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Upon leaving the military Robison found work with the Negro League Kansas City Monarchs. The orld ar II years marked the heyday of the Negro Leagues. ith black and white worker flooding into Northern industrial centers, with relatively full employment, and with a scarcity of available consumer goods, attendance at all sorts of entertainment events increased dramatically. In 1942 three million fans saw Negro League teams play, and the East-est game in 1943 attracted over fifty-one thousand fans
In 1945, during his only season with the Monarchs, Robinson played shortstop, and excelled on the bases. His success with the Monarchs determined sportswriter endell Smith to arrange a tryout with the Boston Red Sox for Robinson and two other African-American players from the Negro Leagues. However, they were not signed, and the Red Sox would become the only Major League team to integrate, in 1959 when they would enroll their first…
Dorinson, Joseph and Joram Warmund. Jackie Robinson: race, sports, and the American dream. M.E. Sharpe, 1998.
Demo, David H. And Michael Hughes.. Socialization and Racial Identity Among Black Americans. Social Psychology Quarterly 53 no.4 (1990): 364-374.
Fenster, Kenneth R. Earl Mann, Nat Peeples and the Failed Attempt of Integration in the Southern Association. Nine, Vol. 12 (2004): 23-41.
Heaphy, Leslie. Shutout: A Story of Race and Baseball in Boston. Nine 14 (2005).
hen Johnson defeated Jeffries, however, it unleashed white violence against blacks nationwide. "In ashington, D.C., the ashington Bee reported, 'hite ruffians showed their teeth and attacked almost every colored person they saw upon the public streets'."
Similar events occurred in New York City and tiny towns in the deep South. By the time Jackie Robinson left the Negro Leagues, the backlash was not nearly so pronounced. Arguably, the Negro Leagues kept violence at bay, while producing athletes of exceptional quality without risking Jim Crow law violence.
That, of course, is shining a favorable light on a tradition that is not worthy of accolade, and that arguably prevented numerous black ballplayers from receiving a fraction of their worth.
Today, few people understand the sociological factors that prevented black and white baseball players from competition with each other, as opponents or as members of racially mixed teams. They therefore know even…
Ayers, Edward L. 1993. The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1994. "Jack Johnson and the great white hope: historic boxer. Ebony, April. Available from www.findarticles.com. Accessed 7 February 2005.
Big Labor Day Celebration," (original document) Norfolk Journal and Guide, 8 September, 1917; available at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5054/ . Accessed 7 February 2005.
Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson." 2004. International Tap Association, 13 December. Available from. http://www.tapdance.org/tap/people/bojangle.htm . Accessed 9 February 2005.
But he didn't tell me that my aunt would help them do it'" (Gaines, 79). Grant believes at this point that dignity is something he can only find -- and is supposed to find -- outside of his community and away from the relationships and ties that he has there, including his maternal bond to his aunt.
As the novel progresses, however, Grant begins to realize how necessary the community is to his own happiness, if not his very survival. This transformation is not complete by the end of the novel, but Grant has begun to change or at least question many of his beliefs, including his attitude towards God and religion, and certainly in his attitude, hopes, and feelings for Jefferson. Perhaps most telling in Grant's search for dignity and identity within his community is his relationship with Vivian. Though she is still married and the relationship is therefore…
Gaines, Ernest J. A Lesson Before Dying. New York: Random House, 1994
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
And while those parts in the movie were partially fictional, it made honest, historically valid points. In fact Matthew Broderick played the role of Col. Robert Gould Shaw, and this was a true representation of an actual Union Army officer who led the 54th.
Another message this movie conveyed was that racism was almost always present in society in the 19th century; that is, white soldiers in many cases were racist against the black troops even though they were fighting on the same side. The black and white soldiers were both fighting to rid the nation of slavery and yet there was reluctance on the part of some white soldiers to accept black men as equals in battle. Seeing the film this week after having seen "42," the story of Jackie Robinson getting into Major League Baseball, I see strong parallels. Even though Jackie was a great player, some white…
Massachusetts Historical Society (2002). 54th Regiment! Retrieved July 28, 2013, from http://www.masshist.org .
