror (Weiss). The movie argues that Robespierre was so concerned with keeping his own power, he destroyed the principles on which the revolution was founded. In a scene of the film, the onvention realizes Robespierre's intentions, and someone yells, "Down with the dictator!" Robespierre destroys the revolution by using violence to enforce democratic ideals. During the trial Danton sums up what Robespierre has done: "Revolutionary principles have made you forget the revolution."
The Enlightenment ended after the devastation of the French Revolution and Napoleonic era, rise of a religious revival and growth of the Industrial Revolution and business class. However, much of the philosophies of this time continue today through constitutions of countries including the U.S.'
Cranston, Maurice. The intellectual origins of the French Revolution. History Today, 1989, 39.
Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004
Weiss, Andrew. Danton and the Destruction of the French Revolution. Website retrieved 12, June 2005. http://shakti.trincoll.edu/~aweiss/danton.htm
Wulf, S.J. (2000). "The skeptical life in Hume's political thought. Polity, 33(1), 77.
Wulf uses David Hume's well-known skepticism to advance his concerning the extreme degrees to which philosophy had been taken before returning to less radical modes. He develops material about the antithetical ideas to those investigated here; that is, he puts into a context the ideas of those philosophers who, working at the edge of the intelligible, refused to "accede to the judgment of reason and even their own senses."
ukav, Gary. (1984) the dancing Wu Li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: Bantam.
One of the first statements ukav makes in this book is that he found, visiting the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Berkeley, California, that physics "was not the sterile, boring discipline that I had assumed it to be. It was a rich, profound venture, which had become inseparable from philosophy. Incredibly, no…
Zumbrunnen, J. (2002). Courage in the Face of Reality: Nietzsche's Admiration for Thucydides. Polity, 35(2), 237+. Retrieved July 13, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
The Hundredth Monkey Theory is this: On a desert island at least 20 miles from another desert island, one of the monkeys decides to wash his fruit in the ocean before he eats it. Soon, his fellow monkeys see him doing it and follow suit. There is no communication between the first and second islands; nonetheless, one day shortly after the final monkey on the first island begins to wash his fruit, the monkeys on the second island begin to wash their fruit. They did not hear it through the 'monkey grapevine.' In New Thought, they heard it because ideas, thought to be intangible, are actually tangible, traveling in ways as yet unknown to us throughout the universe and popping up as 'new' ideas.
This story, if one wants to trace it through quarks and string theory and even the fact that airplanes and bumblebees are both incapable of flight but do it anyway, marries science and philosophy very neatly.
As Diaz states:
some fifty of us soldiers clambered up and overturned the idols, which rolled down the steps and were smashed to pieces. Some of them were in the form of fearsome dragons as big as calves and others half-man half-dog and hideously ugly. When thy saw their idols shattered the Caciques and the papas who were with them wept and covered their eyes; and they prayed to their gods for pardon. (From
The Conquest of New Spain 1560s)
In "Of Cannibals," on the other hand, Michel de Montaigne suggests instead that travelers to foreign places might do well to suspend automatic negative judgment of native peoples, and seek instead, to regard them from within their own indigenous geographical, social, and economic contexts, instead of their own. As Montaigne further observes:
every one gives the title of barbarism to everything that is not in use in his own country.…
In retrospect it is incredible how much time and energy went into this endeavor and how little came out of it.. Hull perhaps added somewhat more to our knowledge of the behavior of the rat than Titchener did to our understanding
Clark Hull 7 of human consciousness, but not much. His basic approach turned out to be, to use a precisely appropriate metaphor in his world of rats and mazes, a blind alley.
One of Hull's starting points was in noting that conditioning theory failed to deal convincingly with motivation. He was astute enough to recognize that motivation may be viewed as either a learned aspect of behavior (as Guthrie viewed it) or as a behavioral determinant independent of learning (as Tolman viewed it). Either way, it needed to be given greater importance. Hull drew on Freud's "instincts" as motivating forces, but changed the word to "drives" in his own…
Hull, C.L.. (1933) Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. Whales: Crown House Publishing.
Hull, C.L. (1943) Principals of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Appleton.
Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (1987). A History of Modern Psychology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publications.
Hothersall, D. 1995. History of Psychology, 3rd ed., Mcgraw-Hill:NY
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…
The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.
In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…