Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Thirdly, Rawls thinks that one would not choose the principle of average utility from the original position, because of equality that is given by the original position. The original position holds that justice in an ideal society should be guided by the principle opted by everyone if they were in the original position of equality. The equality in this regard refers to the rights and duties of all rational individuals. This would allow the individuals enjoy the equal basic rights and liberties; thus, they would opt for this position.
Pure procedural justice differs from other forms of Justice in significant ways. Pure procedural justice involves the fairness given to an individual, without any compromise on the established processes of justice. In this regard, it involves the justice given to an individual by procedure. In other words, there is no formula in judging how just is reached, but by…
According to Locke man is born with a natural liberty that means he should be free from subordination to any "superior power on earth, and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but to have only the law of nature for his rule." (1632-1704)
Man's liberty in society is such that should not be ruled by a legislative power but instead "by consent, in the commonwealth…what the legislative shall enact, according to the trust put in it." (Locke, 1632-1704) Freedom from power that is "absolute, arbitrary" is deemed by Locke to be required and "closely joined with a man's preservation, that he cannot part with it, but by what forfeits his preservation and life together" and that man is not to become a slave through his own consent or the power of others. (1632-1704) According to Locke, God gave the world to all men and because…
Locke, J. (1632-1704) Two Treatises of Government in the former "The False Principles and Foundations of Sir Robert Filmer and His Followers are Detected and Overthrown. Retrieved from: http://www.citizensource.com/History/PreRevolution/SecondTreatise.PDF
Winthrop, J. (1630) a Model of Christian Charity. Composed aboard the ship Arbella, en route to the New World. Retrieved from: http://www.citizensource.com/History/PreRevolution/Charity.htm
John Locke and Two Treatises of Government
Locke's Conception of the State of Nature vs. The State of War
In "Two Treatises of Government" Locke strives to present the notion that a government grounded in the consent of the populace does not necessarily "lay a foundation for perpetual disorder and mischief, Tumult, Sedition and ebellion"(Book II, Chapter I, Sec.25). Locke suggests all of mankind operates on the Law of Nature, within which reason prevails. This Natural Law dictates that all people are equal and independent, and an individual must never harm another in his "life, health, liberty or possessions" (Book II, Ch.II, Sec.6). Natural Law wills the peace and preservation of mankind, and, in essence, is justice.
Locke argues that all people exist in a State of Nature under the influence of Natural Law.
This implies that the natural state of mankind is one of freedom. All people are free…
Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government," ed. Peter Laslett (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1960; reprint 1963).
On the other hand, he suggested that the executive branch was responsible for insuring that the laws are actually obeyed and that it should operate continuously in society. His idea of a legislative body was one of a representative assembly, which would retain and exercise supreme power whenever it assembled. Its members would speak jointly for all people in that society. The executive and federative functions derived wholly from the legislative branch. In emergency situations when the legislature could not convene, the executive branch should exercise its prerogatives, although there could be abuses to such prerogatives. Locke perceived that abuse of power would unduly interfere with the property interests of the governed, who could then protect themselves by withdrawing their consent. This could be in the form of rebellion or revolution, with the end-view of restoring their fundamental rights. Since the existence of civil order or social contract rests on…
1. Kemerling, Garth. Locke: Social Order. Political Theory: Philosophy Pages, 2002. http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/4n.htm
2. Loflin, L. John Locke on Reason and Faith, 2002. http://www.sullivan-county.com/idlocke_reason.htm
3. Microsoft Encarta. John Locke. Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://Encarta.msn.com/text_761564503_0/John_Locke.html
4. Uzgalis, William. John Locke. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke
John Locke are found in the "Declaration of Independence"?
Three values John Locke discussed in his 1690 "Two Treatises of Government" are echoed in the wording of the "Declaration of Independence" of the American colonies, when they wrote their famous letter to George III of England. These were the rights of all human beings to life, liberty, and the pursuit of property. Locke stated that no human being, even when he or she agreed to the social contract implicit in the relationship between the ruler and the ruled, could be deprived of these three rights. Such rights were eternally part of the human condition. The temporary forfeiture of these rights to a sovereign government was only done by the voluntary will of the people of a nation -- a will that could be withdrawn.
Locke argued that to deprive a human being of their right to life was wrong. For…
John Locke's understanding of freedom and equality is the essential basis of any happy and prosperous society." How would the following individuals react to this quote: ousseau, King Louis the Fourteenth, and Napoleon
ousseau is most famous for saying that "Man was/is born free; and everywhere he is in chains." (Social Contract, Vol. IV, p. 131 in Ashcraft, 22). We are born good but are essentially not free since we are forced to live in a pretentious society with conventions and masquerade. The most liberated and content people, according to ousseau, were primitive people since they had no manmade convictions and social niceties to bind them.
Locke's account of the social republic was one of people freely choosing to segregate in bands and create rules for their protection. These obligations are willingly entered into and represent bonds of natural law where people choose a ruler to impose and maintain…
Ashcraft, Richard, Revolutionary Politics and Locke's Two Treatises of Civil Government, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1986.
Gourevitch, Victor. Rousseau: The 'Social Contract' and Other Later Political Writings. Cambridge UP, 1997.
Napoleon Bonaparte:Leader, General, Tyrant, Reformer
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY QUALITIES
ohn Locke believed that every object has primary and secondary qualities. In other words, he maintained that every object consisted of primary and secondary attributes, which are important to develop the final idea of the object. Primary qualities to him were attributes such as shape, seize, movement etc. Of the object, which remains static, regardless of who the perceiver is and how good or bad the circumstances or conditions are. In other words, primary qualities are independent of the perceiver and his way of perceiving the object and they remain the same for every observer. On the other hand secondary qualities were attributes such as color, and those things that we get from the object including the feelings we derive etc.
Primary qualities are thus "Those qualities of an object in the external world which are thought to be characteristic of the object as it…
Jeff Strayer, Introduction to Philosophy:
Louis P. Pojman, The Quest For Truth Fifth edition
Yolton follows that with what he believes Locke really meant; "The mental content of any act of awareness or thought" is an "idea" to Locke. But as to the primary qualities, on page 130, Yolton breaks Locke's concept of an object into five "propositions." One, objects "have primary qualities non-relationally"; two, objects are observed "or perceived" to have both primary and secondary qualities"; three, the qualities that one can observe to be "dependent upon other objects" are both "perceivers and other bodies"; four, ideas of primary qualities and primary qualities themselves are connected by the same "relation of resemblance"; and five, "the causation of the perception of all qualities is the behaviour of insensible particles on our sense organs."
