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This paradox becomes significantly elucidated by the fact that Dewey asserts that individuals are part of the group which projects a moral influence on its members, and that the values which the group follows is not set by some outsider but by a sharing of notions of morality that are respected by numerous individuals. Numerous individuals, of course, collectively become a group. This position of Dewey's is a slight difference from that of Nietzsche's conception of the herd, for the simple fact that Nietzsche widely regards the herd mentality as an external source which encompasses solitary people and forces them to adhere to it. Dewey's perspective is noticeably different than that of the German philosopher in this regard, for the simple fact that the former views the individual as having more of a determination in what the collective moral values are that he or she chooses to align him or…
Dewey, John., Hayden, James. Ethics. Google Books. 1908. Web. http://books.google.com/books?id=-VUJAQAAMAAJ&pg=PR7&lpg=PR7&dq=John+Dewey,+James+Tufts+Ethics+table+of+contents&source=bl&ots=g7dbLU2vWH&sig=aEMgtxc53jRG2jEuaPljpJsTTAo&hl=en&ei=L3ndTpCgOojBtgevn_y0Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
These group standards differed from society to society, but every social construct had them - including large societies such as countries all the way down to small societies such as family units.
The idea behind the group standards was that rules were created that belonged to a group, and people who wanted to be part of that group and be accepted by that group had to follow those rules. Otherwise, those same individuals would not be accepted and would become outcasts. The outcasts could form their own groups, of course, with different rules and taboos. There are many different groups in the world today, and even within a city or small town there are a large number of different groups with different philosophies and different beliefs. People often do not realize the number of groups to which they belong, because they do not spend time analyzing the issue. Dewey, however,…
How many value-added units is the teacher-scholar producing?" and, Van Luchene continues, "Lip service is paid to educational considerations beyond quantitative measures... [and because of that] we stand to lose the vitality of our educational system. To boot, we may also lose our democratic form of government, depending as it does on education to foster deliberation, judgment, imagination..."
Meantime, Van Luchene stresses that Dewey's writing "provides a refreshing antidote..." To the lack of imagination in school systems today. Dewey's approach to evaluation (far from NCLB) was that "How one person's abilities compare in quantity with those of another is none of the teacher's business...what is required is that every individual shall have opportunities to employ his own powers in activities that have meaning."
THID POINT EGADING "C": The fact that federal law - tied to the funding of local educational systems - in a very real sense has forced teachers…
Dewey, John. (1966). Lecture II: Education as a Social Function. In Lectures of the Philosophy of Education (pp. 34-37). New York: Random House.
Dewey, John. (1991). Lectures on Ethics, 1900-1901. D. Koch (Ed.). Carbondale, IL:
Southern Illinois University Press.
Dewey, John (1940). Religion and Our Schools. In Joseph Ratner (Ed.), Education Today pp. 74-86). New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Dewey's theory of knowledge approached thought genetically, as the product of the interaction between organism and environment, and knowledge as having practical instrumentality in the guidance and control of that interaction. Dewey termed this approach "instrumentalism." Dewey provided a detailed genetic analysis of the process of inquiry is his Studies in Logical Theory, conceptualizing the process in three phases. The first phase is the problematic situation, which Dewey defines as a situation where instinctive or habitual responses of the human organism are inadequate for the continuation of ongoing activity in pursuit of need and desire fulfillment. The second phase comprises of isolation of data or subject matter, which defines the parameters within which the reconstruction of the problematic situation must take place. In the third or reflective phase of the process, cognitive elements of inquiry such as ideas, suppositions, theories etc. are entertained as hypothetical solutions. The final test of…
Baker, M.C. (1955). Foundations of John Dewey's Educational Theory. New York: King's
Berube, M.R. (2000). Eminent Educators: Studies in Intellectual Influence. Westport, CT:
Dewey's theory of education was the essential forerunner to "experiential learning" currently proposed by humanistic psychologists as ideal. Students are not "empty vessels" waiting to be filled by a teacher who knows whatever is worth knowing. They bring to school knowledge of language and culture as well as a set of individualized experiences. The need for students to be involved and to participate actively in their own learning is greater today than it was in Dewey's time. In Dewey's time there was no television. Students today watch electronic images on a glass screen for several hours a day, during which they are entirely passive, not expected to think, form arguments, or respond articulately to what they are watching. They often come to school expecting that the teacher will entertain them. The teacher's task, therefore, is to wake them up, get them to think, help them learn to express their thoughts…
Smith, John E. "Dewey, John." World Book Online eference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. 19 Oct. 2005. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar157140.
Does one have to have mastery to teach? How would John Dewey classify mastery of education, objectives, mastery of items, skills?
Dewey did not believe in 'mastery' in terms of having a specific framework of confined knowledge. ather, he was most interested in achieving practical objectives. He stated that the human individual was a social being from the start of his or her life, so "individual satisfaction and achievement can be realized only within the context of social habits and institutions that promote" the individual welfare. To attain mastery in education was to participate in the continual striving to help all individuals realize this objective over the course of their lives. It was not mastery given by a degree. The purpose of education was to promote social welfare by helping students…
Field, Richard. "John Dewey." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 19 Oct 2005. http://www.iep.utm.edu/d/dewey.htm
The latte's dak waves unify expeiences of a feasome and tuly elemental ocean in the winte; of a fish's wateside flopping as simultaneously pathetic, teifying, and heat-beaking; and one's own expeiences of helplessness. But I think we should be loathe to take these diffeences in degee of unity as diffeences in kind of expeience. Viewing eithe Collective Invention o a Necke Cube constitutes an expeience, athe than simply leading to one. We should say that each is a wok of at.
