Jean Jacques Rousseau Essays (Examples)

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Jean Jacque Rousseau Published on

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48517419

In so giving each grants the same rights to others over himself that he is in turn granted by them over them. Each member gains the equivalent of everything he loses, and a greater amount of force to protect what he has. Given these conditions, Rousseau is ready to make his argument:

If therefore one eliminates from the social compact whatever is not essential to it, one will find that it is reducible to the following terms. Each of use places his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and as one we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole."

By locating the binding force of the state in this concept of a general will, Rousseau thinks he has formulated a source for legitimate power. Of course, how he constructs the state comes to be crucial. The devil, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. C.B. Macpherson, Ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1980.

Read, Herbert. The Paradox of Anarchism. 1941. Retrieved from  http://www.panarchy.org/read/anarchism.html .

Rousseau, Jean-Jacque. On the Social Contract. Donald Cress, Trans., Indianapolis: Hackett, 1983.
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Philosophical Questions About Jean Jacque Rousseau John

Words: 2481 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81160393

philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.

Rousseau and Nature"

We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].

According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit."[20] Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…… [Read More]

Sources:

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. emile, Everyman's Library 1969.

Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline & Punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books

Preston, Edward. Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1986.

Dewey, John, 1859-1952. Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DewDemo.html
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Rousseau in the Social Contract

Words: 2255 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60950117

Thus, it becomes necessary for society to compel this individual to act in accordance to the general will in order to stall a descent into arbitrary standards and meaningless identifications, and because acting in accordance with the general will means exercising reason and the freedom of thought and expression, this compelling takes the form of forcing someone to be free. The individual is ultimately compelled by society to utilize the full extent of his or her reasoning capabilities, which is ultimately the only means of achieving any true freedom, as freedom of action can only come from freedom of thought, expression, and an accurate, reasonable view of objective reality.

It is important to note that even in the instance where society compels an individual to obey the general will, the individual is still not suffering any kind of undue infringement of rights, because by definition the force exerted on that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kant, Immanuel. "An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? ." Literary Link. N.p.,

1784. Web. 19 Sep 2012. . '

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Trans. G. DH Cole the Social Contract. New York: Cosimo Classics,

2008. Print.
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Rousseau The Declaration of the Rights of

Words: 981 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74915618

Rousseau: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

This is a paper that argues and proves how Rousseau would have reacted to the Declaration of Rights in the light of the French Revolutionaries. It has 3 sources.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen produced by the French Revolutionaries is considered as one of the founding documents of the human rights tradition. This paper argues that the document accurately represents Rousseau concept of the "ocial Contract" and that it had a foremost influence on the intellectual development of the French Revolution. The paper concludes that Rousseau would have agreed to most of the "Articles" in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, as it ensures both liberty and equality among men, two of the most fundamental concept in Rousseau's political philosophy.

Discussion

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the prolific western thinkers who believed that…… [Read More]

Sources of European History, vol. 6, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania History Department, 1899, 14-16.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, the Social Contract and Discourses, translated by G. DH Cole (London: J.M. Dent, 1913), pages 207-238.

Author not available, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Accessed on 16-4-2003 at http://members.aol.com/agentmess/frenchrev/mancitizen.html
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Rousseau's Work on the Social Contract Begins

Words: 2129 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94840628

ousseau's work on The Social Contract begins with a legendary ringing indictment of society as it exists: "Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains" (ousseau 1993, p. 693). Before examining ousseau's theory of government in greater detail, however, it is worth noting what assumptions are contained in this first sentence of The Social Contract, which is perhaps the most famous line that ousseau ever wrote. It contains an assumption about human nature -- that somehow the nature of man is "free" and that the government that exists at the time of ousseau's publication in 1762 is somehow an unjust imposition upon that freedom. This is important to note because ousseau, not unlike his predecessors Locke and Hobbes, needs to establish a theory of human nature before he can outline a theory of just government. It is worth noting that in the same year ousseau published The Social…… [Read More]

References

Bertram, C, "Jean Jacques Rousseau," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 Edition), Zalta, EN (ed.), Accessed 1 June 2012 at:  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2011/entries/rousseau/ 

Delaney, JJ, 2005. "Rousseau, Jean-Jacques." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 1 June 2012 at:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/rousseau/ 

Duncan, S, "Thomas Hobbes," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition), Zalta, EN (ed.) Accessed 1 June 2012 at:  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/hobbes/ 

Rousseau, JJ, 1993. "The Social Contract." In Solomon, RC. (ed.) Introducing Philosophy. Fifth Edition. Fort Worth: Harcourt, Brace.
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Rousseau and Kant the Enlightenment

Words: 1770 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41169853

Morality therefore comes within but is associated with the results generated within as well:

The force of an internal sanction derives from the feeling of pleasure which is experienced when a moral law is obeyed and the feeling of pain which accompanies a violation of it (Denise, Peterfreund, and White, 1996, 202).

