James Joyce, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
It can be said that throughout his entire novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, by James Joyce does not believe that a lot of his revelations actually came from the spiritual realm, or at least to not be swayed by the divine, especially because being that he does not have any real connections to the Catholic Church, which was his religion as a child. On the other hand, using the sacred to label revelations that are considered to be sacred provided to Stephen Dedalus, James Joyce utilizes the inkling of "epiphany" ("act of given the impression of something" (1) to bring about new illumination to the protagonist of his novel which brings him further away from the cloth and as a result, nearer to his goal of turning into an artist. "The Joycean epiphany still reflected…… [Read More]
James Joyce -- "A Mother"
hat was the social scene in Dublin at the time James Joyce wrote the Dubliners and in particular his iconic short story "A Mother" -- one of the most debated tales in the Dubliners? The emphasis in this paper is on the role of women portrayed by Joyce in "A Mother" -- in particular Mrs. Kearney, whose daughter Kathleen Kearney is given a strong boost in her education and music career thanks to her mother's persistence and ambition.
Numerous scholarly explanations have been put forward through the years to explain the motivation -- within the context of the social scene in Dublin -- the willful behavior of the story's protagonist, Mrs. Kearney. This paper takes the position that Joyce created Mrs. Kearney in the image of a 19th century heroine, Anne Devlin, for reasons that will be presented in full.
"A Mother" -- hat the…… [Read More]
James Joyce's The Dead
James Joyce develops strong female characters in his short story "The Dead" and uses them in contrast to the men. The primary contrast is that between Gretta and Gabriel, and while Gretta is described in feminine terms related to the image of the Blessed Virgin, Gabriel is described in the same terms, creating an interesting shift which carries through the story and brings out differing perspectives on male and female.
James Joyce was born in 1882 in Dublin, Ireland and died in 1941 in Zurich, Switzerland. He is noted as one of the most prominent writers of the twentieth century, noted especially for his experiments in language and literary structure and his contributions to the modern novel. His parents were middle-class, and he was educated by Jesuits. Both elements feature in his works, notably in the short stories that make up The Dubliners, the book which…… [Read More]
In Two Gallants, the "fine tart" (p. 58) of a woman that Corley picked up is likely a prostitute or at least a woman; or, as Jackson points out on page 43, a woman "...in low milieux" (or, she could be "an attractive girlfriend" and be know as "free with her favours"). This woman may have been an easy sexual mark, but she was more than that for Corley; she brought him cigars and cigarettes to go along with the sex; she paid "the tram out and back" (p. 60), so she was a "sugar momma" as well as being able to bring a good evening's pleasure to a man that nobody really knew very well. He doesn't even tell his/her name; he speaks without listening to what others are saying. He's obviously an ego case, totally into his own pleasure and damn the rest of the crowd. "She's…… [Read More]
(Hart & Hayman, p.177)
Thus Joyce suggests that conventional national tales of origin, and national borders have become further and further collapsed in modernity. So long as people can envision a common, even familial bond between the two characters on a level beyond the confines of what is particular, local, national and religious, a connection between two random humans can exist and begin as quickly as a conversation. An estranged Irish man and a Jewish man can be allied, even father and son, in Joyce's Ulysses, just like the Irish Bloom loves his Penelope Molly, however sexually faithless he knows her to be, he still loves her. Bloom has also been unfaithful to Molly, fantasies about other women, and uses pornography for self-stimulation. Two men can talk about trees, dustbuckets, and Paris all in the same breath in the fluid context of modernity.
Thus, Joyce the narrator demonstrates Bloom to…… [Read More]
James Joyce's "The Dead" and a Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
Entrapment and escape are common themes uncovered in James Joyce's literature. Joyce often utilizes society as a symbol of entrapment for his characters, and through moments of realization, they often experience an epiphany that allows them to escape their paralysis. In his novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and his short story, "The Dead," Stephen and Gabriel are victims of entrapment. Each man undergoes a transformation through a moment of realization that changes his life. Through setting, language, and point-of-view, Joyce explores different concepts of entrapment and how they affect his characters.
In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen learns over the course of his life to escape, or fly toward his freedom. The significant moment for Stephen occurs late in the novel as he stands on the…… [Read More]
James Joyce's Ulysses: Chapter One
The opening chapters of novels are always crucial components, not usually because they deal with major events, but because they introduce the elements that the remainder of the novel will build on. James Joyce's Ulysses is no exception to this. The first chapter introduces the major elements that the rest of the novel will build on by presenting material that raises questions. These questions then become the driving force for the remainder of the novel, where the reader seeks answers to them. The major elements introduced in the first chapter are the characters of Buck Mulligan and Stephen Dedalus, the major problem of Stephen Dedalus, and the setting. As well as this, the first chapter establishes the style of the novel, which is important because it sets the tone for the remainder of the novel and also contributes to establishing the themes of the novel.…… [Read More]
However, even Homer's residents, according to Odysseus, were not truly happy -- one of the reasons Odysseus was so eager to escape their allure. For example, when Bloom greets McCoy, both express their unhappiness with their physical lives, despite the fact that Bloom has just been fantasizing about the Far East: "Just keeping alive, M'Coy said." Modern human beings are disconnected from a sense of purpose and joy, and seek refuge in tea, drink, and smoking, supplanting real pleasure with false pleasures, and forget what makes life meaningful. Significantly, the novel opens with an image of a young girl reproaching a boy for smoking, saying that it will stunt his growth. Pleasures can stunt one's emotional development, for the young and the old.
