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Anti-Arab Racism the Objective of
Words: 3088 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48277422
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This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002)

The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes " respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…


El-Amine, Rami (2006) Anti-Arab Racism, Islamophobia, and the Anti-War Movement. Left Turn Magazine. 1 Oct. 2006.

Akram, Susan M. (2002) the Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly March 2002.

Ibish, Hussein and Stewart Anne (2003) Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab-Americans. The Post- September 11 Backlash. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Online available at

Gott, Gil (2005) the Devil We Know: Racial Insubordination and National Security Law. Villanova Law Review 2005. Online available at (

Risk Management Strategy for Terrorism in the UK
Words: 3058 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59310984
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isk Management of Terrorism in the UK

The issue of designing a risk management strategy for terrorism in the UK is dependent upon understanding and identifying the commensurate risks attendant with the various extremists groups that are perceived as threats to the UK's safety and infrastructural stability. Challenges include adopting an intelligence and surveillance system, educating the public regarding attendant trouble spots (such as retaliatory violence and discrimination as well as purpose of surveillance) and adopting a position in the global network that facilitates the overall mitigation of threats. The benefits are evident in control and prevention results and good practice recommendations are provided in the conclusion. This study gives a contextual assessment of the risks facing the UK, analyzes the components of risk management that can be utilized to alleviate these risks, defines the term "terror," examines the historical challenges that coincide with these components, and discusses the benefits…


Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-Muslim

sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3): 292-309.

Forst, B., Greene, J., Lynch, J. (2011). Criminologists on Terrorism and Homeland

Security. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Muslim Americans and the Impact of September 11th
Words: 3945 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59788510
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Immigration and the Muslim Population

9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality'," in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions, Ed. Ronald…

Islam and Terrorism
Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48371157
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Islam and Terrorism

Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?

Background of Islam

Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam

Public Opinion Polls

Islam in the Media

There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."

Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…

Works Cited

AFP. (2008, February 27). Major survey challenges Western perceptions of Islam. Retrieved from

Imam, M. (N.d.). The Perception of Islam and Muslims in the Media and the Responsibility of European Muslims Towards the Media . Retrieved from Cuturelink: 

Kidd, T. (2009). American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism. Princeton University Press.

Lostopedia. (N.d.). Syid Jarrah. Retrieved from Wikia:

Syrias Civil War and the Refugee Crisis
Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16362760
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While so many concerned world leaders, politicians, and social services professionals have bemoaned the physical and materials consequences of the Syrian Civil War on displaced persons, there is an even greater issue at stake. This issue has largely been ignored by experts. This issue is the existential crises afflicting so many displaced people: the loss of identity. The bulk of this presentation explores the idea that if one’s present is suddenly put into a state of upheaval (as though the rug has been pulled out from under one) it can shift how solidly and lucidly one views one’s own identity. Such a state is exacerbated even further when this occurs and the future is also in limbo: it can heighten the sense of a shattered identity. Hence, this presentation will explore how these impacts of a dissociated or disintegrated identity are manifesting with Syrian refugees.
The need for immediate survival…

Internet Changing Our Mind and
Words: 1439 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89628479
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Muslims have been hospitalized and, one Muslim paralyzed. The anti-Muslim spirit is also represented by the media. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding, and the report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated"( Allen & Nielsen (2002). Such actions, happening too in America, flagrantly transgress our constitutional rights. Islamic immigrants, facing such treatment, may not recognize that nor know what to do. The book is, therefore, not only current but also original and needed. I would simply need to find more appropriate tools and the correct audience in order to make it the success that it can.

Areas for improvements. Plan for improving work

I would do the following:

1. I would clearly define my…


Allen, C. & Nielsen, J.n S. (2002) "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001," EUMC, 

22 hot new social media tools worth exploring. 

The Guardian [Aug 15, 2010] The internet: is it changing the way we think?

Hateful Acts Towards Muslims Following 9 11
Words: 2084 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56115127
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Globalization and Cultural Conflict

The authors (Gardner, et al., 2008, Author House, 82-83) explain that several IT and business professionals have been hired to transfer a business from an existing system to a completely automated system. This project was launched prior to the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. The key question comes down to a leadership scenario: hat leadership approach should be taken when two out of a dozen talented contractors that have been hired happen to be Islamic, and those two individuals ask for an hour off every Friday for religious purposes? This paper delves into that subject using narrative from the available literature, and from two books: Corporate Leadership Selection: Impact on American Business, Employees, and Society; and Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success.

