Islamophobia and the Media
Islam is a minority religion in America, and many Americans have never had contact with Muslims. As a result, a substantial portion of the American population relies on the media for information about Islam and related topics like the Middle East. Since September 11, but arguably before that watershed event, the news media has built a platform of fear against terrorism but against Islam in particular. Although the so-called "mainstream" media is typically criticized for being anti-Islam, smaller news outlets not necessarily owned by the corporate media conglomerates have also started to substantiate the fear mongering that perpetuates Islamophobia in the United States. However, "conservative" media sources like Fox News tend to sensationalize Islam in order to generate sensational or controversial content for their viewers. In 2010, Pew Research found evidence that indicates political conservatism is linked to holding negative views on Muslims and Islam (Ogan,…… [Read More]
Misconceptions About Sharia Law
Much Islamophobia is grounded in misguided assumptions about Islam and particularly about Sharia law. According to Ali (2014), "nearly two dozen state legislatures" have proposed laws banning Sharia without developing even a modicum of understanding of what Sharia law is, and what it entails (Ali, 2014, p. 1027). Sharia law is central to Islam and to Muslim identity and practice, but only small fraction -- five percent -- of Sharia law addresses criminal law; the majority of Sharia law impacts personal matters including religious rituals and obligations (Ali, 2014). Sharia law is really just a "moral code," derived from Quran, Hadith, Ijma (scholarly consensus), and Qiyas (analysis) (Ali, 2014, p. 1063-4). About 25% of Sharia law concerns matters related to family, dietary custom, and economic practices, which are personal or private issues and not relevant to public policy (Ali, 2014). While some Muslim nations have embraced…… [Read More]
Ali, Y. (2012). Shariah and citizenship. California Law Review 100:1027
Ali (2012) focuses on the pernicious trend towards institutionalized Islamophobia and racism in America. Starting with the 2010 "Save Our State" amendment in Oklahoma, several states have adopted similar approaches that essentially legislate discrimination. According to the author, such legislation is not only based on mistruth and has no basis in fact or evidence; the legislation is overtly unconstitutional and deprives Muslim Americans of their legal rights and protections. Anti-Muslim legislation creates a "second class citizenship" class for Muslims. Moreover, Ali (2012) clarifies the nature and definition of Sharia law and shows that Sharia law has been grossly distorted by the media. What is frequently called "Sharia" is actually a set of personal religious obligations and practices, not the inhumane punishments sensationalized by the media. The author also provides policy recommendations.
This article is instrumental in a cogent discussion about…… [Read More]
Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-Muslim
sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3): 292-309.
his article examines the "nuanced" expressions of anti-Muslim sentiment in the West with a focus on the specific expressions linking Muslims to acts of terroristic violence. he attitudes are tested in the U.S., UK, France, Germany and Spain. he study concludes that the higher level of education an individual has, the less likely he or she is to demonstrate Islamophobia. he study also reveals that a substantial number of Westerners believe that Muslims in general "support al-Qaeda" and this belief grows the more that one's immediate existence (physical or cultural) is perceived to be threatened by acts of terror. Overall, the point of the article is that Islamophobia is greatest in the West and has, indeed, reached "unprecedented levels" (p. 307). his is due primarily to a lack of understanding…… [Read More]
This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002)
The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes "...community respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…… [Read More]
isk Management of Terrorism in the UK
The issue of designing a risk management strategy for terrorism in the UK is dependent upon understanding and identifying the commensurate risks attendant with the various extremists groups that are perceived as threats to the UK's safety and infrastructural stability. Challenges include adopting an intelligence and surveillance system, educating the public regarding attendant trouble spots (such as retaliatory violence and discrimination as well as purpose of surveillance) and adopting a position in the global network that facilitates the overall mitigation of threats. The benefits are evident in control and prevention results and good practice recommendations are provided in the conclusion. This study gives a contextual assessment of the risks facing the UK, analyzes the components of risk management that can be utilized to alleviate these risks, defines the term "terror," examines the historical challenges that coincide with these components, and discusses the benefits…… [Read More]
Immigration and the Muslim Population
9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality'," in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions, Ed. Ronald…… [Read More]
Islam and Terrorism
Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?