The lotus-eater episode, in Ulysses, rather than being deeply erotic, as one might assume to be the case in a chapter with the title of pleasure seekers,…… [Read More]
"Poor Aunt Julia! She, too, would soon be a shade with the shade of Patrick Morkan and his horse," realizes Gabriel. He also realizes that his wife and he are not getting any younger -- he observes her face is not the face Michael Furey died to see.
Rather than regain his belief in the value of romance, Gabriel has a deeper revelation: he comes to recognize how little he knows about the human character and the fact that he does not love his wife as deeply as Michael Furey: "Perhaps she had not told him all the story. He thought of how she who lay beside him had locked in her heart for so many years that image of her lover's eyes when he had told her that he did not wish to live. Generous tears filled Gabriel's eyes. He had never felt like that himself towards any woman,…… [Read More]
hile this is most definitely a bottom for Gabriel, a true moment of crisis, it is also a very real chance for enlightenment and change.
The empathy reflected in those lines shows a break in Gabriel's solipsism. hether this is a momentary or lasting change remains unclear, for the reader sees Gabriel at the instant of recognition with no indication in the narrative as to its effect on him. The reader is left to consider Gabriel's possible moral future, and, by extension that of the Irish society that is the real subject of the entire work (Fargnoli & Gillespie 54).
hat we have seen in Gabriel's journey in "The Dead" is that he is a man, a narcissist, whose preoccupation with the world around him has led his astray. He wasn't a man living in the world anymore, but rather, he was a dead man because he was not truly…… [Read More]
Mulligan keenly notices features of Stephen's obsession when he mockingly calls him "O, shade of Kinch the elder! Japhet in search of father!" Partially, his argument for Shakespeare's autobiographical tendencies is seeded by his own frustration in his search for paternal links.
Out of this, Stephen's rejection of the Irish renaissance is significant because he wishes to judge himself against the backdrop of classical standards. "In our case, Stephen has 'entered into a competition' with Shakespeare by making himself a companion to the model of Shakespeare and placing himself, as much as he can by means of lecturing, next to the model of Shakespeare." So the contention that Shakespeare's plays are autobiographical, by being a particularly unique argument, if successful, would forever attach the name Dedalus to Shakespeare -- thus, his intellectual roots would be fundamentally defined to the external world. Notably, this would remain true regardless of Stephen's recognition…… [Read More]
Ulysses by James Joyce is written in epic style and thus is not easy to grasp in terms of its scope and meaning. The novel can be read in different contexts; sometimes it appears to be nothing more than a commentary on society and social evils. At others it reads like a commentary of various types of human relationships and yet at other, it seems to be experimenting with different and rather androgynous characterization. But Ulysses in its entirely is all of these things and more.
It is actually a brave and bold attempt to present relationships in unconventional light. We must understand the underneath all its comic sexual innuendoes and sometimes offensive actions, the novel is trying to convey a message which seeks to invent new social definitions of relationships of every kind. The story may at times appear tragic with Bloom aspiring to win her wife back…… [Read More]
If this is the case, then it seems unlikely that Dubliners would have nothing to do with Joyce's actual life while his other books would. Given this opinion, and the understanding that Joyce faced - in some way or another - many of the problems that the characters in Dubliners faced, it is almost impossible to say that Dubliners is not just a touch autobiographical in some ways. This is not meant to imply that Joyce used himself for characters in the book, but only that much of what he was thinking and feeling carried over to the feeling and tone of the book while it was being written.
Another good indication of this is the length of time that it took Joyce to write Dubliners, which would indicate that he likely struggled with the book to some degree. It seems as though most writers do struggle with books that…… [Read More]
Portrait of the Artist of a Young Man by James Joyce traces the development of Stephen Dedulas as a writer from infancy to young adulthood. While Joyce shows the maturation of Stephen Deduals, he is also painting a vivid image of Dublin, Ireland and Stephen Dedulas' world. One literary device that Joyce uses throughout his novel is the repetitious appearance of numerous images. Stephen's fascination with women, both real and imaginary, is prevalent from childhood and is used by Joyce as a common strain of imagery throughout the novel.
