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Acute kidney diseases can be severe in the short-term but once treated, the kidney functions return to normal (National Institutes of Health). Hemolytic uremic syndrome and Nephrotic syndrome are acute kidney diseases affecting children. Most acute kidney diseases are caused by trauma, injury, or poisoning.
Chronic conditions include deformed kidneys that are due to birth defects, the hereditary disease polycystic kidney disease (PKD), Glomerular diseases, and Systemic diseases (National Institutes of Health). Birth defects and hereditary conditions are the most common causes of chronic kidney diseases in children under the age of four. Genetic factors are indicated in kidney diseases that develop later in childhood. Among adolescents who develop kidney diseases, glomerular diseases are the most common culprits. Glomerular diseases "attack the individual filtering units in the kidney," which causes blood and protein to leak into the urine," (National Institutes of Health).
Once diagnosed, kidney diseases can respond to a…… [Read More]
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder distinguished by the growth of lots of cysts in the kidneys ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 1). In the majority of cases, this genetic disease is passed down through families as an autosomal dominant trait. If a parent is the carrier of the gene, there is a fifty percent chance for the children to develop the disorder ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").
The kidneys are two organs. Each kidney is about the size of a fist and is found in a human being's abdomen (upper part) towards the back. Extra fluid and wastes present in the blood are filtered by kidneys forming urine as a result. Kidneys also help in the regulation of amounts of certain essential substances in the body. When cysts are formed in the kidneys, they are full of fluid. The normal structure of the kidneys thus becomes greatly enlarged due to the…… [Read More]
According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2018), chronic kidney disease is one program that Environmental Health and Safety professionals are examining more closely to better understand how environment factors into the onset of the disease. Chronic kidney disease is characterized as the failure of the kidneys to filter waste and excess fluid from the blood (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Without the efficient use of the kidneys, the body’s stability and health are threatened. Heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and anemia are all possible outcomes that an individual may experience as a result of kidney failure. As there are more than 200,000 cases of chronic kidney disease every year (Mayo Clinic, 2018), this is a serious problem that is deserving of study—especially as the etiology of chronic kidney disease is still somewhat unknown. One project funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2018) that focuses on understanding…… [Read More]
Meanwhile, kidney stones are not a new medical problem, according to the National Kidney & Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (National Institutes of Health). In fact scientists have found evidence of kidney stones "…in a 7,000-year-old Egyptian mummy" (NIH). The NIH explains that the number of patients with kidney stones "has been increasing over the past 30 years" and researchers are not sure why. In the late 1970s, not even 4% of the American population had kidney stones but by the 1990s more than 5% of the population suffered from kidney stones (NIH). Caucasian men are the most likely people to get kidney stones, and from the age of 40 up to 70 men are particularly susceptible to kidney stones (NIH).
Kidney stones can be several shapes, even jagged shaped, which can be more painful than a smooth stone,…… [Read More]
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…… [Read More]
Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…… [Read More]
(2012) conducted a cohort study in which a large (over three million) group of patients had their renal activity monitored. The study ultimately came to focus on the subgroup who had undergone kidney stones: these were followed up with and examined, at a median follow-up period of eleven years, in Alberta, Canada. The goal was to examine patients who had experienced at least one episode of kidney stones and to see if that correlated with any other forms of kidney disease (up to and including end stage renal disease) later in life. The basic measure used for examining the patients on the follow-up visit was the level of serum creatinine, the most basic measure of kidney health that is available to physicians. Those patients who had double the expected serum creatinine level were judged to have chronic kidney disease.