Roles, Duties, and Influence of uffalo Soldiers in the United States
Despite the fact that uffalo Soldiers and their accomplishments may not be known by many, they played an integral role in the construction and expansion of the United States as it is known today. While the uffalo Soldiers as a cavalry only lasted from 1866 to 1944, their influence has had a lasting impact. Furthermore, they helped to pave the way for future African-American leaders and deserve to not only be recognized for their valuable services, but also need to be remembered as role models.
On July 28, 1866, the United States Congress passed legislation to establish two segregated cavalry units, the 9th and 10th regiments, and four segregated infantry regiments, the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st, which were to be made up of black, enlisted men.[footnoteRef:1] These six different units were later consolidated into four black regiments in…
Buffalo Soldiers Research Museum. "Who Were the Buffalo Soldiers?" Accessed June 11, 2013. http://www.buffalosoldiersresearchmuseum.org/who.htm
Davis, Stanford L. "Buffalo Soldiers & Indian Wars." Accessed June 11, 2013.
Glasrud, Bruce A. "Buffalo Soldiers." Oklahoma Historical Society. Accessed June 11, 2013. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/b/bu005.html.
Hank Aaron is a household name in baseball, one of the most important and influential players in any sport. The reasons for Hank Aaron's success go far beyond his athletic abilities and talents as a player -- for which he is obviously renowned -- but to his sportsmanship, his civil rights activism, and for his overall character. Aaron contributed tremendously to the sport of baseball by injecting his values and ideals into the game.
Born Henry Louis Allen, Hank was born in Mobile, Alabama in what has widely been described as a "humble" and economically underprivileged circumstances ("Hank Aaron," n.d.). Segregation and overt, politically and socially sanctioned racism was a part of life in the America that Hank knew. Hank admitted he was bitten by the baseball bug at a young age, and was already "showing prowess" when he was just four years old (Vascellaro 2). Clearly a child prodigy…
I plan to begin my engagement of a degree in the healthcare profession at Rochester this coming fall semester, guided by the desire to gaining knowledge and experience in a demanding but vital field.
My experiences in coming to understand the challenges inherent to the healthcare profession will be a compass as I seek my future path. The symbiotic relationship between the brain and the body is not only fascinating in its dynamic but is also a crucial element of our increasingly more powerful capacity as a species to treat human illness, both physical and neurological. An extremely potent agent of circumstance, the mind's well-being is as relevant a part of one's willingness to endure and recover from malady as is the body's responsiveness to medicine, treatment and other healthcare measures. The effective medical practitioner of the future will be equipped to take into consideration both the body and the…
The article remarks with respect to asphalt that "a baseball will get ruined on a surface like this: it's too dense and hard for asphalt or brick, and the canvas-like surface of the ball will get chewed up. Not to mention other problems: in densely populated areas, there are a lot houses near school yards with glass windows, and we all know what happens when a baseball hits a glass window. To sum it up: while baseball is a romantically American game, and was without question our most popular pastime for about 50 years, you can't play it in the city." (Beccary, 1) Foregoing this blanket statement -- given the evolution of inner-city athletic youth programs in recent decades -- the point of Beccary's remarks remains useful. Namely, the unique game that was stickball would come to fruition in response to the desire to play baseball and the absence of…
Beccary, G. (2007). A Complete History of Stickball. Greg's Words of Wisdom. Online at http://gregswords.wordpress.com/2007/04/07/a-complete-history-of-stickball/
Curry, J. (1989). Beyond Nostalgia: Reviving a Tough Game of Stickball. The New York Times. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/09/nyregion/beyond-nostalgia-reviving-a-tough-game-of-stickball.html
Devlin, B. (2009). Making a Phillies Fan: Always Imagining You Were a Phillie. The New York Times. Online at http://bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/making-a-phillies-fan-always-imagining-you-were-a-phillie/
Greene, M. (2004). Stickball Hall of Fame. Streetplay. Online at http://www.streetplay.com/stickball/halloffame/
A work of non-fiction does not have to be about a person, however. Non-fiction work can include theories of social studies, presented in interesting and new ways. Non-fiction is tremendously helpful in lesson planning because the prose elucidates issues in subjects like science and social studies.
Question 6: Although she is not remembered as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, Marian Anderson's life contributed to some of the reforms that African-American citizens demanded. Discuss how her voice "challenged" a nation.
