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Baldwin and 'Down on the Cross' Not
Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57536631
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Baldwin and 'Down on the Coss'

Not eveything that is faced can be changed but nothing can be changed until it is faced."

James Baldwin

The now flouishing talent of James Baldwin had no easy bith, and he did not emege ovenight, as some of his new discovees would have you believe. Fo yeas this talent was in incubation in the ghetto of Halem, befoe he went to Euope nealy a decade ago in an attempt to discove the United States and how he and his people elate to it. The book in which that discovey is potayed, The Fie Next Time (New Yok: Dial Pess, 1963), is a continuation of his seach fo place and definition.

The hadships of that seach wee ecently descibed by Steling Stuckey, Chaiman of the Committee of Nego Cultue and Histoy:

The tagedy of the Ameican Nego is bon of the twin evils of…

references, but our refusal to really know other humans, to accept differences, and to love.

Baldwin and Camus How Much
Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60712336
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Balducci, a soldier who Daru knows, approaches with an Arab prisoner. Balducci's government papers give custody of the prisoner to Daru, who must now take him to the French jail in Tinguit. Upset, Daru wishes to refuse. He does not want to become involved. Balducci likewise does not want to be in the lawmaker role. "You don't get used to putting a rope on a man even after years of it, and you're even ashamed-yes, ashamed." Balducci, in fact, is shirking his responsibility for decision making by passing the buck on to Daru.

Daru understands that the Arab is being made a political example -- in other words, a guinea pig. He killed his cousin in a family feud, which is not a case for the French colonial courts but the involved families. Daru accepts his charge, but relunctantly. By doing so, Daru is taking a clear position, defying the…

Sonny's Blues
Words: 1613 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27695029
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James Baldwin and "Sonny's Blues"

African-American James Baldwin (1924-1987) was born in Harlem in New York City, the son of a Pentecostal minister (Kennedy and Gioia 53). Much of Baldwin's work, which includes three novels and numerous short stories and essays, describes conflicts, dilemmas, obstacles, and choices faced by African-Americans in modern-day white-dominated society, and ways, good and bad, that African-Americans either surmount or fall victim to racial prejudices, stereotypes, temptations and inner conflicts. Baldwin's best-known work, the novel Go Tell It on the Mountain (1957) describes a single day in the lives of several members of a church in Harlem (Kennedy and Gioia). James Baldwin is also the author of two other novels, Giovanni's Room (1956) and Another Country (1962), both of which deal with homosexual experience, and a collection of essays, Notes of a Native Son (1955) (Kennedy and Gioia).

In the short story "Sonny's Blues (1957), Baldwin's…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Literature: A Portable Anthology. Eds. Gardner et al. 220-

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama.

Eds. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 4th Compact ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005.


Giovanni's Room
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 16921897
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James Baldwin, "Giovanni's Room"

Giovanni's Room is, on closer examination, a more unusual novel than it appears at first glance: its author, James Baldwin, is routinely counted among the greatest African-American novelists, and yet if one were asked to read the book blind and guess who wrote it, one would scarcely imagine the author to be African-American. The lion's share of the novel is set in Europe, and in a cast which includes a hulking blond protagonist and various American and European supporting characters, there is not a single African-American depicted. But Giovanni's Room avoids the thorny topic of race only to address an (arguably) even thornier topic in the year of its publication -- 1956 -- which is male homosexuality. As the book begins, though, it is not immediately evident that this is even going to be the topic, as David (the aforementioned hulking blond protagonist) is dealing with…

Flint Louis L'amour's Flint James
Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 84962826
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Kettleman walked calmly through the streets of New York, his lean stomach slowly digesting the news that had quietly penetrated the brain lying beneath his straw colored hair. Dying. Hell, he had been dying since he was born, he supposed, but the news he just received form his doctor and friend made it seem a lot more real than it had at any other point in his life. Not that death hadn't seemed real before. He had seen plenty of death, and had been at the causal end of this effect for many others that had crossed his path in the wrong way. But his own death -- now, that was something else. Not scary, exactly, and not even really worrisome, but it certainly seemed to put things in a different perspective. He had always known that life was a finite thing, but now he could actually see its limits,…

Symbolism Explored in Sonny's Blues
Words: 1716 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70652438
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Music becomes the symbol that changes the brothers. To emphasize the importance of the power of music, Baldwin's narrator cannot grasp what Sonny is speaking about until he sees him play. It is only when he experiences the sound does he finally "get it." Music bridges the chasm that has existed between these brothers for so long and it literally saves their relationship from further darkness and turmoil. Sonny's blues are the very thing that save his life and, whether he realizes it or not, he is one of the lucky ones in that he found a way to escape - if only for a little while.

orks Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed .. Norton and Company. New York: 1981. pp. 22-48.

Champion, Laurie. "Literary Contexts in Short Stories: James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues.'" 2006. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved October 19,…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed W.W. Norton and Company. New York: 1981. pp. 22-48.

Champion, Laurie. "Literary Contexts in Short Stories: James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues.'" 2006. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved October 19, 2008. 

Murray, Donald. "James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues:' Complicated and Simple." Studies in Short Fiction. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved October 19, 2008.

