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Locke or Berkeley

Words: 1213 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10194299

Locke v. Berkeley

The philosophers John Locke and George Berkeley offer stark contrasts on the issue of various matters. Locke's whose viewpoint can best be classified as based in relativism. He believed that all knowledge come from the senses. As every man's senses are unique, no two individuals will sense the same experience the same and, therefore, all knowledge is different in each individual. By extension, there is no such thing as better beliefs or true beliefs. Everyone's beliefs are their own and based on their individual experience. George Berkeley's viewpoints offer a sharp contrast to those of Locke. In fact, their individual careers ran concurrently and they spent most of that time being contrasted and possessing viewpoints that were diametrically opposed. Berkeley's was an empiricist but one who also possessed a certain idealist twist. Berkeley viewed experience as the source of most knowledge. According to Berkeley's form of empiricism,…… [Read More]

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Locke The Natural Liberty of

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89799608

As for knowledge, Locke believed that "the best and surest way to get clear and distinct knowledge is through examining and judging ideas by themselves" (Locke, 1997, VI: I).

The Family -- Locke lived in a time in which the family was patriarchal and central to the argument of the opponents to limited government. In early-modern England the family structure was more authoritarian, intolerant, and sexist. Locke's political theory had revolutionary implications that could easily be exported to governments, and as an individualist, it is easy to see why Locke would look upon inequality and mindless subjugation as unproductive and antithetical. In this the natural rights family was radical in the sense that it held that everyone born was capable of actualization. The family was a microcosm of government, and also served as a way to train individuals into their roles and responsibilities within society (Ward, 2010, pp. 136-42).

Private…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Baird, F. And Kaufman, W. (2007). Philosophic Classics: From Plato to Derrida.

New York: Prentice Hall.

Locke, J. (2003). Two Treatises of Government. Ed. Ian Shapiro. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Locke, J., R. Woodhouse, ed. (1997). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. New York: Penguin Books.
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Locke One of the Single

Words: 5073 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43486576



This body then has the right and duty, especially if elected to represent to build the laws and enforce the judgment of those laws, as a reflection of the will of the consensus. Locke, having developed a keen sense of a rather radical sense of the rights of the individual and the responsibility of the civil government began his work with the development of what it is that constructs the "natural rights" of man. Locke, therefore begins his Second Treatise on the natural rights of man, as he puts it to illuminate the understanding of the right to rule.

Natural Rights Theory

Locke demonstrates in the beginning of his Second Treatise the idea that the government created by the people can only be so if the people accept that certain rights of nature are true to all men. The development of these rights is not necessary as they are natural…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arneil, Barbara. John Locke and America: The Defence of English Colonialism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Brown, Gillian. The Consent of the Governed: The Lockean Legacy in Early American Culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press. 2001.

Dunn, John. The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the 'Two Treatises of Government' London: Cambridge

Univ. Press, 2006.
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Locke's Second Treatise of Government

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 73840796

In addition, other just men may join in the attempt to destroy the unjust, while those on the unjust side -- who will not think of themselves as unjust and therefore will see that they have every right to defend themselves -- will then attempt to destroy their destroyers, as under the law of nature they have the right to defend themselves from destruction. Thus, men on both sides of the issue will feel as though they are acting righteously according to the law of nature in attempting to destroy everyone on the other side of the issue, because "when all cannot be preserved, the safety of the innocent is to be preferred," and both sides will consider themselves to be the innocents that were wronged by the other side (Locke, 14). This state is what Locke means by the "state of war," and is one of the reasons governments…… [Read More]

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Locke v Hobbes the Political

Words: 2599 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 92992612



Basically, Hobbes takes a long historical view of human society, and sees the continuation of civil societies -- i.e. those organized under governments -- as the prime necessity for any progress. Left in the state of nature, mankind could not be guaranteed the continued success of any long-term projects, and therefore would not desire to undertake them. Also, without the rule of law, many men would not feel any need for government. The statement of Hobbes' quoted above indicates that he believes the state of nature is a state of rule by force, where the strong are able to take what they want from the weak with utter impunity.