Marian Anderson was an accomplished African-American singer. Anderson broke the color barrier in the arts, just as Jackie Robinson did in sports. Anderson's success challenged prevailing social norms, as she became a visible figure in America's most elite concert halls. Anderson began indirectly using her voice as a political tool, channeling her success into achieving broader civil rights goals.
Question 7: Describe how the city of Philadelphia, its…
American Library Association. "Terms and Criteria." Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/alsc/awardsgrants/bookmedia/newberymedal/newberyterms/newberyterms.cfm
"Yellow Fever Attacks, 1793" Eye Witness to History. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yellowfever.htm
Simple exposure to diversity is not an adequate method for eliminating the perception of racial divisions. In fact, studies that examined the levels of integration in schools found that the more diverse a student population was, the more likely the students were to self-segregate based on race. That is, with more people of other races around them, students of all races were more likely to be friends solely or primarily with members of their own racially identified group. Larger studies have concluded that white males in high school list another white male as their best friend ninety-two percent of the time, with African-American males coming in at an only slightly lower percentage of 85% towards self-selecting friends of their own race. All of this leads the authors to suggest that children be talked to about race the same way they are talked to regarding gender, with regular reinforcement of equality…
American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…
Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.
Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html .
Editors (2008). African-American odyssey. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html .
, in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He spearheaded the Aug., 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize." (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2003)
However, King's leadership in the civil-rights movement was challenged in the mid-1960s as others such as Malcolm X grew more militant. Indeed, his life paralleled the life of his hero Mahatma Gandhi. The originator of the nonviolent protest, Gandhi too took criticism as more militant colleagues pushed against non-violence in his later years.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s interests, however, broadened from civil rights to subsume criticism of the Vietnam War and a deeper concern over poverty. His plans for a Poor People's March to Washington were interrupted (1968) for a trip to Memphis, Tenn., in support of striking sanitation workers. On Apr. 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of…
Adams, Russell. (1963) Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. (1964) What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson.
Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968.
African-American Desk Reference. (2005). Thomas W. Burton. New York: Schaumberg.
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
27). King very definitely understood the challenges facing the movement for justice. He knew he couldn't master all of the challenges but he was effective at planting the seeds of change in the hearts and minds of his followers. In Chapter 3 the authors discuss "cross-cultural communication" and King's "Dream" speech (and his "Letter") both communicated vital messages not just to blacks, but to all of America. King's "Dream" speech ended with words that embraced many cultures: "…all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics…" will join hands and sing "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
Chapter 2 -- Leadership: The Case of the Healthcare Organization CIO
Chapter 3 -- Communicating Across Cultures
Cherry, K. (2013). Transformational Leadership. About.com. Retrieved June 14, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com.
Goodwin, J.L., Houghton, J.D., Neck, C.P., and Mohan,…
Chapter 2 -- Leadership: The Case of the Healthcare Organization CIO
Chapter 3 -- Communicating Across Cultures
Cherry, K. (2013). Transformational Leadership. About.com. Retrieved June 14, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com .
Goodwin, J.L., Houghton, J.D., Neck, C.P., and Mohan, E.C. (2011). Dr. Martin Luther King,
Playwright August ilson won two Pulitzers in his illustrious career. In The Pittsburgh Cycle, ilson wrote a series of plays each depicting a different decade in the lives of African-Americans living in the United States. Of these, Fences, takes place in the 1950s and features the problems not only of the African-American experience, but also the situation of societal oppression indicative of that period. At the heart of the play is protagonist Troy Maxson. His actions result in comedy and tragedy for all of the characters around him, making him the center of this universe that ilson has created, representing the tumultuous time period in which the play takes place. August ilson has stated that the character is based upon his own step-father, David Bedford providing the story with an autobiographical context. ilson uses his own perception of his step-father in order to illustrate a story about the difficulties…
Bryer, Jackson R., and Mary C. Hartig. Conversations with August Wilson. Jackson: University
of Mississippi, 2006. Print.
Clark, Keith. "Reflections on Baseball, Gunshots, and War Wounds in August Wilson's Fences."
Contemporary Black Men's Fiction and Drama. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2001.