Kant sees the true nature of the age and stated,

Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without anther's guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance (Kant, 1973, p. 384.

Kant expresses the view that the public can enlighten itself if it is given the freedom to do so, and this would become a starting point for intellectual inquiry in the age as well as for…… [Read More]

References

Copleston, F. (1959). A history of philosophy: Volume VI: Wolff to Kant. New York: Doubleday.

Denise, T.C., S.P. Peterfreund, and N.P. White (1996). Great traditions in ethics?. New York: Wadsworth.

Dent, N.J.H. (1992). A Rousseau dictionary. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.

Green, F.C. (1955). Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Cambridge at the University Press.
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Rousseau and Marx French Educator

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66291689



Rousseau believed that a sovereign should rule the people, yet the State should be directed by the general will of the people and if some did not wish to go along with the rest they should be forced to do so by everyone else and "be forced to be free." Rousseau was a not really a Communist at heart, and believed that man should have a sovereign to act upon the will of the people. Marx, however, thought it would be best for the workers to rise up and take away the property, factories and property owned by the few in the ruling class in the name of Communism. Marx believed that Communists should "openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions," in the Communist revolution. "The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains," he said in Section III,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fiero, Gloria K. "Faith, Reason, and Power in the Early Modern World." The Humanistic Tradition, Vol. 4. Boston: McGraw Hill. 1998.

Fiero, Gloria K. "Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth Century World." The Humanistic Tradition, Vol. 5. Boston: McGraw Hill. 2002.

Marx, Karl. Communist Manifesto. 1848.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Men. 1755.
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Rousseau's Confessions and Keats' Ode on Melancholy

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19178329

John Keats and Jean Jacques Rousseau

Loneliness and Suffering: Romanticism in "Ode on Melancholy" by John Keats and "Confessions" by Jean Jacques Rousseau

etween the period of 18th and 19th centuries, Western civilization bore witness to important social movements that significantly influenced the culture of human societies extant during these periods. In terms of literature and philosophy, 18th century gave birth to the age of Enlightenment, while the 19th century paved the way for Romanticism, movements that influenced people's contemplation of the future of humanity, realities, and self-realizations in life.

John Keats and Jean Jacques Rousseau are examples of philosophers and writers who subsisted to the principles of Romanticism and the Enlightenment. As reflected in their writings, each have discussed the prevalent thoughts of their time: Rousseau promoted the intellectual development that flourished during the Enlightenment, while Keats contemplated life through emotional expressions that dominated Romanticism.

In Keats' "Ode on…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Keats, J. E-text of "Ode on Melancholy." Available at:  http://www.eliteskills.com/c/4355 .

Rousseau, J. E-text of "Confessions." Available at: http://www.swan.ac.uk/poli/texts/rousseau/confa.htm.
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Revolution in Rousseau and Burke

Words: 2166 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28038800

"

Here, urke argued that revolution in general, and the French Revolution in particular, must be matched with reason and a reluctance to completely give up to radical thinking.

Rousseau gave in directly to the revolution, arguing that it is a direct result of man's socialization, but urke was much more cautious: Revolution is not automatically good for urke, nor is it intrinsic to man.

Given urke's record as a strong supporter of American independence and as a fighter against royalism in England, many readers and thinkers were taken aback when urke published his Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. With this work, urke suddenly went on to became one of the earliest and most passionate English critics of the French Revolution, which he interpreted not as movement towards a representative, constitutional democracy but instead as a violent rebellion against tradition and justified authority and as an experiment…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rousseau:

Discourse On The Arts and Sciences, 1750

The Social Contract, 1762

Discourse On The Origin And Basis Of The Inequality Of Men, 1754
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Marx and Rousseau on Property

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50509866

. . while defending these institutions themselves" (1034-1035). Peled further argues that Rousseau was not able to solve this paradox and it was one of the reasons why he became increasingly pessimistic about modernity. But Rousseau's attempts to reconcile the contradiction in his approach are worth looking at in details.