Such a horrific view of humanity could cause many intellectual hackles to rise -- indeed, Hobbes' description of the state of nature has been dismissed as unduly pessimistic by many critics -- but Hobbes was not hasty in drawing such conclusions.…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. "John Locke." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. Accessed 17 April 2009.  http://www.iep.utm.edu/l/locke.htm 

Finn, Stephen. "Thomas Hobbes: Methodology." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008. Accessed 17 April 2009.  http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hobmeth.htm 

Lloyd, Sharon A. And Sreedhar, Susanne. "Hobbes's Moral and Political Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/#MajPolWri 

Moseley, Alexander. "The Political Philosophy of John Locke." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2007. Accessed 17 April 2009.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke -political/" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Locke the Ironies of Philosophy

Words: 1683 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16296232



Others might allege that Mugabe has held elections, unlike John Locke's legitimate sovereign. But the presence of elections does not necessarily guarantee the existence of a good and fair representative government, or even the existence of a legislature. The BBC news reported that during the 2002 Zimbabwe election "some people from Europe were in Zimbabwe to watch how the voting was run. The Norwegian observers said the election was severely flawed and failed to meet international standards." (BBC News, 2002) the numbers also tell a sorry tale, as Mugabe's Zanu-PF party still dominates what is virtually a one party state occupying 147 out of the country's 150 parliamentary seats. (BBC News, 2000)

Lastly, John Locke above all stressed that the citizens of all nations have a property in their own persons, that the labor of the citizen's body and the work of the citizen's hands properly belong to the citizen,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC News. "Robert Mugabe: Zimbabwe Strongman." February 2000.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/643737.stm 

BBC News. "Robert Mugabe wins Zimbabwe election." 13 March 2002.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/world/newsid_1870000/1870227.stm 

Locke, John. Second Treatise on Government. Prometheus Books, 1987.
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Locke and Property Locke's Second

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 831213

"

Money can only be hoarded because it has no real use; it will not feed or cloth someone who is starving or cold. This implies that things like food and clothing, which have obvious and immediate intrinsic values, cannot be rightfully hoarded in most societies because this will cause injury to someone else.

This places a severe limit on the power of money in Locke's construct; though it is deemed acceptable to hoard any amount of gold and silver, and though this gold and silver can be used to purchase things of real value like land and other property, it is not acceptable to maintain control of vast amounts of this property at the expense of others. A lord may own the land, therefore, but only because men have agreed on the value of the money that the land was purchased with, and only as long as the landowner…… [Read More]

Reference

Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Civil Government. 1690. Accessed 12 July 2009.  http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtreat.htm 

John Locke. The Second Treatise of Civil Government, Ch. V, sec. 50. 1690. Accessed 12 July 2009.
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Locke and Nozick Conceptions of

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5355377

Finally, property comes only through one's own labor. Therefore, money then becomes a conduit to translate labor into property in the modern sense.

obert Nozick offers several modern praises and critiques of Locke's ancient concepts. Nozick critiques Locke's assumption of natural law based on the limited context of his era. England claimed to have a divine right to acquire property, yet in a free market economy this does not so applicably apply, "Lock believed that makers have property rights with respect to what they make just as God has property rights with respect to human beings because he is their maker," (Tuckness 1). In today's market, there is less faith in the concept of divine law, but rather a system built for functioning for the people. According to Nozick, Lockean property rights "constrain the extent to which we are entitled to act on our intuitions and theories about distributive justice,"…… [Read More]

References

Locke, John. The Second Treatise on Civil Government. Prometheus Books. 1986.

Tuckness, Alex. "Locke's Political Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. Retrieved 28 Oct 2009 at  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke -political/" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Locke One of the Most

Words: 1839 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 3274717

For example, teaching children to be modest is a matter of both reason and virtue. It is a matter of virtue because it allows for a deeper and more respectful approach to life and the relationships with the others. A modest person has more changes to focus his life on being instead of on having. Ideally this would render one more free and also happier. It is a matter of reason because modesty can be directly connected with balance. A balanced person sees things more clearly and is supposed to have better changes of understanding things as they really are and also achieving his purposes.

