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JC Penny Makeover
Background on U.S. Department Stores and Background on J.C. Penney
Dr. Robert Tamilia (Marketing professor at the University of Quebec at Montreal) explains that the department store in America not only "…revolutionized the retail store," and the shopping experience, and the available of products and promotional techniques, the department store contributed in a major way to the evolution of "...hiring practices and inventory control procedures" (Tamilia, 2002, p. 3). Moreover, Tamilia writes that the department store was one of society's more "democratic institutions" and besides offering customer services that had previously been unheard of (restaurants, restrooms and reading rooms) the department store in America "…liberated women and gave women their rightful place in society."
In fact, the author continues, because of department stores, jobs became available for women that "opened career opportunities" in various professional fields and department stores "…changed society's values in accepting that women could…
D'Innocenzio, Anne. (2012). J.C. Penney slashing prices on all merchandise. Associated Press.
Retrieved July 10, 2012, from http://www.usatoday.com .
Girard, Kim. (2012). Is JC Penney's Makeover the Future of Retailing? Harvard Business
School. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://hbswk.hbs.edu .
JC Penny is an iconic American brand that has catered specifically to the middle class for generations. This strategy upon inception was beneficial, as JCP was able to operate in the great depression. Through use of a "Fair Price" model, customers flocked to JCP for its value orientation. This allowed the company to grow even in the midst of the great depression. However, capitalism evokes change even in the most well run businesses. JCP quickly found competition for other, more focused department stores such as Sears and Wal-Mart. JCP has now been forced, through competitive pressures, to re-evaluate its cooperate and business strategy. This has become particularly true since the great recession, as consumers are still not completely confident about their future purchasing behavior.
Below is a SWOT analysis of JCP relative to peers in the industry. As a retailer focused on the middle class, JCP has a vast…
The Transformation of JC Penny for the New Century
Organizational behavior is the study of how the actions of individuals, groups, and structures influence the behavior of an organization. Organizational culture refers to the characteristics that define the organization and make them unique. Organizational culture refers to communication styles, management styles, interaction styles, policies and procedures, as well as the manner of dress within the organization. Organizational culture influences organizational behavior in many ways. Organizational behavior produces outcomes that lead to the success or failure of the business. This research will explore that organizational behavior of the JC Penny Company.
Many studies on organizational behavior focus on the failures of the business in relation to organizational behavior. However, this research takes a different approach and will focus on a company that is been around for 100 years. It will explore organizational behavior within the JC Penny Company and…
Anderson, G. Culture Change Part of Penney's Plan to Succeed. March 28, 2006. [online] Available from: http://www.retailwire.com/discussion/11310/culture-change-part-of-penneys-plan-to-succeed . Accessed April 29, 2012.
Buchanan, D. 2004. Organizational Behaviour: An Introductory Text. Financial Times / Prentice Hall.
Chaneta, I. n.d. Organizational Behavior. Journal of Comprehensive Research 8 (13), pp. 13.
Damas, J. And Schendel, R. 2012. JC Penny Re-brands…again. Labelscar. The Retail History Blog. [online] Available from: http://www.labelscar.com/retail-stores/jcpenney-2012-new-logo Accessed April 29, 2012.
J.C. Penney Company, Inc. is a holding firm with the main operating subsidiary known as J.C Corporation, Inc. The company sells accessories, family apparel and footwear, beauty products, home furnishings, and fine and fashion jewelry in its department stores in America and Puerto ico. Since its inception, this company has grown to become a major retailer that operates approximately 1,106 department stores by the beginning of 2011. The business of this firm basically consists of selling their products and services through the numerous stores and its online business strategies. This growth has resulted in the company to be ranked as America's largest department-store retailer and catalog business.
Mission, Vision, and Primary Stakeholders of J.C. Penney:
The vision of J.C. Penney Company, Inc. is to become America's shopping destination for inventing great styles at reasonable and attractive prices. This vision is centered on the company's long-range growth initiatives that…
Bartholomew et. al. (2007, June 1). J.C. Penny Company, Inc. Equity Valuation and Analysis.