Although Rousseau abhorred inequality that rose out of private property, he did not hold any illusions about modernity. He believed that private property became an essential component of the modern bourgeois society and economic relations in the modern era could not be free from errors and corruption. So, Rousseau thought that the best solution to modern inequality was to allow private property in limited amounts and regulate it through the state that represents the common will. In a perfect society imagined by Rousseau, the state would honor the right to possess private property but at the same time would retain…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alvarez, Andres and Jimena Hurtado-Prieto. "Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx on the Critique of Economics. Some Insights from their Analysis of the Role of Money." Academic paper, Phare, Universite de Paris X -- Nanterre. Available at  http://rousseaustudies.free.fr/articleHURTADOALVAREZROUSSEAUMARX.pdf 

Bozarth, David. "Rousseau Closer to Marx than to Locke." Academic paper, Sonoma State University (2004, June 15). Available at http://dbozarth.com/Poli_Sci_Notes/Rousseau_Closer_To_Marx_Than_To_Locke.htm

Brenkert, George, G. "Freedom and private Property in Marx." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 8.2 (1979): 122-147. Available at  http://www.jstor.org/ 

Chattopadhyay, Paresh. "Marx's First Critique of Political Economy, 1844-1994." Economic and Political Weekly, 29.31 (1994, Jul. 30): 54-59. Available at
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Kant and Rousseau Reducing Conflicts Between States

Words: 1198 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73059150

Kant and Rousseau

Reducing Conflicts Between States

The Theories of the Great Philosophers Rousseau and Kant

The great philosophers of the 18th century were the first of their kind to fully encapsulate what it meant to be an ethnocentric state, rather than a simple nation or territory, and also were the first philosophers able to address the question of war between states as not merely individual struggles for dominance, but rather persistent frictions present in the system of states themselves. The formal idea of statehood came of age in the Peace of estphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Year's ar, and affirmed the domination of the central government of each state as the supreme power of the land, rather than any religious or social power. At this time, every state was essentially a dictatorship, and the world was divided into fiefdoms. The peace reached at estphalia created the conditions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferraro, V. (n.d.). The ruth c. lawson professor of international politics. Retrieved from http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm

Jones, R. (2008). www.philosopher.org.uk. Retrieved from  http://www.philosopher.org.uk/rom.htm .

Munkler, H. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.opendemocracy.net/faith-iraqwarphiloshophy/article_1921.jsp

Rousseau, J.J. (1917). A lasting peace through the federation of europe and the state of war. London, England: Constable and Co. Retrieved from  http://oll.libertyfund.org
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Political Science Rousseau's Doctrine of

Words: 2859 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19227637

- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.

Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.

He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8772886

Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10553988

Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
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Kant Rousseau Liberty Give Me

Words: 2059 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75990149



Rousseau offers a mix of philosophical notions of liberty with advice and opinions on how to structure a government that promotes equality and liberty, but not excessively so, that the will of the majority or strong overcomes the will or the rights of the minority. as, unlike the founders of America, Rousseau was not concerned with a real, live, specific historical situation he could to some extent afford to be more theoretical in his orientation. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was even more concerned with the philosophical notions of liberty, but he detached them from their functioning in government and instead was concerned about human being's innate liberty to do morally good or evil actions. Kant saw morality as existing not as something that could be constructed at will by human beings, but as something that existed for all time, and to be commensurate with the categorical imperative, people must act…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Declaration of Independence." Independence Hall Association. 4 Jul 1995. 2 Apr 2008. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/index.htm

Kant, Immanuel. "Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals." 1785.

Translated by Steve Thomas. University of Adelaide E-text Collection.

Apr 2008. http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/k/kant/immanuel/k16prm/
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Hobbes and Rousseau

Words: 1561 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54992948

Hobbes and Rousseau

The notion of the social contract -- the concept that human society is fundamentally a human construct -- originated in seventeenth-century European thought and was developed throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, receiving perhaps its most dramatic and influential expressions in Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan, published in 1651, and Jean-Jacque Rousseau's The Social Contract, published in 1762. The notion of the social contract itself arises from a conception of the condition of humanity before the contract was established, the so-called 'state of nature', and each of these works embodies a contrasting view of the state of nature from which human society has arisen.

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) believed that politics was a science kin to geometry, and that political institutions could be understood using scientific principles. He perceived humans as objects pushed back and forth by powerful forces similar to those that acted upon objects in the physical universe,…… [Read More]

Works cited

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Edited by C.B. MacPherson. London: Penguin, 1968.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. Translated by Maurice Cranston. London: Penguin, 1968.
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Wollstonecraft & J J Rousseau the Influence of

Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89020339

Wollstonecraft & J.J. Rousseau

The influence of humanity and reason in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau on education and women

The age of Enlightenment put forth the importance of humanism and reason, concepts that creates a balance between humanity's innate tendency to experience emotions while at the same time, cultivating a rational view of experiencing sensations and interactions around him/her. Indeed, discourses that were created and published in the 18th century reflected the use of reason in order to elucidate the nature of human beings. 'Enlightenment discourses,' in effect, provide an important insight into the humanism and reason that dwells inside the human mind.