There is a very important assumption that one can understand in Locke's work, the one that man understands that it is better for him to be moral and not just because this will bring him various types of advantages, but because it is God who…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Locke, John, Some thoughts concerning education. Kindle edition.

Yolton, W. John, Locke: Education for virtue.
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Locke and Rousseau on the Question of

Words: 3467 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32450319

Locke and Rousseau on the Question of Inequality

John Locke's Second Treatise of Government argues that "men are naturally free" (55). In other words, Locke believed that humans, in their natural state, and prior to the creation of civil society, would have been a kind of sovereign entity, possessing a set of natural rights prescribed by God and nature, and those rights would have afforded individuals the opportunity to protect themselves against the transgressions of others. Societies, for their part, were set up in order to avoid civil, interpersonal, or foreign wars -- wars that might have occurred over a dispute, for example, about property. Locke believed that in the early stages of evolution, humans would have lived with one another as co-owners of the earth and its resources, and given this type of communal existence, humans were all equal. In the natural world, a natural set of laws took…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Ed C.B. Macpherson. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1980.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. "Discourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Mankind." In The Social Contract and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Ed. Lester G. Crocker. New York: Washington Square, 1974. 149-258.
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John Keatings and the Prep School in

Words: 1626 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66305985

John Keatings and the prep school in Dead Poet's Society: Where do they fit in the philosophies of education?

John Keatings is, if not anything else, an original thinker and teacher in Dead Poet's Society. The film does not at all bother to hide this fact even in the opening sequences: Keatings is shown as different from the other teachers even by virtue of his grimaces and squeamishness.

John Locke wrote of education, "Virtue is harder to be got than knowledge of the world; and, if lost in a young man, is seldom recovered." John Keatings believes in this Lockian principle, but only to a certain degree. In his classroom, Keatings stressed virtue: He taught his students how to live and feel and treat one another as much as he taught them to classics. In fact, he deliberately skips the theoretical works in the class -- even having his students…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Johnson, Tony & Reed, Ronald. "Philosophical Documents in Education." Second Edition.
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John Marshall Was the Greatest Puritan of

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68037857

John Marshall was the greatest Puritan of them all. Puritans emphasized an individual relationship with God, and rejected organized religion's dogmas. Certainly, Puritans have long been against slavery. In this context, John Marshall, a well-known opponent of slavery, and a proponent of individual rights can be said to be one of the greatest Puritans.

The Puritans emerged in the 18th Century, from the teachings of John Locke. They rejected the dogmas of the major religious denominations of Europe, and emphasized the idea of an individual relationship with God. Many Puritans came to American in order to avoid religious persecution at home.

Interestingly, a common misconception about Puritans is that they are highly intolerant, especially of other races and religions. While there have been specific incidents of religious and racial intolerance by Puritans, in general the Puritan religion is one of tolerance towards others. Specifically, the famous preacher Jonathan Edwards (who…… [Read More]

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Locke and Hume the Enlightenment

Words: 2796 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61974332

To achieve his ends man gives up, in favour of the state, a certain amount of his personal power and freedom Pre-social man as a moral being, and as an individual, contracted out "into civil society by surrendering personal power to the ruler and magistrates, and did so as "a method of securing natural morality more efficiently." To Locke, natural justice exists and this is so whether the state exists, or not, it is just that the state might better guard natural justice Locke in his works dwelt with and expanded upon the concept of government power: it is not, nor can it possibly be, absolutely arbitrary over the lives and fortunes of the people. For it being but the joint power of every member of the society given up to the legislative assembly, the power vested in the assembly can be no greater than that which the people had…… [Read More]

References

Declaration of Independence." Retrieved December 19, 2004 from  http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_experience/charters/declaration_transcript.html 

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. C.B Macpherson (Editor). London: Penguin Books (1985) [1651]

Hume, David a Treatise of Human Nature. Edited by L.A. Selby-Bigge and P.H. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975 [1737].