The most unexpected finding from the cohort study was the effect…… [Read More]
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…… [Read More]
Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease commonly develops alongside diabetes and/or high blood pressures. Patients who suffer from either are at risk of also developing chronic kidney disease. This is because high blood sugar can cause damage to the kidneys in the same way that a car exposed to wintery weather conditions is impacted by the salt that the city will dump on the road to control for ice. The car will be ruined if not properly cleaned and maintained—and the same goes for the body’s kidneys. To prevent chronic kidney disease the patient must first address the issues of diabetes and/or high blood pressure. Obesity is also a factor in the progression of kidney disease. Additionally, chronic kidney disease can lead to hypertension if this is not already a factor. The reality is that an individual who suffers from chronic kidney disease is likely to suffer from stress, poor…… [Read More]
Main Functions of the Kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, 12 centimeters long, which lie at the sides of the spinal column behind the abdominal cavity (Merck 2010). Their main function is to maintain the proper balance of water and minerals in the body. Their other major functions include filtration and elimination of wastes and toxins, regulation of blood pressure and secretion of some hormones. The amount of water taken into the body must match the amount being eliminated. If the balance is not maintained, water will accumulate fast and illness or death may occur. Excess water will dilute the body's electrolyte and inadequate amount will concentrate electrolytes. The kidneys regulate and help maintain the precise concentrations (Merck).
The kidneys' second major function consists of filtration and excretion (Merck 2010). They pass out urea, a main waste product from protein metabolism. Urea moves through the glomerulus and into…… [Read More]
Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).
Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…… [Read More]
Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease
Outline of Coronary Heart Disease
The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.
CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…… [Read More]
Mayor, S. (2009). "UK sees rise in people donating a kidney to unknown recipients." British medical journal 338(7710), pp. 1521.
In this brief yet highly relevant article, the author describes a recently observed trend of increasing live-donor kidney donations for unknown recipients. hough living donors for family members with a need for transplant have been relatively common for sometime, the idea of donating a kidney while still living for a person unknown to the donor is a very recent development in kidney translation and availability. hough the reasons for this increase are not yet clear, as no research has been undertaken to determine the causal effect of this observed trend, initial results suggest that simple awareness of the need for renal donation and the normalcy of life following the donation of a kidney is a major factor.
Nakamura, Y.; Konno, O.; Matsuno, N.; Yokoyama, ., et al. (2008). "How can…… [Read More]
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…… [Read More]
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]
Treatment of Addison's disease involves addressing the hormone deficiency using "replacement dose." [NIH] The drugs that are used as replacements for cortisol functions are known as glucocorticoids. Hydrocortisone or Dexamethasone or Prednisone is the drugs of choice. Since blood levels of Hydrocortisone can be directly measured it is an excellent choice for treatment and it makes drug dosage adjustment very easy. [Sarah aker] Patients with Aldosterone deficiency are treated with fludrocortisone (Florinef). Inside the human body the secretion of cortisol is affected by stress. More cortisol is secreted during stress, fever, vomiting, etc. Therefore during periods of stress or physical ailments patients may require additional dosages of cortisol therapy. During sick days it is therefore necessary to consult with the physician, as a higher dose of cortisol therapy is essential. "Sick day rules" are different from normal days for glucocortisoid treatment dosage. Also, if the patient suffers from severe vomiting…… [Read More]
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]
Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.
Overview and Brief History of the Condition:
Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.
The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…… [Read More]
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…… [Read More]
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…… [Read More]
For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.
The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."
Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…… [Read More]
ESRD patients provide the full fixed cost payment due to the full reimbursement for their care. Long-term care facilities would like to have 100% ESRD patients however, such a patient load does require skilled workers in numbers to care for these especially demanding patients.
ESRD includes the ADL's and care specific to kidney cleaning and functioning, such as dialysis treatment either at home or at an outpatient facility. Additionally, some patients are brought in as in-patients at the hospital for ESRD treatment and some patients are admitted and remain admitted at a hospital until discharged. These patients either receive home care treatment, receive treatment at an outpatient facility, or are admitted to a long-term care facility.
Patient options & trade-offs related to cost, quality, and access to treatment
The patient has somewhat limited options as a function of the cost, quality, and access to health care. Largely, the options are…… [Read More]
Obesity: An Overview
hat is the disease?
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder whereby a patient's BMI or body mass index, defined as the patient's weight in kilograms divided by the patient's height in meters squared in kilograms, is greater than 30. Obesity puts one at greater risk for a number of ailments, and a BMI less than 21 is associated with the greatest protection from coronary heart disease mortality and other life-threatening ailments affecting the heart, other vital organs, and the body's metabolism. (Eckel, 1997)
However, there are problems with the BMI-based definition of obesity, as many women with a BMI of near 30 may be less at risk for heart disease if their increase in adipose tissue is distributed in the pelvis and not the abdomen. Substantial evidence now indicates that an increased waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, better predicts co-morbidities and mortality from obesity, such as…… [Read More]
Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer
Cutting down on alcohol
Giving up Tobacco
Medications approved to treat breast cancer:
Afinitor et al. (National Cancer Institute, 2016).