Meanwhile, it is the belief of this writer that Locke is justified in drawing distinctions between primary and secondary qualities, no matter that scholars and philosophy students may haggle over…
Jackson, Reginald. "Locke's Distinction between Primary and Secondary Qualities." Mind
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. New York: Dutton, 1947
Spellman, W.M. "The Christian Estimate of Man in Locke's 'Essay.'" the Journal of Religion.
Yolton, John W. Locke and the Compass of Human Understanding: A Selective Commentary
..you will find his portrait in the National Portrait Gallery, but demand is insufficient for a postcard to be on sale" (Goldie, 2004). But today Locke's writings are used by a diverse assortment of organizations to bolster or justify their positions. The National ifle Association (NA) (www.nra.org) uses the 137th paragraph of Locke's Second Treatise on Government as an authoritative source to bolster the NA's position on the right to bear arms. "Whereas by supposing they have given up themselves to the absolute arbitrary power and will of a legislator, they have disarmed themselves, and armed him to make a prey of them when he pleases," Locke wrote.
The John Locke Foundation (http://www.johnlocke.org),a think-tank in North Carolina, uses their perceptions of Locke's philosophy to promote a conservative agenda; for example, the group is opposed to the "costly, immoral, and destructive welfare state," and is against "government corruption and wasteful spending."…
Law School Law Library. "John Locke: Chapter II of the State of Nature." Accessed 12 February 2005. Accessed at http://www.4lawschool.com/lib/locke2.htm .
Goldie, Mark. "John Locke: icon of liberty." History Today 54.10 (2004): 31-37.
Institute for Learning Technologies. "John Locke: Two Treatises on Civil Government.." Accessed 13 Feb. 2005. Available at http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/academic/digitexts/locke/bio_JL.html.
Jayne, Allen. "Jefferson's Philosophical Wall of Separation." The Humanist 59.1 (1999):
Therefore, the people always maintain the (natural) right to overthrow any state authority that fails to act in the best interest of the people or that excuses itself from respecting the natural rights of the populace (Taylor, 1999).
The fundamental principles underlying Locke's theory of social contract and civil government are that (1) the primary purpose of state legislative authority is to ensure the protection of the natural rights of everyone in society and (2) the failure of holders of state judicial, legislative, and executive authority to uphold the obligations granted to them under social contracts is an outright breach of those contracts, justifying their recession, and the overthrow of unjust state authority, such as witnessed in England in 1688 (Taylor, 1999).
Parallels to Contemporary American Justice:
The most obvious parallels between Locke's theory of social contract and contemporary concepts of American justice is evidenced by Locke's articulation of natural…
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law 3rd Edition. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kluger, J. (2007). What Makes Us Moral? Time Magazine; Vol. 170 No. 23, Dec. 3/07 (pp. 54-60)
Schmalleger, F. (2008) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Taylor, R. (1999). Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political Philosophy. Buffalo: Prometheus.
If he also bartered away plums that would have rotted in a week, for nuts that would last good for his eating a whole year, he did no injury; he wasted not the common stock; destroyed no part of the portion of goods that belonged to others, so long as nothing perished uselessly in his hands (Locke, 1689).
This quotation indicates that the author believes that a technique such as bartering (which has obvious pecuniary implications) allows one to do "no injury," and that unless one utilizes such pecuniary means to extend the life of perishable goods (referred to as "plums" in this quotation) those who take more of such goods than they can use have "destroyed" such necessities that could have been used by others. Therefore, because the government is the primary entity that creates and utilizes currency that can be exchanged for non-durable items, and which then effectively…
Locke, J. (1689). Two Treatises of Government. Retrieved from http://www.lonang.com/exlibris/locke/
With this example, it is not surprising that John Locke is considered an instrument for the right political cause. Aside from the essays that he had written, Locke also has philosophies in the different subjects of life. This includes the role of families in the liberal society, theories on properties and money, ethics and beliefs, and many others.
Locke's contribution to his generation and the modern society focused on the role of the government and the people to each other. Despite of the changing course of politics in the seventeenth century, Locke was able to also shift his intellect effectively. The various political situations that happened in his time had been useful to the future generation because from his works, the contemporary times has gained basis and reference for the ideologies they fight for which are related to Locke's philosophies and writings. As Tim Harris indicated, in his article John…
Goldie, M. 2004. John Locke Icon of Liberty.
History Today, vol 54 issue 10, pp 31-36.
Jhunjhunwala, B. 2004. Role of Intellectuals in Governance.
Adams Business Media, Vol 36 Issue 6-7, pp 787-795.
S. Constitution as offering much protection but instead view it as being the responsibility of the states to provide protection for private property owners. In the event that the courts "...continue to abdicate their role as the protector of individuals rights, then big government and powerful corporations will continue to run roughshod over the property interest of small landowners." (Liles, 2006, p.372)
Liles holds that the legislature being allowed a leeway that is so constitutionally broad in defining the protections afforded to private property effectively "...defies the necessary checks and balances implicit in our system of government." (p.372) Part of the problem appears to be that the definition applied to 'public use' has become quite lenient over the years and while it in the beginning meant that "the public must own property" it now has been construed to mean that "private parties can own the land so long as the…
Restoring Our Heritage of Property Rights (2006) Mackenzie Center for Public Policy. Online available at: http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2006/heritage.pdf
Hansen, David (2007) Kelo v. New London: Economics and Ethics. 2007. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte North Carolina. Online available at: http://econ.duke.edu/dje/2007_Symp/Hansen.pdf
Liles, Brett D. (2007) Reconsidering Poletown: In the Wake of Kelo, States Should Move to Restore Private Property Rights. Arizona Law Review. Vol. 48:369. Online available at: https://www.law.arizona.edu/Journals/ALR/ALR2006/vol482/Liles.pdf
Kelo, et. Al v. City of New London, Connecticut, et al. In the Supreme Court of the United States. No. 04-108. Washington DC 22 Feb 2005. Online available at: http://www.supremecourtus.gov/oral_arguments/argument_transcripts/04-108.pdf
Locke's version of the social contract is essentially a justification for the wealthy to assert political control over everyone else.