Hume, David. Essays, Moral, Political and Literary. Edited by E.F. Miller. Indianapolis. in.: Liberty Classics, 1985.
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Locke and Hobbes

Words: 2234 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61261270

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Perspectives on Governance and Power

Though John Locke's theory of natural law and natural rights at first glance seem to oppose the conservative authoritarianism of Thomas Hobbes', both men set out to establish a framework for governance that would protect the rights of individuals. John Locke takes the approach that a democratic nation with a system of checks and balances was an essential ingredient to protecting man's natural rights. Hobbes was also interested in protecting the interests of individuals, but having grown up during tumultuous times, believed that a strong hand was necessary within a governing body to prevent man from destroying himself. Each of these idealisms is important influences to the Constitution of the United States, setting up a framework for a governing authority that protects the rights of people while maintaining a state of peace and order. These ideas are explored in greater…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arneil, Barbara. "John Locke and America: The Defense of English Colonialism." Clarendon Press, 1996

Green, M.S. "The Paradox of Auxiliary Rights: The Privilege against Self-Incrimination and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms." Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52: 2002

Henry, John F. "John Locke, Property Rights and Economic Theory." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 33: 1999

Mayer, R.
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Locke vs Hume on Consent

Words: 2145 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57495016

Political Obligation

When it comes to political science and philosophy, there are many subjects and points of analysis that are very intriguing, widely discussed and heavily debated. There are also certain people, both past and present, that have proved themselves as scholars on those political subjects. Such is the case with both John Locke and David Hume. One particular subject that both men weighed in on was the role of consent when it comes to the creation of political obligation. The positions of both men will be covered in this report and the author of the same will come to a conclusion as to which man made the better argument. Political obligation, of course, is the general rule that the law must be obeyed. Consent, on the other hand, is much more nebulous in terms of definition and concept and that will be covered in this report. While both men…… [Read More]

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Locke and Hume' Conceptions of

Words: 1235 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30276310

Hume's conception is a more temperate one, but at the same time more vague, skeptical and relative. Neither for Hume, the substance of body or soul is not the primary focus, but the changing perceptions - becoming conscious of the bundle of perceptions characteristic for a person at a certain time. However, for Hume, these perceptions do not belong to anything; they do not belong to a "thinking substance" as with Locke. Hume holds that the "self" is utterly unobservable. In the process of introspection, all we may observe are fleeting thoughts, feelings, and experiences: never a self. Therefore, Hume's view on personal identity is not entirely clear, Locke establishes a clearer concept of personal identity, even though a contradictory one.

A common point between the two philosophers is their diachronic view of personal identity. ith Locke, the same soul or thinking substance is neither necessary not sufficient for personal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mendus, Susan, "Personal Identity: The Two Analogies in Hume," Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 118 (Jan., 1980), pp. 61-68

Intisar-Ul-Haque. "The Person and Personal Identity." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Volume 31, Issue 1 (Sep. 1970), pp. 60-72.

Preston, Aron, David Hume's Treatment of Mind,  http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Mind/MindPres.htm
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Locke and Nathan Tarcov

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75010356

Letter From a Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr., and John Locke's views on social contracts. Specifically it will discuss the structure of law according to Locke and how King's views on civil disobedience and how they related to Locke's views. Both men talk about the types of laws and whether they are social contracts, along with our obligation under law.

John Locke believed laws were central to a civil society, and in fact, they defined civil society. He wrote, "Those who are united into one body, and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them, and punish offenders, are in civil society one with another" (Locke 3). He also believed that no one should be exempt from the laws, or a civil society would not exist. Laws are created when civil society elects representatives, who pass laws that act…… [Read More]

References

Locke, John. Chapters 7 & 8.

Tarcov, Nathan. "Locke's Second Treatise and 'The Best Fence Against Rebellion'." The Review of Politics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (April, 1981), pp. 198-219.
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Social and Political Philosophy Locke

Words: 1302 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77199282

Locke vs. Marx

The principles of the Enlightenment have come down to the modern world through the governments which are in currently in place. Any representative form of government, throughout the world, can trace it's roots back to John Locke and the Enlightenment principles he espoused in his Two Treatises of Government. In this book, first published in 1690, Locke spelled out his ideas on government; how it derived it's powers from the consent of the governed, how their was a contract between the government and the governed, and what restrictions and obligations each had to each other, and to the rest of society. Locke sought to establish the rules for a civilized society, based upon what he viewed as the "laws of nature," in order to create a stable and prosperous society in line with the natural state of mankind. A century and a half later, Karl Marx espoused…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.