Concept Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer
The etiology of breast cancer remains mainly unidentified. isk factors linked with breast cancer can be clustered into three comprehensive contributing factors: i. family history (hereditary) factors, ii. hormonal reproductive factors
environmental factors (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).
Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence risk of breast cancer from environmental chemicals, dietary agents, and endogenous steroids (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).
Lump or contour change
Edema or peau d'orange (Medscape, 2015)
Chest x-ray (CX) Complete blood count (CBC)
Basic metabolic panel (BMP)
Lactate Urine…… [Read More]
Studies conducted over decades have concluded that there is a significant link between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For instance, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which involves both the impairment in insulin resistance and the defective secretion of insulin by the pancreas. The development of diabetes often comes with a number of cardiovascular complications including "coronary heart disease (CDC), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and possibly neuropathy and cardiomyopathy." (Grundy 1999)
Specifically both diabetes type 1 and type 2 are considered to be risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. "Moreover, myocardial ischemeal due to coronary atherosclerosis commonly occurs without symptoms in patients with diabetes." (Grundy 1999) In other words, patients with diabetes are more likely to be stricken with congestive heart failure. But it is not only the risk of heart failure that diabetes sufferers are at risk from, another…… [Read More]
Additionally, there may be patients that will be found to have the early symptoms of CKD, and those test results will be passed on to the individual patient.
All participants will be invited to learn more about CKD, and a one-night informational meeting will be conducted in which informational brochures will be passed out to the attendees, and will be discussed in detail. The attendees will also be provided the opportunity to give feedback (positive or negative) concerning their experiences with the early testing and how they view CKD from a current view as compared to their previous perceptions.
After all the data has been gathered and analyzed, a paper will be compiled that presents the results, along with a discussion of those results. It is hoped that the results will provide information to the medical community concerning how early testing and positive reinforcement can be effectively used during the…… [Read More]
The pancreas is an important source of digestive enzymes and fluids, and plays a critical role in regulating blood sugar levels through the production of insulin and glucagon (NDDIC, 2012). Should the pancreas become inflamed there is the risk that the digestive enzymes will become activated within the pancreas, resulting in self-digestion. This disease is known as pancreatitis and even mild cases require hospitalization. This essay will review what is known about pancreatitis in the United States and the clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.
Pancreatitis Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and Etiology
The digestive enzymes produced by a healthy pancreas are secreted into the small intestine as zymogens, which are enzymes that have their catalytic domain blocked by a peptide group (Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, 2002). The intestinal brush border cells secrete enteropeptidase, which removes the peptide blocking the catalytic domain of trypsin. Trypsin then activates the digestive enzymes secreted by…… [Read More]
Diabetes in Australia
The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes esearch Fund (JDF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.
Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be…… [Read More]
NSF occurs only in patients with advanced kidney disease. ven though the cause-and-effect link is not proven, the association of NSF with gadolinium exposure is strong enough for the FDA to issue a warning. If an MR study with contrast is absolutely required, a nongadodiamide contrast using the lowest possible dose is preferable." It would also seem prudent to perform hemodialysis to enhance gadolinium elimination and to identify other potential cofactors (Busko, M.2007).
There are many issues that impact MR safety that should be considered during site planning for a given MR installation. These have historically not been dealt with in the prior versions of the ACR MR Safe Practice Guidelines. For the first time, we include in this article, as separate appendices, sections that address such issues as well, including cryogen emergency vent locations and pathways, 5-gauss lines, siting considerations, patient access pathways, etc. Yet despite their appearance herein,…… [Read More]
communicable disease for discussion is HIV. HIV is the precursor to AIDS and is a virus with possible origins within the monkeys and chimp population of Africa. Some humans in certain areas of Africa ate these animals and may have been exposed to the virus where it transformed into aids. Because of HIV's ability to destroy CD4 cells, a particular kind of white blood cell, which plays a big part in aiding the body fight illness, it severely weakens a person's immune system. Eventually, it can progress to AIDS. This happens when an individual's CD4 count goes below 200 or experience complications that define AIDS like tuberculosis.
