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Joyce Gender Plays a Prominent

Words: 1906 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36030207

As Brivic points out, the labeling of females as hysterical is another means by which a patriarchal society genders certain behaviors. Behaviors related to emotionality are notably gendered, as males and females are socialized to react and communicate according to gender norms. Occasionally in Joycean narratives, discourse related to gender is overt, rather than covert. For instance, in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen does not take offense at his father's calling him a "bitch" and instead mocks him: "He has a curious idea of genders if he thinks a bitch is masculine," (Chapter 5). Awareness of the futility of gender norms and gendered identities fuel Stephen Dedalus's character in both Ulysses and in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

Feminist discourse is deliberately subversive in both James Joyce's Ulysses and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Male characters are central…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Hamdani, Mohammad H. "Joyce and Feminism." Literary Paritantra (Systems). Vol 1 Nos 1 & 2 Basant (Spring) 2009, 104-109.

Brivic, Sheldon. "Gender Dissonance, Hysteria, and History in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. James Joyce Quarterly 39(3) (Spring 2002). Pp. 457-476.

Johnson, Jeri. "Joyce and Feminism." Chapter 10 in The Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. Ed. Derek Attridge. Cambridge University Press, 2004. Cambridge Collections Online. Cambridge University Press. 16 November 2011 DOI:10.1017/CCOL0521837103.010

Mullin, Katherine. "True Manliness': Policing masculinity in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Chapter 3 in James Joyce, Sexuality, and Social Purity. Cambridge University Press.
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Joyce's Ulysses Claude Rawson Is Best Known

Words: 3586 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63172347

Joyce's Ulysses

Claude Rawson is best known as a scholar of Jonathan Swift and the eighteenth century, but Rawson's has also used the savage irony of Swift's modest proposal for a series of essays which consider Swift's invocation of cannibalism in light of a longer tradition (in Anglo-Irish relations) of imputing cannibalism literally to the native Irish as a way of demonizing their "savagery" or else to implying a metaphorical cannibalism to describe the British Imperial exploitation of those native Irish. Rawson reapproaches these Swiftian subjects in a more recent essay entitled "Killing the Poor: An Anglo-Irish Theme" which examines what Rawson calls the "velleities of extermination" in a text like Swift's "Modest Proposal" (Rawson, 300). Rawson examines how Swift's ironic solution of what to do with the poor of Ireland (eat them as food) undergoes, in various later iterations by Anglo-Irish writers including Shaw and ilde, transformation into a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burgess, Anthony. ReJoyce. New York: W.W. Norton, 1965.

Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Henke, Suzette. James Joyce and the Politics of Desire. New York and London: Routledge, 1990.

Joyce, James. Ulysses. Ed. Hans Walter Gabler. New York: Vintage, 1986. Print.
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Joyce and Maclaverty the Themes

Words: 1866 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26345861

Likewise, the two sisters who sacrifice so much for the man will their sacrifice as well, given their evidently ardent faith, however misguided. The setting of an Ireland where the Catholic faith remains such a respected institution gives further force to the power of the man, even though Joyce's powerfully symbolic language and writing style ultimately deflates the image of the man in death. Death, Joyce ultimately suggests, comes to use all, even a man who strove to have such a close relationship to God, and even a man whose life had such impact upon the young boy's conciousness and the conciousness of the sisters. But the drunkneness of Flynn, however, is a moral failing, rather than a largely unwilled affliction. Drunkeness, although it might be common to the community, mileu and setting of the short story, is not something that comes to us all like death, and the housekeeper…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. "The Sisters." From Dubliners. London: Bloomsbury, 1914.

MacLaverty, Bernard. "The Beginnings of a Sin." From a Time to Dance, and Other Stories. London: Jonathan Cape, 1982, p. 135-147.
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Joyce Guinness Rashers and Slatterns Rather Than

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2209272

Joyce

Guinness, rashers, and slatterns, rather than wine women and song

omen are the best of a bad, all too human collection of Irish characters in Dubliners

James Joyce, an Irish modernist of the early 20th century, took a deflationary but compassionate view of the sexual urges both men and women over the course of his collection of short stories Dubliners. However, although he took a dim view of both men and women of the Irish nationality, men came in for his harsher judgment. At first glance, in stories such as "Two Gallants" and "The Boarding House," it may seem as if Joyce balanced his view of predatory males intent upon snaring females with predatory females desiring to 'catch' a man. Yet, ultimately female compassion and insight into the physical realm of existence gave them some moral elevation over their male counterparts, even in "The Boarding House."

The predatory nature…… [Read More]

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Joyce Dubliners IT's a Women's World Women

Words: 1172 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37742091

Joyce

Dubliners: It's a omen's orld

omen are predators, men are the sorry prey, suggests the short story "The Boarding House." Such is James Joyce's overall attitude in his collection of short stories entitled Dubliners. The story that "The Boarding House" is paired with, in a kind of a parallel of the theme of sexual rapaciousness, entitled "Two Gallants," might seem to suggest the opposite, that men such as Lenehan and Corley can be equally pointed in pursuing their sexual desires as Mrs. Mooney and her daughter Polly are upon the hapless border at Mrs. Mooney's establishment. However, the jesting and careless nature of the two young men makes the calculated designs of Lenehan and Corley pale by comparison with the meaty Mrs. Mooney's urge to get her daughter a good husband. The two young men engage in a jest for a night, while the victim of "The Boarding House"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. "Two Gallants." Dubliners. Bibliomania.  http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/29/63/frameset.html 

Joyce, James. "The Boarding House." Dubliners.
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Joyce's the Dead the Living Dead in

Words: 1610 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93252707

Joyce's The Dead

The Living Dead in Joyce's "The Dead"

James Joyce is one of the most well-known Irish writers of the twentieth century. Many of his works draw upon his personal thoughts and experiences and are rich in symbolism and allusion. Joyce's "The Dead," the last short story in Dubliners, follows Gabriel Conroy as he attends his aunts' annual holiday party. Throughout the short story, the theme of death is constantly present in the characters, the party, and recollections of the past and the future. In "The Dead," Gabriel and Gretta Conroy, Freddy Malins, and Mr. Browne are depicted as dying, emotionally dying, or being emotionally dead in several instances.