Retrieved December 17, 2011, from http://mmoore.ba.ttu.edu/ValuationReports/Summer2007/JC-Penney.pdf
"J.C. Penney Company, Inc." (2010). Commission File Number 001-15274. Retrieved from United States Securities and Exchange Commission website: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1166126/000119312511081412/d10k.htm#toc142811_12
"J.C. Penney Company, Inc. Summary Annual Report" (2010). Annual Reports.com. Retrieved December 17, 2011, from http://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDF/jcp2010.pdf
JC Penney's New Pricing Strategy
J.C. Penney was founded in 1902 by James Cash Penney, and by 1907 he had purchased full interest in three locations, moving his company headquarters from Wyoming to Salt Lake City in 1909. By 1912, there were 34 stores in the ocky Mountain State areas. By 1928 Penny's had opened 1000 stores and by 1941 had 1600 stores in all 48 states. Penny's began national advertising in 1956, offered in-store credit cards in 1959, and acquired The Treasury discount stores in 1962. By 1963 it issued its first catalog, expanded to Alaska and Hawaii, acquired Thrift Drug and by 1969 was a major feature in most American cities. By James Penney's death in 1971, the company had revenues of over $5 billion and peaked with 2,053 stores in 1973 jcpenney.com; Mattioli, 2012).
etailing in the 21st century demands far different strategies than ever before. etailing…
management styles used by JC Penney's management and pros and cons of each era of management. The paper begins with a general introduction of the management and then by answering the questions asked. The paper also evaluates company's management styles and problems faced by the company. Importance of innovative management style and a suitable style for JC Penney is also considered in the given paper.
Penney being one of the 'largest retailers in the United States of America' was founded in the year 1902 by James Cash Penney. At its inception the company owned three departmental stores. The company now owns and operates a chain of more than 1050 department stores in the country. (Hoover's Company Profile, 2014) Throughout the period of more than a century of its operations the company has witnessed many changes in management and operations, all directed at making the company and its stores widely…
Bhasin, K. (2013). JC Penney's Senior Management Team Knows There's Only One Way Out Of This Mess. Business Insider, 18th March.
Bhasin, K. (2013). Inside JC Penney: widespread fear, anxiety, and distrust of Ron Johnson and his new management team. Business Insider, 22nd February.
Chernev, A. (2012). Two questions haunting J.C. Penney. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-13/two-questions-haunting-j-dot-c-dot-penney [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Daft, R.L. (2012). Management. Australia: South-Western.
Financial Statement Analysis
Basically, these ratios tell a lot about the two companies. It takes half a second to realize that Kohl's is the better investment, since JCP is losing money in heroic fashion. JC Penney not only lost a lot of money last year, but has lost money for the past three years. Its revenues are down substantially in that time, with a collapse in 2013. A quick Google search tells all about the massive marketing missteps that have crippled JC Penney. The stock price is low, but that is because this is not a growth story.
The current ratio highlights the liquidity of the company, and both are well above the 1.0 threshold normally considered a sign of trouble. While Kohl's earns a better profit margin, both companies have a health gross margin. The issue over at Penney is that its net margin is a staggering loss. To…
JC Penney Acquiring Kohl's
Often, a firm that is taken over is struggling financially. One of the reasons is entirely pragmatic -- a struggling firm likely has a lower stock price, making the takeover more affordable. Over the past four years, Kohl's has seen its revenues flatline. evenues were $19.2 billion in FY 2016. The company's cost of goods sold is steady as well, at 63.8%. So in that sense, Kohl's is a very stable firm financially. This stability should actually mean that its stock price fairly accurately reflects the present value of future cash flows, making it difficult for the acquiring firm to earn profit from the transaction, given that they have to pay a premium to Kohl's shareholders.
The company has seen its selling, general, and administration expenses increase gradually over the past couple of years, which has resulted in shrinking operating income. The operating profit…
Kohl's 2015 Form 10-K. Retrieved January 17, 2017 from http://corporate.kohls.com/investors/financial-information
MSN Moneycentral: Kohl's (2017) Retrieved January 17, 2017 from https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails/financials/fi-126.1.KSS.NYS
Vasel, K. (2016). JC Penny, Kohl's, Macy's and Sears sued over misleading prices. CNN. Retrieved January 17, 2017 from http://money.cnn.com/2016/12/09/pf/price-scheme-jcpenney-kohls-sears-macys/
justification report provides recommendations to Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, which is a media empire that provides insights into a company's relations with its stakeholders, especially customer and shareholders. The firm is a diversified media and merchandising company that was founded in 1997 by Martha Stewart. Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia is classified into four business segments i.e. Internet, Merchandising, Publishing, and Broadcasting media platforms product lines. As a result, the firm's business holdings incorporate various print publications, e-commerce websites, and radio and television programming. The founder of the company served as its chairperson, president and Chief Executive Officer until the ImClone Insider Trading saga occurred, which resulted in her forceful resignation. The resignation was fueled by the fact that the Securities and Exchange Commission agreed to prohibit Stewart from serving in any capacity that would revolve around preparing, auditing, and disclosing fiscal results and information of a publicly traded company.