Race, Class, Gender Journal
Word Count (excluding title and works cited page): 1048
Race, Class, and Gender is an anthology of articles that express various interpretation and insights of the relationship between race, class, and gender and how these things shape the lives of people and society. he topics and points-of-view offered in the anthology are vast and interesting. hey offer a strong historical and sociological perspective on such issues as prison populations, the working poor, or the life of Muslims in the United States. his journal is my personal reflection after reading this book. How did the reading make me feel? Did any of the readings make me feel uncomfortable? Was there any part of the book that rang true with me? Were any of the articles disturbing, shocking, surprising, or impressive? Finally, an original poem will be included in response to the experience of reading Race, Class, and…
L., M, & Hill, P. (2007). Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology. Wadsworth Publishing Company, KY
Fences (Wilson, 1986) August Wilson, one of America's preeminent black playwrights presents the mercurial nature of one, Troy Maxson. Not much effort is needed before the real and metaphorical fences become evident. Delving deeper into Troy's character unearths the fence that distinguishes his "makeup": vacillation between a sober, responsible person from one that is self-destructive.
Troy Maxson, a son of a share-cropper, leaves the deep-south, escaping from his father's brutality. He reaches Pittsburgh where a black man does not find a place among a burgeoning, blue-collar, middle class. He lives on the streets. He steals. In this part of his life he finds a woman, gets married and has a son -- Lyons. He then spends fifteen years in jail for stealing. eing rehabilitated, he plays baseball and becomes a star in the Negro Leagues -- though no note-worthy financial compensations are forthcoming; he considers himself better than "Jackie Robinson."…
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Penguin, 1986.
Forces Beyond Their Control -- hat does not kill you, makes you stronger in the fairy tale as well as the real world
The idea that what does not kill or harm you makes you stronger is a popular cliche. However, in many fairy tales, this theme is underlined by the introduction of a protagonist whom is regarded as weak or strange by society, but whose personal gifts not only enable him to overcome this negative self and societal impression, but also ultimately help him or her to deploy what at first seemed to be a negative characteristic, in a positive fashion.
For instance, at the beginning of the first Harry Potter book, the young Harry Potter is a wizard whom is still unaware of his identity. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Harry Potter is forced to live amongst Muggles, of whom he is the disfavored son,…
Hamilton, Virginia. (1985) The People Could Fly. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers.
Rowling, J.K. (1991) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Bloomsbury.
Lord, Bette. (1984). The Year of the Boar.
movie industry in America has been controlled by some of the monolithic companies which not only provided a place for making the movies, but also made the movies themselves and then distributed it throughout the entire country. These are movie companies and their entire image revolved around the number of participants of their films. People who wanted to see the movies being made had to go to the studios in order to see them. They made movies in a profitable manner for the sake of the studios, but placed the entire industry under their control and dominated over it. The discussion here is about some of those famous studios inclusive of that of names like Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Culver, RKO, Paramount Studios, Warner Bros, 20th Century Fox, Walt Disney Studios, Universal Studios, Raleigh Studio, Hollywood Center Studio, Sunset Gower Studio, Ren-Mar Studios, Charlie Chaplin Studios and now, Manhattan Beach Studio.…
"What better way to annoy the Hollywood liberals than to remind them every single day that
George W. Bush is STILL the President?" Retrieved from https://www.donationreport.com/init/controller/ProcessEntryCmd?key=O8S0T5C8U2 Accessed 15 September, 2005
"What's interesting about the business is that it's no longer the movie business" Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hollywood/picture/corptown.html Accessed 14 September, 2005
In that book, which Munoz claims was just a "long interview with a fictitious journalist," Pinochet portrays himself as a life-long "anti-Communist," and he recounts an experience he had as an army officer in Pisagua, a prison where communists were incarcerated. "The more I knew those prisoners and listened to their thoughts, while, at the same time, I studied Marx and Engels, the more I became convinced that we were mistaken about the Communist Party," Pinochet wrote. "It was not just another party… it was a system that turns things on their heads, dismissing any loyalty…" he continued (Munoz, 2008, p. 28). As though justifying the cruelty he perpetrated on thousands of civilians -- in the name of him keeping a grip on his dictatorship -- he said he was "…troubled that these pernicious and contaminating ideas could continue and spread throughout Chile" (Pinochet quoted by Munoz, p. 28).
Amnesty International. "Libya: Rule of Law or Rule of Militias?" Retrieved July 19, 2012,
from http://www.amnesty.org .
Bellamy, Alex J. "Human Wrongs in Kosovo: 1974-99." The International Journal of Human
Rights. 4.3/4 (2000): 105-122.