Similarly, a contemporary of Joan of Arc's, her page and secretary, wrote that, "Whereas before, the spiritless and cowed people hung their heads and slunk away if one mentioned War to them, now they came clamoring to be enlisted under the banner of the Maid of Vaucouleurs, and the roaring of war-songs and the thundering of the drums filled all the air." According to Dumas, on her banner,.".. To which she was entitled by her military rank, was painted the King of Heaven holding an orb, together with the words, 'Jesus Maria.' Thus equipped, she set out to join the army at lois for the relief of Orleans."
When Joan led her troops to victory by raising the siege of Orleans (discussed as one of her prophecies further below), her page and secretary also reported that Joan of Arc was the sole individual who was responsible for motivating the…… [Read More]
Joan of Arc Before Referencing
Pernoud, Regine with Marie-Vbronique Clin. Joan of Arc, Her Story. Revised and translated by Jeremy du Quesnay Adams. Edited by Bonnie Wheeler. New York: Palgrave, 1999. pp336. $11.96.
The young French girl Joan of Arc only lived to see her 19th birthday. She did not even attain the age of adulthood by the modest standards of her own era. Yet Joan's brief life has spawned many historical and literary interpretations, often reaching far beyond the touchingly simple facts known about her actual existence. Joan has been made a canonized Catholic saint, portrayed by writers as a victim of persecution by one of the earliest known political witch hunts, been hailed a feminist military leader, and even diagnosed posthumously as a schizophrenic. In Joan of Arc, Her Story by Regine Pernoud and co-author Marie-Vbronique Clin, the authors attempt to let Joan speak for herself in the…… [Read More]
open? How is this woman's history framed? With today's society would Joan of Arc's message be heard? How would it be different or told another way?
People, during the Middle Age, were taught about leadership, primarily through great men's biographies. Irrespective of the number of mathematical models produced, the discipline must accommodate inspirational accounts of ideal leaders and gruesome cautionary ones of those who were bad. Since the astounding recruitment of French soldiers by Joan of Arc to join her in battle, the world has yielded to charismatic and outsized leaders (ennis, 2007). A key idea revealed in the movie is: the era might have been a lot more lurid and frenzied than one imagines. Nothing occurs slowly despite the tempo being tedious. Joan is, initially, portrayed as a maniacally cheery child, capering so merrily through fields that the sheep get scared (Maslin, 1999).
The Messenger (with Milla Jovovich playing…… [Read More]
Joan of Arc Using Intersectionality
Medieval Europe provides a significant number of examples of women who developed to become leaders and popes at a time when women were increasingly oppressed. The conventional self-image of women during this period was characterized by low self-esteem, which was influenced by increased oppression that disadvantaged women. However, the rise of some women to become influential leaders demonstrates their visionary experience in breaking up the conventional female self-image. An example of a woman who developed to become an influential leader in medieval Europe through visionary experience and breaking up the conventional female self-image is Joan of Arc. Joan's development to become an influential leader was influenced by her prophesy for a king and ability to become the central actor in her vision. Joan of Arc can be understood as a unique character in the context of other female mystics using intersectional analysis.
Brief Background of…… [Read More]
Inquisition / Jeanne D' Arc (Joan of Arc)
1412 was the time of civil war and military unrest between France and England. And 1412 was the year Jeanne d' Arc was born. hen she was 17 she commanded a battle against the English domination and made efforts to unite France in the Hundred Years ar, but her fate at the age 19 put her on a trial for heresy and witchcraft by a church court. She had an Inquisition from the church and was burned at stake.
During the 15th century France and England, the personality of Jeanne or Maid of Orleans had an exceptional impact upon the political as well as the military situation wherein she turned the war in to the favor of Charles VII and this she accomplished as just a peasant girl. hat her trial and conviction represents is the unacceptability of the medieval era of…… [Read More]
Joan of Arc
Thanks to the many media representations of her, Joan of Arc has become somewhat of a household name. Also known as Jeanne or Jehanne D'Arc, this extraordinary young woman fearlessly led the French Army to victory at a time when it became obvious to all but her that they would lose. In addition to devising military strategies that would ultimately lead them to victory, Joan of Arc also boosted the morale of her soldiers to such an extent that they rapidly came from a deep depression about their possibilities as an army towards a unified front that few could defeat. In the end, however, and perhaps this is the most well-known part of her story, Joan of Arc came to her tragic end by being burned at the stake as a heretic at best or a witch at worst. Today, this story has culminated in many speculations.…… [Read More]
history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.
Joan of Arc
Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…… [Read More]
This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.