Stephen's main love interest in the novel is Emma Clere. Emma is a girl who has such an effect on Stephen's life that he relates many events of his life back to Emma. For instance, Stephen feels guilty for his involvement with prostitutes not because it is immoral, but because of what Emma would think of him if she found out.…… [Read More]
As Brivic points out, the labeling of females as hysterical is another means by which a patriarchal society genders certain behaviors. Behaviors related to emotionality are notably gendered, as males and females are socialized to react and communicate according to gender norms. Occasionally in Joycean narratives, discourse related to gender is overt, rather than covert. For instance, in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen does not take offense at his father's calling him a "bitch" and instead mocks him: "He has a curious idea of genders if he thinks a bitch is masculine," (Chapter 5). Awareness of the futility of gender norms and gendered identities fuel Stephen Dedalus's character in both Ulysses and in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
Feminist discourse is deliberately subversive in both James Joyce's Ulysses and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Male characters are central…… [Read More]
Claude Rawson is best known as a scholar of Jonathan Swift and the eighteenth century, but Rawson's has also used the savage irony of Swift's modest proposal for a series of essays which consider Swift's invocation of cannibalism in light of a longer tradition (in Anglo-Irish relations) of imputing cannibalism literally to the native Irish as a way of demonizing their "savagery" or else to implying a metaphorical cannibalism to describe the British Imperial exploitation of those native Irish. Rawson reapproaches these Swiftian subjects in a more recent essay entitled "Killing the Poor: An Anglo-Irish Theme" which examines what Rawson calls the "velleities of extermination" in a text like Swift's "Modest Proposal" (Rawson, 300). Rawson examines how Swift's ironic solution of what to do with the poor of Ireland (eat them as food) undergoes, in various later iterations by Anglo-Irish writers including Shaw and ilde, transformation into a…… [Read More]
Likewise, the two sisters who sacrifice so much for the man will their sacrifice as well, given their evidently ardent faith, however misguided. The setting of an Ireland where the Catholic faith remains such a respected institution gives further force to the power of the man, even though Joyce's powerfully symbolic language and writing style ultimately deflates the image of the man in death. Death, Joyce ultimately suggests, comes to use all, even a man who strove to have such a close relationship to God, and even a man whose life had such impact upon the young boy's conciousness and the conciousness of the sisters. But the drunkneness of Flynn, however, is a moral failing, rather than a largely unwilled affliction. Drunkeness, although it might be common to the community, mileu and setting of the short story, is not something that comes to us all like death, and the housekeeper…… [Read More]
Guinness, rashers, and slatterns, rather than wine women and song
omen are the best of a bad, all too human collection of Irish characters in Dubliners
James Joyce, an Irish modernist of the early 20th century, took a deflationary but compassionate view of the sexual urges both men and women over the course of his collection of short stories Dubliners. However, although he took a dim view of both men and women of the Irish nationality, men came in for his harsher judgment. At first glance, in stories such as "Two Gallants" and "The Boarding House," it may seem as if Joyce balanced his view of predatory males intent upon snaring females with predatory females desiring to 'catch' a man. Yet, ultimately female compassion and insight into the physical realm of existence gave them some moral elevation over their male counterparts, even in "The Boarding House."
The predatory nature…… [Read More]
Dubliners: It's a omen's orld
omen are predators, men are the sorry prey, suggests the short story "The Boarding House." Such is James Joyce's overall attitude in his collection of short stories entitled Dubliners. The story that "The Boarding House" is paired with, in a kind of a parallel of the theme of sexual rapaciousness, entitled "Two Gallants," might seem to suggest the opposite, that men such as Lenehan and Corley can be equally pointed in pursuing their sexual desires as Mrs. Mooney and her daughter Polly are upon the hapless border at Mrs. Mooney's establishment. However, the jesting and careless nature of the two young men makes the calculated designs of Lenehan and Corley pale by comparison with the meaty Mrs. Mooney's urge to get her daughter a good husband. The two young men engage in a jest for a night, while the victim of "The Boarding House"…… [Read More]
Joyce's The Dead
The Living Dead in Joyce's "The Dead"
James Joyce is one of the most well-known Irish writers of the twentieth century. Many of his works draw upon his personal thoughts and experiences and are rich in symbolism and allusion. Joyce's "The Dead," the last short story in Dubliners, follows Gabriel Conroy as he attends his aunts' annual holiday party. Throughout the short story, the theme of death is constantly present in the characters, the party, and recollections of the past and the future. In "The Dead," Gabriel and Gretta Conroy, Freddy Malins, and Mr. Browne are depicted as dying, emotionally dying, or being emotionally dead in several instances.
Gabriel Conroy, on whom the short story centers, is constantly interacting with death on multiple levels. Symbolically, Gabriel's name can be associated with the archangel Gabriel, who is often referred to as God's messenger and associated with revelations (Hopler,…… [Read More]
Eveline describe her home? Her past? Why is her assessment of her past expressed as follows: "Still they seemed to have been rather happy then."
Eveline describes her past in nostalgic terms. She is nostalgic and wistful because she is leaving and though she is not particularly happy about her situation, it is all she knows. She also remembers the promise she made to her mother about looking after the family and that makes her decision to leave all the more difficult. Yet when she looks at how things have changed in her neighborhood and how alien her own home is to her, she feels that she has the right to leave -- as though now that the happiness of the past is gone it is time to look for it elsewhere (with Frank).