Background of Islam
Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam
Public Opinion Polls
Islam in the Media
There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."
Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…… [Read More]
While so many concerned world leaders, politicians, and social services professionals have bemoaned the physical and materials consequences of the Syrian Civil War on displaced persons, there is an even greater issue at stake. This issue has largely been ignored by experts. This issue is the existential crises afflicting so many displaced people: the loss of identity. The bulk of this presentation explores the idea that if one’s present is suddenly put into a state of upheaval (as though the rug has been pulled out from under one) it can shift how solidly and lucidly one views one’s own identity. Such a state is exacerbated even further when this occurs and the future is also in limbo: it can heighten the sense of a shattered identity. Hence, this presentation will explore how these impacts of a dissociated or disintegrated identity are manifesting with Syrian refugees.
The need for immediate survival…… [Read More]
Muslims have been hospitalized and, one Muslim paralyzed. The anti-Muslim spirit is also represented by the media. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding, and the report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated"( Allen & Nielsen (2002). Such actions, happening too in America, flagrantly transgress our constitutional rights. Islamic immigrants, facing such treatment, may not recognize that nor know what to do. The book is, therefore, not only current but also original and needed. I would simply need to find more appropriate tools and the correct audience in order to make it the success that it can.
Areas for improvements. Plan for improving work
I would do the following:
1. I would clearly define my…… [Read More]
Globalization and Cultural Conflict
The authors (Gardner, et al., 2008, Author House, 82-83) explain that several IT and business professionals have been hired to transfer a business from an existing system to a completely automated system. This project was launched prior to the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. The key question comes down to a leadership scenario: hat leadership approach should be taken when two out of a dozen talented contractors that have been hired happen to be Islamic, and those two individuals ask for an hour off every Friday for religious purposes? This paper delves into that subject using narrative from the available literature, and from two books: Corporate Leadership Selection: Impact on American Business, Employees, and Society; and Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success.
Gardner, et al., on Leadership
As an introduction to what Reginald J. Gardner writes about leadership in…… [Read More]
Homegrown Terrorism by Mantri (2011) looks at the phenomenon of homegrown terrorism in the United States. It shows that the nature of the threat of domestic terrorism is not comparable to the type of existential threat that the U.S. experienced throughout the duration of the Cold War. Nonetheless, the reality of homegrown terrorism is one that has to be confronted, and the Department of Homeland Security appears to be unable to effectively confront the issue, as the recent string of domestic terror attacks indicates (Mantri, 2011). The article recommends that the U.S. "harness the innate goodwill" of Americans overseas in an effort to combat the growth of domestic radicalization and domestic terrorism (Mantri, 2011, p. 88).
The key findings and issues of the article are that radicalization and homegrown terrorism are occurring in the U.S. in spite of the efforts of Homeland Security and other government agencies. Data is gathered…… [Read More]
Essay 2: In what collegiate extracurriculars did you engage? (400 characters)
As Vice President of Phi Kappa Sigma, I co-managed the annual $30k budget, participated in 100+ hours of community service, volunteered for the Rutgers Dance Marathon, raised funds for the Embrace the Kids Foundation, and organized the annual Phi-Esta fundraiser for the Eric Legrand’s Foundation with several other fraternities. I also volunteered for the Leukemia Lymphoma Society.
