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It is difficult to count how many millions of deaths Joseph Stalin was responsible for, but the fact that this figure is in the millions is not in doubt (Cavendish, 2003). Up until the twilight of his life, when he was in his seventies and approaching his own death, his subordinates continued to carry out his murderous orders.
Stalin was paranoid and in his later years he suffered from arteriosclerosis. There is a theory that this may have aggravated his temper, which became worse as he grew older. His doctor, Vladimir Vinogradov, noticed a significant decline in Stalin's health early in 1952. When he suggested that the dictator start to relax, the patient flew into a furious rage and had him arrested.
Several other doctors were arrested in 1952 (Cavendish, 2003). Some of them were Jewish and newspaper tirades against "murderers in white gowns" provoked widespread rumors about…
Cavendish, R. Death of Joseph Stalin: March 5th, 1953. (Months Past). History Today, 2003.
Herlz MI, Liberman RP, Lieberman JA, et al.: American Psychiatric Association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Am J. Psychiatry. 1997;1541-63.
Hershman, J. Lieb, J. A Brotherhood of Tyrants: Manic Depression & Absolute Power. Promotheus, 1994.
Hyde, Montgomery H. Stalin - The History of a Dictator. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1971.
They intended to turn the country into a great political and economical power that would match and, eventually, pass the Western countries that at the time dominated the world. Their competition was not only with the rest of Europe but with the United States as well. In order to achieve this Stalin needed extra devoted work from his people. He created new strategies to improve the industrial development of the country. To control such a massive population Stalin used clever manipulation, teaching children from school age to worship his image, devote themselves to the communist party and turning them away from the capitalist ideas, by shutting the country away from any foreign influence.
Most of this manipulation was based on fear, as he used very hard punishment for those that opposed him or were even suspects of rebelling against his ideas. Almost every family in Russia had at least one…
Tucker, R.C. (1990). Stalin in Power: The revolution from above, 1929-1941. New York: Norton.
Van Ree, E. (2002), the political thoughts of Joseph Stalin: A study of the Twentieth-Century revolutionary patriotism. New York: Roudledge Courzon
Wood, a. (2004). Stalin and Stalinism. New York: Roudledge.
Zuehlke, J. (2006). Joseph Stalin. Minneapolis: Learner Publishing Group.
In his rule, Stalin murdered thousands of his own people, as well as the obvious groups who opposed him like the Kulaks. Stalin also went to purge many people within his own party and in ussian institutions in order to strengthen his grip over the country. Stalin used his secret police, known as the NKVD, to assassinate, imprison and exile thousands of ussian people (Jones, 2002). He went after people who published research that went against the progress he tried to show his government policies were showing. Stalin even went after many within the Communist Party that either slightly opposed his policies or did not perform up to the level of his extremely high expectations. The research suggests that there was "absurdly minor infractions for which individuals were sentenced to ten years in labor camps -- a standard death sentence" (Jones, 2002). He ruled over ussia with an iron fist,…
Spartacus Educational. (2012). Joseph Stalin. Primary Sources. Web. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSstalin.htm
Jones, Adam. (2002). Stalin's purges. Genocide Watch. Web. http://www.gendercide.org/case_stalin.html
He advanced the NEP as the new economic strategy. (Tucker 1990)
Means for achieving power
Stalin used propaganda as the main tool for reaching out to the population. Therefore, he tried through every means possible to convince the people to follow his political ideas and to worship his personality.
He used manipulation to induce the population a completely new mentality and to erase any possible reminiscence of the old regime. This in turn reduced the working class to an atomized society, willing to submit to every order given by Stalin.
The political adversaries were a real threat for Stalin's goals. Therefore, he constantly persecuted, locked, or even killed them. This era, known as the Great Terror Era, saw most dissidents and those opposing the leader, parish at the hands of his regime. (Zuchlke 2006)
Joseph Stalin was the result of the era he lived in. The social, political, and…
Changing Minds.org (2007) Charismatic Leadership. Retrieved 10 April 2007, at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htm
Tucker, R.C. (1990). Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1929-1941. New York: Norton.
Van Ree, E. (2002). The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: A Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism. New York: Routledge Courzon
Zuechlke, J. (2006) Joseph Stalin. Minneapolis: Learner Publishing Group.
The czar had absolute power over the country and denied people's freedom to express themselves or oppose the government. Communism functioned considerably in the same way. Stalin's power was almost as absolute as the czar's. He alone had had complete power to make decisions, and denied people's freedom to express themselves or openly speak their opinions about the way the politics were conducted.
Stalin made the people worship his image practically in the same way kings had done in the past. He wanted his person to occupy the most important place in every institution and house which was practically the same policy a czar himself would have followed. His image had to be a national cult of unconditional respect and adoration from his people, whether voluntary or imposed, by manipulation or force.
His opponents were immediately persecuted, arrested and eliminated. This all together follows the same situation that can be…
Meyer, a.G., (1984) Communism. New York: Random House
N.V., Steinberg, M. (2004)
History of Russia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Domestically, Novosti disseminated information on life in other countries and on life in the Soviet Union. All of these institutional structures fell under the authority of the Party.
The television system in the Soviet Union was centrally controlled through the State Committee for Tele- vision and Radio (Gostelradio), which coordinated the communication of the ideological message sent down from above. The reorganization and elevation of this committee to the all-union level in 1970 made the Chairman of Gostelradio directly responsible to the General Secretary of the Communist Party and the Politburo. (Indeed, the Chairman of Gostelradio had on his desk a series of telephones, one connected directly to the General Secretary.) Directives were passed down to various departments which produced the television programs that aired on Soviet television.
The state owned all of the equipment, paid all salaries, and monitored all broadcasts. In addition to centralized control over the mass…
Altheide, D.L. (2002) Creating Fear: News and the Construction of Crisis. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Berkowitz, D.A. (ed.) (1997) Social Meanings" of News: A Text-Reader. London: Sage.
Cohen, B.C. (1963) the Press and Foreign Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Cohen, E. And Ben-Yehuda, N. (1987) 'Counter Cultural Movements and Totalitarian Democracy', Sociological Inquiry 57: 372-93.
He decided to develop industrial progress to help improve agriculture and make the people work harder, as he knew this was the only way to make socialism work. He leaned on the Red rigade as a tool to control and dominate the people and made concentration camps where opposers where arrested and sentenced to hard work. He used fear and threat to dominate the people, setting very hard laws against those that attempted to disagree with his ideas. Dissidents where persecuted, locked up or executed. Stalin consolidated a very severe regime, not tolerating any kind of opposition to his officialism. He made his image an obligatory national cult.