Locke's arguments justifying government were liberal, even radical for their time. The popular view was that kings ruled by mandate from God, and were not subject to the consent of the people. Locke's Two Treatises of Government were written during the exclusion crisis, and supported the hig position that the king did not have an absolute right to rule. (Rj) During the exclusion crisis, king Charles had no hier, making his brother James the next in line for the throne. James was a Catholic, which made him very unpopular in protestant England. Parliament repeatedly tried to pass bills excluding James from succession to the throne. Each time, Charles dissolved parliament before the bill could be passed. (Ellywa) Locke's version of social contract theory provides a justification for citizens rejecting Charles's…
Ellywa "Exclusion Bill" Wikipedia. 8, Jan 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exclusion_crisis
Gregmcpherson "Social Contract" Wikipedia. 26, Mar 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Social_Contract
Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/trgov10.txt
Marx, Karl. Manifesto of the Communist Party. Feb 1848 http://wikisource.org/wiki/Manifesto_of_the_Communist_Party
Locke combined the rational, deductive theory of Rene Descartes and the inductive, scientific experimentalism of Francis Bacon and the Royal Society. He gave the estern world the first modern theory of human nature and a new synthesis of the individualistic concept if liberty and the theory of government that was emerging out of the debates over natural law." (Locke 2003) look at Locke's early life shows why his thinking was so well rounded. He first was trained in an area of study that would have led him to become a 'man of the cloth' but instead of choosing that direction he turned to medicine as a field of study. Eventually he was granted the right to practice medicine, and did so, but also began to study in his quest to become a member of the Royal Society. Much of his training had to do with the manner of mankind's attempts…
Hollis III, Daniel W. (2006) Biblical Politics of John Locke, Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp 205-207
Langley, Raymond J. (1998) Locke, John 1632-1704, Encyclopedia of World Biography, Bourgoin, Suzanne M. (ed), 2nd Ed. Detroit: Gale Research, http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/infomark.do?&contentset-GBRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodld=SRC -, Accessed February 17, 2007
Locke, John 1632-1704 (2003) Discovering Biography. Online ed. Detroit: Gale
http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/infomark.do?&contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=SRC-3&docId=EJ2102101121&source=gale&srcprod=SRCS&userGroupName=salt82334&version=1.0 , Accessed February 17, 2007
These rights are voluntarily given by the people to the government through a 'social contract' and governments exist only to protect such rights.
How Far is Locke's "Theory of Property" reflected in the U.S. Declaration of Independence?
The Declaration of Independence," a formal announcement of independence by the American colonists from British rule in the summer of 1776, is widely believed to be based on John Locke's theories of natural and property rights as well as the right (even obligation) of the people to rebel against a government that fails to honor the 'contract' between rulers and the ruled by failing to protect the rights of the people.
There is no doubt that Thomas Jefferson, the main author of the "Declaration of Independence" was deeply influenced by the Libertarian philosophy of John Locke and the wordings of the Declaration parallel the writings of Locke regarding "the inalienable rights of life,…
Employment -- the Morality of the Contract between Employee and Employer
Before entering into a contract for employment, an employees' first concern is usually to gain a living wage, then to gain experience in a particular profession, and perhaps finally to gain advancement within a particular corporate structure, industry, or trade. An employer's main concern in hiring an employee is usually if the employee can perform the job the employee is being hired to perform, if he or she will be deserving of the wage he or she is will be paid, and if he or she will stay for the necessary hours and period of time. However, once the employee has made a commitment to work and the employer has made a commitment to pay the employee for a period of time, the relationship and ratio of obligations invariably grows murkier. hat obligation does the employer have…
Franklin, Benjamin "From the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.wwnorton.com/secure/tindall/ch3/resources/documents/franklin.htm .
Franklin, Benjamin. "Benjamin Franklin, How I became a printer in Philadelphia" http://www.ku.edu/carrie/docs/texts/franklin_how.html
Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government" (1690) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.html .
Winthrop, John "A Modell of Christian Charity" (1630) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html .
And because you breached the conditions set in this social contract, we are now taking full ownership, once again, of our liberties and properties that we had entrusted you. This condition of civil society was illustrated concretely in Treatise, and if you do not recall Locke's reminders on this, let me help you recall his wisdom: "...but whenever his property is invaded by the will and order of his monarch, he has not only no appeal, as those in society ought to have, but, as if he were degraded from the common state of rational creatures, is denied a liberty to judge of, or defend his right, and so is exposed to all the misery and inconveniencies that a man can fear from one..."
This is the state we are in at the moment. New Orleans is in a state of strife, as we, the citizenry find ourselves in conflict…
He continued to study medicine with Thomas Sydenham as his mentor. (ikipedia)
He had an unsuccessful attempt to prevent James II from reaching the throne, and, as a result of his failure, he had been obliged to flee England. He did not return to England until 1689, when James II had been removed from power. It only took one year until he published his most important work: An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. He had been inspired from the works of Decartes when he wrote the essay. Locke also paid great interest to politics, which motivated him in writing the Two Treatises of Government. His work related to the fact that the state has to protect the rights that its citizens have, including the right to property.
The fact that he considered the people to be more important than the state and that freedom of religion was vital in order for…
1. (2008). "John Locke." Retrieved May 23, 2009, from The European Graduate School Web site: http://www.egs.edu/resources/locke.html
2. (2009). "John Locke." Retrieved May 23, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke
John Locke vs. Baron de Montesquieu: Ideas on Government.
Locke and de Montesquieu possessed remarkable differing views on government and what exact role government should take. For Locke, government needed to possess a clear and strong moral role, so that each citizen could give up his or her power in the name of bestowing that power to one single designated body. Essentially these community members give up some of their innate rights in the name of one government which is better versed at securing and protecting those rights than one single man alone. Government is a creation of the people which is developed for the greater good of the community: this means that because government is not this organic entity, it can be eradicated and replaced if it's not fulfilling its function. In that sense, many historians view Locke as making an important contribution to political thought by essentially defending…
Bok, H. (2010, January 20). Baron de Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat. Retrieved from Stanford.edu: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/montesquieu/#4.1
Tuckness, A. (2005, December 10). Locke's Political Philosophy. Retrieved from Stanford.edu: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke -political/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Locke's theory concerning the way a person learns about the world in which she or he lives is supported and reinforced by many of today's studies in psychology.