These important concepts of the Enlightenment were shown in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau. oth being proponents and believers of the principles reflective of the Enlightenment, they expressed their views of how humanism and reason influenced their position…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rousseau, J.J. (1762). E-text of "Emile." Available at: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/pedagogies/rousseau/em_eng_preface2.html.

Wollstonecraft, M. (1792). E-text of "Vindication of the rights of women." Available at:  http://www.bartleby.com/144/ .
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Kant Hobbes Rousseau One of

Words: 2433 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84385066

The difference resides in the use of the vocabulary. Values can not be decided upon in an arbitrary manner.

In his Two Treatises of government, Locke states that it is people's very own nature which endows them with rights. Under these circumstances, civil society can be considered to exist before the birth of the state. It is society which guarantees the legitimacy of the state and which guarantees a principle of order. The state is a mere instrument through which justice is being done.

When agreeing to the social contract people endow a single authority with an overwhelming power. This authority will make sure that everybody benefits from an impartial justice. Life, liberty and property are the most important rights that the new authority has to protect. In case of a conflict, people will have to make sure that the just principles win.

The role of the government for example…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Locke vs. Hobbes, Retrieved March 15, 2009 at  http://jim.com/hobbes.htm 

The social contract, the European Enlightenment Glossary, Retrieved March 15, 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/SOCCON.HTM
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Human Nature Voltaire Rousseau &

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44234438

d.).

Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize his line of reasoning that related to morality for he added that "the truth and certainty of moral discourses abstracts from the lives of men, and the existence of those values in the world, whereof they treat." Locke believed in inquiring everything and denying the authority either of the past or of the clergy for he desired everyone to depend on their own judgment and reasoning which is exactly the he created an contention to defend believing in God, and made sure to rebut the thought that reason is different to faith, saying that faith can never sway us of anything that opposes our knowledge and disagreeing that, apart from in the instance of divine revelation, people must constantly look first…… [Read More]

References

Binga, T. (2000). Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from Council for Secular Humanism: http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=hall_of_fame&page=voltaire

Hewett, C. (2006). The Life of Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate:

 http://thegreatdebate.org.uk/Voltaire.html 

Hewett, C. (2006). John Locke's Theory of Knowledge. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate:  http://thegreatdebate.org.uk/LockeEpistem.html
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Political Philosophies

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98524724

Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice. Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes. As both…… [Read More]

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Confessions by Rousseau Rousseau's Confessions

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6758788

His quarrel was not with the Supreme Being as such, but with the over-dogmatic Catholicism that inspired him with a sense of awe because of its idolatry and its blind submission to the dogmas: "I had that particular aversion our city entertains for Catholicism, which is represented there as the most monstrous idolatry, and whose clergy are painted in the blackest colors."(Rousseau, 49) Rousseau feels entrapped by the strict code of Catholicism. The witty comparison that he makes between the bells that called him to mass and those that called him to breakfast, i.e. To partake of the pleasures of life, is very telling: "If the bells of the viaticum alarmed me, the chiming for mass or vespers called me to a breakfast, a collation, to the pleasure of regaling on fresh butter, fruits, or milk."(Rousseau, 52) the author feels more comfortable with his own religion, Protestantism, than with Catholicism…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. Confessions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
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Locke and Rousseau on the Question of

Words: 3467 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32450319

Locke and Rousseau on the Question of Inequality

John Locke's Second Treatise of Government argues that "men are naturally free" (55). In other words, Locke believed that humans, in their natural state, and prior to the creation of civil society, would have been a kind of sovereign entity, possessing a set of natural rights prescribed by God and nature, and those rights would have afforded individuals the opportunity to protect themselves against the transgressions of others. Societies, for their part, were set up in order to avoid civil, interpersonal, or foreign wars -- wars that might have occurred over a dispute, for example, about property. Locke believed that in the early stages of evolution, humans would have lived with one another as co-owners of the earth and its resources, and given this type of communal existence, humans were all equal. In the natural world, a natural set of laws took…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Ed C.B. Macpherson. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1980.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. "Discourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Mankind." In The Social Contract and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Ed. Lester G. Crocker. New York: Washington Square, 1974. 149-258.
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Social Contract Rousseau Argues That We Are

Words: 1293 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90476856

Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction of the General Will is the means by which people can achieve freedom. The General Will is the social contract where all members of society agree to obey the General Will to be part of society. Rousseau argues that by this General Will, the separate wills of each member of society converge into one. Freedom is achieved because every citizen is equal, each being a single unit of the General Will and having the same amount of influence over it. Rousseau argues that this General Will is the way individuals in society retain their equality and find freedom. Further consideration of the implications of the General Will and the social contract will show that Rousseau's version of freedom and equality may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. Trans. Maurice Cranston. New York: Penguin, 1987.
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Race and Racism From Rousseau to Negritude

Words: 2248 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91861501

Firmin / Gobineau etc.