Essay 3: Did you work for compensation during college during the year or the summer? (300 Word limit)
Yes, every summer I worked full-time. During the summers of my undergraduate career, I worked at Selco Associates, a distribution and warehousing company. There I coordinated with management personnel to provide high quality customer service. I also managed apparel and footwear inventory for major companies and assisted in opening new accounts. This experience helped me to develop communication, organization, and problem-solving skills that I…… [Read More]
A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…… [Read More]
Firearms Legislation and Firearms-Related Violence in Europe
This paper examines the relationship between firearms legislation and gun-related violence across countries and regions in Europe. The focus of the paper is to identify possible sources of literature to help answer questions regarding whether legislation is an effective tool in reducing firearms-related violence. The paper focuses on variance of gun violence rates throughout Europe, gun legislation, and possible national strategies for addressing the issue of gun violence. It finds that there are many variables that impact regions and can effect greater or lesser rates of gun violence -- factors such as education, culture, economic stability, political instability, and so on. No two countries are the same in terms of people, customs, traditions, ideals, and execution of the law. It is therefore important to better understand how culture plays a role in determining the effects of firearms-related violence in throughout Europe. This information…… [Read More]
For this purpose it has set-up National Anti-acism Partnership and Strategy (Stone, 2008). This strategy will be making alliance with various departments like Department of Immigration and Citizenship, the Australian human rights commission and the ace Discrimination Commissioner, Australian multicultural advisory council etc.
Multicultural Arts and Festivals Grants: In response to multicultural Australian society, Australian government to take care of all its citizens have decided to execute Diversity and social Cohesion Programs from multicultural arts and festivals small grants. This provides a platform for all Australians to learn about each other's cultures and traditions.
Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Program: For the purpose of creating network and connection between the youth from diverse cultural backgrounds, Australian government has taken a step in establishing Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Programs. Australian Sports Commission (ASC) will be managing this program (Howard, 2005).
Australia with its cultural mix has adopted Multicultural Policy with the…… [Read More]
The ultimate implication of the events of 9/11 is that Islam has become, as a result of American foreign policy, economic patterns and military endeavors, a hostile and radicalized culture. This is largely based on perceptions in the Islamic orld that the estern orld acts with favoritism toward Israel in diplomacy, demonstrates a tendency to exploit Arab states with military acts and pursues opportunistic relationships based on its dependence on Mid-East oil. One of the reasons that is most noted for anger with the estern orld by Muslim leaders of state and by the average Islamist residing in the Middle East, is the fact that the United States has so strongly supported Israeli statehood.
The Mamdani (2004) text captures this geopolitical disposition particularly well, indicating that the United States, the U.S.S.R. And other global powers helped to create the current Islamic cultural tendencies toward violence and armed resistance. Mamdani notes…… [Read More]
These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.
A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…… [Read More]
esponding to hate crimes
Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Black's law dictionary. (1990).…… [Read More]
The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…… [Read More]
media is in the "War on Terror?" Why? Do you believe that the terrorism and the media have a symbiotic relationship (they benefit from each other)? Why or why not?
The media has undeniably played a positive role at times in keeping the public informed about critical developments during times of crisis, including the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. However, it is also true that certain elements of the media have profited from capitalizing upon the public's fears of terrorism. This phenomenon is not exclusive to terrorism. The familiar phrase 'if it bleeds, it leads' has likewise been applied to crime. The local news in many areas has created a pervasive sense that crime is increasing based upon publicizing sensationalistic cases, even though technically the rates of violent crime are falling. "Presentation of large amounts of local crime news engenders increased fear among the larger public…The effect of local news…… [Read More]
Literacy Short Assgts
READING. Fadi Awwad
My Reading Engagement Journal for Chapter 3
I already knew about the need for sensitivity to cultural differences in the classroom because I was raised in a devout Muslim home (that was also an American home), and the years corresponding to my own secondary education were years in American life where a kind of noxious Islamophobia very frequently poisoned public discourse. I am grateful to the extent that I had teachers who were able to rise above the level of Fox News idiocy.