Collective Invention, howeve, is pehaps geat at. If so, then accoding to Dewey, it should not only be that viewing it constitutes an expeience, as with the Necke Cube; it should be that viewing it epeatedly constitutes epeated expeiences; and each successive expeience of it is deepe -- which, I assume, is to say that each successive expeience unifies moe expeiences.
I should now like to ask whethe two…
references in parentheses are to this work and edition.
Pylyshyn, Zenon. Seeing and Visualizing. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003. See, especially, chapters 1 -- 3.
Strictly speaking, self-sufficiency does not come in degrees. Anything short of sufficiency is insufficiency, and so it makes little sense to say that the experience of great art is "more self-sufficient." But we needn't be strict here, as we are not when we say that an individual is self-sufficient if she works and lives alone, even if she depends on the grocer for food, on her doctor for good health, and so on. So perhaps it can come in degrees. Still, I find Dewey's remarks on the self-sufficiency of an experience (especially) obscure; and since we shall already have much to say about the unity of experience, I have put the matter to one side.
Gehr, Richard. "Heavy." Spin March 1996: 120.
Art as Experience" by John Dewey
The Function of Aesthetics in John Dewey's "Art as Experience"
In the book, "Art as Experience," author John Dewey offers an alternative method through which aesthetic or esthetic theory can be discussed and thoroughly explained. In the midst of art studies dealing with the theme "art for art's sake," Dewey argues in his book how a gradual deviation from this popular maxim will provide art theorists, critics, and even artists themselves create a proper perspective in which works of art can be viewed and discussed for what they really are -- that is, products and artifacts of human culture.
Indeed, art as a functional object for human culture becomes the central theme of the "Art as Experience." The author puts much emphasis on the distinction between fine art that is 'mystified' and functional: the former is the product of the humanity's putting a large…
Dewey, J. (1934). "Art as experience." NY: Capricorn Books.
Jane Addams v. John Dewey
Theorists Jane Addams and John Dewey are American pragmatists since they are among the formative thinkers in the early 20th Century. These two theorists made significant contributions to the field of public administration and democracy based on the perspective of feminism. Jane Addams not only contributed to the political sphere where she was legally prohibited from involvement but also expressed and assisted in creating social and economic democracies (Shields, 2011, p.15). In contrast, John Dewey is regarded as one of the pioneers of deliberative democratic theory which has been characterized by explicit incorporation of a social criticism philosophy into his political theory. Addams and Dewey developed their theories following their aspirations for democracy; especially in relation to initiatives by the United States to enforce democracy in other places across the globe. As pragmatists, these two theorists contributed significantly to re-evaluation of the theory and practice…
Ackerly, B.A. (2000). Political theory and feminist social criticism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, L.G. (2006). Principles for Education of the Social Reconstructions and Critical Theorists: A Yardstick of Democracy. Retrieved from Georgia Southern University website: http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1461&context=etd
Seigfried, C.H. (1999). Socializing Democracy: Jane Addams and John Dewey. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 29(2), 207-230.
Shields, P.M. (2011). Jane Addams' Theory of Democracy and Social Ethics: Incorporating a Feminist Perspective. In D'Agostino, M.J. & Levine, H. (eds) Women in public administration: theory and practice (chap. 2, pp.15-34). Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763777258/77258_CH02_DAgostino.pdf
He warns those who are believe that the scientific research can be replaced with improvisational means in the filed of education that it is highly likely to come out with false results. This can be applied to any field of research, of course. The merit of his comments is that he questions the very meaning of the notion of education as it was understood at the time he wrote the book. Alternative methods of education have the same goal and the issue in ewey's view is how to use the progress of science to make those methods more effective for the sake of education.
Experience is in ewey's vision a factor that must be given the proper attention by all those attempting to make any progress in the filed of education.
ewey, J. 1998. Experience and Education: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Kappa elta…
Dewey agrees that the research for the development of a new methodology in education is at its early stages and those who are to take this path must use sound scientific methods that will protect their results from being based on false principles. He warns those who are believe that the scientific research can be replaced with improvisational means in the filed of education that it is highly likely to come out with false results. This can be applied to any field of research, of course. The merit of his comments is that he questions the very meaning of the notion of education as it was understood at the time he wrote the book. Alternative methods of education have the same goal and the issue in Dewey's view is how to use the progress of science to make those methods more effective for the sake of education.
Experience is in Dewey's vision a factor that must be given the proper attention by all those attempting to make any progress in the filed of education.
Dewey, J. 1998. Experience and Education: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Kappa Delta Pi
It is, therefore, the role of the teacher or educator to provide a positive educational experience for his or her students. Teachers must boost the immediate value of the learning environment to best provide positive educational experiences for students. In order to best do this, teachers and educators must also understand the realm of human experience and knowledge as a way to perfect their own skills in providing the best educational experiences. This approach to education can be a source of constructive citizenship in the United States. By understanding the human experience, we better understand each other and can then provide the best experiences for others as well as ourselves.