While it may seem ironic that the death…… [Read More]
Romantic and Neoclassical Paintings
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugene Delacroix were contemporaries -- but they practiced two very different styles: the former was a Neoclassical painter and the latter a Romantic painter. Neoclassicalism emphasized symmetry and simplicity and found its inspiration in the ancient art of Greece and Rome: its practitioners celebrated the artistic styles of the Greco-Roman world, rejecting the drama of the Baroque and adopting a more intellectualized approached to the visual arts. The subjects of these paintings were often political, social historical and classical -- a portrait of the Horatii, for example, or of a scene in Homer's Iliad. The visual style was decorous, concise, restrained, balanced, rational, and sometimes witty: it appealed to the Enlightenment thinkers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Romanticism on the other hand was more emotional: its subjects were more often focused on nature, the individual, the common man, the spirit…… [Read More]
Memory: The Statue of Liberty
The 7-volume French Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past and its condensed 3-volume English translation examine French History through "collective memories" of powerful French symbols. Editor Pierre Nora sums up France's History as "neither a resurrection nor a reconstitution nor a reconstruction nor even a representation but, in the strongest possible sense, a 'rememoration" (Nora and Kritzman xxiv). In Nora's theory, History involves memory as "the overall structure of the past within the present" (Nora and Kritzman xxiv) and co-editor Kritzman asserts, "Our knowledge of the past is less a question of our empirical grip on the past than on our apprehension of the past as we represent it through the lens of the present" (Nora and Kritzman xii).
Examining famous French symbols such as the Eiffel Tower and Joan of Arc (Nora and Kritzman xii), Nora's and Kritzman's work illustrates that the "realm…… [Read More]
Eleanor and Henry did not live "happily ever after," though, and King Louis was reportedly enraged that the marriage went forward without his consent which the king would undoubtedly have refused to given had he been asked anyway.
A historian of the day, obert de Torigny, noted that it was unclear whether the Eleanor and Henry's marriage was the result of spontaneity or if the two had actually colluded to achieve this result. Cavendish points out that one of Eleanor's most recent biographers, Alison Weir, believes that Eleanor and Henry had been conspiring ever since they had met in Paris the year before and Eleanor had deliberately encouraged the annulment of her marriage to Louis. "Either way, when Henry succeeded to the throne of England in 1154, the effect was to give the rulers of England a domain in France stretching from the English Channel to the Pyrenees and covering…… [Read More]
mythology is important for both individualistic and collective reasons. On an individual level, mythology could teach moral or human truths, whereas on a collective level mythology could be used to keep people in touch with their origins. Mythological stories could then be used to teach children values such as hard work, diligence and obedience. Role models are created through mythological figures. Also, the mythology of different cultures can serve to teach the student about the values of that culture. This is particularly important in the world today, since advancing technology and phenomena such as globalization has brought foreign cultures much more frequently in touch with each other than was previously the case. It is therefore important to study mythology for the values that it can teach both children and adults, and also for understanding the heritage inherent in these stories.
Mythology derives from the complexity of the human…… [Read More]
Feminists, like Christine Pizan, who stressed the importance of female education and some of her male feminist contemporaries would mainly remain on the fringes as the classical form of education was reaffirmed as the standard.
In the 1970s, much of the challenge to female education was answered as the tradition of educating all people was accepted early in the development of the U.S. educations system, though it was not an easy transition and according to most inequalities still existed even in the late modern era. In fact there was no official federal department of education until 1979, yet this did not stop the progress of education.
Stallings 677) the marked entrance of women into higher education is thought by most people to be the beginning of the end for male exclusive education but pre-secondary education was available for women from the early part of the foundation of education as a…… [Read More]
She epitomizes pragmatic reality, and by so doing, in a certain manner assumes tangible metaphysical form. ather than being apart and indistinct from humans, the Lady has become absorbed in the Mexican culture and has become such an endearing figure precisely due to the fact that she is seen as part of their suffering and as corporal liberal embodied in incorporeal form that is part of -- the essence of -- their very being. In that way, she is more animate than inanimate and possesses enduring capacity.
Part II. Major theological themes that can be infered from the works of Jeanette odriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid on Our Lady of Guadalupe
Various replicative theological themes can be inferred from the works of these authors. The essay elaborates on them.
Mary's relationship to the American-Mexican woman, i.e. As symbol that is stereotyped by a supercilious, dominating majority, but that appears…… [Read More]
On October 23, 1783, Deborah was honorably discharged "as a great soldier, with endurance and courage, something much needed in the military at that time" but was only granted a veteran's pension at the end of her life ("Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot," American Revolution, 2007). "Sampson's superiors all agreed that she was an excellent soldier...it was her reliability, intelligence, and bravery that made it possible for her to go undetected for so long" (Saxon, 2004). She risked her life to save her country and to fight for her country, and even risked her life to remain a soldier.