Gabriel Conroy, on whom the short story centers, is constantly interacting with death on multiple levels. Symbolically, Gabriel's name can be associated with the archangel Gabriel, who is often referred to as God's messenger and associated with revelations (Hopler,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hopler, W. (n.d.). Meet Archangel Gabriel, the Angel of Revelation. Accessed 12 January

2013, from  http://angels.about.com/od/AngelsReligiousTexts/p/Meet-Archangel-Gabriel.htm .

Joyce, J. (1914). The Dead. Dubliners. Accessed 12 January 2013, from http://www.online-

literature.com/james_joyce/958/.
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Joyce's Dubliners Book Proposal

Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64199012

Dubliners Proposal

he Need for a New Critical Edition of James Joyce's Dubliners

Despite enormous volumes of criticism and scholarship, James Joyce remains one of the most enigmatic writers of the twentieth century. His books have caused great controversy in both the literary and political worlds, as scholars and officials alike attempt to come to an understanding of is true intents and meanings. As with any great writer and/or works of literature, such attempts and the resultant debates will never cease; there is no single correct interpretation or understanding of Joyce's works, just as there is no way to come to a full and complete understanding of the author himself. his is precisely what makes literature both exciting and enduring -- it remains alive throughout the ages, no matter how much time has passed between the act of the literature's creation and a reader's discovery of the text. Each individual…… [Read More]

There have been, however, many new interpretations of both Joyce's life and his works that warrant the publication of a new critical edition of Dubliners. Criticism continues to breathe new life into these stories, and a new edition compiling the past thirteen years' worth of scholarship would be useful to long-time fans of Joyce, new discoverers of his work, and the many students and educators in the academic world who engage in scholarly examinations of his work. Michael Begnal's book Joyce and the City examines the importance of place in Joyce's work, and this certainly has a profound effect on the stories in Dubliners; other scholarship places Joyce and his works more firmly in the canon of colonial and anti-colonial Irish writers than did previous scholarship available at the time the 1996 edition was being collated (McDermott; Powell; Valente; Staley).

Other recent scholarship has focused more explicitly on Dubliners than on Joyce as an author, with some very important new twists on the typical understandings of these stories. Suspicious Readings of Joyce's "Dubliners" by Margot Norris, Sympathy and Joyce's 'Dubliners': Ethical Probing of Reading, Narrative, and Textuality by Tanja Vesala-Varttala, and Rejoycing: New Readings of "Dubliners" by Harold F. Mosher, Jr.; Rosa M. Bollettieri Bosinelli are all recent books dedicated to critical examinations of these works, but they do not provide comprehensive criticism along with the text of Dubliners itself. This is the ultimate goal of a critical edition of any works; it is not merely to provide new scholarly and critical commentary, but to do so in a manner that is at once engaging and elucidating for any reader, scholarly or otherwise, of James Joyce's works.

The works of scholarship and criticism mentioned here are only a representative sample of the amount of new material written about Joyce and his Dubliners since the 1996 Viking edition of the stories was published, but they in and of themselves still warrant the creation and publication of a new edition. The creation of new criticism is only one part of keeping Joyce alive in the minds and hearts of readers, both in academia and in the wider world. It is also necessary for this new criticism to be accurately and meaningfully compiled and disseminated in a manner at once approachable and challenging to readers. The publication of a new critical edition of James Joyce's Dubliners will accomplish just that.
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Disappointment and Heartache in James

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47728993

Her disappointment is passed on to Frank and they both suffer because of her inaction and resulting fear.

In "The Boarding house," we discover disappointment connected to two characters, Polly and Mr. Doran. In this story, disappointment is wrapped up with victimization and manipulation. Mrs. Mooney is the one holding the cards in this game and she is determined to see that her daughter does not suffer for the sake of a man. Mr. Doran becomes her victim Mrs. Mooney deals with her own misery. hile Polly is accustomed to having her way with the men of the boarding house, her mother is intent on her having some semblance of a good life. Mr. Doran is a victim of circumstance. He happens to be at the proverbial wrong place at the wrong time and ends up paying for it - perhaps for the rest of his life. e read, "There…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. "Araby." Online Literature Database. Information Retrieved Accessed October 12, 2008. http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/954/

The Boarding House." Online Literature Database. Information Retrieved Accessed October 12, 2008.  http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/955/ 

Eveline." Online Literature Database. Information Retrieved Accessed October 12, 2008. http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/959/
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English High School Senior