Gutek, Gerald L. (2004). John Dewey: pragmatist philosopher and progressive educator. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education. Prentice…
Gutek, Gerald L. (2004). John Dewey: pragmatist philosopher and progressive educator. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education. Prentice Hall.
John Keatings and the prep school in Dead Poet's Society: Where do they fit in the philosophies of education?
John Keatings is, if not anything else, an original thinker and teacher in Dead Poet's Society. The film does not at all bother to hide this fact even in the opening sequences: Keatings is shown as different from the other teachers even by virtue of his grimaces and squeamishness.
John Locke wrote of education, "Virtue is harder to be got than knowledge of the world; and, if lost in a young man, is seldom recovered." John Keatings believes in this Lockian principle, but only to a certain degree. In his classroom, Keatings stressed virtue: He taught his students how to live and feel and treat one another as much as he taught them to classics. In fact, he deliberately skips the theoretical works in the class -- even having his students…
Johnson, Tony & Reed, Ronald. "Philosophical Documents in Education." Second Edition.
John Dewey and Charles Prosser were both instrumental figures in American educational philosophy and pedagogical theory. Both Dewey and Prosser were pragmatists, but each proposed a fundamentally different function for public education. Dewey stressed the importance of education for fostering civic duty and promoting democracy; Prosser remained more concerned with the role education would play in preparing children for vocational careers. Although both Dewey and Prosser believed education should be applicable to daily life, Dewey believed that Prosser's focus on vocational education might inhibit intrinsic motivation and the development of a person's natural interests, thereby artificially channeling children into specific career paths (Wonacott, 2003). Dewey believed that vocational education presented a danger of becoming too "rote, mechanical, and slavish," (Wonacott, 2003, p. 6). As Labaree (2010) points out, Dewey "lost" the philosophical debate over the role of education as Prosser helped to pass the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917, which ensconced…
Labaree, D.F. (2010). How Dewey lost. Retrieved online: https://web.stanford.edu/~dlabaree/publications/How_Dewey_Lost.pdf
Steinke, L.J. & Putnam, A.R. (n.d.). The current status of technology education. Retrieved online: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=ojwed
Wonacott, M.E. (2003). History and evolution of vocational and career-technical education. Retrieved online: http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/compilation-history.pdf
Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change
David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…
Dewey, J. (1938, 1998). Education and Experience: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Indianapolis, IN: Kappa Delta Pi Society.
Tyack, D. And L. Cuban (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Harvard University Press.
Educational Theory: Dewey vs. Eliot
The contrast between the contemporary educational theories of John Dewey and Charles . Elliot cannot be subsumed under the dichotomies of 'right and wrong' so much as the two men's different sociological contexts, although the two men expressed contempt of one another during their respective lifetimes. Overall, Dewey stressed the idea of education through one's pursuit of a vocation and Charles . Eliot's stressed the need for education for education's sake for the vocations. Dewey believed education was a constant process, and that life was an education, while Eliot saw a strong dichotomy between university life and professional life, as well as those who were fit to become a part of the system of higher education and those who were not.
Dewey was a Midwesterner. He strongly believed in the democratic need for education. He advocated the end of entrance exams as necessary to enter…
University of Michigan: School of Education. "Thought and Action: John Dewey -- School Accreditation's Club." 2004. UMSOE Website. 24 November 2004. http://www.soe.umich.edu/dewey/schoolmasters/index.html
alzer / Dewey / Education
Michael alzer's position on school busing in Spheres of Justice is rather ingenious. Before we look more closely at it, though, I'd like to recall the context for his argument in favor of what used to be called "forced busing" (a derogatory term which alzer distances himself from). The issue of using school busing to help to remedy the effects of racial segregation was the subject of two controversial Supreme Court rulings issued during the Nixon presidency: these were Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) and Milliken v. Bradley (1974). In Swann the Supreme Court found that it was constitutional to use busing for the purposes of overcoming the effects of poverty and housing inequality which led to racially homogenous populations within certain school disticts. The revisitation of the same topic in Milliken only three years later reflects the Supreme Court's establishment of a…
Walzer, Michael. Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Print.
philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.
Rousseau and Nature"
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].
According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit." Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. emile, Everyman's Library 1969.
Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline & Punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books
Preston, Edward. Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1986.
Dewey, John, 1859-1952. Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DewDemo.html
In the U.S. The conflict between progressive and traditional education has been going on for over 100 years, and E.D. Hirsch and John Dewey are polar opposites in this pedagogical and philosophical conflict. Dewey was indeed a support of the Left in politics who wanted the U.S. To become a social democracy and move away from more traditional conservative ideas. He thought that democratic socialism would be the wave of the future in urban, industrial society, and that the traditional education system was not preparing students to participate as active citizens in this new society. It was rigid, authoritarian and hierarchical, with teachers acting like dictators in the classroom and often dispensing plenty of corporal punishment. ather than follow a rigid, old-fashioned curriculum, the teacher had to allow students to participate in designing lessons that were relevant to their lives and experiences. Only this way could the public schools…
Dworkin, M.S. (1961). Dewey on Education. Classics in Education No.3.
Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and Education. Macmillan.
Hirsch. E.D. (1996). The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. Doubleday.