Is race a construct of the Enlightenment? Obviously the European encounter with a racially-constructed "other" begins a long time before the Enlightenment, with Montaigne's cannibals and Shakespeare's Caliban. But the Enlightenment facilitated a kind of scientism in thought that not only gave rise to new disciplines (like anthropology) but also permitted pseudo-science, like the so-called "scientific racism" of the Comte de Gobineau. I would like to examine how the question of race is first framed by Enlightenment thinkers, but then is later transformed in the twentieth century by thinkers like .E.B. DuBois. If indeed DuBois was correct that "the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line," I will also show how those in the Negritude movement sought to overturn the assumptions of racism while essentially upholding the abstract values of the Enlightenment.

Diderot's Encyclopedie and Rousseau's Discours are both central documents…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cesaire, Aime. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000. Print.

DuBois, WEB. The Souls of Black Folk. Web. Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/408/408-h/408-h.htm

Firmin, Antenor. The Equality of the Human Races. Trans. Asselin Charles. Champaign-Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002. Print.

Formey, J.H.S. "Negro." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Pamela Cheek. Ann Arbor: Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, 2003. Web. . Trans. Of "Negre," Encyclopedie ou Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, vol. 1. Paris, 1751.
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Nature Culture and Progress

Words: 2239 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 810359

Progress

Jean-Jacques ousseau on the Origin of Inequality

There are apparent relations that exist between human beings and nature and also among themselves. In these relations also exists differences especially among human beings which attract a lot of attention and need explanations since if all are human beings then why the differences that exist among them. If all mankind have the same will and are from the same source, be it the evolutionary or the supernatural source, then there should be equal opportunities that would make man have equal chances and hence same lifestyle within the community, however, this is not the situation hence the need to get an explanation as to why these differences and discrepancies that exist between people. There have been various attempts to explain what brings the differences between people and among the philosophers that have given famous and renowned explanations is Jean-Jacques ousseau in his…… [Read More]

References

Dickinson, E., & Vendler, H. (2010). Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries. Cambridge, Mass: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Dickinson, E., & McNeil, H. (2002). Emily Dickinson. London: Phoenix Poetry.

Collins, B., Hobson, C., & Pacific Editions. (2002). Taking off Emily Dickinson's clothes. San Francisco: Pacific Editions

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (1754). A dissertation on the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from Http://www.constitution.org/jjr/ineq_03.htm
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Education of Young Children John

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2363274

" [EU: I.III, 3]

Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.

However ousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in ousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. ousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a…… [Read More]

References

Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, Julie and Other Writings. Edited by R.L. Archer. New York: Barron, 1964.

Rousseau, Emile, Julie and Other Writings, 80.
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Education Philosophical Influences on American

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88283685

There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)

No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.

eferences

Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]

References

Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from  http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/ 

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408

Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2

Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
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Reconciliation of the Liberties

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66459065

Reconciliation of the Liberties

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosopher in the eighteenth century who wrote about topics as varied as religion and politics. He famously worked on a treatise with respect to government that attempted to explain what government should be. His thoughts, called "On the Social Contract," were an attempt to reconcile the liberties of the ancients and the moderns (as they were called being, as yet, modern to Rousseau). His belief was that actual government should be as close to true human nature as is possible. This nature, he said, was such that it wanted no government, but that it needed to be a part of a collective to receive both protection and goods. He related that there were ancient societies which tried to do this, and that the liberty of the moderns was much the same because people did not change. The general nature of man had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Constant, Benjamin. Political Writings. Trans. Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.

Habermas, Jurgen. "Three Normative Models of Democracy." in, Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political, Seyla Benhabib (Ed.) Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. pp. 21-30. Print.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. On the Social Contract. Trans. G. DH Cole. Dover, UK: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. Print.
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Realist Liberal Critical Theorist

Words: 1627 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68801795

ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist

ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?

What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?

There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)

Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…… [Read More]

References

Froese, Katrin. "Beyond Liberalism: the moral community of Rousseau's social

Contract." Canadian Journal of Political Science 34 (2001): 579-581.

Hall, Cheryl. "Reason, passion, and politics in Rousseau." Polity 34 (2001): 69-89.