The customers want to watch out the promotional offers, and a recent survey showed that in many cases it would take discounts of up to 50% to persuade customers to make a purchase (Business Insider, 2012). Therefore, rather than appreciating the more consistent everyday low prices, the JC Penney customers have seen the move as taking away their opportunity to purchase goods on promotional offers. The result has been significant, in the first quarter alone the company saw revenue drop by 20%, with the firm losing 10% of their customers (Bickle, 2012). The strategies continue to struggle, with the 2012 revenues amounting $17,260 million, compared to $17,759 million in 2011, the result of 2012 was the lowest revenue in the last five years (Morning Star, 2013). This has had an undeniable negative impact on the company stock, following an initial gain of the strategy was announced, the firm has struggled,…
A preview of capital structure issues
In regards to the overall business environment, capital structure has profound implications of the business, irrespective of its industry. For one, a firm's capital structure is then the composition or 'structure' of its liabilities. For example, a firm that sells $40 billion in equity and $160 billion in debt is said to be 20% equity-financed and 80% debt-financed. The firm's ratio of debt to total financing, 80% in this example is referred to as the firm's leverage. This leverage has implications on the entire firm. For example, leverage in many respects is a double edges sword. On one hand, leverage can amplify gains for firms. However, if used incorrectly, leverage can also amplify loses. As such, firms must be cognizant of its capital structure as complacency can hinder overall business performance. Debt and equity financing, can have a profound implications on the…
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2) Baker, Malcolm P; Wurgler, Jeffrey (2002). "Market Timing and Capital Structure." Journal of Finance 57 (1): 1 -- 32.
3) Lyandres, Evgeny and Zhdanov, Alexei, Investment Opportunities and Bankruptcy Prediction (February 2007) Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=946240
4) Timmer, Jan (2011). Understanding the Fed Model, Capital Structure, and then Some.
The exponential growth of the Internet has also served as the catalyst for the growth of highly collaborative, interactive forums and platforms on which Delphi-like brainstorming can be accomplished (Decker, Wagner, Scholz, 2005). Conversely many of the external relationships companies have and that are essential to understanding how the strategic planning process will impact an organization lend themselves to quantification. An example of this level of quantification of external factors is the use of frameworks for evaluating the performance of supply chains over time, a process area that can be highly quantified through the use of maturity models and measurements of performance over time (Gilmour, 1999). Both of these extremes, qualitative data analysis through the use of techniques including writing of scenarios, brainstorming and the Delphi technique to the extremely quantitative, both require organizations to have a fairly high level of interprocess maturity and development to be able to manage…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Reinhold Decker, Ralf Wagner, Soren W. Scholz. (2005). An internet-based approach to environmental scanning in marketing planning. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(2/3), 189-199.
Qi Fei, David L. Olson. (2007). Web services composition strategy in enterprise systems. Human Systems Management, 26(1), 53.
B. Johansson, F. Sudzina. (2008). ERP systems and open source: an initial review and some implications for SMEs. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 21(6), 649-658.