I want to know more about the use of graphic novels in teaching content area literacy, as described by Vacca and Mraz on pages 79-80, because I happen to be a fan of a particular graphic novel, Palestine by Joe Sacco, which describes the artist's experiences staying on the Gaza Strip in 1991-1992. If graphic novels are an easier way to…… [Read More]
Cultural identity formation theories reveal the intersections between race, class, gender, sexuality, status, self-concept, and power. Applying critical race theory and racial identity development models to social work can prove tremendously helpful and promotes the overall goals of the profession. It is not just about becoming more culturally competent and aware of structural racism and other factors that might be affecting clients; the work of increasing cultural competence means becoming more self-aware. Learning about my own cultural identity formation helps me to recognize any biases that I have picked up from environmental cues. Moreover, increasing cultural competence depends on honesty and insight. It is one thing to intellectually understand that racism is psychologically and socially traumatic for people, but quite another to recognize the ways racism has affected my own perceptions and cognitions.
My plan to increase cultural competence includes daily journaling about my inner thoughts as well as my…… [Read More]
The Issue of Students of Arab Descent
Scope for Advisory Participation groups
ole of Involvement from Parents as External Stakeholders
Barriers and Facilitators to Parent Involvement
Advisory Participation and Policy Implications
elation between Parental Involvement and Child Growth
The ole of Native Americans in Interventions
Traditional Parenting Practices
Middle Eastern Students: Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years - Grades 8-9
It is believed that when children and adolescents take part in group activities, they experience better social and psychological health. Indeed, it has also been documented that participating in team sports leads to positive health outcomes. Analysts observe that such eventuality accrues from the social dimension that team sports provide. The positive involvement by adults and peers enhances such gains (ochelle M. Eime, Janet A Young, Jack T. Harvey, Melanie J. Charity, & Warren . Payne, 2013). eader advisory techniques; applied with youthful patrons present an…… [Read More]
Identity and Identity Construction
Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…… [Read More]
Muslims in America
The status of Muslims in America changed radically in the wake of 9/11 (Sheridan, 2006). A small population by percentage (American-Muslims are only 1% of the U.S. population) (Besheer, 2016), Muslims nonetheless received the vast bulk of negative attention and backlash following the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. As an ethnic group, Muslims were well-connected both domestically and internationally -- and many Muslims reached out to the U.S. government post-9/11 in an effort to work with federal agencies to help address the issues arising from the climate of terror (Mantri, 2011). Haddad (2001) writing prior to the 9/11 attacks stated that Muslims in the U.S. "have mostly lived on the margins" of the nation's "political life," have a high degree of "ethnic diversity" within their own groups, and lack the political experience needed for "political integration" in America (p. 91). At the same time,…… [Read More]
The Representation of Muslim Women in Eastern and Western Literature: A Comparison
Representations of women in Middle Eastern literature represent a means by which the appreciation, perspective and overall role of women and how they are viewed by society can be determined. While some argue that literature and actually lived daily life are separate, literature serves as a measuring stick by which one can ascertain a definitive viewpoint on what the experience of being a Muslim woman is, and how such women are viewed. Literature can tell one volumes about how societies work and underscore the role that women play or don’t play and how others see them. While both eastern and western literature is incredibly vast, it is possible to get a definitive sense of how Muslim women are viewed; however, it is possible to get an overall sense of certain trends that arise over and over. This paper…… [Read More]
Problem, Puzzle, Research Questions
The author critically examines all types of social controls on women, but focuses on laws related to the hejab in Iran. Neghibi (1999) claims that the Shah’s law that forbade the hejab and the Ayatollah’s mandatory hejab law had an ironically similar overall effect of controlling women’s bodies through a patriarchal state. The main difference is that the former aligned national identities in Iran with Western norms, and the Ayatollah/revolutionary approach created a national identity based on anti-Western and fundamentalist Muslim norms.
Theories and Concepts
The author works within several related theoretical frameworks: namely feminism, post-colonialism, and critical theory. Related concepts include the differentiation between the public and private space, the construction of gender norms, oppression, and the failure of feminism to find a universal voice. Another core concept is symbolism and symbolic-interactionism: the way the hejab can represent identity, rebellion, and subversion depending on how…… [Read More]