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68165124

Filtered Water

James Joyce's autobiographical novel, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, is a multi-layered story. The author uses many techniques to indicate his surroundings, his attitudes, his maturity and his development. From styles of writing reminiscent of his infancy to youthful diatribes on the validity of the priesthood, Joyce takes us through his youth and his changing mindset. Furthermore, this intricate novel can be read from many different perspectives simultaneously. These perspectives include religious rebellion, sexual confusion, artistic freedom, political conviction, and family influence. It is a maze of vivid images and lucid dreams that define and describe Joyce's early years. It is my opinion that his water imagery most effectively expresses the complexity of Joyce's youthful composition

One of the most intense water images was the first one. The water is dark and dirty and cold. Another student, Welles, whose name is suggestive of water, throws…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1

Joyce, James, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, 11

2

Joyce, 14
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Art of Epiphanies Explored in

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91805227

The boys play in the neighborhood streets until their skin "glowed" (382) and their "shouts echoed in the silent street" (382). Here we see a glimpse of Ireland that is not fantastic or glamorous. It is just the kind of setting a young boy needs to be consumed with a mysterious girl. hen the narrator finally makes it to the bazaar, he is met with disappointment, which forces him to be honest and realize Mangan is simply a fantasy that will let him down as well. He also realizes he is a "creature driven and derided by vanity" (386). Like Gabriel, he realizes not all things are what they seem

In "Counterparts," the epiphany is painful because it involves us taking a look at a seedier aspect of life. Farrington realizes the dreadful routine in his life. For Farrington, there is no escape from any of the stresses in his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. "Araby." The Norton Introduction to Literature. 5th ed. Carl Bain, ed. New York:

W.W. Norton and Company. 1991.

Joyce, James. "Counterparts." Dubliners. New York: Dover Thrift Edition. 1991.

Joyce, James. "The Dead." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Cassill, R.V., ed. New
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Charles Fort's We Do Not Fear the

Words: 2010 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94781452

Charles Fort's We do not Fear the Father and Louise Edrich's the Lady in the Pink Mustang, what are the metaphors, similes and allegories in these two poems? How do they enhance the meaning of the poem?

A pink car signifies that she wants to be a girly-girly with a simple life, but the car, proud, and different. The car is a mustang, which is a wild, fast, and promiscuous creature. "The sun goes down for hours, taking more of her along than the night leaves with her," reflects the kind of empty work that she does during the night, and that she only belongs to herself in the day time when she is not performing. "It is what she must face every time she is touched, the body disposable as cups." Could the girl in the pink mustang be a stripper, a showgirl, or a prostitute? Regardless, she feels…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Gabriel

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75068038

James Joyce's "The Dead," the first impression of a joyful holiday gathering of well off friends and family gives the wrong impression about a group of people that are living a routine of unfulfilling lives. As "The Dead" begins with friendly conversations and merry dance and music, the story quickly brings about awkward moments and various characters with disappointing lives such as Julia's wasted voice in the church choir. Gabriel is commonly loved by most of the other characters in the story, as the archetype of a product of posh way of life: a man whose high class and amicability are merely a facade of a man desperately holding onto his insecurities. Norris also points out that "Gabriel Conroy's party can be said to have been troubled by the unexpected challenges of three women, who confront his complacencies in order of increasing intimacy, as servant, colleague, and wife." (195) Joyce…… [Read More]

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Comparative Study Between Homer's Odyssey and the Coen Brothers O Brother Where Art Thou

Words: 11490 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 45269949

O rother, Where Art Thou?

Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?

Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'N'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print.

Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: the Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Print.

Connors, Catherine. Petronius the Poet: Verse and Literary Tradition in the Satyricon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.

Doom, Ryan P. The Brothers Coen: Unique Characters of Violence. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: Praeger / ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
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Ulysses Relationships in Ulysses to

Words: 4073 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31567490

For the first several years of one's life, their mother and father are their world. These first relationships occur at a time when the tiny human is learning the basic of their environment and how to respond to it. A child learns much of their early actions by imitating the role models around them. The relationship that exists between a child and each of their parents will set the tone for how they deal with other relationships that they encounter throughout their life.

In Chapter One we discover that our hero has "issues" with his paternal and his maternal relationship. These relationships overshadow almost any other conflict in the story at this time. It is apparent through Stephen's interactions with Mulligan and Haines that he did not have a strong paternal figure to model. He reacts in a rather passive manner. One must remember that this chapter takes place in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. Ulysses. Hans Walter Gabler (ed). Random House. June, 1986.
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Dubliners Love in Dublin A

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19994708

Mr. Duffy finds romance -- love, even -- but he is too unaware to realize what this could mean for him and for the woman he realizes he loves too late. Both Mr. Duffy and this would-be lover are isolated, caught in their own middle-aged loneliness through what are essentially a series of cowardly choices, while Araby's hero is somewhat brave if ultimately ineffective (Corrington, 182).

The differences between these two protagonists and the stories themselves are made more interesting by the many similarities they share. Both characters end up regretting the decisions they made regarding love and romance, and end up feeling their loneliness and isolation more sharply than they had before. Despite their difference in ages and situations, both characters also end with little seeming hope of correcting their mistakes and finding true love. In fact, it is suggested in both stories that there is no really way…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corrington, John William. Isolation as Motif in "A Painful Case." James Joyce Quarterly 3(3): 182-91.

Ehrlich, Heyward. "Araby" in Context: The 'Splendid Bazaar," Irish Orientalism, and James Clarence Mangan. James Joyce Quarterly 35(2/3): 309-31.