Fernandez, R. (2003). Mappers of Society: The Lives, Times and Legacies of Great Sociologists. Praeger.
Jerrold Levinson, John Dewey, and Theodor Adorno all have differing views about the role that music should play in society or in making a good life. Levinson explains his view on the matter by trying to seek a comprehensive definition of music itself rather than what a piece of music is and how humans psychologically recognize the features of music. He then goes on to provide several possible definitions and finds faults with each one until he arrives at his conclusion. This conclusion is that music can be defined as an organization of sounds produced by humans for the purpose of providing heartening experiences to those who either listen, dance, or perform to it. The sounds are considered to be the basic components of all forms of music, except for Muzak.
Levinson's conclusive definition of music shares one striking similarity with Dewey's conclusion on the same matter. Dewey explains that…
educational theory by comparing and contrasting two authors of education theory with the Montessori method of teaching. The writer explores all three ideas and discusses their similarities. The writer used four sources to complete this paper.
Since the advent of the educational system there have been many changes throughout the years. As the world evolves and matures and technology advances the world discovers more things that it wants its students taught. In addition there are many different ways to teach and the system has gone from whole language to back to basics and back again. Several forward thinking theorists have developed education theories in which they discuss what they believe to be the most sound foundation for teaching that is available. In John Dewey's Experience and Education and Curriculum and Aims by Decker F. Walker, and Jonas F. Soltis both suggest and develop critiques on education systems that have been…
Decker F. Walker, Jonas F. Soltis. Curriculum and Aims (Thinking About Education Series)
Publisher: Teachers College Press. (August 1997)
Dewey, John. Education and Experience. Touchstone Books (August 1997)
John Dewey (Accessed 10-27-2002)
Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership: Pragmatism as a Framework for Action in Public Service
The objective of this study is to examine pragmatism as a framework for action in public services. Towards this end, this work will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of study.
According to the work of Keith F. Snider entitled "ethinking Public Administration's oots in Pragmatism: The Case of Charles A. Beard" reports that pragmatism because very prominent "around the turn of the 20th century…through the ideas of well-known writers such as William James and John Dewey." (2008) Comaeger (1950) stated that pragmatism is "almost the official philosophy of America." (Stever, 2008) The work of Shields (nd) explains that classical pragmatism "is attractive because it has both depth and complexity." Shields states that these characteristics "have made it difficult to summarize and easy to misinterpret." (nd) Classical pragmatism has been held by scholars…
Dewey, J. (1927). The public and its problems. New York: Henry Holt.
Dewey, J. (1929). The quest for certainty. New York: Minton, Balch.
Dewey, J. (1998). The essential Dewey (vol. 1, L.A. Hickman & T.M. Alexander, Eds.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Garrison, J. (2000) Pragmatism, and Public Administration. Administration & Society; Sep 2000; 32,4:ABI/INFORM Global.
Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology
In Human Nature and Conduct, John Dewey propounds the theory that all human conduct is the outcome of an interaction between elements of human nature and the environment, both natural and social (Dewey, p. 10). Based on this premise, Dewey advocates that the study of morals or ethics shift its ground from a transcendental realm to one where the discipline of social psychology is used to intelligently reengineer the environment so that ethical behavior is habitually encouraged. Thus, Dewey defines the moral problem as that of "modifying the factors which now influence future results. To change the working character or will of another we have to alter objective conditions which enter into his habits." (p. 18) Personally, I agree with Dewey's philosophy because its construct makes the achievement of an ethical world seem more real and less utopian.
The subject of…
Dewey, J. "Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology." New York:
The Modern Library, 1930.
In grade four white males performing "At or Above asic" math skills is stated at 90% while black males were performing at only 59% "At or Above asic" skill levels. White males in the "At or Above Proficient" skills level is stated at 49% with black males in this category stated at a mere 13%.
The following labeled Figure 2 shows the statistical report of NAEP (2005) in relation to achievement differences among African-American and White American males.
NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT: Minority Male Achievement Gaps Relative to White Males, Grade 4, 2005
Source: NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT (2005)
y the time these students reach 8th grade white males "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" totals 76% while only 43% of the African-American males are "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" the negative value in the Achievement Gap of African-American Males as relative to White Males indicates that a lower percentage of…
Henry, Ardail Rashad (2005) Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in African-American Students with Learning Disabilities. July 2005 School or Education Curriculum and Instruction, Special Education, Williamsburg VA. Online available at http://www.wm.edu/education/599/05Projects/Henry_599.pdf
David, James Earl (2006) Early Schooling and Academic Achievement of African-American Males. Abstract. Sage Publications. Online available at http://uex.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/5/515
Babco, Eleanor (2004) Uphill Climb: the Status of African-Americans in Science and Engineering. Making Strides. Online available at http://ehrweb.aaas.org/mge/Reports/Report1/Uphill.html .
McMillian, Monique M. (2003-2004) Is No Child Left Behind 'Wise Schooling' for African-American Male Students?" published in the High School Journal - Volume 87, Number 2 in December 2003-January 2004, and on pages 25-33.