Self Is One That Is
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72504306
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This is all he cares to know about Sonny because knowing anymore might be painful for him. It is also worth noting that the protagonist in this tale has gone on to become successful and live a somewhat respectable life, unlike his brother. The protagonist does everything he can to escape the street life that held no future, no promise. He fled the pain and darkness of those streets and Sonny was just a painful reminder of his past. Donald Murray writes that there is "no escape from the darkness for Sonny and his family" (Murray 354) and the only way to cope is by finding another way to survive with the darkness.

Sonny's brother could not have chosen a more different path in life to take. He is a teacher and feels a certain amount of superiority over Sonny. Sonny was not in the least bit inclined to become…

Man Racism Isn't an Inborn
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98265806
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There are costs to bearing and believing in such a secret.

These costs are manifested in many ways. There are the psychosomatic costs Jesse endures, his impotence, his weakness around the black boy in the jail, his tremors at the thought of Otis, "Now the thought of Otis made him sick. He began to shiver." There are also the psychological costs that Jesse is plagued by, the self-delusion associated with believing racism is moral, the mental anguish, and the constant struggle over whether he can trust his coconspirators, "They were forced to depend on each other more and, at the same time, to trust each other less" (Baldwin). What Baldwin is underscoring with these psychological and psychosomatic burdens is that the path Jesse has followed, a path of racism and discrimination, has led him to a very troubled existence.

Baldwin wants the reader to understand that proponents for a Jim…

The Moral Landscape of Pre
Words: 6045 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57381349
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On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish
Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be
perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential
dialogic follow-up to right's
Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which
Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is,
indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a
deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of
virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual. The
result of this vantage is a set of essays that reaches accord with right's
conception of the socially devastating impact of segregation on the psyche,
conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the
brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the black
man in America.…

Works Cited:

Baldwin, J. (1955). Notes of a Native Son. Beacon Press.

Gilliam, F.D. (2002). Farther to Go. University of California at Los

Wikipedia. (2009). James Baldwin. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Wright, R. (1940). Native Son. Chicago: First Perennial Classics, edition

Black Experience in American Culture This Is
Words: 2599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17779611
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Black Experience in American Culture

This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.

African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).

These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…


1] Sundquist, Eric J. who was Langston Hughes? Relevancy: 100; (Commentary) 12-01-1996

2] Buttitta, Anthony. "A Note on Contempo and Langston Hughes." London: Cunard, 1934. 141.

3] Langston Hughes on Scottsboro. College Literature, 10-01-1995, pp. 30(20). Vol. 22

4] Okafor-Newsum, Ikechukwu, of Dreams Deferred, Dead or Alive: African Perspectives on African-American Writers.. Vol. 29, Research in African Literatures, 03-22-1998, pp. 219(12).

Gender and Identity Formation in
Words: 3201 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75206572
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62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.

The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Blues for Mister Charlie." New York: Vintage, 2001.

Robinson, Marilynn. Housekeeping. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1981.

Sonny's Blues
Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83576053
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Sonny's Blues evised

Baldwin was not an unknown writer even before Sonny's Blues, a short story, was published in the year 1957. This story first appeared in Partisan eview that was one of the most popular and respected journals at that time. Sonny's Blues was published once again by Baldwin in the year 1965. This time he published it in his collection of short stories that was called "Going to Meet the Man."

This story had the potential of attracting a good deal of positive criticism; nonetheless all the analysts viewed this story with different perspectives. Even before this short story was published, Baldwin had a reputation for writing about African-American issues; so many critiques were of the view that this story was based on racism. "Definitely, Baldwin acted like a spokesman when the American civil rights movement was going in during the 1950s and the 1960s because a number…


"An Analysis of the Theme of Suffering in "Sonny's Blues." 2011.

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Partisan Review. 1957.

Hamilton, Stephen. "Sonny's Blues" by James Baldwin Critical Analysis. 2008.

Making Arguments about Literature. Boston, Massachusetts: Bedford/St. Martins. 2005.

Susan J Douglas' Where the
Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98255481
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However, unlike Baldwin, Douglass steers clear of dealing with racial and class struggle. Her exploration of American character constraints stick mainly to the experience of white middle class women in the United States, which is some ways another constriction in itself.

James Baldwin explores how America's rampant racism forbids the essential individualism which is glorified in the United States. Despite believing in the possibilities of American individualism, Baldwin believes that this will never be possible due to racism. He believes that the idea of white purity is constructed based on the notion that blacks are inferior in some ways. This he believes, holds not only African-Americans back from attaining true independence, but also whites. African-Americans are denied the chance to become the real individuals that they are based on social constructions; white Americans he believes are holding themselves back through the "innocence which constitutes the crime," (Baldwin 6). In both…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. Vintage International. New York. 1993.

Douglas, Susan J. Where the Girls Are: Growing Up Female with the Mass Media.

Random House. New York. 1994.