Marx, Karl. "On the Jewish Question by Karl Marx" Marxist Internet Archive. Web 30 Apr. 2011.  http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/jewish-question/ 

Marx, Karl, Friedrich Engels, and L.M. Findlay. The Communist Manifesto. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview, 2004. Print.
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Locke's Second Treatise of Government

Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43746432

"God gave the world to men in common" is a theme that supports the view that Locke would see property and something that should not be wasted, as waste deprives others. That survival is taken out of the equation tilts the moral balance towards Locke viewing much of the expropriation of land that occurs in South Florida as needless.

There remains the question of spinoff benefits, and this is something that lies at the heart of much debate about land use today. While the proverbial Donald Trump may not need to expropriate that land in order to survive, there are going to be people who work on that land who do support themselves and their families. The landowner is not necessarily the beneficiary of that land's development. On the surface it seems self-evident that if jobs are created that the expropriation should be viewed as acceptable by Locke. However, it…… [Read More]

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John Kotter Confucious Machiavelli and

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39141893

He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:

Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kotter, John. Biography. Harvard Business School, 2007. Website:  http://drfd.hbs.edu/fit/public/facultyInfo.do?facInfo=bio&facEmId=jkotter&loc=extn .

Kotter, John. Leading Change. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.

Kotter, John. Power and Influence. New York: Simon & Schuster Free Press.1985.
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John Rawls Justice as Fairness a Restatement

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95088895

John Rawls reworks the theses contained in his previous works with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Rawls' political philosophy is a modern formulation, presupposing a democratic foundation, which seeks to define justice as a purely political concept. Because Rawls' previous work, A Theory of Justice, still contained moral arguments, the author here attempts to divest the concept of justice as fairness from its moral underpinnings. Therefore, with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Rawls reformulates the basic theories contained within his former works in order to distinguish the political from the moral or philosophical spheres. Justice as Fairness contains elements found in the theories of political philosophers like Locke, Hobbes, Kant, Hegel, and Marx and the book is a compilation of his political philosophy lectures at Harvard in the 1980s. Rawls systematically analyses the idea of justice as a primarily political concept. He then applies this concept to a workable theory…… [Read More]

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Locke and Hobbes in Many

Words: 1747 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91961523

And thus much shall suffice; concerning what I find by speculation, and deduction, of Soveraign Rights, from the nature, need, and designes of men, in erecting of Common-wealths, and putting themselves under Monarchs, or Assemblies, entrusted with power enough for their protection.

Hobbes & aller 143-144)

There would then seem to be little question as to the divides between Hobbes and Locke, with Hobbes stating firmly that they are very different (but may have similarities) and Locke calling them entirely the same, and only different in scale. This is also proof of the thesis that the divergence of the philosophies rides almost entirely on a core difference between Locke and Hobbes, as Locke stresses that the ultimate sovereign of all man is God Hobbes and relies on no such dominion or demand upon man and his governance of reason and society.

orks Cited

Hobbes, Thomas, aller, a.R., ed. Leviathan: Or,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hobbes, Thomas, Waller, a.R., ed. Leviathan: Or, the Matter, Forme & Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiasticall and Civill. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1904.

Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Civil Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration. Ed J.W. Gough. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1946.
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John Knox

Words: 2756 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21374369

John Knox, the Scottish Reformer, is hailed as one of the fathers of Protestant church reform. His undying passion for his beliefs as well as a strong bond of friendship with several religious women, sustained him in his work until he died. His work comprises a number of sermons and religious writings that carry on his legacy to this day. There is some disagreement regarding the year of his birth, but critics believe this event to be somewhere in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The Dictionary of National iography for example places Knox's birth at round about 15141, while Miles Hodges places it at 15052.

According to the Dictionary, Knox was born at Cliffordgate in Haddington. An interesting fact is that he occasionally adopted his mother's maiden name, Sinclair, as an alias when he found himself obliged to hide from persecutors. His father, William Knox came from…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dawson, Jane E.A. 2004. 'Knox, John (c.1514 -- 1572)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press.