The combination of these factors established a basic foundation for looking at the entire impact of specific ideas and events on the individual's cognitive system. (James, 2005, pp. 45 -- 132)
John Dewey was able to take these ideas and theorized that the social environment will have an impact on: the activities of the mind and ultimately individual behavior. At the heart of his beliefs, was the view that psychologists should move away from stimulus-based responses and towards understanding the entire neural pathway. This is when psychologists can comprehend how certain thoughts are impacting the behavior of the person. These principles are illustrating how Dewey was building off of the ideas from James to expand the role of functionalism. (James, 2005, pp. 179 -- 268)
James Angell took the ideas of Dewey and expanded upon them. Under this philosophy, he identified three major points of functionalism to include: studying the…
Functionalism. (2006). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/
James, W. (2005). James and Dewey. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Simon, L. (1996). William James Remembered. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
56). Grumet's critique of standardization was written before No Child Left Behind, but her comments seem even more apt in light of the 'teach to the test' movement in so many American elementary and middle schools -- and in the halls of government.
Context of Grumet's theories
Grumet places herself in the tradition of experientially-oriented educations who stressed the practical value of knowledge, like John Dewey. Just as Grumet's vision of learning at a mother's side in the kitchen as a practical and memorable way to learn math: "Dewey believed that students should be involved in real-life tasks and challenges" (Neill 2005). Dewey always believed that bringing real life to the classroom knowledge could be accomplished by such schemes teachers using cooking to teach children mathematics. Learning about how people lived today could teach students history. By asking 'why are people doing this now,' children would be driven to learn…
Grumet, Madeline. (1988). Bitter Milk. University of Massachusetts Press.
Dooley, Deborah A. (1990). Book Review: Bitter Milk. Harvard Educational
Review, 60(4), 527. Retrieved November 27, 2009, from Platinum Periodicals.
(Document ID: 1659851).
philosophy that best reflects my opinion of adult education. Google "philosophy of adult education" and you will find essentially personal essays and thoughts about the philosophy of how and why adult education exists.
My personal philosophy of adult education is a result of my personal awareness of the essential purpose of education. From my view, education should be an empowering tool, which enables adults to attain their full potential and realize their objectives throughout their lives. In this example, education should offer adults the opportunity to augment their employment skills so that they can pursue the career they really want to succeed in life. I believe it is the goal of adult education to be able to identify the candidates of adult learners who can benefit from adult education and realize their dreams.
One of the main purposes of adult education is to enable adult learners to make the most…
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…
Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,
James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
History of Constructivism
As long as there were people asking each other questions, we have had constructivist classrooms. Constructivism, the study of learning, is about how we all make sense of our world, and that really hasn't changed."
Jacqueline Grennan rooks (1999)
The concept of constructivism is as old as Socrates, but 20th Century pioneers of the movement include Jean Piaget, John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky. Jean Piaget and John Dewey were early adaptors of "Progressive Education" ideals that led to the formal concept of constructivism. For Piaget, these ideas were grounded in the notion that people learned in logical increments, through structured introduction and that children absorbed information in different ways than did adults. John Dewey thought that learning should be associated with real life experience achieved through inquiry. Vygotsky introduced a social aspect by asserting that children exceed their average learning capability when interacting with others.
Dettrick, G.W. Constructivist Teaching Strategies. School of Education
Monash University - Gippsland Campus. Churchill Australia 3842
1896 EW5: 96-109 The reflex arc concept in psychology
American education has evolved considerably since the late 19th century. One of the first philosophers to influence the character of modern American education was John Dewey. Dewey was a progressive, and believed that children should not just sit in classrooms passively memorizing material. Instead, students should learn via experience and interaction with their environments. Dewey's humanistic approach to education revolutionized the ways people thought about schooling and pedagogy. A timeline of American education begins with Dewey, because he was the person to first codify the structure and philosophy of education, and then offer the methods and means to implement those ideas. Dewey is known as a "pragmatist" because of his ability to fuse philosophy and practice, and had "the most significant contribution to the development of educational thinking in the twentieth century," (Smith, 2001).
Maria Montessori was the first female to become a doctor in Italy. Working closely with…
"No Child Left Behind Worsened Education, 48% Of Americans 'Very Familiar' With The Law Say In Gallup Poll," (2012). Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com /2012/08/21/no-child-left-behind-wors_n_1819877.html
Smith, M.K. (2001). John Dewey. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm
Smith, M.K. (2012). Maria Montessori. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-mont.htm
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…
IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm
Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.
Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.
Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
But that is partly because what I have to suggest is not a method but a stance towards one's teaching. This stance requires a sort of doubleness: an awareness that one's course is part of an ideological structure that keeps people from thinking about their situation, but also a belief that one can resist this structure and help students to criticize it' (Myers 172). Even while using collaborative learning techniques, Myers does not want students to lose their individuality. This is also Holt's goal but it is unclear if this as easy in 'theory' as it is in fact, based on the experiences she chronicles. Holt calls the Bruffee approach 'democratic' but in a perfect democracy there can be a loss of valuable minority opinions.
riting, it could be argued, is designed to express individualism. But not all authors agree with this idea. John Trimbur's "Consent and Difference in Collaborative…
Bruffee, Kenneth a. "Collaborative learning and the 'Conversation of Mankind'." College
English, 46. 7 (Nov., 1984): 635-652
Holt, Mara. "The importance of dissent in collaborative learning." The Writing Center Journal,
The Classroom of the Future -- Civics Education in the Future as a Living Lesson of Civics Democracy in the Classroom
Teaching Democracy in John Goodlad's Democratic Classroom
Civics is one of the most complex subjects to teach children, particularly children in junior high school, between the grades of 6th through 8th. During these ages, children are only beginning to gain a sense of centeredness in terms of their place in the world, their sense of personal morality, and also their sense of responsibility to the larger community. Merrill Harmin's text Inspiring Active Learning Strategies of Instruction provides an acronym for the five core aspects of any educational program -- DESCA means "Dignity, Energy, Self-Managing, Community, Awareness." Civics instruction must foster these elements in a student so that he or she becomes an effective learner, an effective participant in the larger community, as well as foster these principles…
Bitter, Gary. Using Technology in the Classroom. Fifth Edition. Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 2001.