Joyce, James. "Araby." Accessed 12 November 2012. http://fiction.eserver.org/short/araby.html

Joyce, James. "A Painful Case." Accessed 12 November 2012.  http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/964/
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Ignorance Is Bliss

Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49143001

Ignorance Bliss? A Comparison and Contrast of the Characters and Themes of Sandra Cisneros' "The House on Mango Street" and "Araby" by James Joyce

Plot Summary

Character Summary

Ignorance, although comfortable is not bliss at all.

Character

Gender

Age Difference

Culture

Catholicism and sexuality in Joyce

Catholicism and family in Cisneros

Home

Significance of home in Cisneros

Significance of leaving home in Joyce

Both the protagonists of Sandra Cisneros and "Araby" by James Joyce are young adolescents, poised upon the brink of realizing that older people do not have all of the answer in life. The tales detail the coming of age of the young protagonists, as they realize that the adults in their respective worlds are not as good or wise as they seem to be. Cisneros's female heroine comes to her realization when she is contrasting the promises of her family about the house on Mango Street her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnhisel, Grey. "An Overview of Araby" From Short Stories for Students. New York: Gale research 1997

Cisneros, Sandra. "The House on Mango Street." From The House on Mango Street. Los Angeles: Arte Publico Press, 1984.

Joyce, James. "Araby." From Dubliners. London: Bloomsbury, 1919.

Saldivar-Hull, Sonia. Feminism on the Border: Chicana Gender Politics and Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
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Fall From Innocence a Fall

Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22090600

The boy has begun to understand something different about the nature of literature -- goodness is not the only standard by which to judge others, at least the goodness of the Church.

The man, however, only smiled. I saw that he had great gaps in his mouth between his yellow teeth. Then he asked us which of us had the most sweethearts. Mahony mentioned lightly that he had three totties. The man asked me how many I had. I answered that I had none. He did not believe me and said he was sure I must have one. I was silent." (3) the boy feels, however, that he is lacking in front of his friend Mahoney because he lacks for female affection. Desiring to seem different in all ways from Mahoney, he comes up short. Yet the older man, by identifying a different means of measuring the moral nature of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. "An Encounter." Dubliners.  http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/29/63/frameset.html 

Joyce, James. "Araby." Dubliners. Bibliomania.
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Women Are Confined in Society as Depicted

Words: 1150 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42380582

women are confined in society as depicted in the stories by Steinback, Joyce and Oates.

Stories set in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century often depict women as being confined to the norms of society even while they struggle to be free. Authors of literary works may they be short or long stories have often presented these women as being frustrated with the status imposed upon them and show the problems they face in a patriarchal society. In John Steinback's Chrysanthemums for instance, the female character Elisa Allen has been portrayed as "a strong, capable woman kept from personal, social, and sexual fulfillment by the prevailing conception of a woman's role in a world dominated by men" (Steinback, 306). Her appearance, manner and speech all suggest that she is a woman frustrated with the male dominated world. Her husband forever reminds Elisa that she…… [Read More]

References

Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use." The Norton Anthology, 4th ed., shorter. New York: Norton, 1995.

Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Was Almost a Man" available at www.xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR2/wright.htm

Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" accessed on 8-11-2002 at: www.usfca.edu/fac-staff/southerr/wgoing.html
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Money The Adolescent Perspective as Depicted in

Words: 954 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79461317

Money:

The adolescent perspective as depicted in the short stories of Joyce, Faulkner, and Cather

The search for higher social status as a form of personal fulfillment and self-definition all mark the coming-of-age stories of James Joyce, illiam, Faulkner, and illa Cather, despite the distinct differences between the three male protagonists created by the authors in their seminal short stories "Araby," "Barn Burning," and "Paul's Case." All three short stories feature a young protagonist whose illusions of finery and higher class status are shattered. Because these aspirations are also often connected to sexual desires, this fall from grace is particularly difficult for the young men to tolerate.

In "Araby," the young male protagonist becomes enamored with a young woman who seems innocent, above his own class, and charming. hen she professes to wish to go to the Araby bazaar but cannot because she must go on a retreat with her…… [Read More]

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Real Men Explored Through Literature

Words: 2427 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4284794

In "The Secret Life of alter Mitty," Mitty escapes the reality of his manhood with daydreaming. He does this because his wife emasculates him. For Mitty, daydreams are better than dealing with a bothersome wife. Mitty is a real man in his mind as he fantasizes about saving the Navy hydroplane. Mitty is not happy and he argues with his wife over such things as overshoes. He is no doubt a curmudgeon, as we see when he calls the parking lot attendant "damn cocky" (Thurber 1361). Mitty is unlucky in life but we have to wonder how much of this is his fault. Many would look at him and see nothing that resembles a real man. His imagination is his escape, which makes Mitty happy, as he declares himself "undefeated" and "inscrutable" (1364). Mitty might know how to escape his awful world but he is taking a chicken's way out.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Thurber, James. (1981) "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty." The Norton Anthology of Short

Fiction. New York W.W. Norton and Company. Print.

Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Vol. II. Paul

Lauter, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990. Print.
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Molly Bloom How Do You

Words: 417 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99061564

no thank you not in my house."