The narrator says, "It was hard work -- a hard life- but now that she was…… [Read More]
he Need for a New Critical Edition of James Joyce's Dubliners
Despite enormous volumes of criticism and scholarship, James Joyce remains one of the most enigmatic writers of the twentieth century. His books have caused great controversy in both the literary and political worlds, as scholars and officials alike attempt to come to an understanding of is true intents and meanings. As with any great writer and/or works of literature, such attempts and the resultant debates will never cease; there is no single correct interpretation or understanding of Joyce's works, just as there is no way to come to a full and complete understanding of the author himself. his is precisely what makes literature both exciting and enduring -- it remains alive throughout the ages, no matter how much time has passed between the act of the literature's creation and a reader's discovery of the text. Each individual…… [Read More]
Importance of the setting in understanding the story
A successful story needs to have several components linked together in order to help the reader build up the story in their minds. The setting of a story is one of the powerful elements that are often used as a link of symbolism between the character and his life. It sets the mood for the story as well as depicts the mental state of the character's mind in consonance with the theme of the story. Araby is based on the oppression people are facing in the name of religion which causes them to have a very false perspective of reality.
Description of the setting
Araby is set in Dublin, Ireland and the story locale is a North Richmond Street that is depicted as 'blind' and quiet. The word blind is chosen to imply 'without a vision' or 'a dead end.' The house…… [Read More]
Her disappointment is passed on to Frank and they both suffer because of her inaction and resulting fear.
In "The Boarding house," we discover disappointment connected to two characters, Polly and Mr. Doran. In this story, disappointment is wrapped up with victimization and manipulation. Mrs. Mooney is the one holding the cards in this game and she is determined to see that her daughter does not suffer for the sake of a man. Mr. Doran becomes her victim Mrs. Mooney deals with her own misery. hile Polly is accustomed to having her way with the men of the boarding house, her mother is intent on her having some semblance of a good life. Mr. Doran is a victim of circumstance. He happens to be at the proverbial wrong place at the wrong time and ends up paying for it - perhaps for the rest of his life. e read, "There…… [Read More]
James Joyce's autobiographical novel, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, is a multi-layered story. The author uses many techniques to indicate his surroundings, his attitudes, his maturity and his development. From styles of writing reminiscent of his infancy to youthful diatribes on the validity of the priesthood, Joyce takes us through his youth and his changing mindset. Furthermore, this intricate novel can be read from many different perspectives simultaneously. These perspectives include religious rebellion, sexual confusion, artistic freedom, political conviction, and family influence. It is a maze of vivid images and lucid dreams that define and describe Joyce's early years. It is my opinion that his water imagery most effectively expresses the complexity of Joyce's youthful composition
One of the most intense water images was the first one. The water is dark and dirty and cold. Another student, Welles, whose name is suggestive of water, throws…… [Read More]
The boys play in the neighborhood streets until their skin "glowed" (382) and their "shouts echoed in the silent street" (382). Here we see a glimpse of Ireland that is not fantastic or glamorous. It is just the kind of setting a young boy needs to be consumed with a mysterious girl. hen the narrator finally makes it to the bazaar, he is met with disappointment, which forces him to be honest and realize Mangan is simply a fantasy that will let him down as well. He also realizes he is a "creature driven and derided by vanity" (386). Like Gabriel, he realizes not all things are what they seem
In "Counterparts," the epiphany is painful because it involves us taking a look at a seedier aspect of life. Farrington realizes the dreadful routine in his life. For Farrington, there is no escape from any of the stresses in his…… [Read More]
Charles Fort's We do not Fear the Father and Louise Edrich's the Lady in the Pink Mustang, what are the metaphors, similes and allegories in these two poems? How do they enhance the meaning of the poem?
A pink car signifies that she wants to be a girly-girly with a simple life, but the car, proud, and different. The car is a mustang, which is a wild, fast, and promiscuous creature. "The sun goes down for hours, taking more of her along than the night leaves with her," reflects the kind of empty work that she does during the night, and that she only belongs to herself in the day time when she is not performing. "It is what she must face every time she is touched, the body disposable as cups." Could the girl in the pink mustang be a stripper, a showgirl, or a prostitute? Regardless, she feels…… [Read More]
James Joyce's "The Dead," the first impression of a joyful holiday gathering of well off friends and family gives the wrong impression about a group of people that are living a routine of unfulfilling lives. As "The Dead" begins with friendly conversations and merry dance and music, the story quickly brings about awkward moments and various characters with disappointing lives such as Julia's wasted voice in the church choir. Gabriel is commonly loved by most of the other characters in the story, as the archetype of a product of posh way of life: a man whose high class and amicability are merely a facade of a man desperately holding onto his insecurities. Norris also points out that "Gabriel Conroy's party can be said to have been troubled by the unexpected challenges of three women, who confront his complacencies in order of increasing intimacy, as servant, colleague, and wife." (195) Joyce…… [Read More]
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…… [Read More]
For the first several years of one's life, their mother and father are their world. These first relationships occur at a time when the tiny human is learning the basic of their environment and how to respond to it. A child learns much of their early actions by imitating the role models around them. The relationship that exists between a child and each of their parents will set the tone for how they deal with other relationships that they encounter throughout their life.
In Chapter One we discover that our hero has "issues" with his paternal and his maternal relationship. These relationships overshadow almost any other conflict in the story at this time. It is apparent through Stephen's interactions with Mulligan and Haines that he did not have a strong paternal figure to model. He reacts in a rather passive manner. One must remember that this chapter takes place in…… [Read More]
Mr. Duffy finds romance -- love, even -- but he is too unaware to realize what this could mean for him and for the woman he realizes he loves too late. Both Mr. Duffy and this would-be lover are isolated, caught in their own middle-aged loneliness through what are essentially a series of cowardly choices, while Araby's hero is somewhat brave if ultimately ineffective (Corrington, 182).