The result of this was a total brainwash of population and the setting of a whole new mentality for the entire country. This brought a robotization of the masses, turning them into workers that abandoned personal vision in order to follow the…
Zuehlke, J. (2006). Joseph Stalin. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group.
During this time to end the Russian Revolution, he would be captured by the secret police and sent to prison camps in Siberia, where he escaped every time. After the last successful escape, Stalin went to Saint Petersburg and was able to take control of the newspaper Pravda. Over the course of time, this position would allow Stalin to become closer to Lenin, as he would be able to protect and support the Revolution when all seemed lost. To achieve these objectives, he formed alliances with political allies and then would go after his enemies. Once the communists came to power, this approach was used to destroy the former Czarist elements in Russian army and force the peasants in the country side to support these changes through intimidation. After Lenin died, Stalin was able to use these tactics to gain power. This would create a state that was based on…
"Joseph Stalin." PBS. 1999. Web. 2 Jun. 2010.
Haugen, Brenda. Joseph Stalin. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2006. Print.
Mawdesly, E. "The Secret Life of Joseph Stalin." The Historian 2004: Web.
Zuehlke, Jeffrey. Joseph Stalin. Minneapolis: Twenty First Century Books, 2006. Print.
Also the country was going through an economical crisis after World War I that had devastated most of its economy that was already quite fragile after the prolonged years of poverty under the rule of Czar Nicholas. To achieve the absolute power he sought for, Stalin used a lot of propaganda, advertising his image, to convince people to worship him as a saver, a hero for his country. He set a complex strategy of suggestion to induce the masses to believe in his revolutionary ideas. Stalin also used fear as a weapon against his possible enemies that were persecuted and arrested immediately, even for being mere suspects of opposing his ideas. His goals were to transform Russia into an economical and industrial power, through the exploitation of the working class and achieve absolute power of the world by controlling the greatest country. However his methods only brought more years of…
Zuehlke, J. (2006). Joseph Stalin. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group.
Souvarine, B. (2005). Stalin: a critical survey on Bolshevism. New York: Kessinger Publishing.
In other words, the Soviet Union has lost in men several times more than Britain and the United States together." Stalin's reply to Churchill reflects his nations' sentiments of fear and vulnerability, even while he disingenuously rages that Eastern Europe has 'chosen' communism and alliance with the Soviet block in the arsaw Pact: "One can ask therefore, what can be surprising in the fact that the Soviet Union, in a desire to ensure its security for the future, tries to achieve that these countries should have governments whose relations to the Soviet Union are loyal? How can one, without having lost one's reason, qualify these peaceful aspirations of the Soviet Union as 'expansionist tendencies' of our Government?"
Stalin's justifiable reputation as a cruel and ruthless dictator makes it tempting to discount everything he said in his reply to Churchill. However, it is important to understand his words because of what…
Churchill, Winston. "Iron Curtain Speech. The Modern History Sourcebook. 1946.
26 Jul 2008. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/churchill-iron.html
Stalin, Joseph. "Reply to Churchill." The Modern History Sourcebook. 1946.
26 Jul 2008. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1946stalin.html
The custom was to revere authority, rather than to respect the rights of the individual or to assume one's freedoms would be protected by the judicial system. Kangaroo courts under Stalin were the norm. Officially, in word alone, the freedoms of the individual were legally protected in the U.S.S.R. But this was a legal fiction.
Terror was the real ultimate mechanism of enforcing the will of the government, not a commandeered respect through popular charisma. People were afraid of being labeled traitors, anti-communists, or spies, so the did all they could to bow to Stalin's will. This was not true simply of citizens, but member of the ruling elite. Everyone knew that Stalin had no compunction about sending even his friends to death, if it could further solidify his hold upon power.
Stalin chose to do so because, in a large, sprawling land that was an unwieldy alliance of disparate…
Kuromiya, Hiroaki. Stalin. Profiles in Power Series. New York: Pearson, 2005.
(Van Ree, 2002)
Foreign policy is an important vehicle for propelling one's image, be it on the domestic arena, or the international scene. Stalin took advantage of this element and used both socialist countries and western states as an indirect instrument for promoting his personality on the political scene.
The doctrine he had promoted also gave him advantage over capitalism in other countries around the world, which, in turn offered him a broader political support. Socialism was the strong opponent of foreign intervention in the internal affairs of national states. Therefore, newly independent states were reluctant to any sign of international interference. From this perspective, Stalin's approach was rather appealing and enabled them to find an alternative to capitalism. (Tucker, 1990)
In relation to the western block, Stalin, through the specific means he had to run foreign policy, gave the Russian people a sense of the long time glory of…
Hobsbawm, E. (1996) the Age of extremes. New York: Vintage.
Tucker, R.C. (1990). Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1929-1941. New York: Norton.
Van Ree, E. (2002). The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: A Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism. New York: Routledge Courzon
Wood, a. (2004). Stalin and Stalinism. New York: Routledge.
A civil war in ussia, which lasted from 1918 to 1921, squelched the dreams of the Bolsheviks. ussia's supplies and trade and the nation was forced into battle on multiple fronts. Industrial and agricultural productivity decreased as resources were directed to fighting the invading armies. The working class was literally decimated. Without a working class and without production, workers' control of production was impossible and the workers' state became unhinged from its social basis.
Stalinism emerged as a break from the Bolshevik tradition. Stalin had to defeat the Bolshevik Party of 1917 in order to consolidate his power and the victory of the bureaucracy. Stalin's plan is summed up in the phrase he first used in the fall of 1924: "socialism in one country.
After decades in power, first in ussia and later in many other countries, it is finally obvious that Stalinism is the total opposite of a liberated…
Arnove, Anthony. (Winter, 2000). The Fall of Stalinism: Ten Years on. International Socialist Review Issue 10.
Griffin, Mike. Trotsky Internet Archive. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.internationalist.org/stalinism%26bolshevism.html .
Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, the Communist Manifesto, Samuel Moore trans. (New York: Penguin Classics, 1967), p. 105.
Knabb, Ken. (1997). The Joy of Revolution. Public Secrets: Collected Skirmishes of Ken Knabb.
In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.
Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…
Beichman, Arnold. "Pulitzer-Winning Lies." The Daily Standard. 2003. http://www.theweeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/002/791vwuaz.asp
Bernard, Henri. Le communisme et l'aveuglement occidental (Soumagne, Belgium: editions Andre Grisard, 1982)
Boris Bajanov, Avec Staline dans le Kremlin. Paris: Les editions de France, 1930, pp. 2 -- 3.