The monologue is filled with Molly's real and imagined transgressions with men. "In a nonviolent parallel to Odysseus's battle with the suitors, Molly's thoughts revolve around Bloom's virtues and vices compared to the other men she might have chosen, concluding finally...that he's not so bad as some" (Barger 2001). This suggests that despite Molly's apparent infidelities her relationship with her husband is not as bad as it might appear to an outside observer, and by gaining insight into someone's inner life and ways of thinking, it is easier to understand, and even like an apparently unlikable character. It also shows that the modern Odysseus, Bloom, has won his Penelope, not as a literal, heroic victory against suitors, but an inner victory of the heart, soul, and mind.

orks Cited

Barger, Jorn. The Internet Ulysses by James Joyce. Updated Feb2001. 18 Apr 2007. http://www.robotwisdom.com/jaj/ulysses/index.html…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barger, Jorn. The Internet Ulysses by James Joyce. Updated Feb2001. 18 Apr 2007. http://www.robotwisdom.com/jaj/ulysses/index.html

Joyce, James. Ulysses. Full text available from the Online Literature Collection.

18 Apr 2007.  http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/ulysses/18
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Modernism Factors That Led to

Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 185872



Q3. Explain the importance of the Fisher King in Modern Literature.

The Fisher King is the wounded king that motivates Sir Galahad to find the Holy Grail to heal him and his people: the quest narrative is one of the most significant narratives in all of literature, and the Moderns despaired of finding a quest in the modern, faithless, directionless world. The Fisher King's wound symbolizes his lack of fertility, which leaves his kingdom hungry and barren. T.S. Eliot's poem "The Wasteland" suggests that modern life is like the Fisher King's kingdom.

Q4. Explain the importance of WWI trench poetry and the works of Wilfred Owen

While some of the early poets celebrated patriotism, or eulogized the fate of the common soldier with quiet despair, Owen's poetry was harsh, gritty and realistic. In his poem "Dulce et Decorum est" Owen takes the familiar Latin phrase that it is sweet to…… [Read More]

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Youth A Portrait of the Artist as

Words: 833 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44689962

Youth: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

In James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the main character Stephen says that great art carries the qualities of Wholeness, Harmony, and Radiance. Yet Stephen is making this statement as an adolescent, one who is not yet whole nor harmonious, but one who is still developing and adapting to himself and his world. As literary art, the problem this leads to is how an adult reader can create an adolescent character honestly, a character less developed then they are. The reader then has the same challenge, to read about this character and judge them on who they are, without directing their own biases on the character. The writer and the reader can both be guilty of viewing the adolescent character either condescendingly or sentimentally. As well as this, the writer and reader either creating or…… [Read More]

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Three Stories

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53123408

Handsomest Drowned Man in the World by Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Point-of-View -- the author presents the perceptions of the villagers who live in isolation and are suddenly shaken by the arrival of someone so unlike them in stature and appearance. First, the women, then the men, construct an ideal from the tallness and overall attractiveness of the drowned man. He represents a myth, which mingles with their collective sense of reality and is moved by it. Even when they decide to throw him back into the sea as their burial tradition, they design their future according to the image of this admirable drowned man so that they too may one day be admired by others.

Genre -- Magical realism fuses magic and reality. The reality part is the everyday and routine ways of the villagers in the isolated island. The magic is the sudden arrival of the dead body of…… [Read More]

Introduction to Fiction by X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia, 2009. Pearson Higher

Education: Longman

Olsen, Tillie. "As I Stand Here Ironing." An Introduction to Fiction by X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia, 2009. Pearson Higher Education: Longman
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Birches Many Classic Authors Use

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75174724

Through is work readers were placed at the scene, to feel the emotions and spirit of the author. Birches provides a wonderful, heartfelt trip down memory lane as a boy for Frost, who often appealed to the memories of his readers with his work.

He begins with wondering about the bent limbs of a birch tree and brings the reader to the days when swinging from tree branches was their main concern in life. He then cuts into that memory and discusses ice storms but one can also see it is not just about ice storms but a metaphoric example of the harsh realities of life and adulthood. As people age they become more rigid and less able to "bend" with the wind, which creates a mindset that cannot be changed or appealed to.

When Trilling said that Frost was a terrifying poet he was referring to Frost's ability to…… [Read More]

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Aeschylus - The Oresteia Agamemnon Libation Bearers

Words: 1977 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 56017260

Aeschylus - the Oresteia (Agamemnon, Libation Bearers and Eumenides)

The Oresteia offers the reader a close and intensive immersion with a truly pained universe of suffering: each play still has at its core a sense of flush of promise and vibrancy of Athens that was pushing forth and evolving into greatness. Even so, the author Aeschylus is able to captures a sense of the undercurrents of the primal vengeance that still defined this society. Each of the plays has in a common a strong pillar of the humanity and the lack of humanity that needs to be held in balance as the events spin and unfold. One could argue that the notion of suffering into truth is something which defines each of the plays in the trilogy. For instance, the first play thrusts the reader into a world which has been largely defined by the suffering of the Trojan War…… [Read More]

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Portrait of an Artist

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52496299

Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man tells the story of Stephen Dedalus as he grows from an introspective and conscious young man into a rebellious and disaffected adult. For much of the novel, young Stephen is trying to figure out exactly who he is and what it is that he values in life. It is a stream-of-consciousness story wherein the internal thoughts and feeling, no matter how insignificant they may seem are written in their entirety so as to represent in a fictional work how a real human being's thought processes guide their life. As an Irish youth, it is expected that Stephen will follow the orders of his parents and honor his father and mother, and that he will live and behave according to the Catholic tradition of his family members and his community. Religion and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York, NY: Dover, 1994. Print.
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Boarding House Illustrates This Concept

Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65923332

Mrs. Mooney's choice of a husband was made according to a concept that worked very simple: her father's foreman was the best possible solution to continue the successful business. This proved to be wrong in the end because no one could have predicted his later alcohol addiction and his alienation. Although, psychologically speaking, a scientist might find the causes in the very marriage. The historical conditions Mrs. Mooney lived in were also determinant for her seeing only one viable solution that should have guaranteed her economic well being. Later, she could have decided to run the butcher shop herself, but that option was not available by the time she got married.