Transmission of HIV comes from infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions that must enter a person's body. Ordinary contact does not result in infection like hugging, dancing, or kissing a person with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through water, insect bites, or air.…… [Read More]
"Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors "FN12. The article states that acute episodes of hyperkalemia are commonly triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium, and that illnesses and dehydration can also be factors. The physician must also be aware therefore that a common positive response by patients in these circumstances was to a sodium bicarbonate supplementation.
Another bit of information that might be important to the diagnosing physician would be that "elevated serum aldosterone causes the renal cortical collecting ducts to excrete potassium and retain sodium, further lowering serum potassium" FN13. Potassium levels should be monitored in an ongoing fashion to determine whether they are stable or not. Additional monitoring should take place for hypertension since twenty to sixty…… [Read More]
Renal failure, or commonly referred to as kidney failure, is a condition in which the kidneys do not sufficiently filter out the toxins and waste products that are transported in the body's blood stream. There are two basic forms of renal failure. The first is when there is an acute injury prevents the kidneys from functioning properly. The next is a more serious condition in which the kidneys are chronically inflicted. Chronic kidney disease has the potential to be irreversible and requires immediate medical attention. Some of the symptoms of renal failure include (Lin, 2011):
General ill feeling and fatigue
Itching (pruritus) and dry skin
eight loss without trying to lose weight
Other symptoms that may develop, especially when kidney function has gotten worse, include:
Abnormally dark or light skin
Brain and nervous system symptoms:
Drowsiness and confusion
Problems concentrating or thinking
Numbness in…… [Read More]
Doctors use a fasting plasma glucose test to confirm a diagnosis of type-two diabetes. A patient must fast for 8 hours prior to giving a blood sample (http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diagnosing-type-2-diabetes). If it is determine that the patient has diabetes, the doctor will prescribe diet management and exercise. In some cases, insulin shots or pills may also be prescribed.
Unlike type-one diabetes, type-two develops because of lifestyle choices. If you are overweight and get little or no exercise, you have a greater chance of developing type-two diabetes. Other un-controllable factors known to contribute to type-two diabetes include: family history, age, race, ethnicity and a low body weight at birth (https://members.kaiserpermanente.org/kpweb/healthency.do?hwid=hw135189§ionId=ur1000&contextId=hw135189).
COMPLICATIONS AND EFFECTS OF DIABETES
There are many long-term health issues are associated with diabetes. If a patient fails to be diagnosis or a patient does not maintain their insulin schedule, complications may occur. Diabetics have a higher likelihood of developing eye problems…… [Read More]
However, what was once a slow journey has recently gathered momentum with the introduction of "more flexible immunosuppression protocols, the ability to individualize surgical options to patient needs, and the dramatic improvement of isolated islet transplantation results." (Allen, p. 3485) esearchers use pancreas transplant options and advanced surgical techniques, but the donor pancreas and surgical complications, as well as the type of immunosuppression affect the outcome of islet transplantation.
The immunosuppressive drugs have significant side effects and long-term effects are still not known. Known side effects of immunosuppressive drugs include mouth sores and gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach upset or diarrhea. Patients also have experienced increased blood cholesterol levels, decreased white blood cell counts, decreased kidney function, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. Taking immunosuppressive drugs increases the risk of tumors and cancer as well.
Progress on whole pancreas and beta cell transplantation has been hampered by the…… [Read More]
(Northern & Downs, 1974)
In China, otoacoustic emissions studies on patients with Alport Syndrome have determined, specifically by way of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests, that the location of pathological changes due to Alport Syndrome are located in the basilar membrane (Zhang & McPherson, 2005). Other studies have found "no statistically significant average difference between left and right ears for average values of TOAE (transitory otoacoustic emissions) response amplitude with no contralateral acoustic stimulation in patients with Alport's syndrome. (Abreu Alves & al, 2008)"
Auditory brainstem response results for Alport Syndrome patients indicate the cochlea as the site of damage, with dramatic alterations of the stria vascularis.