Connor, Walter D. "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1972, pp. 403-413.
Beyond doubt, the world was in an anarchical state in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly as the Great Depression devastated the global economy and aggressive, fascist regimes took power in Germany and Japan. International organizations hardly existed at the time, and in economic policy most countries adopted strategies of nationalism, autarky and protectionism, while the 'revisionist' states like Germany, Japan and Italy made it perfectly clear that they intended to solve their economic problems through creating new empires and spheres on influence at the expense of older empires like Britain and France. Hitler made no secret of the fact that the chief goal of his Lebensraum policy would be conquest of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, which would become a source of raw materials, foodstuffs and slave labor for the Germans. He was also determined to exterminate the 'Jewish-Bolshevik worldview', as he always described Communism, and the…
D'Agostino, A. 2011. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Fleischhauer, L. 1990. Der Pakt: Hitler, Stalin und die Initiative der deutschen Diplomatie. Frankfurt.
Hildebrand, K. 1980. Deutscher Aussenpolitik, 1933-1945: Kalkuel oder Dogma?, Fourth Edition. Stuttgart.
Hillgruber, A. 1982. Der Zweite Weltkrieg, 1939-45: Kriegszide und Strategie der Grossen Maechte. Stuttgart.
Joseph Stalin, with some justification, is perhaps one of the least popular leaders of recent world history. His brutal actions when enforcing collectivized agriculture upon the Russian peasantry caused casualties so high the numbers of the dead, in terms of the amount of the population of his nation that was killed, exceed that of the Holocaust. According to the historian Lynne Viola in her book Peasant Rebels Under Stalin, even the cagiest estimations of the death toll that occurred suggest that over the course of the decade between the 1920s and early 1930s, more than 1,100 people were directly killed by the state. Even more Russians indirectly suffered death by famine as a result of the agricultural process of collectivization. (210; 213-214) hat is not so well-known, however, is that starvation also had its roots in the policies employed by the resistance of peasants as well as the policies of…
Lynne, Viola. Peasant Rebels Under Stalin. New York, 1998.
Such conflicts appear when the dominating model is in contradiction with the ideologies and behavior of the subordinated groups. Genocide usually comes with this kind of conflicts, when the involved groups grow to hate each other so much that they decide to establish an unofficial war to terminate the other groups as a way to eliminate the cause of their annoyance. This phenomenon can manifest itself in many ways, from social discrimination and exclusion, accompanied by stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination, going as far as political actions, violent confrontations, genocide, terrorism and war.
The use of violence or threat to recur to it with political intentions aimed towards minorities or communities is usually carried out by nongovernmental groups or secret organizations that operate outside the regular parameters of official war or political negotiation. They often seek revolution or civil war. More than military goals, terrorism seeks to cause panic within the…
2007) Charismatic Leadership. Retrieved March 05, 2007, from website: http://changeminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htm
2007) Ethnic cleansing. Retrieved March, 05, 2007 from Answers.com, website: http://www.answers.com/topic/ethnic-cleansing
Maurer, D. (2002) What are traditional societies? Retrieved March 05, 2007, from Historyexplained.com website: http://www.historyexplained.com/index.php/ebook/main/2/event=read
2007) What is terrorism? Retrieved March 04, 2007, from Terrorism research, website: http://www.terrorism-research.com/
built between the U.S.S.. And China following World War Two. The writer focuses on the issue of Nuclear technology and the tensions between the two because of it. Stalin, Mao and broken promises are examined and put together in a story of history. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Currently the world is focused on disarming itself from a nuclear standpoint. America has invaded Iraq on the pretext of forcing the nation to stop nuclear technological advancement and while this is going on North Korea is gearing up its formerly defunct nuclear program. It seems that the world is working to reverse a technology that for many years was the race of success. Two of the largest areas in the world spent years competing with each other for power, and they believed that power was going to be found in nuclear technology. China and the former USS…
Mao Zedong. The Writings of Mao Zedong, 1949-1976. Sharpe, 1986-. Multivolume work.
Stefoff, Rebecca. Mao Zedong. Millbrook, 1996.
Author not available, ASIA/PACIFIC: The atom bomb, Mao Zedong once said, is a "paper tiger": though., Time International, 08-26-1991, pp 26.
Bates Gill and James Mulvenon - The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…
Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.
Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.
A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.
John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.
omen or omen in Important Historical Moments?
A very fine line separates historical narrative from biographical nonfiction. In the latter, the subject is of prime importance and exploration of the way that the subject feels about historical events is the primary reason for such a text. As to the former, the subject is often a vehicle to exploring the larger conditions surrounding her. Deciphering which tactic is in play in any given text may be a difficult endeavor, only further complicated when the protagonist of an historical narrative is female. In this case, one may be given the impression that the uniqueness, individuality and mere availability of her story may be enough to suggest that the history within is driven by her actions. However, as we consider texts focusing on the lives of Elizabeth Marsh, Madame Caillaux and Eugenia Ginzberg, it becomes clear that their respective biographers were in fact…
Berenson, E. (1993). The Trial of Madam Caillaux. University of California Press.
Colley, L. (2007). The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History. Pantheon.
Ginzburg, E. (2002). Journey Into the Whirlwind. Mariner Books.
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on a single project -- typically the major "goal" of a regime such as war.
Complete government control on weapons, although not an exclusive characteristic of totalitarian governments precludes the chances of successful uprisings.
Case Studies: Specific Examples of Totalitarian egimes
The Soviet Communist regime under Joseph Stalin, the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy and Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler are typical examples of totalitarian regimes.
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin: As observed earlier, it is debatable whether Karl Marx had clearly envisaged the formation of totalitarian governments by the application of his Communist theory. However, the first country to adopt Communism, i.e., the Soviet Union soon degenerated into the worst type of totalitarian government imaginable under Joseph Stalin who…
Arendt, Hannah. (1966). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23477515
Blum, G.P. (1998). The Rise of Fascism in Europe (R. M. Miller, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Characteristics of Totalitarianism." (n.d.) From: Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, by Carl Friedrick and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://plato.newarka.edu/~labbey/ap_total_charac.html
Kreis, Steven. (2004) "The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler." Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe: The History Guide. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture10.html
The organization emphasized strong ties among third world countries and neutrality in relations with the U.S. And the Soviet Union. ("Josip Broz Tito," n.d.) Domestically, Tito introduced a system of decentralized economy, which encouraged workers' self-management. He tackled the strong nationalistic fissures in the country by creating a system of "symmetrical federalism" that ensured 'equality' among the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous provinces.