Gardner, et al., on Leadership

As an introduction to what Reginald J. Gardner writes about leadership in…

Works Cited

Akram, S.M. "The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims

in America." Arab Studies Quarterly, 24(2&3), 61-119.

Ali, Y. "Shariah and Citizenship -- How Islamophobia Is Creating a Second-Class Citizenry

In America." California Law Review, 100(4), 1027-1068.

How to Solve the Issue of Homegrown Terrorism
Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82740351
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Homegrown Terrorism by Mantri (2011) looks at the phenomenon of homegrown terrorism in the United States. It shows that the nature of the threat of domestic terrorism is not comparable to the type of existential threat that the U.S. experienced throughout the duration of the Cold War. Nonetheless, the reality of homegrown terrorism is one that has to be confronted, and the Department of Homeland Security appears to be unable to effectively confront the issue, as the recent string of domestic terror attacks indicates (Mantri, 2011). The article recommends that the U.S. "harness the innate goodwill" of Americans overseas in an effort to combat the growth of domestic radicalization and domestic terrorism (Mantri, 2011, p. 88).

The key findings and issues of the article are that radicalization and homegrown terrorism are occurring in the U.S. in spite of the efforts of Homeland Security and other government agencies. Data is gathered…


Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-Muslim

sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3): 292-309.

Mantri, G. (2011). Homegrown Terrorism. Harvard International Review, 33(1), 88.

Sheridan, L. (2006). Islamophobia pre- and post-September 11th, 2001. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(3): 317-336.

Applying to Medical Schools in the North East
Words: 15719 Length: 56 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 26765557
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Essay 2: In what collegiate extracurriculars did you engage? (400 characters)
As Vice President of Phi Kappa Sigma, I co-managed the annual $30k budget, participated in 100+ hours of community service, volunteered for the Rutgers Dance Marathon, raised funds for the Embrace the Kids Foundation, and organized the annual Phi-Esta fundraiser for the Eric Legrand’s Foundation with several other fraternities. I also volunteered for the Leukemia Lymphoma Society.
Essay 3: Did you work for compensation during college during the year or the summer? (300 Word limit)
Yes, every summer I worked full-time. During the summers of my undergraduate career, I worked at Selco Associates, a distribution and warehousing company. There I coordinated with management personnel to provide high quality customer service. I also managed apparel and footwear inventory for major companies and assisted in opening new accounts. This experience helped me to develop communication, organization, and problem-solving skills that I…

biculturalism and how to create multiple Identities
Words: 2014 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53421669
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A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…

The Impact of Legislation on Violence
Words: 9495 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44797968
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Firearms Legislation and Firearms-Related Violence in Europe

This paper examines the relationship between firearms legislation and gun-related violence across countries and regions in Europe. The focus of the paper is to identify possible sources of literature to help answer questions regarding whether legislation is an effective tool in reducing firearms-related violence. The paper focuses on variance of gun violence rates throughout Europe, gun legislation, and possible national strategies for addressing the issue of gun violence. It finds that there are many variables that impact regions and can effect greater or lesser rates of gun violence -- factors such as education, culture, economic stability, political instability, and so on. No two countries are the same in terms of people, customs, traditions, ideals, and execution of the law. It is therefore important to better understand how culture plays a role in determining the effects of firearms-related violence in throughout Europe. This information…

Organization Policy in Australian Company
Words: 1915 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 87889987
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For this purpose it has set-up National Anti-acism Partnership and Strategy (Stone, 2008). This strategy will be making alliance with various departments like Department of Immigration and Citizenship, the Australian human rights commission and the ace Discrimination Commissioner, Australian multicultural advisory council etc.

Multicultural Arts and Festivals Grants: In response to multicultural Australian society, Australian government to take care of all its citizens have decided to execute Diversity and social Cohesion Programs from multicultural arts and festivals small grants. This provides a platform for all Australians to learn about each other's cultures and traditions.

Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Program: For the purpose of creating network and connection between the youth from diverse cultural backgrounds, Australian government has taken a step in establishing Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Programs. Australian Sports Commission (ASC) will be managing this program (Howard, 2005).


Australia with its cultural mix has adopted Multicultural Policy with the…


Howard, Cosmo (2005). The Policy Cycle: a Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making? the

Australian Journal of Public Administration.

Kellow, Aynsley (Summer 1988). Promoting Elegance in Policy Theory: Simplifying Lowi's

Arenas of Power. Policy Studies Journal 16: 713 -- 724. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.1988.tb00680.x.