Locke believed that "there was no such thing as innate ideas which we are born with and which come into action as we mediate on them, which had previously been the classic understanding of how a person came to know their world (www.newgenevacenter.org/biography/locke2.htm)."
Modern psychologists can interpret Locke's theory of knowledge to imply that "ideas arise from external stimuli -- not from sources internal to the human mind (www.newgenevacenter.org/biography/locke2.htm)."
Although John Locke lived during the 17th century, his theory of knowledge is still utilized by many modern psychologists today.
John Locke. (accessed 23 February 2005). www.newgenevacenter.org/biography/locke2.htm).
John Locke. (accessed 23 February 2005). www.newgenevacenter.org/biography/locke2.htm).
He argued that forgiveness could not be bought with money, and that it could only come as a result of the relationship between God and the sinner. His writings were very controversial, and because he did not want to obey Pope Leo X and retract them, he was excommunicated and condemned as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
I believe that Martin Luther had a more profound impact on world history because the Protestant Reformation opposed the corruption that had taken over the Catholic Church. Luther taught that salvation comes from God, and that only through faith can a sinner be redeemed, and also narrowed down the number of sacraments. Moreover, he translated the Bible to German which made it more accessible to the common people who did not speak Latin which in turn contributed to the development of a standard version of the…
Substance According to John Locke
John Locke along with the likes of Berkley and Hume was a British Empiricist. He was of the theory that all knowledge was based on sensory experience of some sort and in his "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1690) he attempted to try to explain the basis of his theory in detail. Complications arose because Locke's logically derived and systematic conclusions could not fit a solely material and objective mold in which he tried to fit knowledge. In the era when scientific advances and evidence-based knowledge was coming to the fore Locke investigated methodically the basic materials and human acquisitions of them to produce knowledge or ideas. It was when he inevitable entered the realm of feeling, spirituality, and the improvable that his epistemological theory started showing signs of hole. When it came to defining 'substance' he confused and contradicted himself because he could neither…
1. Locke J. 1974. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (abridged), in The Empiricists. New York: Anchor Books.
2. Randall AF.1997.The Inconsistency of Substance in the Metaphysics of John Locke [online] Allan Randall. [Available at]: http://home.ican.net/~arandall/Locke
Colleen -- but then again, when you're dealing with food services, every day's a long day. As she made her way toward the stairs and away from the brooding purgatory that is the HUB (name of cafeteria), shutting off the lights behind her like a row of fluorescent dominoes, the clock on the wall read "10:45." The sound of the door shutting at the top of the stairwell signaled the end of another day at the HUB.
Actually, perhaps this was not true. Just as the door was shutting above, the lights down below flickered on once again to reveal a ghostly line of customers stretching from the "Pizza Hut" station to the cash register. Near the end of the line, Mohandas Gandhi stood with a cup of tea and a veggie wrap balanced on his tray. Martin Luther King stood next to him, his tray empty except for a…
" This is certainly much
in line with our current democratic system in the United States which
exists solely to guarantee that all men and women are free individuals and
have the God-given right to live their lives as they see fit. This passage
is also very interesting, due to perhaps serving as part of the Founding
Fathers' inspiration to set up a democratic system free from the tyranny of
Great Britain which resulted in the creation of America after the
Revolutionary War of 1776. Obviously, in the eyes of someone like King
George III, this passage would be quite controversial, for Locke is
suggesting that all men must be free from the control of others who see
themselves as superior, in this case the British monarchy. Personally, this
passage is very inspiring and demonstrates that every political society
and/or government must work continuously towards guaranteeing the freedom
In Marx's view, equality extends in terms of distribution, where there is no private ownership, but where the government manages all goods for the supposed good of all citizens. Hence, equality extends not in terms of power, but in terms of material goods, which is managed by a centralized government. Hence, the bailout plan is ideal, with the government taking possession of the company and allowing its former owners to manage it in a way that is beneficial for its survival and the employees who depend on it for their survival.
I believe that the bailout should have been done. Like many other companies, GM was in financial trouble. Since the government was in a position to provide assistance, it is right that they should have done so. However, I tend to be in agreement with Locke and Smith that the government should not have taken permanent ownership of any…
Second Treatise of Government," by John Locke is a revolutionary philosophical work that directly opposed the idea of absolutism.
Absolutism held that the best form of government was autocratic, and was based on both the belief in the Divine Right of Kings and the theory of natural law, as espoused by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan. In the context of the absolutism of Louis XIV, and the political events surrounding Oliver Cromwell, Locke's "Second Treatise of Government" was clearly a revolutionary work on the structure and purpose of political authority.
One of the greatest debates of the 16th and 17th centuries was over the nature of political authority. The belief in divine right of kings that had once held sway over the estern world was quickly dissolving. In its place was a rapidly emerging idea of individualism that took form with the Renaissance and the French Revolution, and took root in…
Hobbes, T. The Leviathan. Chapters XIII - XXI. Reproduced at: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776, William Uzgalis, Oregon State University. 15 October 2002. http://www.orst.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/hobbes/leviathan-contents.html
Locke, J. The Second Treatise of Civil Government. Chapters 2-8. Reproduced at: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776, William Uzgalis, Oregon State University. 15 October 2002. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke2/2nd-contents.html
Locke v. Berkeley
The philosophers John Locke and George Berkeley offer stark contrasts on the issue of various matters. Locke's whose viewpoint can best be classified as based in relativism. He believed that all knowledge come from the senses. As every man's senses are unique, no two individuals will sense the same experience the same and, therefore, all knowledge is different in each individual. By extension, there is no such thing as better beliefs or true beliefs. Everyone's beliefs are their own and based on their individual experience. George Berkeley's viewpoints offer a sharp contrast to those of Locke. In fact, their individual careers ran concurrently and they spent most of that time being contrasted and possessing viewpoints that were diametrically opposed. Berkeley's was an empiricist but one who also possessed a certain idealist twist. Berkeley viewed experience as the source of most knowledge. According to Berkeley's form of empiricism,…
As for knowledge, Locke believed that "the best and surest way to get clear and distinct knowledge is through examining and judging ideas by themselves" (Locke, 1997, VI: I).