In the end, it is difficult to speculate how different the world would have been if the man called Tito had never lived. It is true that his country of disparate nationalities, which Tito had held together with sheer will and the force of his personality for 35 years, unraveled quickly after his death. But to hold him responsible for the break-up of his beloved country and the tragic events which occurred during the ethnic strife in the Balkans would be doing injustice to the…
Josip Broz Tito." (n.d.) CNN.com: Interactive. Retrieved on April 8, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/
MacLean, F. (1957). The Heretic: The Life and Times of Josip Broz-Tito (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers.
Markham, R.H. (1947). Tito's Imperial Communism. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. Of North Carolina Press.
Rezun, M. (1995). Europe and War in the Balkans: Toward a New Yugoslav Identity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Yalta Convention marked the beginning of the Cold ar. Franklin Roosevelt inston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at the former palace of Czar Nicholas between February 4th and 11th, 1945. Before the end of orld ar II, the three world leaders had carved up the world. Germany and Poland were divided. The U.S. agreed to withdraw troops within two years, and Stalin agreed to hold free elections. Russia got land in Outer Mongolia and agreed to enter the Asian ar. Korea was split at the 38th Parallel.
Three months later, victory is declared in Europe and three months after that, Japan surrendered. Stalin declared war on Japan two days after the first nuclear bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and seven days before VJ Day. The Allies split Indochina into two zones, north and south of the 16th Parallel with the Chinese occupying the north and the British controlling the south.…
When Harry Truman became president, he and Stalin exchanged hostile words. Truman spoke of Communism being the greatest danger in the free world while Stalin declared that Communism and Capitalism were incompatible. In 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China.
Southeast Asia was as a major interest to the United States and they supported the French Colonialist government against the Communist North under Ho Chi Minh, and the British in Malaysia. Americans feared Communist expansion. Politicians used that fear to their advantage. Senator Joseph McCarthy announced that 57 Communists (or 205 or 81) worked in the State Department. That fear grew in 950 when Stalin and Mao, the Soviet Union and Peoples' Republic of China, signed a 30-year alliance.
By mid-1954, the French knew they had lost their hold on Indochina, and supported the Geneva Accord agreement to settle the Indochina War. Vietnam was to become an independent nation. Elections were to be held under international supervision. Until then, Vietnam would be split. Although the North was pressured by China and the Soviet Union to concede, the U.S. was firmly committed to a policy of sabotaging the Geneva Accords and trying to make South Vietnam an independent country. Foreign policy in Southeast Asia went from military training to direct intervention. American Involvement in Southeast Asia would be a tragic decision that would ultimately cost innumerable lives.
First of all Titoism "included the eventual abandonment of agricultural collectivization, workers councils, and the centralization of economic and administrative controls. Generally Yugoslavs under Tito's rule possessed more freedoms and liberties than most others living in communist regimes" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm).Another idea of Titoism was national particularity of Communism which meant that Communism in different states had different features which should be taken into consideration by the government. The main point if this statement was multinational structure of Yugoslav society which could not accept Soviet kind of Communism so the main problem of Tito's domestic policy was national issue. It is known that Kosovo and Croatia were the centers of nationalistic separatism in Yugoslavia so communism and federation were not popular among their population. Tito failed establishing ethnic peace and cooperation in these regions because both Albanians and Croats resisted his plans of strengthening the federation. As the matter of fact by…
1.Djilas, Milovan Tito: The Story from Inside Phoenix Press 2001
2. Tito's Yugoslavia, Article available at web-resource: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm
3. Sowards, Steven W. Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History Lecture 20: The traditional regimes and the challenge of Communism: Patriotism vs. opportunism available at web-resource: http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect20.htm
4. Wilson, Duncan. Tito's Yugoslavia, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979
It was in the World War 2 that something so huge was tried by The Nazi Germany that it was just impossible to continue it. Genocide was attempted by Adolf Hitler and his comrades; they made systematic and deliberate attempts to kill all of the Jewish community. Jews were blamed by the Nazis for the misfortune that they faced in World War 1 because of which after the war Hitler made it his mission to kill all the Jews. This genocide started in 1939 and lased till 1945. Adolph Hitler was the one by whom this whole thing was introduced as he wanted to get rid of all the minority races from Germany (Bergen, 2009).
In the World War 2 there was a lot of suffering but what happened with the Jews can't be forgotten. The Jewish people had a set of laws for them which were known…
Bergen, Doris (2009). The Holocaust: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield.
Longerich, Peter. (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ups and downs of Russian music throughout the Soviet Union's tumultuous history and will also describe the impact that music has on the Russians today. This paper will describe the music during the pre-revolutionary years, post-revolutionary years, the Stalin years, the post-Stalin years and Gorbachev's perestroika years.
The years before the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Russian revolution of 1917 are considered the pre-revolutionary years. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an unsuccessful attempt to topple the ruling czar and it all started with the Bloody Sunday Massacre. The Russian revolution of 1917 succeeded in overthrowing the imperial government and replacing them with the Bolsheviks.
The pre-revolutionary years, in Russia, were filled with Byzantium liturgical chants, nationalistic folk songs, operas, and symphonies. In 988, Prince Vladimir of Kiev decided that Russian's national religion would be Byzantine Orthodoxy and that's how the Byzantium liturgical chants ended up in Russia. However,…
Daniels, Robert V. Russia: The Roots of Confrontation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985.
Gunther, John. Inside Russia Today. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.
Smith, Hedrick. The New Russians. New York: Avon Books, 1991.
Spector, Ivar. An Introduction to Russian History and Culture. 5th ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1969.
Similar ambitions of Mao and Stalin to establish pro-communist Korean state, which was divided into two spheres of influences Soviet, with communist regime of Kim Il Sung and pro-American nationalist authoritarian regime of Syngman hee. But according to authors Offner and Gaddis we can say that the role played by North Korean authorities was the main in this conflict. The war started North Korean in 1950 was over three years later, yet no result was achieved. This conflict revealed bankruptcy of United Nations to solve major conflicts and in many respects defined the course of history for 40 more years. These authors which are called "revisionist" and whose ideas are widely criticized today make a clear point that neither USA nor its allies in Europe (mainly France and Great Britain) were ready for a chain reaction of nationalism spread in the third world after the end of WWII, which sympathized…
LaFeber, Walter America, Russia, and the Cold War McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2006
Merrill, Dennis Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914 Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005
U.S. Foreign Policy
Tear down that wall," has been the one sentence legacy of Ronald Reagan's presidential administration (Boyd). Ask any conservative political pundit and you are likely to hear that Reagan's defense strategy and, in particular, his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), was the direct cause of the Berlin all coming down, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the eventual end of the Cold ar. Yet, in reality, how instrumental was Reagan and his policy in these occurrences or was the actual cause due to other factors?