Hearing loss from Alport Syndrome complications is usually permanent. ecommendations for patients include: urine testing alongside SNHL testing; otologist involvement at all stages of treatment once hearing loss presents; counseling and education to enhance coping skills; instruction for lip reading and sign…… [Read More]
Untreated diabetes can result in serious deterioration of the circulatory system as a consequence of long-term exposure to elevated blood glucose levels (NIDDKD, 2006). By monitoring blood glucose levels and administering insulin to reduce glucose concentration in the blood, many patients can carry on with their lives without significant effects of the disease (ADA, 2009).
However, undiagnosed or untreated diabetes can have very serious effects on the body and consequences for the patient. Among those effects and consequences are kidney damage, cardiac and circulatory system damage, as well as vision problems leading to increasing blindness (ADA, 2007; ADA, 2009). Because untreated or insufficiently managed diabetes often results in decreased circulation to the extremities, diabetes is also associated with the significant risk of losing fingers, toes, and even arms or legs. Once circulation is reduced below the minimum level required to oxygenate tissues enough to sustain them, the patient is at…… [Read More]
recoding a pregnant mother-Based case study. thai primegravida multpara.
This essay is about a process recording for a pregnant mother. Process recording is a written record of an interaction with a client. Pregnant mothers are in danger of any disease but there most alarming gestational diseases; these include hypertension, cardiac disease, anemia, diabetes, hyperemis gravidarum and many more. In this essay am only going to dwell in gestational hypertension.
This is a process recording of a case study of a pregnant mother. Mrs. B is a 16 years old primigravida at 30 weeks gestation and has attended the antenatal clinic three times. All finding were within the normal range until her last visit 1 week ago when her blood pressure was 130/90mmHg.On urinalysis there was no proteinuria. The fetal heart sounds were normal, the fetus was active and uterine size was consistent with dates. She has come to clinic today,…… [Read More]
Hypotension & Antihypertensives
Antihypertensives should not be withheld just for hypotensive purpose. Patients with other high risk conditions, such heart failure, IHD, chronic kidney disease, recurrent stroke, etc., should be given antihypertensives inspite of hypotension. Patients with hypertension target organ damage, or at risk of, should continue antihypertensives, even with hypotensive events. Pregnant women with chronic hypertension who are at risk of preeclampsia should also continue with antihypertensives, even with hypotension situations.
"Therapeutic decisions in individuals with hypertension and other high risk conditions, such as heart failure, IHD, chronic kidney disease, recurrent stroke, etc., should be directed at both the compelling condition and lowering blood pressure" (National High Blood Pressure Education Program, 2004, Aug). According to the authors, 40-50% of patients with heart failure symptoms have preserved systolic function and are more likely to have hypertension, LVH, and isolated diastolic dysfunction. Progression to more severe stages of left ventricular dysfunction…… [Read More]
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…… [Read More]
Management of Chronic and Terminal Illness
For people dealing with chronic or terminal illness, stress levels can be very high. While that is to be expected, high stress levels only make things worse. Accepting the inevitable is easier on a person's emotional well-being, but it may take some time to get to that point (Taylor, 2005). If a diagnosis is new, denial is often the first emotion the person faces. He or she does not want to believe the sickness or the severity of it. After denial, there are other stages that a person usually works through, including bargaining, anger, and depression, before acceptance finally sets in and the person is able to get on with life as much as possible. Chronic illnesses can include things like diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease, COPD, and other health problems (CDC, 2010). Many of these diseases are preventable, but they are not curable…… [Read More]
Diabetes is a serious, widespread disorder affecting millions of adults and children throughout the United States. The 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet provided by the American Diabetes Association lists the following statistics:
million people in the United States are afflicted by diabetes, which accounts for 8.3% of the entire population.
% of all men over the age of 20 and 10.8% of all women over the age of 20 have diabetes.
In 2007, diabetes was found to be the underlying cause of death on a total of 71,382 death certificates, and was listed as a factor contributing to death on another 160,022 death certificates.