Merriman-Webster. "Realism" and "Liberalism." 30 Nov. 2004. http://www.m-w.com
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Ideal Educational Philosophy

Words: 1552 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48220479

Educational philosophy that I would most support more than anything would be one which supports the benefit of learning by doing. I believe wholeheartedly in the power of experience being the best teacher. I realize that this might mean that my students or any students might fail repeatedly before they succeed at something, but I've always believed that failure is an excellent teacher. Furthermore, learning by doing might cause students to struggle more, in grasping concepts and in trying to understand ideas, but I still believe that struggle is one of the more beneficial and instructive lessons, and that it can teach lasting and memorable lessons.

However, this will mean at times that one will have to provide students with a certain level of introduction so that they have the backbone and scaffolding to make discoveries and to learn the most meaningful lessons possible. As Locke illuminates, one of the…… [Read More]

References

Burgess, B. (2011, August 8). The Educational Theory of Socrates. Retrieved from newfoundations.com: http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Socrates.html

Goodyear, D. (2013). John Locke's Pedagogy. Retrieved from eepat.net:  http://eepat.net/doku.php?id=john_locke_s_pedagogy 

Stanford.edu. (2010, June 27). Jean Jacques Rousseau. Retrieved from Stanford.edu:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/#Edu
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John Kotter Confucious Machiavelli and

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39141893

He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:

Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kotter, John. Biography. Harvard Business School, 2007. Website: http://drfd.hbs.edu/fit/public/facultyInfo.do?facInfo=bio&facEmId=jkotter&loc=extn.

Kotter, John. Leading Change. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.

Kotter, John. Power and Influence. New York: Simon & Schuster Free Press.1985.
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Affect of the Enlightenment on the French Revolution

Words: 3655 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73628922

Enlightenment on the French evolution

evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.

Introduction to the French evolution

When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…… [Read More]

References

Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000). http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html.

Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke

University Press, 1991.

Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.utm.edu/ressearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm.
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Classic Liberalism Tradition Classical Liberalism Tradition Comes

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75533953

Classic Liberalism Tradition

Classical liberalism tradition comes from a tradition of thinkers who developed an ideology, rather than a political system. Although many say that classical liberalism stopped after the nineteenth century, libertarians argue that is no interruption in the classical liberal tradition. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx offer a critique of various aspects of the Classical Liberal Tradition argument.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was somewhat supportive of the liberalism tradition, which argues that society exists in order to protect the basic inalienable rights of its citizens. However, he also disagreed with the tradition.

According to Rousseau" "Man is born free and yet we see him everywhere in chains. Those who believe themselves the masters of other ceases not to be even greater slaves than the people they govern. How this happens, I am ignorant but I believe it may be in my power to resolve the question." (p. 205)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Santoni, Ronald, Somerville, John. Social and Political Philosophy. Anchor, 1963.

Classic Liberalism Tradition
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Civilized Societies Develop Rules and Laws That

Words: 1989 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89825192

civilized societies develop rules and laws that its members are expected to follow. The rules are in place for the purpose of cohesive living among the community and for the most part they have a positive impact on the society that they govern. In this scenario the rules and laws are not followed and in fact are completely disobeyed, yet the person who violates the societal norm not only gets away with it, but he is rewarded for his actions by being elected as a leader and ruling in power for the remainder of his life. Two well-known philosophers bring to light some understanding about how this could have happened.

In the scenario a man named John murders a mean and ruthless person who has lied and cheated his way to the top. The victim is so rich that others in the community are forced to go hungry while he…… [Read More]

References

Kant's Philosophy

http://www.connect.net/ron/kant.html

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/r/rousseau.htm
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The Romantic Child and Emile

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25084304

This is one of the major aspects of Romanticism, a notion that was entirely missing from raising children up to this point.
ook II of Emile describes the educational framework of a child's formative years, most likely from the approximate ages of seven to eleven or twelve, within Rousseau's philosophy. In this theory, education in this stage should take place within the context of personal experiences and interactions with the outside world. The emphasis should be on developing the senses and drawing inferences from them. ook III has the child successfully integrated with the physical world and ready to make a decision regarding his trade, which Rousseau believed was necessary in order for him to search out the appropriate role models and focus on the necessary skills.
ook IV is the section that interests this writer the most. The child is now physically strong and able to carefully observe and…… [Read More]

Bibliography
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. (1979) Emile (or On Education). Translation by Bloom, Alan. New York: Basic Books.
Stroup, William. (Jan. 2003-Dec. 2004) The Romantic Child. Literature Compass. Volume 1, Issue 1.
Ferguson, Frances. (Winter 2003) The Afterlife of the Romantic Child: Rousseau and Kant Meet Deleuze and Guattari. The South Atlantic Quarterly. Vol. 102, No. 1, pp. 215-234.
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Political Science Comparison of Leadership

Words: 3091 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3700418

(Ng, 1994, p. 93)

The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.

Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97002683

Bassnett, S. (1988). Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37111890

Hanh, T.N. (2000). Three Zen Buddhist Ethics. In Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values (pp. 98-140). New York: Seven Bridges Press.
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Noble Savage in Age of Atlantic Revolutions

Words: 4909 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93388118

noble savage..." etc.

The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution

When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from:  http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/index.html#ToC ]

Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt]
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Social Contract and Discourses on

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59809768

The Sovereign can only demand from the citizens those services that serve for the purpose of the community (ousseau, 15).

ousseau explains why the general will "is always in the right" in a civil society (idem). The society is always conditioned by "the true principle of equity" (idem) that should guide its laws. A civil society binds its citizens under the same conditions and gives them the same rights. The absolute power of the body politic, that is, the Sovereign, is legitimate in making an act of sovereignty because "it is based on the social contract, and equitable, because common to all" (idem, 16).

The civil society provides its members a "better and more secure life" than what they had before uniting in forming it (idem, 16). The civil society gives its citizens liberty in exchange for their natural independence, security, in exchange for the right to harm others and…… [Read More]

Rousseau, J.J. The Social Contract, a Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, and a Discourse on Political Economy. Digireads.com Publishing, 2006

Hobbes, T. The Leviathan. Kessinger Publishing, 2004

Locke, J. Two Treatises of Government. Kessinger Publishing, 2004
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Personal Philo One of the

Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74764397

" (7)

Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.

Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…… [Read More]

9. Woolhouse, R.S. (1995) Locke: A Biography. Cambridge University.

10. Pinker, Steven. (2007) the Blank Slate, New York: Penguin Books.

11. Grasha, Anthony. (1989) Teaching Styles. Cambridge University.
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Problems in Philosophy

Words: 1724 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27391738

Philosophy

The Greek philosopher Plato's concept of justice in "The Republic" demonstrates his belief in the path towards rationality of the individual and society. In his discourse, he talks about the rational individual as a just individual and is guided by the pursuit of the common good. The philosopher demonstrates this by justifying that in one's pursuit to achieve self-discovery and self-realization, it is inevitable that one should interact with his/her society. Once the individual realizes his/her fullest potential and demonstrates this by committing just acts, then society in effect becomes influenced by this act of justice. However, Plato also clarifies that a just and unjust individual may pursue different paths and goals in life, but in the end, both individuals contribute to the coherence and harmony in the society. The just individual showed what behavior is desirable because it is beneficial for the society, while the unjust individual becomes…… [Read More]

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Revolutions Compare and Contrast the

Words: 480 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41314624

He believed that if people join together and make a social contract they can both preserve their nation and remain free (Rousseau 93).

The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a ten-year period of upheaval in France as it was throughout Europe during the period which followed the American Revolution. In France, the political climate changed from a monarchy with aristocrats and much influence by the Catholic Church to a democracy. Citizens formulated their desires for rights and privileges equal to the aristocracy and, fighting for this ideal, won it.

The preamble to the French Constitution is a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." The Declaration of Rights says that "No one shall be disturbed for his opinions, even religious, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law" (Knight 2).

The Constitution of the United States also has a preamble that declares that the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854-78), vol 7-10. Boston: Little, Brown, and company.

Knight, Kevin. French Revolution. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2006.  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13009a.htm .

Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy. Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books. 2003.

Rousseau, George S. Nervous Acts: Essays on Literature, Culture and Sensibility. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.
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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]

References

Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com.
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Analyzing Early Modern Europe

Words: 2287 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83932329

Pleasure Garden

In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…… [Read More]

References

Aelarsen. A Royal Affair: Enlightenment and Adultery in 18th Century Denmark. June 2014. https://aelarsen.wordpress.com/2014/06/30/a-royal-affair-enlightenment-and-adultery-in-18th-century-denmark / (accessed December 13, 2015).

"Age of Enlightenment." Pedia Press, 2011.

Curtius, Quintus. Speaking Out Against Injustice: The Case Of Jean Calas. October 12, 2015. http://www.returnofkings.com/72129/speaking-out-against-injustice-the-case-of-jean-calas (accessed December 12, 2015).

Halsall, Paul. Medieval Sourcebook: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): Republics and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, 55. October 1998. (accessed December 14, 2015).
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Role of Democracy in the Middle East

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23852515

Role of Democracy in the Middle East

There has recently been a wave of democratic uprisings sweeping across the Middle East. Starting in Tunisia, the call for democratic reforms spread through Egypt, Bahrain, Yemen, Jordan, Syria, Iran and many other nations. Many have likened these uprisings to the social unrest of 1848, which gave rise to the Communist Revolution of 1917, but they do so wrongly. hile the popular uprisings that continue to inflame the Middle East may have some of the same causes as in 1848, rising food prices and high unemployment, the current unrest lacks the ideological component. The protestors do not want to destroy their government, they want to reform it. In this way the uprisings of 2011 are more akin toward the establishment of a Rousseau-inspired representative republic in that the people were demanding, not a complete social restructuring, but a representative form of government that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cullen, Daniel. "On Rousseau's democratic realism.(French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau)." Perspectives on Political Science 36.4 (2007): 207+. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.