The Family -- Locke lived in a time in which the family was patriarchal and central to the argument of the opponents to limited government. In early-modern England the family structure was more authoritarian, intolerant, and sexist. Locke's political theory had revolutionary implications that could easily be exported to governments, and as an individualist, it is easy to see why Locke would look upon inequality and mindless subjugation as unproductive and antithetical. In this the natural rights family was radical in the sense that it held that everyone born was capable of actualization. The family was a microcosm of government, and also served as a way to train individuals into their roles and responsibilities within society (Ward, 2010, pp. 136-42).
Baird, F. And Kaufman, W. (2007). Philosophic Classics: From Plato to Derrida.
New York: Prentice Hall.
Locke, J. (2003). Two Treatises of Government. Ed. Ian Shapiro. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Locke, J., R. Woodhouse, ed. (1997). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. New York: Penguin Books.
This body then has the right and duty, especially if elected to represent to build the laws and enforce the judgment of those laws, as a reflection of the will of the consensus. Locke, having developed a keen sense of a rather radical sense of the rights of the individual and the responsibility of the civil government began his work with the development of what it is that constructs the "natural rights" of man. Locke, therefore begins his Second Treatise on the natural rights of man, as he puts it to illuminate the understanding of the right to rule.
Natural Rights Theory
Locke demonstrates in the beginning of his Second Treatise the idea that the government created by the people can only be so if the people accept that certain rights of nature are true to all men. The development of these rights is not necessary as they are natural…
Arneil, Barbara. John Locke and America: The Defence of English Colonialism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Brown, Gillian. The Consent of the Governed: The Lockean Legacy in Early American Culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press. 2001.
Dunn, John. The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the 'Two Treatises of Government' London: Cambridge
Univ. Press, 2006.
In addition, other just men may join in the attempt to destroy the unjust, while those on the unjust side -- who will not think of themselves as unjust and therefore will see that they have every right to defend themselves -- will then attempt to destroy their destroyers, as under the law of nature they have the right to defend themselves from destruction. Thus, men on both sides of the issue will feel as though they are acting righteously according to the law of nature in attempting to destroy everyone on the other side of the issue, because "when all cannot be preserved, the safety of the innocent is to be preferred," and both sides will consider themselves to be the innocents that were wronged by the other side (Locke, 14). This state is what Locke means by the "state of war," and is one of the reasons governments…
Basically, Hobbes takes a long historical view of human society, and sees the continuation of civil societies -- i.e. those organized under governments -- as the prime necessity for any progress. Left in the state of nature, mankind could not be guaranteed the continued success of any long-term projects, and therefore would not desire to undertake them. Also, without the rule of law, many men would not feel any need for government. The statement of Hobbes' quoted above indicates that he believes the state of nature is a state of rule by force, where the strong are able to take what they want from the weak with utter impunity.
Such a horrific view of humanity could cause many intellectual hackles to rise -- indeed, Hobbes' description of the state of nature has been dismissed as unduly pessimistic by many critics -- but Hobbes was not hasty in drawing such conclusions.…
Anonymous. "John Locke." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. Accessed 17 April 2009. http://www.iep.utm.edu/l/locke.htm
Finn, Stephen. "Thomas Hobbes: Methodology." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008. Accessed 17 April 2009. http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hobmeth.htm
Lloyd, Sharon A. And Sreedhar, Susanne. "Hobbes's Moral and Political Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/#MajPolWri
Moseley, Alexander. "The Political Philosophy of John Locke." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2007. Accessed 17 April 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke -political/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Money can only be hoarded because it has no real use; it will not feed or cloth someone who is starving or cold. This implies that things like food and clothing, which have obvious and immediate intrinsic values, cannot be rightfully hoarded in most societies because this will cause injury to someone else.
This places a severe limit on the power of money in Locke's construct; though it is deemed acceptable to hoard any amount of gold and silver, and though this gold and silver can be used to purchase things of real value like land and other property, it is not acceptable to maintain control of vast amounts of this property at the expense of others. A lord may own the land, therefore, but only because men have agreed on the value of the money that the land was purchased with, and only as long as the landowner…
Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Civil Government. 1690. Accessed 12 July 2009. http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtreat.htm
John Locke. The Second Treatise of Civil Government, Ch. V, sec. 50. 1690. Accessed 12 July 2009.
Others might allege that Mugabe has held elections, unlike John Locke's legitimate sovereign. But the presence of elections does not necessarily guarantee the existence of a good and fair representative government, or even the existence of a legislature. The BBC news reported that during the 2002 Zimbabwe election "some people from Europe were in Zimbabwe to watch how the voting was run. The Norwegian observers said the election was severely flawed and failed to meet international standards." (BBC News, 2002) the numbers also tell a sorry tale, as Mugabe's Zanu-PF party still dominates what is virtually a one party state occupying 147 out of the country's 150 parliamentary seats. (BBC News, 2000)
Lastly, John Locke above all stressed that the citizens of all nations have a property in their own persons, that the labor of the citizen's body and the work of the citizen's hands properly belong to the citizen,…
BBC News. "Robert Mugabe: Zimbabwe Strongman." February 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/643737.stm
BBC News. "Robert Mugabe wins Zimbabwe election." 13 March 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/world/newsid_1870000/1870227.stm
Locke, John. Second Treatise on Government. Prometheus Books, 1987.
Finally, property comes only through one's own labor. Therefore, money then becomes a conduit to translate labor into property in the modern sense.
obert Nozick offers several modern praises and critiques of Locke's ancient concepts. Nozick critiques Locke's assumption of natural law based on the limited context of his era. England claimed to have a divine right to acquire property, yet in a free market economy this does not so applicably apply, "Lock believed that makers have property rights with respect to what they make just as God has property rights with respect to human beings because he is their maker," (Tuckness 1). In today's market, there is less faith in the concept of divine law, but rather a system built for functioning for the people. According to Nozick, Lockean property rights "constrain the extent to which we are entitled to act on our intuitions and theories about distributive justice,"…
Locke, John. The Second Treatise on Civil Government. Prometheus Books. 1986.
Tuckness, Alex. "Locke's Political Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. Retrieved 28 Oct 2009 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke -political/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
For example, teaching children to be modest is a matter of both reason and virtue. It is a matter of virtue because it allows for a deeper and more respectful approach to life and the relationships with the others. A modest person has more changes to focus his life on being instead of on having. Ideally this would render one more free and also happier. It is a matter of reason because modesty can be directly connected with balance. A balanced person sees things more clearly and is supposed to have better changes of understanding things as they really are and also achieving his purposes.