Reagan, unlike his predecessors, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, and Richard Nixon, adopted a much sterner posture relative to relations with the Soviet Union. Reagan entered office initially on the coat strings of President Carter's problems with the Iran hostages and Reagan campaigned on the strength of his strong militaristic positions. hen Reagan entered office the Cold ar was forty years old. The Soviet Union and…
Address to Members of the British Parliament," June 8, 1982, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Ronald Reagan, 1982 (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1983), 742-48.
Blum, Bill. "Ronald Reagan's supposed role in ending the cold war." 7 June 2004. Centre for Research on Globalisation. 22 May 2011 .
Boyd, Gerald M. "Raze Berlin Wall, Reagan Urges Soviet." New York Times 12 June 1987: 1.
Collins, Susan Margaret. Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in the World Economy. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1991.
Tibet has received much attention from the est. It is described as having a rich cultural heritage. It is viewed as being a victim of Communist aggression. It is hailed as a tourist destination. Each of these has some truth to it. But what is not always ascertained is the geopolitical importance of Tibet in Eurasian economics. Known as the "rooftop of the world," it contains in its plateaus a treasure trove of water, minerals, and energy (Samphel). For this reason and others, it has been the source of conflict and contention over throughout its long and storied history. This paper will discuss the history of the international conflict associated with Tibet and show how and why it has been depicted in various lights.
The documentary feature Tibet Situation: Critical by Jason Lansdell is a film that showcases the brutal oppression of Tibetans by the Chinese government. Its…
"Bold New Proposals." The Economist. 22 June 2013. Web.
Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. UK: Vintage, 2006. Print.
Chellaney, Brahma. Water: Asia's New Battleground. NY: HarperCollins, 2011. Print.
It was simply not modern or wealthy enough to withstand such strong economic pressure. In 1917 the first of two major coups occurred; the Tsar was imprisoned and later executed, a Civil War erupted eventually resulting in the emergence of the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin; the world's first socialist state.
The major thrust of the new government was to completely revise the economy of the massive state -- breakup landed estates, seizure of agricultural surpluses, but an economic period of 8 years (1921-29) that was more market socialism. However, once Lenin died and the power struggle for ultimate control went to Joseph Stalin, a vast and rapid reindustrialization took place. Stalin believed that the only way to retain a Soviet State was to modernize and the only way to modernize was to collectivize all agriculture so there would be enough food and surplus to fuel the drastic measures necessary…
Back Matter - List of Contributors. (1975). Slavic Studies, 27(2), 338-40.
McKay, J. (1971). Review - The Industrialization of Russia. Slavic Review, 30(3), 667.
For example, scholarly articles include: "The Old Believers and the Rise of Private industrial Enterprise in Early Nineteenth Century Moscow," Slavic Review, 24 (3): 407-24; books include: The Beginnings of Russian Industrialization, 1800-1860. (1970), Princeton University Press; Russian Economic Development from Peter the Great to Stalin. (1974), New Viewpoints.
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…
Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.
Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.
Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
causes that led to and accentuated the Cold ar, and look at its affect on modern scientific developments in arms and the space race. The Cold ar led to developments in rocketry and science that have given rise to new technologies that the world uses every day.
The Cold ar really began during the Second orld ar, when talk of post-war treaties between the United States, Great Britain, and Russia were put on hold until the war ended. "From early in 1942 the American Government had repeatedly proclaimed the principle that no final decisions on matters of postwar frontiers or systems of government should be made until the end of the war" (Graebner 5). "The growth of distrust and opposition between the United States (U.S.) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) begins with Joseph Stalin's pre-orld ar II behavior. The U.S. And Great Britain provided war tactics and…
Authors. "40th Anniversary of the Mercury 7." NASA. 18 April 2002. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/40thmerc7/intro.htm
Editors. "Space Channel." FutureFantastic.net. 2002. http://www.futurefantastic.net/exhibits/space/introduction.htm
Graebner, Norman A. "How the Cold War Began." The Cold War: Ideological Conflict Or Power Struggle? Boston: Heath, 1963. 1-10.
Haggerty, James J. "Spinoff 1996." NASA. 1996.
As a matter of fact, by the end of 1980s, Soviet Union ran on these very principles.
Kennan criticized the possibilities that Soviets may be involved in invading the pro-Soviet countries with their mind sets and weaken them even if they do not form a higher level of apprehension for them.
Pro-ussian countries will be weakened through a designed framework to tackle the mindsets of the people following western ideologies.
Fights will be sparked in the countries where both countries have western ideologies
Soviet policies will be a negative framework destructive in nature, clearing their path with whatever that comes onto them that they don't like (ussell, 2000).
Kennan was afraid that communism will overshadow the governments of the West but that never happened. At least not to the extent that it was feared by Kennan. Britain and mostly America was afraid of the way communist were taking over and…
Anderson, David L., Trapped by Success, New York: Columbia University Press, (1991), p. xi.
Bennett, Edward M., Franklin D. Roosevelt and the. Search for Security: American-Soviet Relations, 1933 -- 1939, Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, (1985), p. 24.
Brinkley, D., Dean Acheson: The Cold War Years, 1953 -- 71, New Haven: Yale University Press, (1994), p. 76.
Eisele, A., George Kennan Speaks Out About Iraq, History News Network, (2002), Accessed 24-11-11 from http://hnn.us/articles/997.html
Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…
1. Slater, Jerome Can Zionism be Reconciled with Justice for the Palestinians Article Tikkun July 2003
2. Zuncs, Stephen Defending Zionism in a Time of Occupation and Oppression Article Tikkun p.54 April 2004
3. Starobin, Paul Rethinking Zionism Article National Journal p.1240 April 24, 2004
4. Hazony, Yoram the Zionism Idea and its Enemies Article Commentary may 96, Vol. 101, Issue 5 p.30
There is no market for Internet sales.
The promotion function is complicated by the nation's demographics. Promotion must be conducted in multiple languages. Promotions in Russian -- which is understood by all -- will not be respected by either the Kyrgyz or the Uzbeks. Ads strictly in Kyrgyz, on the other hand, will not attract the Russian audience as they will not understand them.
Promotions should feature either nationalist or ethnocentric motifs in order to gain the strongest consumer response. Emotion-centered promotion can be successful, rather than appeals featuring intellectual arguments.