Sonny's Blues While the Tale of How
Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15505855
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Sonny's lues

While the tale of how we suffer, and how we are delighted, and how we may triumph is never new, it must always be heard," writes James aldwin in his short story, Sonny's lues. "There isn't any other tale to tell, it's the only light we've got in all this darkness." This might be called the theme of Sonny's lues, and it comes at the end of a long descriptive passage about the playing of music -- of the blues, in particular -- and how truly playing music is difficult, dangerous, beautiful, and deep; that being intimate with one's instrument is akin to being intimate with one's life. Sonny's lues is about being lost, and trying to be found, within the context of being a black man in this society; and of finding oneself as so many black men have, through the blues -- both as music, and…


Baldwin, James. (1957). "Sonny's Blues." In A. Charters, S. Charters (Eds.). Literature and Its Writers (pp. 65-88). Boston: Bedford Books.

Campbell, James. Talking at the Gates: A Life of James Baldwin: With a New Afterword University of California Press, 2002.

Miller, D. Quentin. Re-Viewing James Baldwin: Things Not Seen Temple University Press 2000.

Sherard, Tracey. "Sonny's Bebop: Baldwin's "Blues Text" as Intracultural Critique." African-American Review Winter 1998: 691-705.

Sonny's Blues
Words: 1356 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9001824
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Sonny's Blues": Two brothers, two parallel lives

James Baldwin's short story "Sonny's Blues" is contingent upon a comparison of the lives of two men, Sonny's brother and Sonny himself. Sonny's brother is a stable family man with a wife and two children, a respected schoolteacher. Sonny is a heroin addict and jazz musician. On a schematic level, they represent two sides of the African-American experience, as chronicled by Baldwin during the 1960s. On one hand, Sonny's unnamed brother seems to have made the 'right' choices, unlike his ne'er-do-well brother. However, Sonny's brother clearly mourns certain aspects of life that Sonny has enjoyed, such as Sonny's passion for music. Sonny's brother clearly feels that he has lost something in capitulating to the ideals of white society, even though his brother's absorption in a world of drug use suggests that Sonny's life is not a model one would want to follow. The…


Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Full e-text available: 

Sherard, Tracey. "Sonny's Bebop: Baldwin's 'Blues Text' as Intracultural Critique." African

American Review 32.4 (1998): 691-705. ProQuest. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.

Freedom in Music in Sonny's
Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89013344
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Sonny's brother wakes up and states, "Freedom lurked around us and I understood, at last, that he could help us to be free if we would listen, that he would never be free until we did" (47). Sonny was more free and living a life more true than his brother realized.

The transformation in Sonny's brother is dramatic. Duncan writes, "By the end of the story, the narrator has gained much more than an astute musical ear. He has learned . . . To listen" (Duncan). Throughout the story, Baldwin designates the act of listening as the linchpin of this moral tale; by focusing on an often-overlooked component of communication, this early Baldwin story illustrates how Brother, initially deaf to what Sonny calls "all that hatred and misery and love," opens his ears to his culture, his brother, and himself. and, through Brother's example, readers might also become more willing…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." The Norton Anthology of Short

Fiction R.V. Cassill,

ed. W.

W. Norton and Company. New York: 1981. pp. 22-48.

Redemption Is a Theme That Is Prevalent
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28157163
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edemption is a theme that is prevalent in many works of literature. As it has its basis in religious belief, religion is often an accompanying theme to stories about redemption. Two stories that involve redemption are James Baldwin's Sonny's Blues and Flannery O'Connor's Good Country People, but both do so in very different ways. While Baldwin's Sonny's Blues portrays redemption in a more traditional way, O'Connor's Good Country People demonstrates redemption in a dark and somewhat tragic way. But in both stories the characters, after some pain and suffering, do gain redemption in their own ways.

Baldwin's story is a take-off of the "prodigal son" story from the Bible with two brothers, one good and one a troublemaker. The narrator in Sonny's Blues is asked by his dying mother to take care of his younger brother Sonny who is a drug abuser.(Baldwin, 1995, pp.118-119) After an initial attempt, he turns…


Baldwin, James. Going to Meet the Man. New York: Vintage. 1995. Print.

O'Connor, Flannery. The Complete Stories of Flannery O'Connor. New York: Farrar,

Straus, and Giroux. 2000. Print.

Politics Literature and Arts
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67998988
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Psychology of the Bigot -- the Anti-Semite vs. The Racist

In "Anti-Semite and Jew," the existentialist philosopher John Paul Sartre, a gentile, analyzed the psychology of an anti-Semitic individual who hates Jews. He did so from the perspective of an outsider to the group he was examining over the course of his essay, as well as attempting to plumb the psychology of the 'insider' of this group. In "The Fire Next Time," James Baldwin examined the American racist's perspective from the point-of-view of the object of racial hatred and ostrication, namely his own perspective as a Black man in America. Both, however, attempted to relate the psychology of hatred to larger political concerns, in Sartre's case that of a biased and class-oriented French society, and in Baldwin's case that of the Cold ar, which he suggested caused the fear of tragedy to intensify racial divisions in America.

At the beginning…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "The Fire Next Time." 1965.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Anti-Semite and Jew: An Exploration of the Etiology of Hate. Schocken; Reissue edition, 1995.

Rich Brother vs Sonny's Blues
Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77622506
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It is intriguing to observe how the narrator and Pete focus on detaching themselves from their brothers and from their past. The fact that they've reached a position that makes them distinguished from most individuals makes it possible for them to develop a sense of protectiveness. They have struggled to get where they currently are and they are unwilling to allow their brothers to affect their well-being.