The differences between these two protagonists and the stories themselves are made more interesting by the many similarities they share. Both characters end up regretting the decisions they made regarding love and romance, and end up feeling their loneliness and isolation more sharply than they had before. Despite their difference in ages and situations, both characters also end with little seeming hope of correcting their mistakes and finding true love. In fact, it is suggested in both stories that there is no really way…… [Read More]
Ignorance Bliss? A Comparison and Contrast of the Characters and Themes of Sandra Cisneros' "The House on Mango Street" and "Araby" by James Joyce
Ignorance, although comfortable is not bliss at all.
Catholicism and sexuality in Joyce
Catholicism and family in Cisneros
Significance of home in Cisneros
Significance of leaving home in Joyce
Both the protagonists of Sandra Cisneros and "Araby" by James Joyce are young adolescents, poised upon the brink of realizing that older people do not have all of the answer in life. The tales detail the coming of age of the young protagonists, as they realize that the adults in their respective worlds are not as good or wise as they seem to be. Cisneros's female heroine comes to her realization when she is contrasting the promises of her family about the house on Mango Street her…… [Read More]
The boy has begun to understand something different about the nature of literature -- goodness is not the only standard by which to judge others, at least the goodness of the Church.
The man, however, only smiled. I saw that he had great gaps in his mouth between his yellow teeth. Then he asked us which of us had the most sweethearts. Mahony mentioned lightly that he had three totties. The man asked me how many I had. I answered that I had none. He did not believe me and said he was sure I must have one. I was silent." (3) the boy feels, however, that he is lacking in front of his friend Mahoney because he lacks for female affection. Desiring to seem different in all ways from Mahoney, he comes up short. Yet the older man, by identifying a different means of measuring the moral nature of…… [Read More]
women are confined in society as depicted in the stories by Steinback, Joyce and Oates.
Stories set in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century often depict women as being confined to the norms of society even while they struggle to be free. Authors of literary works may they be short or long stories have often presented these women as being frustrated with the status imposed upon them and show the problems they face in a patriarchal society. In John Steinback's Chrysanthemums for instance, the female character Elisa Allen has been portrayed as "a strong, capable woman kept from personal, social, and sexual fulfillment by the prevailing conception of a woman's role in a world dominated by men" (Steinback, 306). Her appearance, manner and speech all suggest that she is a woman frustrated with the male dominated world. Her husband forever reminds Elisa that she…… [Read More]
The adolescent perspective as depicted in the short stories of Joyce, Faulkner, and Cather
The search for higher social status as a form of personal fulfillment and self-definition all mark the coming-of-age stories of James Joyce, illiam, Faulkner, and illa Cather, despite the distinct differences between the three male protagonists created by the authors in their seminal short stories "Araby," "Barn Burning," and "Paul's Case." All three short stories feature a young protagonist whose illusions of finery and higher class status are shattered. Because these aspirations are also often connected to sexual desires, this fall from grace is particularly difficult for the young men to tolerate.
In "Araby," the young male protagonist becomes enamored with a young woman who seems innocent, above his own class, and charming. hen she professes to wish to go to the Araby bazaar but cannot because she must go on a retreat with her…… [Read More]
In "The Secret Life of alter Mitty," Mitty escapes the reality of his manhood with daydreaming. He does this because his wife emasculates him. For Mitty, daydreams are better than dealing with a bothersome wife. Mitty is a real man in his mind as he fantasizes about saving the Navy hydroplane. Mitty is not happy and he argues with his wife over such things as overshoes. He is no doubt a curmudgeon, as we see when he calls the parking lot attendant "damn cocky" (Thurber 1361). Mitty is unlucky in life but we have to wonder how much of this is his fault. Many would look at him and see nothing that resembles a real man. His imagination is his escape, which makes Mitty happy, as he declares himself "undefeated" and "inscrutable" (1364). Mitty might know how to escape his awful world but he is taking a chicken's way out.…… [Read More]
no thank you not in my house."
The monologue is filled with Molly's real and imagined transgressions with men. "In a nonviolent parallel to Odysseus's battle with the suitors, Molly's thoughts revolve around Bloom's virtues and vices compared to the other men she might have chosen, concluding finally...that he's not so bad as some" (Barger 2001). This suggests that despite Molly's apparent infidelities her relationship with her husband is not as bad as it might appear to an outside observer, and by gaining insight into someone's inner life and ways of thinking, it is easier to understand, and even like an apparently unlikable character. It also shows that the modern Odysseus, Bloom, has won his Penelope, not as a literal, heroic victory against suitors, but an inner victory of the heart, soul, and mind.
Barger, Jorn. The Internet Ulysses by James Joyce. Updated Feb2001. 18 Apr 2007. http://www.robotwisdom.com/jaj/ulysses/index.html…… [Read More]
Q3. Explain the importance of the Fisher King in Modern Literature.