There are limited media outlets, but those that do exist command a healthy market share. There are competing media from Russia and surrounding Central Asian states as well. Newspapers are popular, as is television. There is a radio presence. The online advertising market is in its infancy. Because of the limited size of the advertising industry, promotional budgets…
CIA World Factbook. (2009). Kyrgyzstan. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kg.html
Ardichvili, A. & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal. Vol. 22,2,62-69.
Khamidov, A. (2009). Kyrgyzstan: New agreement on Kumtor divides Kyrgyz elites. Ferghana.ru. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://enews.ferghana.ru/article.php?id=2529
Kaynak, Erdener, Kara, Ali. (2001). An examination of the relationship among consumer lifestyles, ethnocentrism, knowledge structures and behavioral tendencies: A comparative study in two CIS states. International Journal of Advertising.
Mental breakdown and psychological distress also follow. Good leaders are effective communicators and have the empathy to read warning signs of mental breakdown. They are able to address mental health situations before they start.
You will know bad leadership when you see it. Organizations that are run poorly suffer from the same types of problems including inefficiency, poor financial performance and high incidence of workplace injury and mental health problems. Simply put, bad leadership is hazardous to your health.
Smith, D. (2006). The high cost of bad leadership. Douglas K. Smith. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.douglasksmith.com/2006/01/the_high_cost_of_bad_leadershi.htm
Hadler, N. (1984). Occupational illness: The issue of causality. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 26, 8.
No author. (2009). orkplace injuries and illnesses -- 2008. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osnr0032.pdf
No author. (2009). Accident Report: Fatal Facts. OSHA. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/toc_FatalFacts.html…
Smith, D. (2006). The high cost of bad leadership. Douglas K. Smith. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.douglasksmith.com/2006/01/the_high_cost_of_bad_leadershi.htm
Hadler, N. (1984). Occupational illness: The issue of causality. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 26, 8.
No author. (2009). Workplace injuries and illnesses -- 2008. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osnr0032.pdf
No author. (2009). Accident Report: Fatal Facts. OSHA. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/toc_FatalFacts.html
In fact, many people believe it was the final factor that led to disintegration of Soviet/U.S. relations, and directly led to the failure of the Moscow Conference of foreign ministers in March 1947. The conference had been convened in an attempt for the two powers to come to an agreement about situations in Europe, including whether or not to unify the German state, but with its failure, relations between the two countries became even more strained.
The Marshall Plan followed the Truman Doctrine in 1947, and was an attempt to boost the European economy after the war. Historian Whitcomb writes, "The Marshall Plan was conceived as a 'counter-offensive' to Moscow's moves in Eastern Europe and as a reaction to Stalin's decision, registered at the Moscow Conference, to rebuff all gestures of compromise looking toward settlement of the problems dividing Europe" (Whitcomb 84). It was an attempt to rebuild Europe instead…
Powaski, Ronald E. The Cold War: The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Whitcomb, Roger S. The Cold War in Retrospect: The Formative Years. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
Military Needs to Step Down
General Creighton Abrams said, "There must be within our Army, a sense of purpose. There must be a willingness to march a little farther, to carry a heavier load, to step out into the dark and the unknown for the safety and well-being of others (United States)." U.S. military troops are indeed marching farther and farther, expanding into different nations at this very moment: Afghanistan, Egypt, Indonesia, Columbia, Japan, and 58 other countries. However, this isn't what Abrams had in mind. In total, there are 255,065 U.S. military personnel deployed worldwide (Sivitz). But who assigned the U.S. military the task of serving as an international police force? For years, U.S. political and military strategists have conceived a fraudulent justification for increased military deployment that they call "The Global War on Terrorism." Did someone call them for immediate help? Did someone give them the right to…
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
Lastly, a loss of Ajaristan (Ajaria) would weaken Georgias buffer with Turkey and increase loss of lack Sea shoreline:
In the conflict between the Ossetians and Ingush, the Russian government favored the "always loyal Ossetians" over the discontented Muslim Ingush. The conflicts with the Georgians in the south and the Ingush in the west have fueled the growth of Ossetian nationalism, but the majority hope for autonomy, not full independence, fearing the loss of Russian protection in the volatile region they have inhabited since ancient times. The Ossetians, although needing Russian protection in the mostly Muslim region, continue to work for the unification of their small nation in a single political entity. In 1996, the governments of North and South Ossetia signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Relations between the South Ossetians and the Georgian government improved in the late 1990s. The Georgian government of Eduard Shevardnadze proposed in…
Abbott, Wilbur Cortez. The Expansion of Europe: A History of the Foundations of the Modern World. Vol. 2,. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1918.
Atal, Yogesh, ed. Poverty in Transition and Transition in Poverty: Recent Developments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia, Russia, Mongolia. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.
Black, Cyril E., Robert D. English, Jonathan E. Helmreich, a. James McAdams, and Paul C. Helmreich. Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
"Bulgaria, Romania Pledge Support in Georgia's EU Aspiration" May, 9th 2005, http://www.washprofile.org/en/node/6355
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression
In recent years, a debate has arisen regarding the extent of Herbert Hoover's progressive and Keynesian leanings, with conservative historians suggesting that Hoover may have been less of an advocate for laissez -faire capitalism than was commonly believed during his lifetime. Ideologues such as Amity Shlaes and Murray Rothbard have suggested that Hoover was a closet statist and New Dealer, and that ranklin Roosevelt simply continued many of these policies in a natural progression. On the other hand, liberal and mainstream historians have generally accepted the idea that Hoover was perhaps a more activist president than his earlier reputation may have indicated, but disagree with conservative historians as to the extent of Hoover's progressive inclinations. They argue that Hoover's retreat from laissez-faire policies was too little, too late, and ultimately inadequate to deal with the severity of the economic crisis, a position in direct…
From the start, Hoover urged industry not to lay off workers and maintain their 1929 levels of employment, although this eventually proved impossible as the economy continued its downward spiral. At first, Hoover remained an orthodox proponent of balanced budgets and the gold standards, unlike FDR, who abandoned gold in 1934. His Federal Reserve was also slow to respond to the crash and actually seemed to be determined to control inflation by raising interest rates, although this led to a severe contraction of the money supply, which fell by one-third in 1931 alone. As prices and credit continued to collapse, wages fell over 50% in 1928-32, while agricultural prices sunk below the cost of production by 1933.
(This last detail must have been especially galling to Hoover, considering his time spent as Commerce Secretary and his previous belief that government intervention in the agricultural industry was beyond the pale.)