Sampson's life "bears out a theory that Margaret R. And Patrice L.R. Higonnet developed to describe the effects of war and peace on gender. They imagined a system in which men and women are positioned as if they were opposing ribbons of a double helix, which, no matter the circumstances, always…… [Read More]
Upon meeting an individual, the first distinction observed is whether the person is male or female. More often than not, this first impression is made from what the individual is wearing, such as a man's suit or a woman's dress. However, sexual gender cannot always be assumed by what one is wearing.
Based on history and culture, people have been conditioned to visually assess whether an individual appears as they are expected, meaning, a woman looks like a woman and a man looks like a man based on how he or she is dressed (Lyons pp). "Dress is the most visible manifestation of gender and status because it provides information about an individual's characteristics and expected role behaviors," thus, establishing an social path for communication (Lyons pp). This process of gender appropriate dress begins at birth, as parents dress their children in "gender-symbolic dress that encourages other to…… [Read More]
"It was a curious childhood, full of weird, fantastic impressions and contradictory influences, stimulating alike to the imagination and that embryo philosophy of life which begins almost with infancy."
Paine 14) His consummate biography written in 1912, just after his death claims that Clemens spent the majority of his childhood in the company of his siblings, and the family slaves as his parents where often otherwise engaged, his father and inventor and his mother challenged by the running of such a large family with very little support.
Mark Twain did not remember ever having seen or heard his father laugh. The problem of supplying food was a somber one to John Clemens; also, he was working on a perpetualmotion machine at this period, which absorbed his spare time, and, to the inventor at least, was not a mirthful occupation. Jane Clemens was busy, too. Her sense of humor did not…… [Read More]
343). This same pious fellow who reports in his letter that he hears God announcing His approach is also the picture of imperial majesty, brave, stern, and exacting, and of course only working for the betterment of those he is bringing into his empire. St. John's rousing finale allows the work to finish as it almost physically completes a conquering of Jane's secular world, as well.
The celebratory nature of Jane's (and apparently Charlotte Bronte's) attitude towards imperialism is off-putting to some scholars, who find Jane Eyre and other "women's texts" to be a feminist re-appropriation of imperial ideals and mechanisms, and it must certainly be acknowledged that Jane is only able to exalt fully in this image of British dominance when she herself has found the freedom she sought and that was so long denied her as a woman (Spivak, p. 243). More important than the timing of Jane's…… [Read More]
Oshinsky, "orse Than Slavery"
David Oshinsky's history of "convict labor" in the Reconstruction-era American South bears the title orse Than Slavery. The title itself raises questions about the role played by moralistic discourse in historiography, and what purpose it serves. Oshinsky certainly paints a grim picture of the systematic use of African-American prisoners at Parchman Farm -- the focus of his study -- and throughout the South after the Civil ar. I would like to examine the system that Oshinsky describes, while incidentally paying attention to the rhetoric he employs in doing so. But ultimately I wish to call attention to, and question, the validity of Oshinsky's title. The title is provocative, and therefore can only be termed responsible historiography if indeed his purpose is to provoke further questions. Chief among these must be the question of what it actually means to declare that what he describes in the book…… [Read More]
omen played an unheralded, unsung role in the history of Latin America. Just as women's roles in global history has been relegated to domestic servitude, much of what women did in Latin America was household-related. Farming was also a female duty (Chasteen). Given the importance of farming and childrearing to the cohesiveness of a society, though, women did play an important role in the history of Latin America. Even if many of the most influential women did not get recognized for their deeds, the role of women should never be downplayed. Some women, though, do make their names known even within the patriarchal structure of Latin American society and within the patriarchal hegemony of historiography. For example, Rigoberta Menchu was raised in a gender-egalitarian native society that enabled her to become a political activist. Menchu's activism earned her a place in the history of her people and Guatemala…… [Read More]
And somewhere between the time you arrive
And the time you go
May lie a reason you were alive
But you'll never know.
A lone cloud drifted across the deep blue sky briefly casting its shadow on me as I sat reading a book on a wooden bench in the middle of campus. Countless people of all sorts and colors scurried by engrossed in their iphones, tablets and other technological pleasures oblivious to the beauty of the day. The flowers were vibrant in their spring dress and the scent of freshly cut grass wafted through the air.
As the hour turned a group of my friends arrived as if on schedule (after all it was Wednesday) and gathered around to kill their time.
"Whatch ya reading?" asked Bristol between smacks on her gum.
I said, "The Great Gatsby."
"I had a date with the Great Gatsby last…… [Read More]
Western Civilization proposal, I would like to research Golda Meir. Meir's life is interesting not only in and of itself, but is also remarkable altogether for its astonishing symbolic associations. Meir shows us (as we perhaps already knew) that the historical bias within Western Civilization that stereotypes women as "the weaker sex" has never really been accurate. There is a long history both mythographically and historically which does permit women a role in both warcraft and statecraft: the Classical tradition offers warrior goddesses such as the Greek Athene and the Roman Bellona, while the Old Testament includes enough vignettes of tough and bloodthirsty women, such as Jael, who assassinates the enemy general Sisera by hammering a tent-peg through his skull. Historically there have been a number of female war leaders as well: Boadicea in Roman-era Britain and Zenobia in the Roman-era Middle East both led successful military uprisings against a…… [Read More]
French associate their country with a geometrical shape.