The total cost associated with diabetes diagnoses in 2007 in the United States was $174 billion.
Given the enormity of these statistics, it is crucial that treatment and prevention strategies are put into practice that can reduce the number of individuals suffering from diabetes.
According…… [Read More]
incidence of diabetic nephropathy, its etiology, its comorbidities, and how to control it. The best type of 'cure' is, as always, prevention, and close regulation of the disease which is particularly important since diabetic nephropathy can be fatal.
Diabetic nephropathy is the primary etiology of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. Unfortunately, type 2 diabetes mellitus is skyrocketing in the United States alone to over 21 million cases, it is imperative for health care professionals to understand the mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. This is particularly so since early recognition and prevention of the disease as well as tight serum glucose control can help prevent diabetic nephropathy from occurring thereby leading to potentially longer life for its carriers.
The authors describe the characteristics and etiology of diabetic nephropathy explaining how and why it can result in kidney disease and kidney failure.
Understanding these mechanisms can help us prevent kidney failure from…… [Read More]
Type I diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Type 1 account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). The most common form of diabetes is Type II, which accounts for about 90 to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). Pre- diabetes is a condition often present prior to the development of Type II diabetes. In pre-diabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered diabetic.
Pre-diabetes does not have to lead to the development of diabetes if a person diagnosed with this condition: Patients who work to control their weight and increase their physical activity can often prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. There are 41 million Americans…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…… [Read More]
Australian Tax on Wine
usiness Submission - Australian Tax on Wine
With the Australian government seeking to impose additional taxation upon the use and sale of wine, there have been many outcries of indignation arguing how this would affect the Australian wine industry, and eventually the Australian economy. However, what needs to be considered are the consequences and the public cost of continuing with the discounted taxation to which wine makers in Australia are currently subjected to. The effect on the Australian GDP needs to be taken in to account with the harms that alcoholism in the increasingly youth population is set to unleash, if made available readily and at subsidized prices.
The risks and problems that have arose from the increased alcohol consumption by the Australian public in recent years, especially the young generation, point towards a possible increase in the health deterioration of most Australians while also impacting…… [Read More]
CKD - Design
Designing a study that evaluates an intervention must take several items into consideration in order to be determined as both reliable and valid; even if the study is in reality a health promotion goal, it is still necessary to treat it the same way a study would be treated. Determining what is reliable and what is valid therefore is an important step in both including those two objectives in a study, and achieving them as well. Study reliability is determined when the researcher can expect the same results time and time again by replicating research procedures. If a study is set up to determine results, and those results can be replicated, then the researcher can determine that the results are reliable. hen the researcher is attempting to show reliability, the researcher wants an independent observer to be capable of replicating results of the study using the same…… [Read More]
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…… [Read More]
Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.
Fast Food's link to Obesity
People…… [Read More]
educing obesity is seen as the primary goal of these efforts, but part of combating obesity is engaging in more active lifestyles and thus the educational efforts Oklahoma is planning will address both identified risk factors for diabetes. Strategies outlined that will assist in achieving the objective of reduced obesity other than through an increase in the availability and effectiveness of education include working for better policy development and implementation that directly encourages more healthy choices and behaviors, a better integration of various local programs and resources available throughout the state, and ensuring that evidence-based practices are used in medicine.
The State of the State report notes that infant mortality is higher in Oklahoma than in the rest of the country, with a lack of adequate prenatal care being a contributing factor in this issue. Healthy People 2020 addresses this issue in calling for a greater awareness of infant…… [Read More]
Target Group and their Local Government
To determine the actual effects of diabetes on the indigenous population, you must examine the areas where many of these individuals live. This will provide insights as to possible issues that could be contributing to the problem by: examining the policies of the local government, looking at relevant health statistics, determining fruit / vegetable consumption and looking at the different support services / infrastructure. These different elements are important, because they provide insights about how the local community could be contributing to the problem. If you can see how these factors are affecting a particular community, then the government can begin to design intervention strategies to reduce the overall effects. Once this takes place, is when you can see how this demographic of 25 to 64-year-olds can be effectively targeted for an intervention.