Hoover was known as a humanitarian and compassionate man, and both traits were attributed to his Quaker background. In private he would literally end up crying at his desk in the White House after reading desperate letters from hungry and unemployed citizens. Furthermore, he lamented the fact that the shantytowns that grew up around all major cities during the Depression were called 'Hoovervilles' and his inability to end the economic crisis, but he was unable to translate this
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…
Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973.
Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA's Legacy of Technology Transfer and Prospects for Future Benefits." AIAA Space Conference & Exposition. Long Beach, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. 1-9.
Cox, M. "The Cold War as a system." Critique (1986): 17-82.
Lieber, Keir A. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy." Foreign Affairs (2006): 42-67.
political system is perfect. Many illustrious figures in world history have uttered this statement, time and again. Among these figures was Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin and, perhaps, even Adolf Hitler. Yet all these men, in their own way, whether limited or otherwise, believed in the righteousness of their political system and with it, the right of the social and economic system. History has told us, as students, which man was right in his assumptions. Yet even in today's world, and today's country, in a capitalistic society, with a democracy, one finds elements that are best resolved by other systems. The following paragraphs will present summaries of three interviews, and will attempt to place a Marxian analysis upon the three individuals' words below, and therefore aim to find whether these respective interviews demonstrate a persisting, ever-perpetuated class struggle.
The three individuals interviewed for the purposes of this exercise were all employed…
But their independence did not come easily.
n fact the Chechens are essentially a Muslim nation of about a million and a half, and since the early 19th century the Chechens have been fighting the Russians for their independence. Understanding a bit of history helps the viewer understand the political tensions in the film. The dictator Joseph Stalin ordered the entire population of Chechens deported to Central Asia in 1944, because the Chechens allegedly collaborated with the Nazis to bring down the Russians. This bitter memory is part of what drives the Chechens to insist on being independent of Russia.
Another subplot that has impact is the fact that the two captive Russian soldiers may be wearing the same uniform but they see the world in vastly different ways. They both dance to a Louis Armstrong song ("Let My People Go") and yet they bother each other too. But when…
In fact the Chechens are essentially a Muslim nation of about a million and a half, and since the early 19th century the Chechens have been fighting the Russians for their independence. Understanding a bit of history helps the viewer understand the political tensions in the film. The dictator Joseph Stalin ordered the entire population of Chechens deported to Central Asia in 1944, because the Chechens allegedly collaborated with the Nazis to bring down the Russians. This bitter memory is part of what drives the Chechens to insist on being independent of Russia.
Another subplot that has impact is the fact that the two captive Russian soldiers may be wearing the same uniform but they see the world in vastly different ways. They both dance to a Louis Armstrong song ("Let My People Go") and yet they bother each other too. But when the older soldier, Sasha, comes down to earth from his crustiness and becomes softly nostalgic, he reaches out and touches the hand of his younger colleague and the music in the soundtrack blares the song "The Slavyanka," which is a patriotic hymn in Russia.
In conclusion, that touching moment between Russian soldiers, and the relationship between Vanya and Dina, among other soft, human scenes, is apparently designed by the director Sergei Bodrov to reveal the irrationality of war. Again, as presented earlier in this paper, a perceptive person viewing this film could reach a conclusion that this is a pacifist film; at the very least the director and screenwriter have brought a short story from a giant of literature into a modern context and presented most of the characters as quite human and likable. The Muslim nation has been brutally mistreated over the centuries by the Soviets / Russians, so the story takes that overall theme and brings it down to earth with very human tensions that result in very human interactions. This film shows tired soldiers juxtaposed against fierce rebel fighters whose convictions are more powerful than the Russians. Interestingly, one of Dina's roles is to tell the soldiers they will have a proper burial, but the audience does not know at the end exactly what happened.
The country of Poland has been one with a history of complex politics and a difficult time retaining independence from foreign invaders. During the 19th century, Poland was controlled by a series of other nations, earning this era of Polish history the moniker of "The Age of Partitions." hile the rest of the continent was expanding economically through the industrial revolution and from literature and scientific exploration during the Scientific Revolution, Poland was a perpetual battleground, constantly in flux between authoritarian governments and an attempt to regain autonomy. In a short 100 years, Poland had been occupied by the Russia, Prussia, and Austrian governments. Despite all this political upheaval and a constant fluctuation of power, the Polish people were able to keep a unified national identity.
Fighting against three very strong nations was an impossible task for the Polish nationals. However, that did not stop the people from…
Davies, Norman. God's Playground: a History of Poland. New York: Columbia UP, 1982. Print.
Sanford, George. Poland: The Conquest of History. OPA. 1999. Print.
Changing Nature of arfare
According to generals like Rupert Smith and David Petraeus, postmodern conflict is radically different from warfare between industrialized states, such as the American Civil ar and the world wars of the 20th Century. It does not begin with a condition of peace or return to it after the total defeat of the enemy, but rather is a "continuous crisscrossing between confrontation and conflict," often with indecisive results (Smith 19). Confrontations with North Korea and Serbia, for example, continued long after the end of the actual fighting on the battlefield, and the political issues that gave rise to the conflicts remained unresolved. These types of conflicted often dragged on for years or even decades, as in Afghanistan and Somalia, and were always fought among the people, with enemies who had a strong tactical advantage over their better funded and equipped opponents because of their familiarity with local…
Bacevich, Andrew J. The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism. Holt Paperbacks, 2009.
Petreaus, David H. And James F. Amos, The U.S. Army and Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Smith, Rupert. The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. Vintage Books, 2008.
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175
Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067
Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
The land occupied by the fledgling state of Chechnya is strategically, and somewhat remotely located between the Black and Caspian seas. Lying in a natural land corridor which is a land bridge between the northern ussian and ussian federation nations, and the countries of Iraq and Turkey, although the terrain is hilly with little to offer in the way of natural resources, Chechnya holds a strategic position for travel to or from ussia, Turkey, and Iraq. As for the peoples groups in this part of the world, freedom has been only a fleeting experience. When the Tzars of ussia weren't conquering the land, the Soviet epublic was. The area has tried to put together a stable existence while living on the boarder of two world wars, so the concept of self rule, and the responsibilities which come with it have only been ideas in the minds of generations…
Chechnya," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003
http://encarta.msn.com. Accessed 1 Dec 2003.
Charlton, A. Putin hopes for end to Chechnya war, probes launched into troop abuses
AP Worldstream. 04/17/2002.
trade-offs at the Yalta conference in 1945. Was it a "sellout" to the Soviet Union? Why or Why not?