Hodges, Miles. 2001. John Knox. History: the Reformation

 http://www.newgenevacenter.org/biography/knox2.htm 

Grimm, Harold John. 1958. The reformation era, 1500-1650 New York: Macmillan
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Thoreau and Locke Acknowledge the Right of

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59501068

Thoreau and Locke acknowledge the right of the people to renounce their allegiance to their government, what is the difference between their understandings of this right and what different conditions would warrant such an act?

When do citizens have the right to throw off the yoke of a sovereign and adopt a new form of governance that is more in keeping with the wishes and their needs of the majority of the populace? During the age of the Enlightenment in Great Britain, the philosopher John Locke wrote in his "Second Treatise of Governance," that all governments of the world must protect the life, liberty, and property rights of the common citizens. Locke wrote that if a government fails to honor this function, then its citizens had the right to revolt against the government, as the social contract between the governed and the government was not being honored. For example, if…… [Read More]

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Hobbes and Locke Popular Sovereignty

Words: 2105 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85697615

Hobbes, Locke, And Democracy

There once was a time when kings ruled and their people were subject to the absolute authority of that king. The king literally was the law, whatever he said became law. All of his subject had an obligation to be loyal to their king simply because God had appointed him king. Kings claimed their authority from God, and therefore possessed the ultimate authority. However, beginning in the 1600's in England, the people began to see the relationship between king and subjects a bit differently. A new ideal emerged, the idea that a king's authority came from the consent of the people, not from God. It was Thomas Hobbes, in his book Leviathan who first broached the subject that the relationship between the king and the people was a two way relationship. The king and people formed a "social contract" and each had it's responsibilities to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hobbes, Thomas, and J.C.A. Gaskin (ed.). Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.

Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.
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Hobbes and Locke

Words: 1750 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17901275

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke each formulated notions regarding human liberty in nearly the same social, political, and provincial circumstances. Although their most famous works were separated approximately forty years from one another, they were both wealthy members of seventeenth century English society during a period of particular social and religious turmoil. Similarly, both Hobbes and Locke sought to use reasoning to determine the most appropriate form of political and social organization. It should be anticipated, therefore, that their fundamental conceptions regarding freedom also possess many similarities; however -- aside from their initial premises -- Hobbes and Locke vary wildly in both their approaches to the topic of freedom and the consequences they believe these lines of reasoning hold for society. Locke has come to be thought of as one of the founders of modern political philosophy in the West, and rightly so. Hobbes, on the other hand, has continued…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

1. Cahn, Steven M. (1999), Classics of Western Philosophy: Fifth Edition, Hackett Publishing, Indianapolis, Indiana

2. Collinson, Diane, (1987), Fifty Major Philosophers, Routledge Publishing, New York, New York

3. Cottingham, John, (1996), Western Philosophy: an Anthology, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts

4. McGreal, Ian P. (1992), Great Thinkers of the Western World, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, New York
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Marx and Locke

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47848618

Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…… [Read More]

We can see the best examples of these 19th century economic theories in the works of Henry George, a populist who wished to ensure plurality by limiting the ability of property owners to hoard natural resources, and Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist who incorporated Darwinism into his defenses of what is now termed 'classical' liberalism and famously advocated "the right to ignore the state."

Locke, John, Second Treatise on Self-Government.  http://www.swan.ac.uk/poli/texts/locke/lockcont.htm 

Marxist Origins of Communism, George Mason University.  http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx1.htm
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Parental Authority Hobbes and Locke

Words: 2019 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72768611

Parental authority is something Hobbes believes is based on a contract. Parents take care of children in exchange for the obedience of the child. Locke believes parental authority relies on biological inheritance and the natural rights bestowed on a parent to take care of a needy creature they bring into the world. He also states, children are bound by honor to obey the parent until they reach 'an age of reason'. Such a convoluted and complex interpretation of parental authority is why Locke's perspective is wrong and Hobbes' perspective is right. Hobbes' interpretation of parental authority is simple and linear, introducing the concept of choice and obligation onto the parent and child. By providing an understanding that both parties are responsible and if lacking, have no rights in that respect, it makes parental authority appear more of a responsibility rather than a right. This makes Hobbes' perspective more convincing. This…… [Read More]

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Education of Young Children John

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2363274

" [EU: I.III, 3]

Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.

However ousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in ousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. ousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a…… [Read More]

References

Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, Julie and Other Writings. Edited by R.L. Archer. New York: Barron, 1964.

Rousseau, Emile, Julie and Other Writings, 80.
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Hobbes Locke & Federalism One of

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72126103

So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. owever, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of ammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup…… [Read More]

Hobbes looked around, and saw a sewer of urban life; poor people struggling, disease, trash, pestilence and believed that without control mankind was nothing more than animalistic. Locke thought otherwise, that humans, given a chance to actualize, would cooperate, work towards a common good, and provide a generalized and goal-oriented society. So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. However, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of Hammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup 1/2 empty or 1/2 full -- or is it both?

The Federalist movement surrounding the writing and eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution focused on one basic premise: how much power and authority should the national, versus State, government control. Certainly, once can view that if the Articles of Confederation were deemed to be too weak and inappropriate for the new Republic, then the Federalist faction won. Rhode Island and North Carolina especially opposed the Federalist view, but eventually the Bill of Rights seemed to satisfy most of the delegates who realized that the alternative would be suicide. This did not stop individual States from wanting to secede long before the Civil War, and indeed, the actual finality of the issue of State's rights was not really solved until the mid-20th century, when the Supreme Court issued several decisions requiring that the tenets of the Bill of Rights be established in all 50 States.

If one considers the political issues of the Jeffersonian Era up to the War Between the States, then one might say that although the Constitution provided a legal means for a strong centralized government, that was on paper and States tended to act and react in their own ways to a point. There was consternation during the 1812 issues with the British, when new States entered the Union there were issues on whether they would be Slave or Free States. Thus, the Federalists really only had the appearance of victory after the Constitutional Convention, not the buy in and acceptance of the policy for decades afterwards.
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Justice Political Philosopher John Rawls Looks at

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56843888

Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).

Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rawls, J. (1957). Justice as Fairness. Philosophical Review. 54 (22): 653-62.

Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rawls, J. (2001). A Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Descartes Locke's

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74296140

life as developed by two famous philosophers. John Locke and enee Descartes both believed they had come up with an understandable and scientific philosophy about the foundation of life. The writer of this paper compares and contrasts those beliefs. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

Throughout history, mankind has tried to develop a philosophy that will explain the existence of life. There have been abstract ideas, concrete ideas, spiritual ideas and others to try and explain the foundation of life in a way that can be understood in future generations. Two of the most scientifically respected men in history worked to develop theories about the foundation of life that could be understood in a scientific manner. John Locke and enee Descartes are well-known for their theories about life. The theories have several similarities as well as several differences. The men made history with their theories about the…… [Read More]

References

LOCKE

 http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/locke.htm #Knowledgeof Mathematics, Ethics, the Self, and God

Think, therefore I am... NOT!  http://teachanimalobjectivity.homestead.com/files/return2.htm 

Rene Descartes: 'I think therefore I am'  http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Outline_of_Great_Books_Volume_I/ithinkth_bga.html
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Aristotle Locke Aristotle and Locke

Words: 1502 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 24504363

The inherent benefits to a more functional economy justified a sensible distribution of property and resources, he would contend.

Though Locke's ideals would be essential in the development of western civilization as it exists today, it would really be the perspective of Aristotle here that would offer us a compelling window into the early and obvious objections to the nature of capitalism. Their shared view on property ownership suggests that there may be something innate in the human need to acquire, both in terms of the which it practically enables in terms of survival and in terms of the various esoteric functions served by properties of a non-essential nature. However, Locke's vision proves a more idealistic and somewhat flawed prediction of the impact of free market capitalism, with valuable ideals on the development of the self functioning to obscure pressing questions about the oppression, exploitation and resource scarcity which modern…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Murray, P. (1997). Reflections on Commercial Life: An Anthology of Classic Texts From Plato to Present. Routledge.