The nature of disputes in business is varied and in some instances they come because of the wrong performance of people. Let us take the case of Mr. Coughlin who retired from Wal-Mart in January finally gave his resignation from the board of directors on March 25th. According to Wal-Mart there was a pattern of expenses account abuses by him, as also the use of incorrect invoices for getting reimbursement of expenses. This action has been accompanied by the sacking of a few other employees also. The investigation into the matter is being carried by the U.S. attorney for the Western District of Arkansas. The matter is also being investigated by Wall Street Journal and they feel that Mr. Coughlin often forced his subordinates to create false bills so that he could get payments for his personal expenses from Wall-Mart. He is now 55 years old and this…
Bandler, James; Zimmerman, Ann. (8 April, 2005) "A Wal-Mart Legend's Trail of Deceit." Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.mindfully.org/Industry/2005/Wal-Mart-Coughlin8apr05.htm Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Franke, Diane. "5 tips for better business cases." (Sept. 20, 2004) Retrieved from http://www.fcw.com/fcw/articles/2004/0920/pol-5tipsbiz-09-20-04.asp Wal-Mart 2002 Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Fishman, Charles. (December, 2003) "The Wal-Mart You Don't Know." Retrieved from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/77/walmart.html Accessed on 23 May, 2005
"Wal-Mart Loses Unpaid Overtime Case." (20 December, 2002) Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/12/20/national/main533818.shtml Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Publishing companies are responding to the targeting by producing magazines for the different markets. The magazine sections of book stores and pharmacies fill a sizeable portion of square footage by covering a range of titles from Teen People to Harley Davidson. Thousands of consumer magazines have been founded over the past decade, including 440 last year alone, nearly all of them born targeted. Only about 10% of the 6,200 consumer magazines published in the U.S. are general-interest titles, down from 30% two decades ago.
However, because of the ever increasing cost of paper and printing and the growing numbers of people going online to read about their special interests, the Internet is fast becoming the Mecca of targeted publications and the advertisements that go hand in hand with them. What makes it more enticing is being able to capture the names and locations of these online users through electronic tricks…
Bianco, Anthony, Lowery, Tom, Berner, Robert and Arndt, Michael (2004) "The
Vanishing Mass Market." Business Week. New York: 60
The market structure of the retail industry is that of monopolistic competition. As its name suggests, monopolistic competition is an environment composed of a large number of firms each with a portion of the market. The firms in this type of market structure have similar products but they are differentiated in some way. Nordstrom's for example has private brands that only Nordstrom's can carry. These brands include Hotel Collection sheets, Martha Stewart cookware, Psycho Bunny for men, INC brand clothes for women, and much more. Even though these product offerings may be similar to competitors in regards to color or value proposition, they are differentiated by the fact they are only offered at Nordstrom's locations. Furthermore, there are many firms competing within the retail environment. For example, Nordstrom's must compete with JC Penny, Target, Wal-Mart, Dillard's, Sears, internet stores, and many other outlets. All of these competitors…
9) Thau, Barbara. "Macy's Doubles Down on Its 'Omnichannel' E-Commerce Future." DailyFinance.com. 23 June 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. .
10) Wahba, Phil. "Sears Closing More Stores as Holiday Sales Slide." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 27 Dec. 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. .
11) Kaplan, Stephen. "Capital Ideas - The Evolution of U.S. Corporate Governance." The University of Chicago Booth School of Business - Business School, Full-time, Part-time, Executive MBA Programs. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. .
The person's name, position and organization
Position: Vice President of Store Management (VPSM)
Why you chose this person to interview
This individual exhibits all the qualities I find admirable as a leader. Irrespective of the field or industry, leadership's skills are necessary to advance. In today's global environment, where competition abounds, leaders must be effective in driving results. David, as I have seen from both his words and subsequent actions, drives results within the retail environment. This environment is characterized with changing consumer sentiments, macroeconomic conditions, and overall business dynamics. David has proven in his extensive career, to overcome many of these pitfalls, while continually improving business results. As such, he is an ideal candidate to interview. For one, he possesses skills which are in high demand and sought after. Secondly, many of the skills and abilities he possesses are transferrable. In the event that I change…
I'm a shopaholic. There's absolutely no getting around it. For years I managed to justify my new Tommy Hilfiger jeans, Gap sweaters, and shiny new gadgets with excuses like "I need them for work" or "Everyone else has one, why can't I?" I went on giving excuses, buying completely unnecessary, expensive stuff, and never really giving it much of a second thought until it finally caught up to me one day last May, and I was forced to see how my actions were affecting my future.