Brophy, Jere, Motivating Students to Learn. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, 1997.
Gootman, Marilyn E. The Caring Teacher's Guide to Discipline, Second Edition. Corwin Press, 2000.
Goodlad, John I. In Praise of Education. (John Dewey Lecture Series) Teachers College Press, 1997.
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
"Many of our current challenges are unprecedented," the president explained. "There are no standard remedies, or go-to fixes this time around. That is why we are going to need your help. e'll need young people like you to step up. e need your daring and your enthusiasm and your energy." I will continue to offer my enthusiasm and my energy -- and hopefully I will be daring enough to learn new skills and strategies for the betterment of my students and my community.
Critical Incidents in Education
Before I share specific school experiences I have had, I want to express my own perspective on teaching and education. I have always been very impressed by the thinking of John Dewey, who is considered the "Father of Public Education" in America, and also I've been influenced by the more contemporary strategies put forward by Albert Bandera, who is well-known for his…
Bandura, Albert. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human
Behavior, 4. New York: Academic Press, pp. 71-81
Dewey, John (2002). Waste in Education. In The School and Society (pp. 77-110).
Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press.
" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.
Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.
In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…
Axelrod, P. (2005). Beyond the Progressive Education Debate: A Profile of Toronto Schooling in the 1950s. Historical Studies in Education
Beyer, L.E. (1999). William Heard Kilpatrick. International Bureau of Education, XXVII (3).
Calhoun School (CS). (2009). Progressive Education. Calhoun.org.
Davies, S. (2002). The Paradox of Progressive Education: A Frame Analysis. Sociology of Education, 75, 269-286.
Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) spoke 'initiation' and 'induction' as learning functions and held that these forms of learning effectively reached further than 'training' and 'instruction' which are instrumental learning. The initiation stage of learning is an independent learning stage where the learner grasps and understands for themselves the object of learning and in which the learner's dependence upon both the teacher and upon learning structures are lessened. A higher stage of independent learning was referred to by Stenhouse as 'induction' and is a stage of learning in which the learner has come to the place of owning, valuing and believing in the object of learning for themselves. Stenhouse affirmed the need for foundational knowledge upon which the higher learning skills can be constructed and held that the functional knowledge must be solidly in place before higher learning functions could begin.
Curriculum, according to the work of Grundy "is often written and…
Butts, Robert Freeman (1971) The College Charts Its Court: Historical Conceptions and Current Proposals. Ayer Publishing, 1971.
Fenner, David E.W. (1999) Ethics in Education. Routledge, 1999.
Moles, Joanne (2005) You Say Potato Implications of a Prescribed Curriculum on Three Irish Physical Education teachers. Paper Presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conferences, University of Glamorgan, 14-17 September 2005.
Murphy, Anne (2008) The Interface between Academic Knowledge and Working Knowledge: Implications for Curriculum Design and Pedagogic Practice. Dublin Institute of Technology 2008.
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…
Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.
Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Few heirs apparent of both modern day philosophy and orthodox Christianity exist, unless one considers Mortimer Jerome Adler. Adler was a well-respected philosopher and educator, with influence in the religious sector as well as the educational reformation movement. To consider the many and varied courses of interest Adler followed, a thorough understanding of his background must be cited. Potentially, Adler's most significant contribution was to education, as a result of the summation of his valuable life experiences, intellectual genius, and integration of philosophy and classical literature.
Adler was born in New York City on December 28, 1902, to immigrants Ignatz Adler, a jewelry salesman, and Clarissa Manheim, a schoolteacher. Despite dropping out of school at the age of fourteen, Mortimer Adler gained an interest in journalism while working as a copy boy at the New York Sun, later taking writing classes at Columbia University. It was during his…
Adler, MJ. (1994). A Second Look in the Rearview Mirror: Further Autobiographical Reflections of a Philosopher at Large. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Bertucci, SF (Ed). (2000, Summer). Mortimer J. Adler: Reforming Education. Classical Homeschooling Magazine, 1.
Colson, C. (2001, July 5). Mortimer J. Adler: Philosopher of Education. Breakpoint with Chuck
Education is the central component in forming a society that is affluent in every way. Educators make education an obtainable goal. The purpose if this discussion is to explore the personal philosophy of an educator. We will investigate; how the educator believes children learn, how his beliefs are demonstrated through hid teaching and classroom concepts, and how his teaching techniques are based on the philosophies are based on the research of various theorists.