The Fisher King is the wounded king that motivates Sir Galahad to find the Holy Grail to heal him and his people: the quest narrative is one of the most significant narratives in all of literature, and the Moderns despaired of finding a quest in the modern, faithless, directionless world. The Fisher King's wound symbolizes his lack of fertility, which leaves his kingdom hungry and barren. T.S. Eliot's poem "The Wasteland" suggests that modern life is like the Fisher King's kingdom.
Q4. Explain the importance of WWI trench poetry and the works of Wilfred Owen
While some of the early poets celebrated patriotism, or eulogized the fate of the common soldier with quiet despair, Owen's poetry was harsh, gritty and realistic. In his poem "Dulce et Decorum est" Owen takes the familiar Latin phrase that it is sweet to…… [Read More]
Youth: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
In James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the main character Stephen says that great art carries the qualities of Wholeness, Harmony, and Radiance. Yet Stephen is making this statement as an adolescent, one who is not yet whole nor harmonious, but one who is still developing and adapting to himself and his world. As literary art, the problem this leads to is how an adult reader can create an adolescent character honestly, a character less developed then they are. The reader then has the same challenge, to read about this character and judge them on who they are, without directing their own biases on the character. The writer and the reader can both be guilty of viewing the adolescent character either condescendingly or sentimentally. As well as this, the writer and reader either creating or…… [Read More]
Handsomest Drowned Man in the World by Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Point-of-View -- the author presents the perceptions of the villagers who live in isolation and are suddenly shaken by the arrival of someone so unlike them in stature and appearance. First, the women, then the men, construct an ideal from the tallness and overall attractiveness of the drowned man. He represents a myth, which mingles with their collective sense of reality and is moved by it. Even when they decide to throw him back into the sea as their burial tradition, they design their future according to the image of this admirable drowned man so that they too may one day be admired by others.
Genre -- Magical realism fuses magic and reality. The reality part is the everyday and routine ways of the villagers in the isolated island. The magic is the sudden arrival of the dead body of…… [Read More]
Through is work readers were placed at the scene, to feel the emotions and spirit of the author. Birches provides a wonderful, heartfelt trip down memory lane as a boy for Frost, who often appealed to the memories of his readers with his work.
He begins with wondering about the bent limbs of a birch tree and brings the reader to the days when swinging from tree branches was their main concern in life. He then cuts into that memory and discusses ice storms but one can also see it is not just about ice storms but a metaphoric example of the harsh realities of life and adulthood. As people age they become more rigid and less able to "bend" with the wind, which creates a mindset that cannot be changed or appealed to.
When Trilling said that Frost was a terrifying poet he was referring to Frost's ability to…… [Read More]
Aeschylus - the Oresteia (Agamemnon, Libation Bearers and Eumenides)
The Oresteia offers the reader a close and intensive immersion with a truly pained universe of suffering: each play still has at its core a sense of flush of promise and vibrancy of Athens that was pushing forth and evolving into greatness. Even so, the author Aeschylus is able to captures a sense of the undercurrents of the primal vengeance that still defined this society. Each of the plays has in a common a strong pillar of the humanity and the lack of humanity that needs to be held in balance as the events spin and unfold. One could argue that the notion of suffering into truth is something which defines each of the plays in the trilogy. For instance, the first play thrusts the reader into a world which has been largely defined by the suffering of the Trojan War…… [Read More]
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man tells the story of Stephen Dedalus as he grows from an introspective and conscious young man into a rebellious and disaffected adult. For much of the novel, young Stephen is trying to figure out exactly who he is and what it is that he values in life. It is a stream-of-consciousness story wherein the internal thoughts and feeling, no matter how insignificant they may seem are written in their entirety so as to represent in a fictional work how a real human being's thought processes guide their life. As an Irish youth, it is expected that Stephen will follow the orders of his parents and honor his father and mother, and that he will live and behave according to the Catholic tradition of his family members and his community. Religion and…… [Read More]
Mrs. Mooney's choice of a husband was made according to a concept that worked very simple: her father's foreman was the best possible solution to continue the successful business. This proved to be wrong in the end because no one could have predicted his later alcohol addiction and his alienation. Although, psychologically speaking, a scientist might find the causes in the very marriage. The historical conditions Mrs. Mooney lived in were also determinant for her seeing only one viable solution that should have guaranteed her economic well being. Later, she could have decided to run the butcher shop herself, but that option was not available by the time she got married.
By the time her daughter came to the age of marriage, this was still the only option in her mother's views in order to assure her daughter's material means of existence. The words used by Joyce are economic terms…… [Read More]
(oime, et. al.).
Similarly, author James Joyce helped define the modernist novel by taking the traditionalist concept of telling a coming of age story and adding to it the modernist characteristics of open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative and classical allusions. The result is a novel that, like Starry Night, captures the movement and color of the real world.
Perhaps no other work of Joyce's demonstrates his modernist characteristics then his magna opus, Ulysses. At its core, Ulysses is a retelling of the classic tale by Homer, the Odyssey.