Islam Radicalization the Radicalization of
Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26418086
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The ultimate implication of the events of 9/11 is that Islam has become, as a result of American foreign policy, economic patterns and military endeavors, a hostile and radicalized culture. This is largely based on perceptions in the Islamic orld that the estern orld acts with favoritism toward Israel in diplomacy, demonstrates a tendency to exploit Arab states with military acts and pursues opportunistic relationships based on its dependence on Mid-East oil. One of the reasons that is most noted for anger with the estern orld by Muslim leaders of state and by the average Islamist residing in the Middle East, is the fact that the United States has so strongly supported Israeli statehood.

The Mamdani (2004) text captures this geopolitical disposition particularly well, indicating that the United States, the U.S.S.R. And other global powers helped to create the current Islamic cultural tendencies toward violence and armed resistance. Mamdani notes…

Works Cited:

Gottschalk, P. & Greenberg, G. (?). Islamophobia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Husain, E. (2007). The Islamist: Why I Joined Radical Islam in Britain, What I Saw Inside and Why I Left. Penguin.

Leiken, R.S. (2005). Europe's Angry Muslims. Foreign Affairs, 84(4).

Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, Bad Muslim. Random House.

European Muslims in the Aftermath
Words: 4555 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 647714
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These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.

A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…

Reference List

Al-Rawandi, I. (2002, Spring). Islam and Armageddon: Looking Behind the Myths. Free Inquiry, 22, 36+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Benthall, J. (2004). Islam in Europe. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10(3), 733+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Gottlieb, S.F., Williams, K.J., Dale, L., Balch, M., Wile, F., Kupersmith, W., et al. (2005, March). Islam and Europe. Commentary, 119, 8+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Hunter, S.T. (Ed.). (2002). Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape / . Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:

Teacher Rights and Responsibilities in
Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94484867
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esponding to hate crimes

Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).


Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.

eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.

Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from


Black's law dictionary. (1990).…


Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.

Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.

Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from 


Media Framing in Relation to
Words: 3388 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62570744
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The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…

Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.

Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.

Terrorism and the Media What Is the Relationship
Words: 504 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 49830241
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media is in the "War on Terror?" Why? Do you believe that the terrorism and the media have a symbiotic relationship (they benefit from each other)? Why or why not?

The media has undeniably played a positive role at times in keeping the public informed about critical developments during times of crisis, including the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. However, it is also true that certain elements of the media have profited from capitalizing upon the public's fears of terrorism. This phenomenon is not exclusive to terrorism. The familiar phrase 'if it bleeds, it leads' has likewise been applied to crime. The local news in many areas has created a pervasive sense that crime is increasing based upon publicizing sensationalistic cases, even though technically the rates of violent crime are falling. "Presentation of large amounts of local crime news engenders increased fear among the larger public…The effect of local news…


Dowler, K. (2003). Media consumption and public attitudes towards crime and justice. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 10(2): 109-126. Retrieved from: 

Pappas, S. (2012). Negative portrayals of Muslims get more media attention. Live Science.

Retrieved from:

Literacy Short Assgts Reading Fadi Awwad My
Words: 1414 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38479842
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Literacy Short Assgts

READING. Fadi Awwad

My Reading Engagement Journal for Chapter 3

I already knew about the need for sensitivity to cultural differences in the classroom because I was raised in a devout Muslim home (that was also an American home), and the years corresponding to my own secondary education were years in American life where a kind of noxious Islamophobia very frequently poisoned public discourse. I am grateful to the extent that I had teachers who were able to rise above the level of Fox News idiocy.

I want to know more about the use of graphic novels in teaching content area literacy, as described by Vacca and Mraz on pages 79-80, because I happen to be a fan of a particular graphic novel, Palestine by Joe Sacco, which describes the artist's experiences staying on the Gaza Strip in 1991-1992. If graphic novels are an easier way to…

Race Class Gender Power
Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68361468
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Cultural identity formation theories reveal the intersections between race, class, gender, sexuality, status, self-concept, and power. Applying critical race theory and racial identity development models to social work can prove tremendously helpful and promotes the overall goals of the profession. It is not just about becoming more culturally competent and aware of structural racism and other factors that might be affecting clients; the work of increasing cultural competence means becoming more self-aware. Learning about my own cultural identity formation helps me to recognize any biases that I have picked up from environmental cues. Moreover, increasing cultural competence depends on honesty and insight. It is one thing to intellectually understand that racism is psychologically and socially traumatic for people, but quite another to recognize the ways racism has affected my own perceptions and cognitions.

My plan to increase cultural competence includes daily journaling about my inner thoughts as well as my…


Abrams, L.S. & Moio, J.A. (2009). Critical race theory and the cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education 45(2).