By the time her daughter came to the age of marriage, this was still the only option in her mother's views in order to assure her daughter's material means of existence. The words used by Joyce are economic terms…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. The Boarding House. Copyright: 2001, 2005. Retrieved Nov 24, 2007 at  http://www.classicreader.com/read.php/bookid.348/sec./ 

Marx., Karl. Introductory Comments on Readings for Week 4: Ideology and Subjectivity Retrieved Nov 26, 2007. At  http://www.english.ilstu.edu/strickland/495/ideology.html 

Rocker, Rudolf. The Insufficiency of Economic Materialism. Retrieved Nov, 26, 2007 at http://flag.blackened.net/rocker/insuf.htm
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Modernism and Harlem Modernism Is

Words: 471 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18104602

(oime, et. al.).

Similarly, author James Joyce helped define the modernist novel by taking the traditionalist concept of telling a coming of age story and adding to it the modernist characteristics of open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative and classical allusions. The result is a novel that, like Starry Night, captures the movement and color of the real world.

Perhaps no other work of Joyce's demonstrates his modernist characteristics then his magna opus, Ulysses. At its core, Ulysses is a retelling of the classic tale by Homer, the Odyssey.

One of the main uses of modernism is found in the final, unpunctuated chapter, popularly referred to as Molly loom's Soliloquy, a long, free verse (or stream of consciousness) passage that list her thoughts as she lies in bed next to the main character, Leopold loom. This is a key modernist passage as it reads as human dreams or thoughts really…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blamires, Harry. The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide Through Ulysses. London: Routledge, 1988.

Boime, Albert. Vincent van Gogh: Starry Night. A history of matter, a matter of history. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1994.
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Destructive Element

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37211144

Destructive Element Traits in Literature

A destructive element refers to that one trait which can destroy a person or negatively impact his life in some manner. This element is usually acts as a barrier between men and their full potential and can also seriously impede their growth. Some critics are of the view that fear is the most destructive element and we know from observation that fear is what stops man from achieving his goals and from speaking his mind. Conrad believes that we must submit to this destructive element, which can interpret in two ways. Either we completely become a victim to it and allow ourselves to be gripped by its power. Or we can submit to it by admitting that it exists and then do something about it. Every author who has explored the psychological dimensions of his characters is aware of this destructive element and it is…… [Read More]

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Ulysses An Odyssey of Errors Critics of

Words: 5176 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77075890

Ulysses: An Odyssey of Errors

Critics of James Joyce call his work cryptic and rambling, not easily followed by most readers. They proclaim that it lacks plot and classical elements of modern literature. However, Joyce did not intentionally write a bad novel, rather he was experimenting with a new literary style, one which broke almost all of the rules of modern literature. None the less, there have been those in society who have attempted to "correct" and "improve" upon Joyce's works. These attempts at "improvement" are to be the subject of this research. This research will approach the controversy surrounding Ulysses in reference to its place as a piece of art. In such a context, it is doubtful whether later versions of Ulysses have succeeded in clearing up the obscurities in the original novel, but rather have served to further confuse the issue.

Joyce was the first to use the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davies, John. "Kidd's craft in editing." The Times Higher Education

Supplement.February 12, p. 19. 1993.

Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce.New York: Oxford University Press. 1977.

Gabler, Hans Walter. Ulysses: A Critical And Synoptic Edition. Garland: New York.
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Role of Women in the Dead to

Words: 2459 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56210223

Role of omen in the Dead

To be sure, James Joyce's The Dead is one of the best examples of the short story in English Literature. Indeed, the artistry, depth of feeling, and acute insights into the human psyche are all on striking display in the piece. However, although many note the remarkable internal angst of Gabriel, and the role of the obvious theme of death and "the dead" throughout the story, there remains a strong theme of women, and their role as "catalyst touchstones" grounding Gabriel as well as the reader in the realization of the inevitability of suffering and death.

One of the interesting aspects of interpreting any of the works of Joyce as feminist in nature, is the common criticism of Joyce's actual life. One typical example of this problem is touched on in the article "Banking on Joyce," in which he is described as despising intellectual…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anspaugh, Kelly. "Three Mortal Hour (i)s'; Female Gothic in Joyce's 'The Dead'." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 1-12.

Brea, Jennifer. "Penelope: In Search of the Feminist in James Joyce." 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 3 March, 2001
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Ulysses the Start of the

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 56181900

Thus, it is clear that the novel in itself represents a series of underlying reasons and concepts which aim at personalizing the apparently common life of loom.

Another important theme of the novel is the idea of the presence of the conscience. In this sense, unlike many previous pieces of literature, "Ulysses" develops a human conscience for its characters. In this sense, Stephan and loom both have conscience problems which are part of the modernization of the world. Thus, while Stephan is remorseful about not obeying his mother on the dead bed, loom is retrospective concerning the life he is leading and the marriage he is part of. This comes to point out the modern aspect of the novel because it refers in particular to the strains of the society and to the lack of moral principles. At the same time, this dimension is connected to the idea about religiosity…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Newman, Robert D., Weldon Thornton. Joyce's Ulysses: The Larger Perspective. University of Delaware Press: Newark, 1987.