The philosopher John Dewey said the following of education,
Education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform. All reforms which rest simply upon the law, or the threatening of certain penalties, or upon changes in mechanical or outward arrangements, are transitory and futile.... ut through education society can formulate its own purposes, can organize its own means and resources, and thus shape itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes to…
The John Dewey Society.. http://cuip.uchicago.edu/jds/links.htm
The Educational Theory of Thomas Jefferson. New Foundations www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Jefferson.html2002
Howard Gardner. http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/gardner.html
The Educational Theory of John Dewey (1859-1952). New Foundations
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…
Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.
Accessed 1 April 2012.
"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
Critical Thinking and Divorce
Critical thinking refers to reflective thinking whereby a person views an event or incident objectively to develop arguments and then tries to reach some sound unbiased conclusions. The ability to think critically has occupied a pivotal position in last few decades because it allows a person to reach a conclusion that has not been colored by bias or pre-conceived notions about a certain person or issue. However critical thinking is something that most people are required to learn and not everyone is born with the skills to critically analyze a situation. Let us see how critical thinking has been defined and that will help us understand what exactly is meant by this term. We can then go on to apply critical thinking to the process of divorce.
John Dewey was one of the early thinkers to develop and present a sound definition of critical thinking. To…
Dewey, J. (1909) revised edition (1993). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
McPeck, John. 1981. Critical Thinking and Education. New York: St. Martin's.
Siegel, Harvey. 1988. Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical Thinking and Education. New York: Routledge.
Watson, G., & Glaser, E. (1941, 1980). Manual: The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. New York: Harcourt
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
hat are the dominant influences on school curriculum in America? hat was the approach to curriculum development in the past? Those issues are addressed in this paper.
The Literature on Curriculum and its Influences
Philosopher and educator John Dewey wrote in 1906 that there was a wide gulf between the child of that era and the curriculum being offered. He posed a picture of the "…narrow but personal world of the child" put up against the "…impersonal but infinitely extended world of space and time" (Dewey, 1906, p. 11). In other words, Dewey was trying to make the point that curricula should attempt to allow the child to proceed "…step-by-step to master" each separate parts of a lesson rather than present "…an abstract principle of logical classification and arrangement" (11-12). The road is long when you're asking a child to view a subject in its entirety, Dewey continued (12),…
Dewey, John (1906). The Child and the Curriculum. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan
Phillion, JoAnn, Connelly, F. Michael, and He, Ming Fang. (2007). The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Pinar, William F. (2004). "The Reconceptualization of Curriculum Studies," in The Curriculum
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…
Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, .D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: eframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
Neil, J. (2005, January). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experimental learning. Wilderdom.com. etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=111&sid=4dc68d17-580a=4983=af18=762283ca50ef%40sessionmgr114
Ackerman, D.B. (2003, March). Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, R.D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: Reframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
There are specific daily steps that students in these working class schools must take, and in math, for example, the teacher "told them what the procedure was for each problem, rarely asking them to conceptualize or explain it themselves" (Anyon 528). And so the emphasis was on memorizing the steps, not on understanding how or why they are taken. Language arts class was much the same (copy the teacher's notes from the board). In the middle-class school, it was all about "getting the right answers." In social studies, it was the old-fashioned routine of reading the chapter and answering questions, and the same was true in language arts. "Creativity is not often requested in social studies and science projects..." Anyon writes (532).
Things were different in the affluent professional school and fathers' careers included corporate lawyer, cardiologist, engineer; difficult assignments required specific projects like film-making and script-writing; children wrote essays…
Clayton, Victoria. "Public vs. Private School - which is best for kids?" MSNBC.com.
Retrieved April 1 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8743221/print/1/displaymode/1098/
Colombo, Gary; Cullen, Robert; & Lisle, Bonnie. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Mendez, Teresa. "Public Schools: Do they outperform private ones?" The Christian Science
Career Technical Education (CTE) - Past to Present
This statement made in 1905 suggests that the education system is supposed to be focused on increasing the amount of time to commercial, industrial and technical training. However this is not the prevailing conditions and interests that are in existence today. Today most of the education systems mainly focus on ensuring that students from high school proceed to colleges or universities. Most people view college and university education as a peak when it comes to education achievement.one is viewed as being educated if they have successfully gone through high school and straight to college or University. Therefore today very little or no focus is put on commercial, industrial or technical education.
How apprenticeship system impacted the development of Vocational Education
Vocational education involves training for a particular vocation industry, trade or agriculture. Vocational education policy in every nation concentrates on its traditional…
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…
Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Kneller. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 1962. Excerpt available 2 Jan 2008 at http://people.morehead-st.edu/fs/w.willis/fourtheories.html
McClellan, Kenneth. (2000). "Functionalism." Sociological Theories. Grinnell University.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 at http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Sociology of education." Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 from the Dictionary of Sociology
The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:
In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).
This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the erlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Bazillon, R.J. The Zollverein 1834-1870. Historical Report, Leiden: Leiden University, 2007.
Clout, H.C. "An Historical Geography of Europe 1800-1914." Geographical Review, 1987: 115-117.
Diderot, J. Encyclopedie. Paris: Andre le Breton, 1743.