Although some might be inclined to believe that Pete is less enthusiastic about helping his brother when comparing this character with the narrator in "Sonny's Blues," the reality is that Pete also feels responsible for his brother. Although he feels that Donald should be more careful about the activities he is involved in, he cannot possibly stand and watch his brother suffering. Pete's subconscious mind apparently acknowledges the important role Donald plays in his life and actually sends mixed messages concerning their relationship.…

Sonny's Blues Examination
Words: 1253 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24788214
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Sonny's Blues

ho is the main character in the story (choose between Sonny and the narrator)? Also, explain why then you consider the other man to be a minor character.

The main character of the story is without a doubt the narrator. This is because the narrator is the one who is doing all of the experiencing in the film. The narrator is the one who discovers the news about Sonny and is the one who receives all information and who processes all information. Truly the narrator is the one who sets the tone and who introduces all thoughts and impressions to the reader. ithout the narrator, the reader would not have any information about the past and present, and while all of this information does revolve around Sonny, essentially the narrator is the one who is engaging in all of the actions and discoveries in the story. In fact,…

Works Cited

Baldwin, J. (2012). Sonny's Blues. Retrieved from

Gioia, D. (2001). "Sonny's Blues." Retrieved from

Guest and Sonny's Blues Albert
Words: 899 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48207320
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Daru is still trying to cling to a sense of morality; yet, the Arab himself shows how this will not work in a world of uncertainty because after he is set free, he goes to the police station himself.

James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" Topic 6

James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" is an interesting tale of a lost soul, who finds his solace and ability to express himself through the art of music. Sonny lost both of his parents, and his brother was not there for him during the times he needed him the most. Sonny's brother did not understand his suffering, and as a result he turned his back on Sonny during his times of darkness. Sonny was left alone in a world of darkness and he was not strong enough to deal with it in a healthier manner, as his brother did. Therefore, Baldwin writes "this life, whatever it was,…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues."

Camus, Albert. "The Guest."

Use of Crime and Punishment
Words: 2218 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29412393
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Crime and Punishment

Ours is an extremely violent kind of world where even the most common type of folk can find themselves faced with types of unspeakable horrors and criminal activity through little or no intention of their own. In American literature, a common theme is the concept of the freedom of choice and how a person's choices come to affect not only themselves, but all of the people around them. Some of the choices that people, and their literary counterparts, make lead them to crime. It is the purpose of the American justice system to ensure that crimes are punished. However, in literature, that is not always the case. Crime in the American judicial sense is activity which violates the laws of the United States of America. In literature, these are not always the crimes that the authors feel deserve punishment. Three specific stories which deal with crime and…

Works Cited:

Andrews, William L., Frances Smith. Foster, and Trudier Harris. The Concise Oxford

Companion to African-American Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. Print.

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." 1957. Print.

Bandy, Stephen C. "One of my Babies: The Misfit and the Grandmother." 2011. Print.

Fiction by Welty Cheever Ellison
Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99529527
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Yet perhaps no American author embraced the grotesque with the same enthusiasm as the Southern Flannery O'Connor. In "A Good Man is Hard to Find," O'Connor uses the example of a family annihilated by the side of the road by an outlaw named the Misfit to show the bankruptcy of American life. Instead of an evil serial killer, the Misfit is portrayed as a kind of force of divine justice, who unintentionally allows the grandmother of the family to experience grace. She says that she believes the man is like one of own her children before he kills her. In O'Connor's stories, the characters do not fight for their insight, rather it is given in mysterious, often deadly ways, and it always originates with the divine, not with the human will.

If O'Connor represents the most extreme version of grotesque American literature, Ralph Ellison represents perhaps the most balanced use…

Social Times and the Culture
Words: 4845 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5402298
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They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].

The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:

The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal

Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.

It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car

Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did

James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at .

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.

December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.


African-American Discrimination
Words: 3977 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84650386
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African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…


Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. 

Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002.

George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17

High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998.

Reading Commentary
Words: 2542 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75034196
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American Studies - Anthology

American Studies -- Anthology: Freedom vs. Tyranny

America's history includes a number of competing forces. One of the chief struggles has been the clash between Freedom and Tyranny. As Why Freedom Matters shows, our national consciousness is dominated with the idea that our forefathers risked everything so that all people in America can have freedom. However, Public Speaking shows that the dominant or "luckiest" group in America consists of white, gentile, straight males, who form a very powerful and wealthy special interest group. An example of the favoritism enjoyed by a powerful, wealthy special interest group is the Texan oilman group mentioned in Dominion from Sea to Sea. The favorable treatment given to powerful, wealthy special interests groups results in oppression of "others" such as farmers who fought for America's freedom but seemed to trade the tyranny of Great Britain for the tyranny of the wealthy,…

Raisin in the Sun the
Words: 1465 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84446842
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My personal response to the play is I loved reading it and the more I thought about families (not just black families) when I read through it again. The oldest son in the play was trusted to deposit the money from the check (to buy a better home), but he turned out to be unable to follow through with his responsibility. That's sad. Also, in the play it was brought home to me that the neighbor was willing to pay the family NT to move into his neighborhood. It still is that way today. White folks fear that black folks will bring loud parties into their neighborhood, and that black folks won't take good care of their property and it will devalue the neighborhood. That's not fair to assume such a thing about blacks, but unfortunately, a lot of white people still believe those things. That's why the play is…

Okay, what would he say, how would he react, to seeing a Raisin in the Sun, if he were to see it today on Broadway? I can imagine he would enjoy it a lot, but he would probably think to himself, there aren't that many black folks who have to live in squalor like that anymore. Thank God, he would say to himself, life has gotten better for most black families. There is now a huge black middle class, he would think, after watching the play, and blacks send their kids to colleges, they buy homes (and are able to get mortgages easily), they drive decent cars, they have high speed Internet and digital cable TV and are a lot like all the rest of the middle class.