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and Eastern France
The South (also known as the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and eastern France
The south (the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…… [Read More]
Social Construct of Prenuptial Events: From the Bridal Sheets to the Bachelorette Party
The social constructs of the transition from single adulthood to married life throughout recent history have differed between men and women. In modern construct women and men often share a similar prenuptial event that has many elements of public expressions of sexuality, the bachelor or stag party and the bachelorette or staggette party. (Tye and Powers, 1998, pp. 552-561) In most western societies before 1900 and especially during the enaissance the prenuptial ceremonies and rituals included a longer period of time that encompassed a gray area that included the business of the marriage transaction and the ritual of becoming publicly aware of the person you were to marry. Historically speaking there was little if any overt display of sexuality during pre-1900 premarital celebrations. (uggiero, 1985, p. 26) Changes in public sexual expression from before 1900 to now…… [Read More]
Indeed. Gertrude Stein wrote for "herself" for many years prior to ever being noticed as the marvelously talented and versatile writer that she was. That fact was a reality simply because she did not have the opportunity for many years to publish the work she was so tirelessly putting out. Meanwhile, her legacy today is that of an extraordinarily insightful and respected woman of letters, an innovator, an elite member of the artistic avant garde in Europe, a prolific poet and writer, a visionary, something of a rebel, and more. Although she died in 1946 (of intestinal cancer), her work is discussed, debated, dissected and analyzed like the work of few other poets/writers. It's almost as if she were alive today.
Certainly this paper focuses on a gifted thinker whose poetic form is sometimes misunderstood, but rarely ignored. And it also delves into the life of a…… [Read More]
history of events in the twentieth century, one might surmise that the twenty-first may not be all that different. Why? ecause human nature and the pursuit of self-interest has not changed from one century to the next. To explain what drives international relations, Joshua Goldstein provides a brief history of the world, in addition to information about the geographical features and the consequences of different nation's economies. (Goldstein, 2003) The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by relative peace in the world. The Franco-Prussian wars were at least three decades into the past. Nobody would envision that the worst horrors of a global scale wars were in the near future. In as much as Goldstein avers that the First World War was wholly unnecessary and it was, at least in its inception, a macho exercise (p. 37), one can believe that war is part of human nature.
After the…… [Read More]
The concept of the scaly llama can be seen in real life quite frequently. The scaly llama idea is that people often see others according to their expectations of those people, expectations that are typically born of stereotypes. The concept when written by Hurley (2013) was applied to fictional characters, but it does apply to real life as well. For example, people who work in retail will be well familiar with the reality that people often see them as roles, rather than people. Many interactions between people are characterized by the scaly llama effect -- a server sees a table; the customers see a servant, neither side actually concerning itself with the realities of who those people are. Hurley (2013) argues that the scaly llama is lazy, and this is true both for writers and for people in their daily lives. When the server and the customers fail…… [Read More]
From the perspective of pure plot, David Mamet's 1974 play, Sexual Perversity in Chicago, is not exactly easy to summarize, although this difficulty is formally built in to the play, itself, which quite consciously rejects a standard narrative flow from one event to another for a cut-up collagistic style that rapidly jumps between scenes and events. Indeed, this sort of experimentation is hardly new in creative works, and was, in fact, a mainstay of modernist literature at the early part of the 20th century, but it can indeed still be jarring in the realm of theater, where one often tends to expect an emphasis on plot and narrative vision. Mamet's play, on the other hand, prefers to eschew these things in order to suggest something like the fractured nature of our own existences, and, rather than letting the plot hold the interest of the viewers, he realizes on…… [Read More]
Jacking, male, stated, "We know the kick-ass ladies really exist, and they are increasing." Twisted Soul, like all interview subjects, mentioned the prevalence of females in the martial arts. All subjects did acknowledge that female action heroes are less common than male ones, but at the same time, both males and females could name at least one real-life active heroine.
The most avid viewer of Tarantino's Kill Bill was, in fact, a woman. Helena Yip, who studies martial arts, saw Kill Bill twice "for the sake of reviving it." She especially appreciated "the power, the female power...that strong female characters kick ass." Yip compared the Bride to Chyna, a real life professional wrestler who has not only won championships against other women but also against other men. "She became equal with the male wrestlers...as a female I feel so gratifying," (sic). TKDavid, a male reflected Helena's values. Regarding the character…… [Read More]