There is a very important assumption that one can understand in Locke's work, the one that man understands that it is better for him to be moral and not just because this will bring him various types of advantages, but because it is God who…
Locke, John, Some thoughts concerning education. Kindle edition.
Yolton, W. John, Locke: Education for virtue.
Locke and Rousseau on the Question of Inequality
John Locke's Second Treatise of Government argues that "men are naturally free" (55). In other words, Locke believed that humans, in their natural state, and prior to the creation of civil society, would have been a kind of sovereign entity, possessing a set of natural rights prescribed by God and nature, and those rights would have afforded individuals the opportunity to protect themselves against the transgressions of others. Societies, for their part, were set up in order to avoid civil, interpersonal, or foreign wars -- wars that might have occurred over a dispute, for example, about property. Locke believed that in the early stages of evolution, humans would have lived with one another as co-owners of the earth and its resources, and given this type of communal existence, humans were all equal. In the natural world, a natural set of laws took…
Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Ed C.B. Macpherson. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1980.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. "Discourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Mankind." In The Social Contract and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Ed. Lester G. Crocker. New York: Washington Square, 1974. 149-258.
John Keatings and the prep school in Dead Poet's Society: Where do they fit in the philosophies of education?
John Keatings is, if not anything else, an original thinker and teacher in Dead Poet's Society. The film does not at all bother to hide this fact even in the opening sequences: Keatings is shown as different from the other teachers even by virtue of his grimaces and squeamishness.
John Locke wrote of education, "Virtue is harder to be got than knowledge of the world; and, if lost in a young man, is seldom recovered." John Keatings believes in this Lockian principle, but only to a certain degree. In his classroom, Keatings stressed virtue: He taught his students how to live and feel and treat one another as much as he taught them to classics. In fact, he deliberately skips the theoretical works in the class -- even having his students…
Johnson, Tony & Reed, Ronald. "Philosophical Documents in Education." Second Edition.
John Marshall was the greatest Puritan of them all. Puritans emphasized an individual relationship with God, and rejected organized religion's dogmas. Certainly, Puritans have long been against slavery. In this context, John Marshall, a well-known opponent of slavery, and a proponent of individual rights can be said to be one of the greatest Puritans.
The Puritans emerged in the 18th Century, from the teachings of John Locke. They rejected the dogmas of the major religious denominations of Europe, and emphasized the idea of an individual relationship with God. Many Puritans came to American in order to avoid religious persecution at home.
Interestingly, a common misconception about Puritans is that they are highly intolerant, especially of other races and religions. While there have been specific incidents of religious and racial intolerance by Puritans, in general the Puritan religion is one of tolerance towards others. Specifically, the famous preacher Jonathan Edwards (who…
To achieve his ends man gives up, in favour of the state, a certain amount of his personal power and freedom Pre-social man as a moral being, and as an individual, contracted out "into civil society by surrendering personal power to the ruler and magistrates, and did so as "a method of securing natural morality more efficiently." To Locke, natural justice exists and this is so whether the state exists, or not, it is just that the state might better guard natural justice Locke in his works dwelt with and expanded upon the concept of government power: it is not, nor can it possibly be, absolutely arbitrary over the lives and fortunes of the people. For it being but the joint power of every member of the society given up to the legislative assembly, the power vested in the assembly can be no greater than that which the people had…
Declaration of Independence." Retrieved December 19, 2004 from http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_experience/charters/declaration_transcript.html
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. C.B Macpherson (Editor). London: Penguin Books (1985) 
Hume, David a Treatise of Human Nature. Edited by L.A. Selby-Bigge and P.H. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975 .
Hume, David. Essays, Moral, Political and Literary. Edited by E.F. Miller. Indianapolis. in.: Liberty Classics, 1985.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Perspectives on Governance and Power
Though John Locke's theory of natural law and natural rights at first glance seem to oppose the conservative authoritarianism of Thomas Hobbes', both men set out to establish a framework for governance that would protect the rights of individuals. John Locke takes the approach that a democratic nation with a system of checks and balances was an essential ingredient to protecting man's natural rights. Hobbes was also interested in protecting the interests of individuals, but having grown up during tumultuous times, believed that a strong hand was necessary within a governing body to prevent man from destroying himself. Each of these idealisms is important influences to the Constitution of the United States, setting up a framework for a governing authority that protects the rights of people while maintaining a state of peace and order. These ideas are explored in greater…
Arneil, Barbara. "John Locke and America: The Defense of English Colonialism." Clarendon Press, 1996
Green, M.S. "The Paradox of Auxiliary Rights: The Privilege against Self-Incrimination and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms." Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52: 2002
Henry, John F. "John Locke, Property Rights and Economic Theory." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 33: 1999
When it comes to political science and philosophy, there are many subjects and points of analysis that are very intriguing, widely discussed and heavily debated. There are also certain people, both past and present, that have proved themselves as scholars on those political subjects. Such is the case with both John Locke and David Hume. One particular subject that both men weighed in on was the role of consent when it comes to the creation of political obligation. The positions of both men will be covered in this report and the author of the same will come to a conclusion as to which man made the better argument. Political obligation, of course, is the general rule that the law must be obeyed. Consent, on the other hand, is much more nebulous in terms of definition and concept and that will be covered in this report. While both men…
Hume's conception is a more temperate one, but at the same time more vague, skeptical and relative. Neither for Hume, the substance of body or soul is not the primary focus, but the changing perceptions - becoming conscious of the bundle of perceptions characteristic for a person at a certain time. However, for Hume, these perceptions do not belong to anything; they do not belong to a "thinking substance" as with Locke. Hume holds that the "self" is utterly unobservable. In the process of introspection, all we may observe are fleeting thoughts, feelings, and experiences: never a self. Therefore, Hume's view on personal identity is not entirely clear, Locke establishes a clearer concept of personal identity, even though a contradictory one.
A common point between the two philosophers is their diachronic view of personal identity. ith Locke, the same soul or thinking substance is neither necessary not sufficient for personal…
Mendus, Susan, "Personal Identity: The Two Analogies in Hume," Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 118 (Jan., 1980), pp. 61-68
Intisar-Ul-Haque. "The Person and Personal Identity." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Volume 31, Issue 1 (Sep. 1970), pp. 60-72.