I think that he would think about life for blacks, though, and probably wonder how many people have to live with cockroaches around in families where mom is the head of the household because dad left or he died. He would remember the television news coverage of how sheriff Jim Clark behaved in Selma on March 7, 1965. That was the day when sheriff Clark, his vicious dogs, and other officers on horseback just went into a crowd of black demonstrators (who were peacefully marching to protest no voting rights and other Jim Crow laws in place in Alabama). They beat women, boys, girls, older men, with their nightsticks and the TV showed the whole ugly situation. This was the Selma to Montgomery march let by Rev. Martin Luther King.

Anyway, I think that this man's memory - of how cruel and brutal life was back in the 1960s when the Civil Rights Movement was just getting some momentum - would lead him to believe that life is a lot better now for blacks. And he would be right, because no sheriff can behave like that and get away with it anymore. But what this Caucasian man in his 50s may not know, after watching a Raisin in the Sun, is that hundreds of thousands of black families struggle every day to survive. The mom may have three or four kids; the boys in the family may be involved in gangs because they don't have a dad in the house; and mom may have two jobs because she only makes the minimum wage and can't buy enough food on just one job. There are a lot of people (black people and Latinos too) who just barely make it from paycheck to paycheck. So don't be fooled, I would say to that man, because even though life is a lot better than it was in 1959, there are still a lot of problems and many black families still struggle.

Value of Literature Must Apply
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ith the link to the Bible, the story "…resonates with the richness of distant antecedents" and it no longer is "locked in the middle of the twentieth century"; hence, it never grows old, Foster concludes (56).

C.S. Lewis on the Importance of Reading Good Literature

C.S. Lewis, noted novelist, literary critic, lay theologian and essayist, advocates reading literature in his book an Experiment in Criticism. He is disappointed in fact when individuals only read important novels once. Reading a novel the second time for many on his list of incomplete readers is "…like a burnt-out match, an old railway ticket, or yesterday's paper" (Lewis, 2012, p. 2). Those bright alert people who read great works will read the same book "…ten, twenty or thirty times" during their lifetime and discover more with each reading, Lewis writes. The person who is a "devotee of culture" is worth "much more than the…

Works Cited

Draughon, Earl Wells. A Book Worth Reading. Bloomington, in: iUniverse, 2003.

Files, Robert. "The Black Love-Hate Affair with the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 35.4 (2011): 240-245.

Foster, Thomas C. How to Read Literature Like a Professor: A Lively and Entertaining Guide to Reading Between the Lines. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.

Lewis, C.S. An Experiment in Criticism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Richard N Albert's the Jazz-Blues
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80851935
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7-9). In fact, Armstrong was often viewed as a kind of sell-out or race-traitor of a certain degree by many black musicians (par. 10). This parallels Sonny's brothers attempts to remove himself from Harlem and the stereotypical black life; he strives to be a respectable math teacher and escape his path (par. 10).

In the final section of the story, "contraries" in the jazz motif begin to appear (par. 11). Especially unusual elements in this section are the character of Creole and the piece of music Sonny plays, "Am I Blue?" (par. 11). Creoles are not usually considered representative of the true black experience; as the descendants of French and Spanish settlers who eventually took light-skinned girls as wives, producing the black Creole (par. 12). If this moment is supposed to represent both Sonny's and his brother's return to the community, this character is a strange choice (par. 12). The…

Race continues to play a role in American culture and policy in the 21st century. Average incomes in the United tates are demonstrably dissimilar, affirmative action policies allow campuses to use race as a determining factor when creating student bodies, and race continues to define media and culture to a significant degree. To some extent, these factors should escape our criticism, as it can't be considered desirable for all people from all races and cultural backgrounds to converge into a national monoculture. However, to the extent that people are excluded from opportunities as a result of race rather than merit, we have no choice but to find fault and look for solutions. As Richard Payne writes in Getting Beyond Race, "General racial classifications ignore the obvious biological reality that each individual within the human species, with the exception of identical twins, is genetically unique." (Payne, pg. 1)

The essentialist articulation…

Sources, and Historical Documents. Greenwood Press, 1998

Cornel West's Race Matters in the Mid-1990s
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Cornel West's Race Matters

In the mid-1990s, Cornel West published a series of essays in a collection titled Race Matters. he title is a play on words, as West points out in his Preface. On the one hand, the word matters serves as a synonym for issues. West notes there have always been issues about race in the United States, throughout its history. On the other hand, matters is used as a verb. Race matters -- it means something to be white and quite another to be black. West's point is that it matters how one is perceived and treated in our society, depending upon the color of one's skin.