One of the main uses of modernism is found in the final, unpunctuated chapter, popularly referred to as Molly loom's Soliloquy, a long, free verse (or stream of consciousness) passage that list her thoughts as she lies in bed next to the main character, Leopold loom. This is a key modernist passage as it reads as human dreams or thoughts really…… [Read More]
Destructive Element Traits in Literature
A destructive element refers to that one trait which can destroy a person or negatively impact his life in some manner. This element is usually acts as a barrier between men and their full potential and can also seriously impede their growth. Some critics are of the view that fear is the most destructive element and we know from observation that fear is what stops man from achieving his goals and from speaking his mind. Conrad believes that we must submit to this destructive element, which can interpret in two ways. Either we completely become a victim to it and allow ourselves to be gripped by its power. Or we can submit to it by admitting that it exists and then do something about it. Every author who has explored the psychological dimensions of his characters is aware of this destructive element and it is…… [Read More]
Ulysses: An Odyssey of Errors
Critics of James Joyce call his work cryptic and rambling, not easily followed by most readers. They proclaim that it lacks plot and classical elements of modern literature. However, Joyce did not intentionally write a bad novel, rather he was experimenting with a new literary style, one which broke almost all of the rules of modern literature. None the less, there have been those in society who have attempted to "correct" and "improve" upon Joyce's works. These attempts at "improvement" are to be the subject of this research. This research will approach the controversy surrounding Ulysses in reference to its place as a piece of art. In such a context, it is doubtful whether later versions of Ulysses have succeeded in clearing up the obscurities in the original novel, but rather have served to further confuse the issue.
Joyce was the first to use the…… [Read More]
Role of omen in the Dead
To be sure, James Joyce's The Dead is one of the best examples of the short story in English Literature. Indeed, the artistry, depth of feeling, and acute insights into the human psyche are all on striking display in the piece. However, although many note the remarkable internal angst of Gabriel, and the role of the obvious theme of death and "the dead" throughout the story, there remains a strong theme of women, and their role as "catalyst touchstones" grounding Gabriel as well as the reader in the realization of the inevitability of suffering and death.
One of the interesting aspects of interpreting any of the works of Joyce as feminist in nature, is the common criticism of Joyce's actual life. One typical example of this problem is touched on in the article "Banking on Joyce," in which he is described as despising intellectual…… [Read More]
Thus, it is clear that the novel in itself represents a series of underlying reasons and concepts which aim at personalizing the apparently common life of loom.
Another important theme of the novel is the idea of the presence of the conscience. In this sense, unlike many previous pieces of literature, "Ulysses" develops a human conscience for its characters. In this sense, Stephan and loom both have conscience problems which are part of the modernization of the world. Thus, while Stephan is remorseful about not obeying his mother on the dead bed, loom is retrospective concerning the life he is leading and the marriage he is part of. This comes to point out the modern aspect of the novel because it refers in particular to the strains of the society and to the lack of moral principles. At the same time, this dimension is connected to the idea about religiosity…… [Read More]
Traditions and traditional ways of doing things are considered good or moral, while modern times are considered worse than the past and immoral. At the end of the short story, it is the grandmother who is continually insisting that "The Misfit" is actually good inside, begging for him to find his own sense of morality.
"Araby," however, offers an almost opposite view of morality. While readers of "A Good Man is Hard To Find" are barraged with the grandmother's ideas of morality and instructions on how to be more moral, the main character in "Araby" practices an internal monitoring of his morality. For instance, the main character assesses the Priest who lived in the family's home as a tenant, thinking him generous because he gave away all of his possessions upon his death. Further, at the end of the story, the main character has the chance to evaluate his own…… [Read More]
Lengel says, "That's all right...but this isn't the beach." And after a counter-protest by another of the three girls, Lengel lectures, "e want you decently dressed when you come in here." For all the readers know, Lengel himself is turned on by the lovely young women, and is only ranting at them in order to gaze at the splendor on display. In any event, Queenie says, "e are decent"; she is definitely becoming agitated, and as the narrator reminds readers, she is acutely conscious of her apparent high social standing, and needn't put up with a pious loser manager in a store "pretty crummy" store. The Sunday school pedagogue has his last say; "Girls I don't want to argue with you. After this come in here with your shoulders covered. It's our policy." He turns his back on the girls. Sammy hasn't rung up the herring fillets yet; but the…… [Read More]
Indeed. Gertrude Stein wrote for "herself" for many years prior to ever being noticed as the marvelously talented and versatile writer that she was. That fact was a reality simply because she did not have the opportunity for many years to publish the work she was so tirelessly putting out. Meanwhile, her legacy today is that of an extraordinarily insightful and respected woman of letters, an innovator, an elite member of the artistic avant garde in Europe, a prolific poet and writer, a visionary, something of a rebel, and more. Although she died in 1946 (of intestinal cancer), her work is discussed, debated, dissected and analyzed like the work of few other poets/writers. It's almost as if she were alive today.