Preston, Aron, David Hume's Treatment of Mind, http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Mind/MindPres.htm
Letter From a Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr., and John Locke's views on social contracts. Specifically it will discuss the structure of law according to Locke and how King's views on civil disobedience and how they related to Locke's views. Both men talk about the types of laws and whether they are social contracts, along with our obligation under law.
John Locke believed laws were central to a civil society, and in fact, they defined civil society. He wrote, "Those who are united into one body, and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them, and punish offenders, are in civil society one with another" (Locke 3). He also believed that no one should be exempt from the laws, or a civil society would not exist. Laws are created when civil society elects representatives, who pass laws that act…
Locke, John. Chapters 7 & 8.
Tarcov, Nathan. "Locke's Second Treatise and 'The Best Fence Against Rebellion'." The Review of Politics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (April, 1981), pp. 198-219.
Locke vs. Marx
The principles of the Enlightenment have come down to the modern world through the governments which are in currently in place. Any representative form of government, throughout the world, can trace it's roots back to John Locke and the Enlightenment principles he espoused in his Two Treatises of Government. In this book, first published in 1690, Locke spelled out his ideas on government; how it derived it's powers from the consent of the governed, how their was a contract between the government and the governed, and what restrictions and obligations each had to each other, and to the rest of society. Locke sought to establish the rules for a civilized society, based upon what he viewed as the "laws of nature," in order to create a stable and prosperous society in line with the natural state of mankind. A century and a half later, Karl Marx espoused…
Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.
Marx, Karl. "On the Jewish Question by Karl Marx" Marxist Internet Archive. Web 30 Apr. 2011. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/jewish-question/
Marx, Karl, Friedrich Engels, and L.M. Findlay. The Communist Manifesto. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2004. Print.
"God gave the world to men in common" is a theme that supports the view that Locke would see property and something that should not be wasted, as waste deprives others. That survival is taken out of the equation tilts the moral balance towards Locke viewing much of the expropriation of land that occurs in South Florida as needless.
There remains the question of spinoff benefits, and this is something that lies at the heart of much debate about land use today. While the proverbial Donald Trump may not need to expropriate that land in order to survive, there are going to be people who work on that land who do support themselves and their families. The landowner is not necessarily the beneficiary of that land's development. On the surface it seems self-evident that if jobs are created that the expropriation should be viewed as acceptable by Locke. However, it…
He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:
Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…
Kotter, John. Biography. Harvard Business School, 2007. Website: http://drfd.hbs.edu/fit/public/facultyInfo.do?facInfo=bio&facEmId=jkotter&loc=extn .
Kotter, John. Leading Change. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.
Kotter, John. Power and Influence. New York: Simon & Schuster Free Press.1985.
John Rawls reworks the theses contained in his previous works with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Rawls' political philosophy is a modern formulation, presupposing a democratic foundation, which seeks to define justice as a purely political concept. Because Rawls' previous work, A Theory of Justice, still contained moral arguments, the author here attempts to divest the concept of justice as fairness from its moral underpinnings. Therefore, with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Rawls reformulates the basic theories contained within his former works in order to distinguish the political from the moral or philosophical spheres. Justice as Fairness contains elements found in the theories of political philosophers like Locke, Hobbes, Kant, Hegel, and Marx and the book is a compilation of his political philosophy lectures at Harvard in the 1980s. Rawls systematically analyses the idea of justice as a primarily political concept. He then applies this concept to a workable theory…
And thus much shall suffice; concerning what I find by speculation, and deduction, of Soveraign Rights, from the nature, need, and designes of men, in erecting of Common-wealths, and putting themselves under Monarchs, or Assemblies, entrusted with power enough for their protection.
Hobbes & aller 143-144)
There would then seem to be little question as to the divides between Hobbes and Locke, with Hobbes stating firmly that they are very different (but may have similarities) and Locke calling them entirely the same, and only different in scale. This is also proof of the thesis that the divergence of the philosophies rides almost entirely on a core difference between Locke and Hobbes, as Locke stresses that the ultimate sovereign of all man is God Hobbes and relies on no such dominion or demand upon man and his governance of reason and society.
Hobbes, Thomas, aller, a.R., ed. Leviathan: Or,…
Hobbes, Thomas, Waller, a.R., ed. Leviathan: Or, the Matter, Forme & Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiasticall and Civill. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1904.
Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Civil Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration. Ed J.W. Gough. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1946.
John Knox, the Scottish Reformer, is hailed as one of the fathers of Protestant church reform. His undying passion for his beliefs as well as a strong bond of friendship with several religious women, sustained him in his work until he died. His work comprises a number of sermons and religious writings that carry on his legacy to this day. There is some disagreement regarding the year of his birth, but critics believe this event to be somewhere in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The Dictionary of National iography for example places Knox's birth at round about 15141, while Miles Hodges places it at 15052.
According to the Dictionary, Knox was born at Cliffordgate in Haddington. An interesting fact is that he occasionally adopted his mother's maiden name, Sinclair, as an alias when he found himself obliged to hide from persecutors. His father, William Knox came from…
Dawson, Jane E.A. 2004. 'Knox, John (c.1514 -- 1572)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press.
Hodges, Miles. 2001. John Knox. History: the Reformation
Grimm, Harold John. 1958. The reformation era, 1500-1650 New York: Macmillan
Thoreau and Locke acknowledge the right of the people to renounce their allegiance to their government, what is the difference between their understandings of this right and what different conditions would warrant such an act?
When do citizens have the right to throw off the yoke of a sovereign and adopt a new form of governance that is more in keeping with the wishes and their needs of the majority of the populace? During the age of the Enlightenment in Great Britain, the philosopher John Locke wrote in his "Second Treatise of Governance," that all governments of the world must protect the life, liberty, and property rights of the common citizens. Locke wrote that if a government fails to honor this function, then its citizens had the right to revolt against the government, as the social contract between the governed and the government was not being honored. For example, if…
Hobbes, Locke, And Democracy
There once was a time when kings ruled and their people were subject to the absolute authority of that king. The king literally was the law, whatever he said became law. All of his subject had an obligation to be loyal to their king simply because God had appointed him king. Kings claimed their authority from God, and therefore possessed the ultimate authority. However, beginning in the 1600's in England, the people began to see the relationship between king and subjects a bit differently. A new ideal emerged, the idea that a king's authority came from the consent of the people, not from God. It was Thomas Hobbes, in his book Leviathan who first broached the subject that the relationship between the king and the people was a two way relationship. The king and people formed a "social contract" and each had it's responsibilities to the…
Hobbes, Thomas, and J.C.A. Gaskin (ed.). Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.
Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke each formulated notions regarding human liberty in nearly the same social, political, and provincial circumstances. Although their most famous works were separated approximately forty years from one another, they were both wealthy members of seventeenth century English society during a period of particular social and religious turmoil. Similarly, both Hobbes and Locke sought to use reasoning to determine the most appropriate form of political and social organization. It should be anticipated, therefore, that their fundamental conceptions regarding freedom also possess many similarities; however -- aside from their initial premises -- Hobbes and Locke vary wildly in both their approaches to the topic of freedom and the consequences they believe these lines of reasoning hold for society. Locke has come to be thought of as one of the founders of modern political philosophy in the West, and rightly so. Hobbes, on the other hand, has continued…
1. Cahn, Steven M. (1999), Classics of Western Philosophy: Fifth Edition, Hackett Publishing, Indianapolis, Indiana
2. Collinson, Diane, (1987), Fifty Major Philosophers, Routledge Publishing, New York, New York
3. Cottingham, John, (1996), Western Philosophy: an Anthology, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts
4. McGreal, Ian P. (1992), Great Thinkers of the Western World, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, New York
Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…
We can see the best examples of these 19th century economic theories in the works of Henry George, a populist who wished to ensure plurality by limiting the ability of property owners to hoard natural resources, and Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist who incorporated Darwinism into his defenses of what is now termed 'classical' liberalism and famously advocated "the right to ignore the state."
Locke, John, Second Treatise on Self-Government. http://www.swan.ac.uk/poli/texts/locke/lockcont.htm
Marxist Origins of Communism, George Mason University. http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx1.htm
Parental authority is something Hobbes believes is based on a contract. Parents take care of children in exchange for the obedience of the child. Locke believes parental authority relies on biological inheritance and the natural rights bestowed on a parent to take care of a needy creature they bring into the world. He also states, children are bound by honor to obey the parent until they reach 'an age of reason'. Such a convoluted and complex interpretation of parental authority is why Locke's perspective is wrong and Hobbes' perspective is right. Hobbes' interpretation of parental authority is simple and linear, introducing the concept of choice and obligation onto the parent and child. By providing an understanding that both parties are responsible and if lacking, have no rights in that respect, it makes parental authority appear more of a responsibility rather than a right. This makes Hobbes' perspective more convincing. This…
" [EU: I.III, 3]
Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.
However ousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in ousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. ousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a…
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, Julie and Other Writings. Edited by R.L. Archer. New York: Barron, 1964.
Rousseau, Emile, Julie and Other Writings, 80.
So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. owever, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of ammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup…
Hobbes looked around, and saw a sewer of urban life; poor people struggling, disease, trash, pestilence and believed that without control mankind was nothing more than animalistic. Locke thought otherwise, that humans, given a chance to actualize, would cooperate, work towards a common good, and provide a generalized and goal-oriented society. So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. However, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of Hammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup 1/2 empty or 1/2 full -- or is it both?
The Federalist movement surrounding the writing and eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution focused on one basic premise: how much power and authority should the national, versus State, government control. Certainly, once can view that if the Articles of Confederation were deemed to be too weak and inappropriate for the new Republic, then the Federalist faction won. Rhode Island and North Carolina especially opposed the Federalist view, but eventually the Bill of Rights seemed to satisfy most of the delegates who realized that the alternative would be suicide. This did not stop individual States from wanting to secede long before the Civil War, and indeed, the actual finality of the issue of State's rights was not really solved until the mid-20th century, when the Supreme Court issued several decisions requiring that the tenets of the Bill of Rights be established in all 50 States.
If one considers the political issues of the Jeffersonian Era up to the War Between the States, then one might say that although the Constitution provided a legal means for a strong centralized government, that was on paper and States tended to act and react in their own ways to a point. There was consternation during the 1812 issues with the British, when new States entered the Union there were issues on whether they would be Slave or Free States. Thus, the Federalists really only had the appearance of victory after the Constitutional Convention, not the buy in and acceptance of the policy for decades afterwards.
Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).
Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…
Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rawls, J. (1957). Justice as Fairness. Philosophical Review. 54 (22): 653-62.
Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rawls, J. (2001). A Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
life as developed by two famous philosophers. John Locke and enee Descartes both believed they had come up with an understandable and scientific philosophy about the foundation of life. The writer of this paper compares and contrasts those beliefs. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout history, mankind has tried to develop a philosophy that will explain the existence of life. There have been abstract ideas, concrete ideas, spiritual ideas and others to try and explain the foundation of life in a way that can be understood in future generations. Two of the most scientifically respected men in history worked to develop theories about the foundation of life that could be understood in a scientific manner. John Locke and enee Descartes are well-known for their theories about life. The theories have several similarities as well as several differences. The men made history with their theories about the…
http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/locke.htm #Knowledgeof Mathematics, Ethics, the Self, and God
Think, therefore I am... NOT! http://teachanimalobjectivity.homestead.com/files/return2.htm
Rene Descartes: 'I think therefore I am' http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Outline_of_Great_Books_Volume_I/ithinkth_bga.html
The inherent benefits to a more functional economy justified a sensible distribution of property and resources, he would contend.
Though Locke's ideals would be essential in the development of western civilization as it exists today, it would really be the perspective of Aristotle here that would offer us a compelling window into the early and obvious objections to the nature of capitalism. Their shared view on property ownership suggests that there may be something innate in the human need to acquire, both in terms of the which it practically enables in terms of survival and in terms of the various esoteric functions served by properties of a non-essential nature. However, Locke's vision proves a more idealistic and somewhat flawed prediction of the impact of free market capitalism, with valuable ideals on the development of the self functioning to obscure pressing questions about the oppression, exploitation and resource scarcity which modern…
Murray, P. (1997). Reflections on Commercial Life: An Anthology of Classic Texts From Plato to Present. Routledge.