West begins his Preface with a 1963 quote from the writer James Baldwin. Race relations were in turmoil at the time of Baldwin's writing. he civil rights movement was gaining momentum and caused tremendous strife throughout the nation, particularly in…

Thirty years later, the nightmare still existed. West describes his futile attempt to flag a taxi on a September afternoon in New York City. Nine drivers passed him by; the tenth stopped, but only to offer his services to a white woman. The scenario is shocking for several reasons. The first is because of what we know about West from his description of the day's activities to that point. He had traveled to New York City from affluent Princeton. He is obviously a learned man, and one whose expertise in his field is recognized, because he references his university lectures. Ironically, he taught courses in both Afro-American Cultural Studies and European Cultural Studies. West parked his "rather elegant" car in a good neighborhood so that he could take a taxi to Harlem, where presumably his car would not be safe. He was on his way to be photographed for the cover of his book. It is clear that this is not an average man. He is highly intelligent, highly educated and highly accomplished. One assumes, because he was coming from a university lecture, because he was prepared to have his photo taken, and because he was planning an evening out with his wife, that he was well groomed and well-dressed. None of that mattered as he sought a taxi on a New York afternoon -- the cab driver only saw the color of his skin.

The anecdote is shocking not just because of who West is, but where the event occurred. He was not a black man trying to get a taxi in Birmingham or Biloxi in 1963; this was New York City in the 1990s, a sophisticated, racially and culturally diverse metropolis where one might be surprised that such racial prejudice existed. Yet, West experienced it.

In that afternoon, West was reminded of other injustices he and his son had suffered, "ugly racial memories" of things that had occurred in the city of Princeton and en route from New York to the Berkshires, places where one would expect that enlightenment and tolerance would be manifest. The event of the afternoon made West reflect on greater racial injustices, including the beating of Rodney King and the victims of the FBI's COINTELPRO efforts a generation before. West's treatment that afternoon renewed his resolve to "meet the formidable challenges posed by Plato and DuBois." The challenges, as he saw them, were to speak out, educate people and improve their lives, and eradicate white supremacy. As he points out, "it is an everyday matter of life and death." Race matters as long as there is prejudice. Race matters as long as people are dealt with harshly or unfairly because of the color of their skin.

British Imperialism on Display
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Shooting an Elephant - Orwell

I clearly got the impression that Orwell was caught between a rock and a hard place, to understate the situation. He raged at the Burma residents who hated the British and took it out on British police -- and on the other hand, he knew imperialism was a bad policy and he did not have positive thoughts at all about his duty in a British uniform. I was very attentive to his narrative, and I was impressed too that the narrator knew he was "ill-educated" (which is quite an admission) and was living day-to-day with rage and hatred.

My predictions for the rest of the essay include the thought that the protagonist will not be able to handle the situation well at all. First of all, I hate it that elephants are chained up and made to do humans' work, and I can't blame that…

Works Cited

Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." 1936.

Tan Amy the Joy Luck
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One is virtually provided with the chance to become 'friends' with the narrators as the respective individual realizes that he or she is being told personal things and that it appears that the story-tellers actually go as far as to consider that they are telling their stories to someone that they have a special relationship with.

Amy Tan is putting across averly's personal feelings to readers as she expresses her understanding of her mother's thinking. "My mother believed you could be anything you wanted to be in America. You could open a restaurant. You could work for the government and get good retirement. You could buy a house with almost no money" (Tan 132). hen looking at things from the narrator's perspective, it almost feels impossible not to sympathize with averly and not to consider that it would be essential for you, as a reader, to support her by using…

Works cited:

Baldwin, James, "Sonny's Blues," (Klett International, 31.01.2000 )

Bierce, Ambrose, "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge," (Forgotten Books, 1948)

Selvadurai, Shyam, "Story-Wallah: Short Fiction from South Asian Writers," (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 07.04.2005 )

Tan, Amy, "The Joy Luck Club," (Penguin 2006)

Learning to Read and Write in English
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Learning to read and write in English has been one of my most treasured accomplishments in the recent past. To begin with, learning to read and write in English is in my opinion the very first step towards becoming a fluent speaker of one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. In that regard therefore, I am convinced that fluency in English is a plus as I pursue my career of choice. Given that English is one of the most common languages, corporations and most organizations would ordinarily hire individuals who can relate well with their customers and clients. Being able to read, write, and speak English will therefore give me a distinct advantage in my future job seeking endeavors. It is also important to note that fully aware that the world is increasingly becoming interconnected; the relevance of learning an additional language cannot be overstated. It is…

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. Sonny's Blues. Stuttgart: Klett Sprachen, 2009. Print.

Brinton, Margaret. 100 Little Reading Comprehension Lessons. New York: Lorenz Educational Press, 2004. Print.

Cusipag, Maria, et al. Critical Thinking through Reading and Writing. Philippines: De La Salle University Press, 2007. Print.

Personal Privilege Analysis the First
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I guess at this point he is losing me a bit. The core concept is still that privilege is about controlling access to resources and using physical traits (the first rung of the diversity wheel) as the most powerful means of doing that. I just find that it is hard to see the point he is trying to make in this chapter because he is pretending that there is no world outside the U.S. Privilege has existed in every human society. If the arguments he is making here are difficult to understand, it is because they are tangential to a genuine understanding of what privilege is. He needs to stop pretending that the U.S. is the only country in the world if he wants to make sense of privilege. Privilege existed long before slavery.