I'd had a horrible day at work. My boss had criticized my latest project, saying it was "amateurish" and suggested that I focus a little more seriously on my career (ouch!) and I was feeling more than a little depressed. So naturally, I went shopping. I didn't even think about it. I was knee deep in the sale rack at my local department…
Pagewise. Are you a shopaholic? Quiz and facts on compulsive shopping. 24 April 2004. ttp:/ / www.me.essortment.com/shopaholic_rxfm.htm
Engs, Ruth, RN, EdD. HOW CAN I MANAGE COMPULSIVE SHOPPING and SPENDING (SHOPOHOLISM). 24 April 2004. http://www.indiana.edu/~engs/hints/shop.html
Databases in the Work Place
We are in the information age and the effective management of data is paramount in almost all aspects of our life. All businesses today thrive on the availability of vast pool of data pertaining to their domain and thus databases constitute an indispensable aspect of all businesses. Having access to a huge database and the intelligent interpretation of the data therein holds the key to business success. I am working as a database engineer for "Intelligent Email Solutions," a company which specializes in offering email based intelligent customer relationship management solutions. Let us have a brief overview of the use and the importance of databases in our company.
Our clientele are big corporations like Nike, Citibank, ANZ Grindlays, Jc penny etc. We provide automated email-based customer relationship management using our novel 'semantic engine' which scans through thousands of customer emails and categorizes them and…
IntroductionFounded in 1988, Foot Locker is a sporting good apparel retailer with operations in over 28 countries. Its primary products consist of shoes, clothing, and accessories. It has over 3000 store locations primarily located in malls and other shopping centers, concentrated heavily within the United States. Over 70% of the companys sales are from Nike, but it does sell other competing brands such as Adidas and Reebok.The company operates in a very fragmented and competitive shoe apparel and sporting goods marketplace. The company has many large publicly traded peers which include The Finish Line, Dicks Sporting Goods, and Hibbett Sports. The company also faces a litany of competition form small independent retailers of shoes and sporting apparel. This include individuals who look to resell shoes through online channels such as Ebay and smaller Mom & Pop retail operations.Barriers to entry is this industry are very low as market participants can…
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+ (1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008
Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
J.C. Penney News Is Bigger Than Lawsuit Decisions, evenue Losses, and esignations - Mark Cuban's Stock Purchase Is Better Than Money for J.C. Penney's ecovery (JCP, MSO)
Organizational context: J.C. Penney
J.C. Penney is one of the most famous and renowned of the major U.S. department stores. It is well-known for its image of Americana and its reasonable prices. However, within this particular market segment, J.C. Penney is facing increasingly stiff competition from major retailers such as Wal-Mart and Target. Wal-Mart boasts that it has considerably cheaper prices than all of its competitors, including Penney; Target has managed, despite its bargain-basement image to cultivate a more sophisticated aura than J.C. Penney. J.C. Penney is struggling to eke out a future for itself, despite a host of challenges that are partially environmental and partly of its own making.
The J.C. Penney Company was first incorporated in 1913. It expanded rapidly,…
About us. (2013). J.C. Penney. Retrieved:
Corporate social responsibility. (2013). J.C. Penney. Retrieved:
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
Further the fair pricing strategy which Yousuf refers to as "a permanent discount of at least 40% on all items" could also effectively defend the company's market share from both existing competitors and new entrants. Next, J.C. Penney's move to embrace a new management team could end up yielding some positive results as such a move will inevitably change the way things are done at the firm. Indeed, in the opinion of Heller, the incoming management team possesses some radical new ideas. This can be gleaned from the background (as highlighted earlier on in this text) of some of the key executives who have joined J.C. Penney in recent times. I am also convinced that J.C. Penney's new logo will give the company a brand identity that is largely unique. The same in my opinion could in addition to having the effect of repositioning J.C. Penney's brand in its clients'…
Heller, Laura. "Why J.C. Penney Will Be the Most Interesting Retailer of 2012." Forbes. N.p., 26th January 2012. Web. 3rd April 2012.
Hitt, Michael a., R. Duane Ireland and Robert E. Hoskisson. Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization. 3rd ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Mattioli, Dana and Russell Adams. "Martha's Deal Miffs Macy's: Sale of Stewart Stake to Penney Leads Rival to Review Changes to Its Stores' Line." The Wall Street Journal. N.p., 8th December 2011. Web. 4th April 2012.
Yahoo Finance. "J.C. Penney Company, Inc. (JCP) -- NYSE." Yahoo Finance. N.p., 3rd April 2012. Web. 3rd April 2012.