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…
Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm
Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional
Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf
Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
students spend the other half of our time in our class doing hands-on laboratory and project work that is interesting and relevant to our lives (essentially pragmatic ideals). easoning and deduction are good, but we as a learners forget a concept we do not see and practice. To this end, my teacher made a laboratory investigation a major part of our curriculum, giving us the opportunity to observe and to put concepts into practice twice a week. Laboratories are done cooperatively with small groups of students. Sometimes written questions guide us through the thinking process to a specific conclusion. At other times, our teacher give us a single concept that we must somehow derive with no detailed questions to guide us (a pragmatic approach). Our teacher strives to ensure that investigations are relevant to our lives.
Once each semester, we also have the opportunity to undertake an in-depth investigation in…
John Dewey: Father of Pragmatism. (2005). Retrieved July 14, 2005, from Scholastic Inc.
Web site: http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/ect/dewey.htm
Philosopher - John Dewey. (1998). Retrieved July 14, 2005, from tec.uno.edu
Web site: http://tec.uno.edu/George/Papers/EDCI6658/Dewey.html
Ataturk's Influence On The New Turkish epublic And Village Institutes
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, or "Father Turk," is credited with being the father of the modern nation of Turkey. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Turkey did not exist as we know it today. Its territory was part of the Ottoman Empire, a conglomeration of different ethnicities and religions of various tribal affiliations. Under Ataturk's vision and leadership, a new nation emerged. He was spurred on by the growing nationalist movements sweeping across Europe. Ataturk was fundamentally a modernist, which can be seen in his efforts during World War I, his personal philosophy and lifestyle, and also the secular reforms which he implemented during his reign, including those in education.
Even before World War I, the Ottoman Empire was known as the Sick Man of Europe. It was corrupt and weak. While studying at the war college of the Empire…
Ataturk - Republic of Turkiye (Part 2). (2007). Youtube. Retrieved from:
Ataturk - Republic of Turkiye (Part 9). (2007). Youtube. Retrieved from:
As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.
Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…
Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dobbs, M. (2005, April 21). NEA, States Challenge 'No Child' Program. Washington Post.
Ehrich, R. (2007). The Impact of School Size. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from Virginia Tech: http://delta.cs.vt.edu/edu/size.html
MESIC's have been singularly unsuccessful, and have been deemphasized in recent years.
Related to this are: State-sponsored venture capital investments. Countries and regions invest in venture capital funds as Limited Partners, meaning that they have the same or similar financial returns as all other investors in a Fund. In many cases, such state investments require some conditions on the privately-run venture fund. The most popular conditions include:
fixed percentage threshold of investment in the region or country, or certain number of jobs to be generated by their investments, or Attracting a certain multiple of investment from outside the state or region into the fund, or Limiting the venture investments to the types of technologies and industries which are of greatest interest to that state or region.
Examples of the above can include the Indiana Futures Fund, in which the State of Indiana invested $100 million in several venture funds. Among…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Balzac, M. "Recent Trends in the Research on National Innovation Systems." REPEC. November 26, 2007. http://ideas.repec.org/p/aug/augsbe/0254.html (Accessed November 28, 2007).
Birch, D.L. MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987.
Christensen, C. The Innovator's Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.
In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).
According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…
Badcock, C.R. (1976). Laevi-Strauss: Structuralism and sociological theory. New York: Holmes & Meier.
Hawkes, T. (2003). Structuralism and semiotics. New York: Routledge.
Noble, C.E. (2006). Structuralism. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 15, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service.
Owens, D.A., & Wagner, M. (1992). Progress in modern psychology: The legacy of American functionalism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
message of the reading. Explain why you chose those words and provide examples from text and elaborate
I chose the following as material for focus in this essay:
It seems to me that the essay revolves around the crux of these words. It also seems to me that each of these terms has broad meaning and can be understood in countless ways. Perhaps if they were understood in a slightly different way, the research may have had slightly different outcome.
Finally, each of these three terms has a distinct meaning for me as graduate student soon to be graduating with my master's degree in education (grades 7-12 social studies/special education).
The study was on the attempt to promote security measures in a certain school following the bout of inter-racial conflict in the country in general and inter-racial conflict in that school in particular. lthough the…
A school culture that focuses not just on academic excellence in its narrow sense but on an academic excellence that integrates academic achievement with connection between students and teachers and a respectful happy school environment will also provide security. It will be a by-measure.
Graver, R (2012) For Safety's Sake: A Case Study of School Security Efforts and Their Impact on Education Reform Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 3,2.
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)
Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/
Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.
Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
Gutmann Democracy and Education
Amy Gutmann's book, Democracy in Education, is a thoughtful analysis of the philosophical foundations of education in a democratic state. She investigates the issue of who should share responsibility for the education of democratic citizens. In her investigation, Gutmann tackles a number of complex issues including academic freedom, book burning, teacher's unions, and public support for private schools in the context of this debate. Overall, her analysis of the issue is both thorough and enlightening. Ultimately, Gutmann comes to the almost inevitable conclusion that the responsibility for education of democratic citizens is the citizens of a democratic state, acting on their own behalf either privately, or through their democratically elected representatives.
In this slim 316-page work, Gutmann tackles the enormous challenge of assessing the philosophical foundations of the state of public education in a democratic nation. Her analysis is a valuable look at what groups should…
Dewey, John. 1997. Democracy and Education. Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group.
Gutmann, Amy. 1999. Democratic Education. Princeton University Press.
Gutmann, Amy. Challenges of Multiculturalism in Democratic Education. PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, 1995. 07 December 2003. http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/95_docs/gutmann.html