James Joyce. Ulysses. Vintage Books. New York.
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Morality and Disappointment Two Themes

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41189630

Traditions and traditional ways of doing things are considered good or moral, while modern times are considered worse than the past and immoral. At the end of the short story, it is the grandmother who is continually insisting that "The Misfit" is actually good inside, begging for him to find his own sense of morality.

"Araby," however, offers an almost opposite view of morality. While readers of "A Good Man is Hard To Find" are barraged with the grandmother's ideas of morality and instructions on how to be more moral, the main character in "Araby" practices an internal monitoring of his morality. For instance, the main character assesses the Priest who lived in the family's home as a tenant, thinking him generous because he gave away all of his possessions upon his death. Further, at the end of the story, the main character has the chance to evaluate his own…… [Read More]

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John Updike - A& p it

Words: 2103 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75646432



Lengel says, "That's all right...but this isn't the beach." And after a counter-protest by another of the three girls, Lengel lectures, "e want you decently dressed when you come in here." For all the readers know, Lengel himself is turned on by the lovely young women, and is only ranting at them in order to gaze at the splendor on display. In any event, Queenie says, "e are decent"; she is definitely becoming agitated, and as the narrator reminds readers, she is acutely conscious of her apparent high social standing, and needn't put up with a pious loser manager in a store "pretty crummy" store. The Sunday school pedagogue has his last say; "Girls I don't want to argue with you. After this come in here with your shoulders covered. It's our policy." He turns his back on the girls. Sammy hasn't rung up the herring fillets yet; but the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Updike, John. "A&P." The Early Stories: 1953-1975. New York: Random House, 2003.

Wells, Walter. "John Updike's 'A&P': a return visit to Araby." Studies in Short Fiction 30.2
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Gertrude Stein Indeed Gertrude Stein Wrote for

Words: 4312 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84008224

Gertrude Stein

Indeed. Gertrude Stein wrote for "herself" for many years prior to ever being noticed as the marvelously talented and versatile writer that she was. That fact was a reality simply because she did not have the opportunity for many years to publish the work she was so tirelessly putting out. Meanwhile, her legacy today is that of an extraordinarily insightful and respected woman of letters, an innovator, an elite member of the artistic avant garde in Europe, a prolific poet and writer, a visionary, something of a rebel, and more. Although she died in 1946 (of intestinal cancer), her work is discussed, debated, dissected and analyzed like the work of few other poets/writers. It's almost as if she were alive today.

Thesis

Certainly this paper focuses on a gifted thinker whose poetic form is sometimes misunderstood, but rarely ignored. And it also delves into the life of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, Dana. "Meeting Gertrude Stein...a miscellany of first encounters."

Time-Sense: an electronic quarterly on the art of Gertrude Stein. 2002. http://www.tenderbuttons.com/gsonline/timesense/1_2cook.html.

Hartley, George. "Textual Politics and the Language Poets." English Department

University of Pennsylvania 2002.  http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/hartley.html
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Emily and Dickinson and Walt

Words: 1797 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58060262

The poet is in turmoil and he turns from his love in order to prevent tarnishing or "spoil" (Pound 2) her because she is surrounded by a "new lightness" (3). This poem reflects upon the importance of experience. Like the poets mentioned before, this poet wants us to consider every aspect of our actions. e should not only think of what we want to do but also how that desire and acting upon it will alter our lives. Robert Frost is focused upon the experience of nature. In "Dust of Snow," the poet brings poetry to life as if it were music. hen we read:

The way a crow

Shook down on me

The dust of snow

From a hemlock tree (Frost 1-4)

Here the poet wants to explore rather than embark on some discovery. These writers are different in their individuals styles but they each desire to connect with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickinson, Emily. "Because I could Not Stop for Death." Masterpieces of American Poets. New York: Garden City Publishing. 1936.

Eliot, T.S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." The Bedford Introduction to Literature.

Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press.1993.

Dickinson, Emily. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Complete Poems of Emily
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Authors Who Write Alike and

Words: 880 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59866246

While we are shown the fact that Sammy, ogles the girls and makes a queen of the leader. On one hand while he feels no pang in doing so he is disgusted by the butcher's lustful gaze. (Saldivar, 214)

There is rebellion when the manager who is a puritan rebukes the girls. The only outrage that the manager, Lengel, seem to have done is to make the queen blush. Thus Sammy quits his job against an authority that demeans people. The girls seem neither to have noticed the managers' consternation or admonition nor have they noticed Sammy standing up for them. Sammy gains nothing but loses his job in the bargain. (Saldivar, 215)

There was parody of other works for which Updike is noted. Here in this story too, apart from Araby we find the parody of the classic Vanity Fair. Parody of the Vanity Fair can be seen in…… [Read More]

References

Saldivar, Toni. The Art of John Updike's "A&P." Studies in Short Fiction, vol. 34, no.

2, 1997, pp: 212-216.

Walker, Michael. Boyle's "Greasy Lake" and the Moral Failure of Postmodernism.

Studies in Short Fiction, vol. 31, no. 2, 2002, pp: 245-251.
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Trip to Chinatown Hello Dolly One

Words: 2798 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70066932

Trip to Chinatown / Hello, Dolly!