Hud-Aleem, R. & Countryman, J. (2008). Biracial identity development and recommendations in therapy. Psychiatry (Edgemont) 5(11): 37-44.

National Association of Social Workers (2001). NASW standards for cultural competence. Retrieved online:

Sue, D.W., Jackson, K.F., Rasheed, M.N. & Rasheed, J.M. (2016). Multicultural Social Work Practice. John Wiley.

The Effect Of Advisory Participation In The Adolescent Years
Words: 5057 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 45255653
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The Issue of Students of Arab Descent

Scope for Advisory Participation groups

ole of Involvement from Parents as External Stakeholders

Barriers and Facilitators to Parent Involvement

Advisory Participation and Policy Implications

elation between Parental Involvement and Child Growth

The ole of Native Americans in Interventions

Traditional Parenting Practices


Middle Eastern Students: Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years - Grades 8-9

It is believed that when children and adolescents take part in group activities, they experience better social and psychological health. Indeed, it has also been documented that participating in team sports leads to positive health outcomes. Analysts observe that such eventuality accrues from the social dimension that team sports provide. The positive involvement by adults and peers enhances such gains (ochelle M. Eime, Janet A Young, Jack T. Harvey, Melanie J. Charity, & Warren . Payne, 2013). eader advisory techniques; applied with youthful patrons present an…


Abdul Tawab, N., Saher, S., & Nawawi, N. (2013). Learning About Youth. New York: Population Council.

Aghajanian, A., & Cong, W. (2012). How Culture Affects on English Language Learners' (ELL's) Outcomes, with Middle East Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 172-180.

Alnawar, H. (2015). Raising Teachers' Cultural Knowledge of Middle Eastern Students in The Classroom. California State University - Capstones and Theses.

Badri, M., Al Quabaisi, A., Al Rashedi, A., & Yang, G. (2014). The causal relationship between parental involvement and children's behavioural adjustment to KG-1 schooling. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy.

Muslim Youth Identity in biculturalism america
Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51982004
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Identity and Identity Construction

Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…

Muslims as an Ethnicity in the United States
Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78939205
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Muslims in America

The status of Muslims in America changed radically in the wake of 9/11 (Sheridan, 2006). A small population by percentage (American-Muslims are only 1% of the U.S. population) (Besheer, 2016), Muslims nonetheless received the vast bulk of negative attention and backlash following the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. As an ethnic group, Muslims were well-connected both domestically and internationally -- and many Muslims reached out to the U.S. government post-9/11 in an effort to work with federal agencies to help address the issues arising from the climate of terror (Mantri, 2011). Haddad (2001) writing prior to the 9/11 attacks stated that Muslims in the U.S. "have mostly lived on the margins" of the nation's "political life," have a high degree of "ethnic diversity" within their own groups, and lack the political experience needed for "political integration" in America (p. 91). At the same time,…

Muslim Women in Eastern and Western Literature
Words: 2457 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85808404
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The Representation of Muslim Women in Eastern and Western Literature: A Comparison

Representations of women in Middle Eastern literature represent a means by which the appreciation, perspective and overall role of women and how they are viewed by society can be determined. While some argue that literature and actually lived daily life are separate, literature serves as a measuring stick by which one can ascertain a definitive viewpoint on what the experience of being a Muslim woman is, and how such women are viewed. Literature can tell one volumes about how societies work and underscore the role that women play or don’t play and how others see them. While both eastern and western literature is incredibly vast, it is possible to get a definitive sense of how Muslim women are viewed; however, it is possible to get an overall sense of certain trends that arise over and over. This paper…

sociology feminism and the'symbolism of the hejab
Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 49051470
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Problem, Puzzle, Research Questions
The author critically examines all types of social controls on women, but focuses on laws related to the hejab in Iran. Neghibi (1999) claims that the Shah’s law that forbade the hejab and the Ayatollah’s mandatory hejab law had an ironically similar overall effect of controlling women’s bodies through a patriarchal state. The main difference is that the former aligned national identities in Iran with Western norms, and the Ayatollah/revolutionary approach created a national identity based on anti-Western and fundamentalist Muslim norms.
Theories and Concepts
The author works within several related theoretical frameworks: namely feminism, post-colonialism, and critical theory. Related concepts include the differentiation between the public and private space, the construction of gender norms, oppression, and the failure of feminism to find a universal voice. Another core concept is symbolism and symbolic-interactionism: the way the hejab can represent identity, rebellion, and subversion depending on how…