The Yalta Conference, held in February 1945 in the Crimea, was an attempt to recreate European countries that had been taken over or were under Nazi influence, in preparation for World War II's ending. Franklin D. oosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin all met to decide what would happen to the world after Nazi influence was gone. The main agreement of the Conference was debated almost as soon as the ink dried on the paper. Many people felt the United States and Great Britain sold out to the Soviet Union, as they gave them control over any country they had liberated from the Germans. The Soviet Union promised to aid in the war with Japan for these concessions. This was the major trade-off of the conference, and many felt it gave…
Author not Available. "The Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945." Fordham University. Aug. 1997. 24 May 2004. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1945YALTA.html
Schoenherr, Steve. "The Cold War Begins." University of San Diego. 20 April 2004. 24 May 2004. http://history.acusd.edu/gen/20th/coldwar1.html
Terrorism and Correctional Administrations
As if correctional administrators and other connected with prisons don't have enough problems on hand, when prisoners are also terrorists, or prisoners get radicalized in prison and attempt to conduct terrorist activities, prisons have a huge problem. This paper reviews the issues surrounding terrorism and prisons.
Ann Coppola, News Reporter for Corrections.com
This interview between counterterrorism planning expert, Bill Sturgeon, and reporter Ann Coppola, took place on the 12th of November, 2007, long before the more recent terrorism issues in the news (ISIS, and "lone wolves" doing terrible violent deeds). Sturgeon flatly said, "hile currently there is not a large number of terrorists in American prisons and jails, that could change quickly in corrections" (Coppola, p. 2).
Sturgeon said that throughout history prisons have been places where "disgruntled groups" such as terrorists, revolutionaries, and others have seen as "targets" for disruption and violence (Coppola, 2007). Coppola…
Coppola, A. (2007). Terrorism in corrections, a ticking time bomb. Corrections.com.
Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.corrections.com .
Hamm, M.S. (2010). Locking Up Terrorists: Three Models for Controlling Prisoner
Radicalization. Indiana State University. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.indstate.edu .
Ho Chi Minh was for a long time of the most controversial dictators of the world. In this sense, "for westerners Ho Chi Minh has been a figure of some mystery for many years. His death on September 3, 1969 did not end the fascination he holds for people who have found his life enigmatic and his political position unclear." Therefore, it is fair to say that to this day, there are people who more or less worship him and the system he created as a result of his desire for power and supremacy. The power of Ho Chi Minh was his response to the Western world. As he was incarcerated Ho Chi Minh defied the Western world by defending himself and supporting the idea of him being a nationalist. As stated before, the idea of the adherence to a country has always been a successful one because people will…
Asian Political News. China to mark 30th anniversary of Mao's death, tight grip on legacy. 2006. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2006_Sept_11/ai_n16715796
C.E. Dent, "Sociological indoctrination under conditions of dictatorship." 1936.
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.
DeCaro, Peter a. Rhetoric of Revolt: Ho Chi Minh's Discourse for Revolution. Westport, CT.: Praeger. 2003.
Truman: I am not a fan of compromise on this issue, Harry. But we have to prepare that we may need it. Stalin was instrumental in winning this war, and he's powerful enough that we cannot simply dictate our terms to him. I know the risk that compromise brings, and that there will be people who will suffer more under him than if they were free nations, or under our control, but we cannot cure every ill in this world.
Byrnes: Mr. President, with all due respect, and you know that in my role I fully understand the implications of compromise, but in this situation I think that Communism is just as big an evil as fascism. Even if Stalin allows these countries to remain independent, his idea of a buffer zone is a Communist buffer zone. He'll put his own people in place. The populations in those countries will…
ultra-nationalist ideologies were far more threatening on a worldwide scale than communism to the liberal belief in individual rights from 1920-1945," because it is unequivocally true. One of the principle means of corroborating this statement is to analyze the atrocities and events that led up to and included orld ar II, which took place during the aforementioned time frame. orld ar II was largely about the propagation offFascism, which is ultra-nationalism at its finest -- or at its worse for the millions of people who were slaughtered in the wake of this ideology prior to and during orld ar II. An examination of first hand sources from the Japanese invasion of China, Italy, and from communist Russia indicate that ultra-nationalism was far more restrictive in individual rights than communism -- for the simple fact that the latter belief circumscribed such rights while the former simply eradicated them.
Japan's invasion of…
Not certain of the names of these books, but I put the page numbers in the citations for you
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…
Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.
Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.
Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.
Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an editor of the Communist Daily orker. He had also been what was then vaguely known as a Communist courier."
The major starting point of the case was Chambers' disappointment with the communist doctrine and the dual attitude Stalin had when signing the 1939 pact with the Nazi leadership. Therefore, according to Time Magazine, he "abandoned the party in revulsion and despair, and became a determined enemy of Communism." Consequently, outraged by the dramatic turn that the soviet politics had taken, he began expressing his views on the collaborators of the soviet regime in the U.S. It is in this way that Chambers contacted Berle, who, after the discussion he had with the former communist partisan, wrote in his notes from September…
Abrahamsen, David. Nixon vs. Nixon: An Emotional Tragedy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976
Adolf Berle's Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers. Responses, reflections, and occasional papers. Avaliable on Internet, http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page100.html#_ftnref3 . Accessed 15 October 2006
Crowell, William P. Remembrances of Venona. Available from Internet, http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/coldwar/venona-crowell.html. Accessed 15 October 2006
Excerpts from Grand Jury Hearings Relating to the Alger Hiss Case December, 1948. Available from Internet, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hissgrandjury.html. Accessed 15 October 2006.
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
NSC-68 represented a departure point for what would be the political attitude towards the communist phenomenon during the Cold War. While pointing out the imminence of the threat the U.S.S.. posed, by describing its political structures in terms completely opposed to the U.S. system of politics, the secret document also presented four various courses of action possible in the confrontation with the U.S.S.. These were the "continuation of current policies, with current and currently projected programs for carrying out these policies; isolation; war; a more rapid building up of the political, economic, and military strength of the free world" (NSC-68, 1950).
While the first options were argued and dismissed, the last one represented in the view of the document "the only course which is consistent with progress toward achieving our fundamental purpose. The frustration of the Kremlin design requires the free world to develop a successfully functioning political and economic…
Calvocoressi, Peter. (1987). World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Gaddis, John Lewis. (1982). Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kissinger, Henry. (1995). Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security. (April 14, 1950). A Report to the President Pursuant to the President's Directive of January 31, 1950. Retrieved 7 December 2007, at http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsc-hst/nsc-68-9.htm