A description of the Local Government and relevant socio-demographic characteristics of…… [Read More]
Discussion #1 Diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) can cause many problems for the patient when the disease is uncontrolled. Please choose one of the problems associated with diabetes and describe what happens to the body to cause the problem. Examine what causes the problem in the patient with diabetes and create a teaching strategy for a patient who is at risk for the problem. Include the types of Insulin in your post, Lantis, Lispro, egular and Intermediate acting and illustrate how evidence-based practice can improve outcomes. Justify your answers and cite your references.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas such that it produces only a little or no insulin. Accounting for 5 to 10% of diabetes in the U.S., the disease occurs primarily in children and young adults. Prior to the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone…… [Read More]
It should not be taken with aspirin or other aspirin-like compounds. It should not be taken with, "benzodiazepines, flecainide (Tambocor), iron, ketoconazole (Nizoral), lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), methenamine (Hiprex, Urex), methotrexate, quinidine, sulfa-containing antibiotics, tetracycline (Sumycin), or vitamins" (4). It can exacerbate certain conditions such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney disease, or ulcers (4). It should be consumed while pregnant or breastfeeding, only under the direction of a physician (4). Sodium is used to increase the effectiveness of sulfanomides (5).
Sodium bicarbonate increases the sodium level in the body (4). A physician might prescribe a low or reduced sodium diet while on Sodium bicarbonate. The individual needs of each patient must be addressed by their own personal physician. Sodium carbonate can produce certain side effects in some people. These side effects include increased thirst, stomach cramps, and extra gas (4). Several symptoms may indicate serious conditions for which…… [Read More]
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…… [Read More]
These clinics will have to be set up over a number of years as funding becomes available for each. It is envisioned that the combination of clinics and learning programs will help the community to achieve better overall health. Indeed, clinics that focus on the specific health issues faced by the Hispanic community will remove some of the burden from general-purpose clinics and hospitals.
In conclusion, it is projected that the above-outlined prevention strategies can go a long way towards significant improvements in the health of the Hispanic community. In addition to addressing specific renal failure problems, prevention measures and better access to clinics can also result in a better overall health and lifestyle experience for the Hispanic community. It is therefore proposed that these measures be implemented and thoroughly researched for both short- and long-term effectiveness.
Bibby, M. (2009). Advocacy strategies for government sponsored public health agencies:…… [Read More]
Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure
egents Online Degree Program
Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.
M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…… [Read More]
cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.
Client Interview Data
Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity
The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…… [Read More]
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
The condition, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is named after Hakaru Hashimoto, a Japanese scientist, who uncovered the disease in the year 1912. Amino, DeGroot, and Akamizu (2013) write that Hashimoto explained the conditions of four types of individuals having a chronic thyroid disorder, that he labeled as "struma lymphomatosa." These individuals' thyroid glands had diffused lymphocytic infiltration, parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis, and eosinophilic acinar-cell change. Pathological as well as clinical researches of Hashimoto Thyroiditis have been conducted frequently since Hashimoto first described the affliction.
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is an autoimmune syndrome wherein a person's immune system attacks body tissues, organs and cells. Persons suffering from this affliction have a thyroid malfunction, a condition known as hypothyroidism, wherein the thyroid gland ceases to secrete sufficient hormones to meet the needs of the body. This gland, situated at the anterior part of the…… [Read More]
¶ … Hypertension
Essential hypertension or primary hypertension is a highly complex disorder. There are various factors modulating BP or blood pressure in order for adequate tissue perfusion to occur. These include:
Circulating blood volume
Blood vessel elasticity
History of high blood pressure in family
Aside from these factors, the natural course of primary hypertension is progression from infrequent or occasional to established or frequent hypertension. There is a long, asymptomatic, and invariable period when the persistent hypertension then progresses into complicated hypertension. This means there will be target organ damage to the small arteries and aorta, retina, heart, kidneys, and central nervous system.
The journey to primary hypertension begins with prehypertension from ages 10-30 years. The transition to early hypertension occurs from ages 20-40 years. During this phase peripheral resistance is noticeable. After this stage…… [Read More]