Certainly this paper focuses on a gifted thinker whose poetic form is sometimes misunderstood, but rarely ignored. And it also delves into the life of a…… [Read More]
The poet is in turmoil and he turns from his love in order to prevent tarnishing or "spoil" (Pound 2) her because she is surrounded by a "new lightness" (3). This poem reflects upon the importance of experience. Like the poets mentioned before, this poet wants us to consider every aspect of our actions. e should not only think of what we want to do but also how that desire and acting upon it will alter our lives. Robert Frost is focused upon the experience of nature. In "Dust of Snow," the poet brings poetry to life as if it were music. hen we read:
The way a crow
Shook down on me
The dust of snow
From a hemlock tree (Frost 1-4)
Here the poet wants to explore rather than embark on some discovery. These writers are different in their individuals styles but they each desire to connect with…… [Read More]
While we are shown the fact that Sammy, ogles the girls and makes a queen of the leader. On one hand while he feels no pang in doing so he is disgusted by the butcher's lustful gaze. (Saldivar, 214)
There is rebellion when the manager who is a puritan rebukes the girls. The only outrage that the manager, Lengel, seem to have done is to make the queen blush. Thus Sammy quits his job against an authority that demeans people. The girls seem neither to have noticed the managers' consternation or admonition nor have they noticed Sammy standing up for them. Sammy gains nothing but loses his job in the bargain. (Saldivar, 215)
There was parody of other works for which Updike is noted. Here in this story too, apart from Araby we find the parody of the classic Vanity Fair. Parody of the Vanity Fair can be seen in…… [Read More]
Trip to Chinatown / Hello, Dolly!
One might not ordinarily associate comedienne Carol Channing with formidable erudition, but the Broadway premiere of Hello, Dolly! In 1964 would manage to unite them both thanks to the participation of Thornton ilder. ilder remains persistently underrated in the canon of American drama, partly because his own achievement had originally derived from fiction -- yet an examination of ilder's own notebooks reveals that his own successful stage plays were frequently based on his own critical and scholarly engagement with the most abstruse sort of Modernist texts. ilder would claim that his sprawling 1942 comedy The Skin of Our Teeth, which would win that year's Pulitzer Prize, had been based on James Joyce's Finnegans ake (which presumably would have come as a great surprise to Tallulah Bankhead, who starred in ilder's play). Yet it is my contention that among the many learned influences upon ilder's…… [Read More]
The medieval period in English history spans across some 800 years. The Anglo-Saxon period consisted of literature that was retained in memory. The major influence of the literature up until the Norman Conquest was mainly of the religious kind. "Distinguished, highly literate churchmen (Abrams 4) the Ecclesiastical History of England remains our "most important source of knowledge about the Anglo-Saxon period" (4).
The Anglo-Saxons were primarily known for their contribution to poetry. Their alliterative form was, of course, how poetry survived. Sine they wrote nothing down until they were "Christianized," Abrams suggest that that Christian ideals influenced how things were recorded and it would also explain why some non-Christian literature did not survive. Beowulf is what Abrams refers to as the "greatest" German epic, even though it appears to many pre-Christian ideas. (4) Another example of the Anglo-Saxon writing movement would be Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Chaucer brilliantly weaves…… [Read More]
Such a parsing of into which school Samuel Beckett can be slotted may seem to be nothing more than intellectual engagement -- not that there is anything wrong with this -- but it also serves as an important way of assessing both the "Irishness" and the humor of Beckett's writings. Unlike a writer like John Synge, for example, or illiam Butler Yeats, Beckett is generally not clearly identifiable as Irish from the dialect or settings or historical references in his writings. (This is especially true, of course, once he begins to write in French.) But there are hints of his nationality in this back-and-forthing that he does with literary genres and literary conventions. Such liberty with self-identification in terms of artistic identity is not solely Irish, of course. But an unwillingness to be categorized neatly does seem to be clearly associated with colonial identity. Ireland in Beckett's time was still…… [Read More]
A Vonnegut theme, however, is often hard to miss; especially since part of Vonnegut's style placed the author in a position where many readers could palpably feel him throughout the novel. Vonnegut seems to read alongside the reader and assist him; he seems to teach and guide -- gently -- as well as write. As such, Vonnegut helped re-define what high art, and the novel specifically, could be:
Irving, who went on to write "The World According to Garp" and "The Cider House Rules," remembered Vonnegut as a self-effacing presence who "didn't have an agenda about what 'the novel' should be." Vonnegut also appreciated that you didn't have to be in the classroom to get your work done (MSNC, 2007).
South Park postmodernism seems to be endemic to recent generations, and, if so, the ideological roots of those generations must be traced back to Vonnegut and his contemporaries.
Some more…… [Read More]
The Subjective over the Objective
Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).
Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…… [Read More]
Exhaustion" demonstrates an interest in the subject of how different media might affect the meaning of art. Barth's general remarks at the opening of "The Literature of Exhaustion" indicate a sort of ambivalence about what he terms "intermedia' arts" (65). He seems to approve of "their tendency to eliminate…the most traditional notion of the artist…one endowed with uncommon talent, who has moreover developed and disciplined that endowment into virtuosity" (65). Yet in terms of aesthetic theory this is not altogether different from a normative 19th century or modernist conception of the artist's role: one thinks of such famous aesthetic pronouncements as Flaubert declaring that the artist must be like God, "everywhere present and nowhere visible," or Wilde's dictum that "to reveal art and conceal the artist is art's aim," or James Joyce's God-like artist "invisible, refined out of existence, indifferent, paring his fingernails." It could be argued that this main…… [Read More]