One might not ordinarily associate comedienne Carol Channing with formidable erudition, but the Broadway premiere of Hello, Dolly! In 1964 would manage to unite them both thanks to the participation of Thornton ilder. ilder remains persistently underrated in the canon of American drama, partly because his own achievement had originally derived from fiction -- yet an examination of ilder's own notebooks reveals that his own successful stage plays were frequently based on his own critical and scholarly engagement with the most abstruse sort of Modernist texts. ilder would claim that his sprawling 1942 comedy The Skin of Our Teeth, which would win that year's Pulitzer Prize, had been based on James Joyce's Finnegans ake (which presumably would have come as a great surprise to Tallulah Bankhead, who starred in ilder's play). Yet it is my contention that among the many learned influences upon ilder's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cather, Willa. "Music and Drama." Nebraska State Journal, 1 November 1894. Willa Cather Archive. Accessed 1 April 2011 at:  http://cather.unl.edu/j00078.html  . Web.

Herman, Jerry. Hello, Dolly! New York: Edwin Morris, 1964. Print.

Hoyt, Charles. A Trip to Chinatown. In Clark, Barrett H. (Editor), Favorite American Plays of the Nineteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943. Print.

Gassner, John and Quinn, Edward. The Reader's Encyclopedia of World Drama. New York: Crowell, 1969. Print.
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Time Periods in English

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18909245

English Literature

The medieval period in English history spans across some 800 years. The Anglo-Saxon period consisted of literature that was retained in memory. The major influence of the literature up until the Norman Conquest was mainly of the religious kind. "Distinguished, highly literate churchmen (Abrams 4) the Ecclesiastical History of England remains our "most important source of knowledge about the Anglo-Saxon period" (4).

The Anglo-Saxons were primarily known for their contribution to poetry. Their alliterative form was, of course, how poetry survived. Sine they wrote nothing down until they were "Christianized," Abrams suggest that that Christian ideals influenced how things were recorded and it would also explain why some non-Christian literature did not survive. Beowulf is what Abrams refers to as the "greatest" German epic, even though it appears to many pre-Christian ideas. (4) Another example of the Anglo-Saxon writing movement would be Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Chaucer brilliantly weaves…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abrams, M.H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago: William Benton Publisher. 1959.

Wright, Meg. Early English Writers. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 1989.
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Laughing Leprechaun While We Have

Words: 2747 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79185633



Such a parsing of into which school Samuel Beckett can be slotted may seem to be nothing more than intellectual engagement -- not that there is anything wrong with this -- but it also serves as an important way of assessing both the "Irishness" and the humor of Beckett's writings. Unlike a writer like John Synge, for example, or illiam Butler Yeats, Beckett is generally not clearly identifiable as Irish from the dialect or settings or historical references in his writings. (This is especially true, of course, once he begins to write in French.) But there are hints of his nationality in this back-and-forthing that he does with literary genres and literary conventions. Such liberty with self-identification in terms of artistic identity is not solely Irish, of course. But an unwillingness to be categorized neatly does seem to be clearly associated with colonial identity. Ireland in Beckett's time was still…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrett, William. Real Love Abides. The New York Times, September 16, 1956.

Beckett, Samuel. The Complete Dramatic Works. New York: Faber and Faber, 2006.

Cronin, Anthony. Samuel Beckett: The Last Modernist. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

Fiedler, Leslie, Search for Peace in a World Lost. The New York Times, August 3, 1997.
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Vonnegut in Cultural History as

Words: 2683 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49418035

A Vonnegut theme, however, is often hard to miss; especially since part of Vonnegut's style placed the author in a position where many readers could palpably feel him throughout the novel. Vonnegut seems to read alongside the reader and assist him; he seems to teach and guide -- gently -- as well as write. As such, Vonnegut helped re-define what high art, and the novel specifically, could be:

Irving, who went on to write "The World According to Garp" and "The Cider House Rules," remembered Vonnegut as a self-effacing presence who "didn't have an agenda about what 'the novel' should be." Vonnegut also appreciated that you didn't have to be in the classroom to get your work done (MSNC, 2007).

South Park postmodernism seems to be endemic to recent generations, and, if so, the ideological roots of those generations must be traced back to Vonnegut and his contemporaries.

Some more…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Vonnegut, Kurt.

a. Slaughterhouse Five. New York: Random House, 1969. Print

b. Glapagos. New York: Random House, 1985. Print.

c. Cat's Cradle. New York: Random House, 1963. Print.
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Waste Land French Lieutenant the

Words: 4164 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35242335

(Eliot, 1971).

The Subjective over the Objective

Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).

Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.

2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

3. Wilson, E., & Reill, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment. New York, NY: Facts on File.

4. Zafirovski, M. (2011). The Enlightenment and Its Effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer.
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Short Responses for 2 Courses

Words: 4593 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33763153

Exhaustion" demonstrates an interest in the subject of how different media might affect the meaning of art. Barth's general remarks at the opening of "The Literature of Exhaustion" indicate a sort of ambivalence about what he terms "intermedia' arts" (65). He seems to approve of "their tendency to eliminate…the most traditional notion of the artist…one endowed with uncommon talent, who has moreover developed and disciplined that endowment into virtuosity" (65). Yet in terms of aesthetic theory this is not altogether different from a normative 19th century or modernist conception of the artist's role: one thinks of such famous aesthetic pronouncements as Flaubert declaring that the artist must be like God, "everywhere present and nowhere visible," or Wilde's dictum that "to reveal art and conceal the artist is art's aim," or James Joyce's God-like artist "invisible, refined out of existence, indifferent, paring his fingernails." It could be argued that this main…… [Read More]