"Egypt News - Revolution and Aftermath" New York Times. 18 Apr. 2011. Web 23 Apr. 2011. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories / egypt/index.html

Goldstone, Jack. "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011 | Foreign Affairs." Home | foreign Affairs. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.

http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67694/jack-a-goldstone/understanding-the-revolutions-of-2011
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Why We Fail

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Americans: Environmental Collapse and the End of Civilization" by Jared Diamond.

With a BA from Harvard University and PhD from Cambridge University, as well as a vast amount of works published, professor Diamond uses his extensive knowledge as well as his equally extensive field work and research to put on the table what he found disturbing about the fall by self-destruction of ancient civilizations, among which, he focuses on that of the Mayas.

The author opens his essay with Percy Shelly's poem, Ozymandias, using poetry to appeal to the reader's sensibilities. By creating a sad, hopeless atmosphere, he is setting the tone in anticipation of the rest of the essay. His choice for the poem of an incurable romantic as Shelley, may seem odd for the opening of an essay about the environment. However, it strikes several cords and thus opens the reader's heart instead of just one's mind. This…… [Read More]

Lopez, Barry. "Children in the Woods."

Diamond, Jarred. "The Last Americans: Environmental Collapse and the End of Civilization"

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 2009. Discourse on Inequality: On the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men. The Floating Press.
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1023 at the End of

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71297276

Robespierre had Danton and his followers arrested, convicted, and beheaded.

A movie produced on Danton by Poland's Andrzej Wajda in 1983 clearly showed the zeal of the revolutionaries against this Rule of Terror (Weiss). The movie argues that Robespierre was so concerned with keeping his own power, he destroyed the principles on which the revolution was founded. In a scene of the film, the onvention realizes Robespierre's intentions, and someone yells, "Down with the dictator!" Robespierre destroys the revolution by using violence to enforce democratic ideals. During the trial Danton sums up what Robespierre has done: "Revolutionary principles have made you forget the revolution."

The Enlightenment ended after the devastation of the French Revolution and Napoleonic era, rise of a religious revival and growth of the Industrial Revolution and business class. However, much of the philosophies of this time continue today through constitutions of countries including the U.S.'

France was…… [Read More]

Cranston, Maurice. The intellectual origins of the French Revolution. History Today, 1989, 39.

Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004

Weiss, Andrew. Danton and the Destruction of the French Revolution. Website retrieved 12, June 2005. http://shakti.trincoll.edu/~aweiss/danton.htm
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Political Economy of Television it

Words: 2975 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5479217

Among the various prime-time offerings there is a hospital drama, ER, which happens to be one of that network's longest-running dramas and focuses on an emergency room in an urban area. Furthermore, not only does ER feature many non-white cast members, but it portrays minorities in positions of power. It features African-American, Indian, Croatian, and lesbian doctors. In fact, one of the more recent storylines centered on an interracial romantic relationship. Obviously, this program is not geared to appeal towards only white upper-class Americans. On another night, the main prime-time drama centers on a medium that helps solve crimes. Although the medium is portrayed by a white woman, and comes from an upper-middle class background, her boss is Hispanic.

The comedies offered by the network also fail to show a white upper-middle class heterosexual dominance. The days of dominance by comedies like Friends or Seinfeld, which portrayed New York as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brunsdon, Charlotte. "Television Studies." Museum.tv. 2005. The Museum of Broadcast

Communications. 1 Mar. 2005 http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/T/htmlT/televisionst/televisionst.htm.

Encyclopedia: Political Economy." Encyclopedia. 2005. Nationmaster. 1 Mar. 2005 http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/political-economy.

Johnson, Paul M. "Political Economy." Glossary of Political Economy Terms. 2000. Auburn
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American Revolution the Pen Is

Words: 2468 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89354896

In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:

dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)

As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8969577

Black, E. (1988). Our Constitution: The Myth That Binds Us. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001637570

Brooks, C.K. (1996). Controlling the Metaphor: Language and Self-Definition in Revolutionary America. CLIO, 25(3), 233+.
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American Revolution Was Modeled After Revolutions in

Words: 1999 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69367832

American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England

The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.

While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.

Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…… [Read More]

References

1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18

2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970

3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.

4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18