This chapter probably has less personal relevance for me than some of the other chapters. It…

Freedom Sisters
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building of the nation. Education not only means the acquisition of new skills and knowledge through classrooms and lectures but also meant to be the experience gotten while working under a skilled and knowledgeable person.

Many scholars and leaders in the past and today's world have thrown light on this topic through thousand of words and enlightened quotes. It is basically a thing which can not only change a person. But in fact it helps in changing the whole society and further to much larger extent than just a society. As Nelson Mandela said,

"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world"

Nelson Mandela's words clearly illustrate the importance of education and its role in the development of society. In the modern era the power of education is accepted globally and it is crystal clear from the performance of literate people that only those…


Jennifer Schommer, Elizabeth Pierce, CMC Cherrie Woods, NTouch Communications

Dick Gregory, Robert Lipsyte (1986), Nigger: An Autobiography, New York: Washington Square Press.

Russell Jacoby (1992), "Whither Western Civilization, The Nation

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (1988), "Privilege of Unknowing," Genders 1

Bloodlines and Race
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Bloodlines and ace

George Zimmerman allegedly killed Trayvon Martin, an African-American teenager, in self-defense. The case has gotten national attention partly because of the issue of racial profiling. Many people believe that Zimmerman is biased against African-Americans and that he held a stereotypical view of Trayvon: a black teenager, face half-hidden under a hoodie, does not belong in a white neighborhood and is looking for trouble. Another dimension to the case is Zimmerman's own race, which is not clear.

Zimmerman's race is "a complicated matter" (Gamboa, 2012). Initially, the police described Zimmerman as white. Although his last name is Jewish, Zimmerman is not. His father calls him a "Spanish speaking minority." On voter registration forms, both Zimmerman and his mother identify themselves as Hispanic. Zimmerman's father listed himself as white. ace is important in the case because no one, other than Zimmerman, really knows exactly what happened. Zimmerman claims he…


1. F. James Davis, "Who is Black? One Nation's Definition." Frontline. Retrieved from 

2. Suzanne Gamboa, "Trayvon Martin Case: George Zimmerman's Race is a Complicated Matter.The Huffington Post 3/29/12. Retrieved from 


3. 'The curse of Ham': Slavery and the Old Testament. (2003). NPR. Retrieved from

Diaz's Examination of Culture Clashes and Identities
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Diaz's Examination Of Culture: Clashes And Identities

Diaz's Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is a combination of cultural experiences and influences that are as rich and imaginative as the stories the book contains. Within the main character, Oscar, lies the power to both transcend definition of culture and become victim or prey of a specific culture's stereotypes and norms. Oscar is an obese, alienated person within his own culture, but he is drawn out of his personal problems and violent existence within the Dominican dictatorship through his love of escapist literature and stories. Oscar even refers to himself as a "victim of fuku americanus," or the "Curse of the New World." (Diaz, 2007). This is an integral idea within the novel and helps to shape the cultural struggles that are contained within it.

Throughout this entire voyage through Oscar's life, author Diaz explores the mixture of cultures, languages, and ideas…


Celayo, Armando & Shook, David. "In Darkness We Meet: A Conversation with Junot Diaz."

Molossus, May 11, 2008. Accessed online May 9, 2011 at:

Diaz, Juniot. The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. Riverhead: New York, NY. 2007.

Tehelka TV. "In Conversation with Juniot Diaz." Santo Domingo: Dominican Republic, March

U S Since the Civil War Has Reinvented Itself
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Civil ar

From Slavery to African-American

By the beginning of the Civil ar, there were some four million African-Americans living in the United States, 3.5 million slaves lived in the South, while another 500,000 lived free across the country (African pp). The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of 1865 freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation (African pp). During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in 1877, white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings (African pp).

This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century (African pp).

From this Great Migration came an intellectual and cultural elite group of African-Americans that grew…

Work Cited


Colonial Resistance in Thing Fall Apart
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Colonial Resistance in Things Fall Apart

Chinua Achebe was born in Ogidi, Nigeria, and his father was a teacher in a missionary school. His parents were devout evangelical Protestants and christened him Albert after Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, although they installed in him many of the values of their traditional Igbo culture. He attended University College in Ibadan, where he studied English, history and theology. At the university Achebe rejected his ritish name and took his indigenous name Chinua. In 1953 he graduated with a A, and later studied broadcasting at the C where, in 1961, he became the first Director of External roadcasting at the Nigerian roadcasting Corporation. In 1944 Achebe attended Government College in Umuahia. He was also educated at the University College of Ibadan, like other major Nigerian writers including John Okigbo, Wole Soyinka, John Pepper Clark, Elechi Amadi, and Cole Omotso. There he studied…


Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1958.

Balint-Kurti, Daniel. "Novelist rejects national honors to protest conditions in Nigeria." Chicago Sun-Times. 18 October 2004. 4 August 2005 .

Bowen, Roger. "Speaking Truth to Power: An Interview with Chinua Achebe." Academe. Jan/Feb 2005. 4 August 2005 .

Gallagher, Susan VanZanten. "Linguistic power: encounter with Chinua Achebe - Nigerian writer." Christian Century. 12 March 1997. 4 August 2005 .

Homosexual Teenagers in America This Is Because
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homosexual teenagers in America. This is because numerous research studies have revealed that both male and female homosexuals are at danger not only from the traditional cultural forces but also from their sexual and non-sexual behavior and habits. Discrimination against homosexuals has been an extensively researched topic. Many scholars have asked for better curriculums and schooling environment for children from all backgrounds so that they grow up to appreciate sexual diversity. People who oppose homosexuality ought to know that this phenomenon is an extremely old tradition and has deep cultural roots and thus should be appreciated like all other ancient cultures. As Carla Mathison (1998) writes "Gay men and lesbians are not identified by their sex, ethnicity, religion, geographic location, socioeconomic or ability level but by their orientation to their own gender that includes, but is not limited to, sexual intimacy. (Carla Mathison, 1998)."

Carla Mathison (1998) further reveals and…


Lisa Armistead and Shira Maguen. Prevalence of Unprotected Sex and HIV-Antibody Testing among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth. The Journal of Sex Research. Volume: 37. Issue: 2. 2000.

Carla Mathison. The Invisible Minority: Preparing Teachers to Meet the Needs of Gay and Lesbian Youth. Journal of Teacher Education. Volume: 49. Issue: 2. 1998.

Connie Callahan. Schools That Have Not Protected and Worked with Gay and Lesbian Students Have Been Sanctioned by the Courts. Education. Volume: 121. Issue: 2. 2000.

Joan F. Kaywell. Using Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers Cope with Family Issues. Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. 1999.

Race and the Web
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Race and the eb: Jack and Jill Politics and Making Race Manifest

According to author Lisa Nakamura, during the original, heady days of the Internet, it was hoped that the anonymous nature of the virtual medium would allow for the creation of a post-racial identity. Theoretically, no one 'needed' to reveal their visual appearance online, and thus race would become less important (Nakamura 106). The disembodied nature of the medium would allow for a more fluid and expansive conception of the self. However, the Internet has instead allowed for a plethora of subcultures resurrecting old racist stereotypes. hites have been able to try on such false personas and thus perpetrate them more easily than members of historically discriminated-against groups have been able to temporarily 'set aside' their race online. Nakamura suggests that people who masquerade as members of other races and use their posturing to advance such outmoded notions are…

Works Cited

Jack and Jill Politics. [3 Dec 2012] 

Manjoo, Farhad. "How black people use Twitter." Slate. 10 Aug 2012. [3 Dec 2012]

Black Writers on What it Means to
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Black Writers on What it Means to Be White

In his introduction to Black Writers on What it Means to be White, David R. Roediger critiques traditional white historiographies and pays credence to the work of prominent Black scholars the likes of W.E.B. Du Bois and James Baldwin. Roediger shows that whites frequently write about what it means to be Black, but that Black historians, philosophers, and writers are summarily ignored. Most white scholars, according to Roediger, don't feel that Blacks have much insight into the features or characteristics of "whiteness." On the other hand, so-called liberal academics claims to know a lot about the needs, wants, histories, and passions of African-Americans. As the author sets out to prove, Blacks actually have more insight into white culture than vice-versa. Blacks have in fact been uniquely able to perceive whites culture objectively and to understand and criticize their means of oppression.…

Black Power
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Black Arts

Known as the "artistic sister of the Black Power movement," Black Arts refers to the collective expressions of African-American culture during the 1960s and 1970s. Corresponding with the climax of the Civil Rights movement and the self-empowerment of the African-American community, the Black Arts was a politically charged yet aesthetically ripe collection of visual, performance, music, and literary art forms. Amiri Baraka is credited widely with the genesis of the Black Arts movement. The assassination of Malcolm X is said to have inspired Baraka to move to Harlem and delve into the transformative power of art for emboldening the black community (Salaam). Even when he was still known as LeRoi Jones, Baraka had been involved in the publishing industry, and had worked as a poet, arts critic, and playwright. His founding of the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) is the "formal beginning" of the movement, which Baraka himself…

Works Cited

"The Black Arts Movement." Retrieved online: 

"A Brief Guide to the Black Arts Movement." Retrieved online: 

Neal, Larry. "The Black Arts Movement." The Making of African-American Identity, Vol. 3, 1917-1968. Retrieved online: 

Salaam, Kaluma Ya. "Historical Overviews of the Black Arts Movement."

Rage in Notes From a
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(92 -- 93) There is rage toward white America in that because of the prejudice many black were not able to fulfill their potential or even live simple lives unimpeded. This is the kind of rage that is expressed in his poetry, such as "Dream Deferred." It is not so much that he has specific hate, at least not expressed here, but that he has rage because he knows more of the strength and beauty of his own people that is denied and undervalued by the white majority of that time.

Baldwin's rage makes him reflective. This entire piece is a type of reflection; it is a short memoir. Baldwin does what most artists do: he channels his rage into his art. Baldwin works through his rage, uses his writing a type of therapy to understand, describe, and diminish his rage. He is not a victim his rage to a…