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The client has had major feelings of not being able to cope with what is happening to him. He has "forgotten" about dialysis appointments and has even avoided doctors' phone calls. I have told him that they way he behaves will have a direct impact on his physical condition. When a kidney patient becomes ambivalent about his diet, forgets to take his medication, or abandons fluid restrictions, all of these things put strain on the patient's body (Stein & Wild 2007: 100). I have reiterated these facts to him and he seems to listen, but there is an overall sense of helplessness coming from him -- as well as a bit of ambivalence.
Client's overall reaction.
The client has the support of his wife and his children (however, they do not live close by) and he does have a good insurance plan so it doesn't seem like he is feeling…… [Read More]
I am not different in this regard; witnessing my sister having gone through the psychological and physiological factors associated with her dialysis treatment, and knowing my own risk, has been illuminating and has given me the impetus to learn about how to deal with the condition.
For me, early detection will be key. Patients who have early detection of kidney disease have a better overall prognosis through getting earlier treatment (Black, et al., 2010). Furthermore, knowing what exacerbates the condition in different presentations of kidney disease will modify my life selections; for example, I must be particularly aware of the effects of antibiotics on my kidneys and work with my doctors to select medicines with low impact on the kidneys given my family history for the condition (Loh & Cohen, 2009).
Yet given my family history to development of the condition, I am reassured to some extent that the existence…… [Read More]
Managed Diabetes Still esult in Kidney Failure?
Kidney failure is the final stage of chronic kidney disease, where the body loses its ability to rid itself of waste. When the kidneys fail, dangerous levels of toxins buildup in the body leading to death. Nearly 100,000 people are diagnosed in the United States every year with kidney failure (USDS, 2007). According to the same data, diabetes accounts for a little under half of these new cases. Controlling diabetes is important and doctors are correct to express the importance of controlling diabetes to their patients. However, recent data suggests that even when diabetes is controlled, it can still lead to kidney failure. Nearly 24 million people in the United States have diabetes, and nearly 180,000 are living with kidney failure that is a direct result of diabetes (USDS, 2007). This research will explore the connection between diabetes and kidney failure in connection…… [Read More]
Sudden Infection of the Kidney
A young individual had an infection and within four day, his kidneys are not functioning, which has contributed to the need for kidney transplant for the individual who is currently on dialysis. This situation generates concern on whether a kidney infection can take place this first. Moreover, it is important to determine that caused the infection and rapid damage on the individual's kidneys. The identification of these various aspects would help in development of effective prevention and treatment measures for kidney failure.
Generally, there are several types of kidney infections and failures that are caused by various factors, which imply that it is possible for a kidney infection to cause rapid damage within a short period of time. A sudden and severe kidney infection that is characterized by significant damage within a short time period is known as acute pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis usually causes the…… [Read More]
Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease commonly develops alongside diabetes and/or high blood pressures. Patients who suffer from either are at risk of also developing chronic kidney disease. This is because high blood sugar can cause damage to the kidneys in the same way that a car exposed to wintery weather conditions is impacted by the salt that the city will dump on the road to control for ice. The car will be ruined if not properly cleaned and maintained—and the same goes for the body’s kidneys. To prevent chronic kidney disease the patient must first address the issues of diabetes and/or high blood pressure. Obesity is also a factor in the progression of kidney disease. Additionally, chronic kidney disease can lead to hypertension if this is not already a factor. The reality is that an individual who suffers from chronic kidney disease is likely to suffer from stress, poor…… [Read More]
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…… [Read More]
Blood pressure is the strength of blood pushing against arteries’ walls as the heart beats. Adults have a 120/80 mmHg e normal blood pressure. The numerator represents the systolic pressure which is the measure of blood pressure during active heart beats while the denominator represents the diastolic pressure, which is the blood pressure during passive heart beats (Low & Tomalia, 2015).
Consistent rise of blood pressure to over 140/90 mmHg results to high blood pressure, medically referred as hypertension which puts an individual on risk of stroke. On the other hand, low blood pressure medically referred to as hypotension occurs when the blood pressure is below 90/60. On the contrary, a drop in blood pressure to below 90/60 results to an inadequate brain air supply which results in light-headedness or dizziness and fainting. Once the body’s is unable to rapidly bring blood pressure back to normal one suffers…… [Read More]
Acute renal failure is a serious medical condition. The gravity of the condition is manifested itself in the fact that the survival rate for renal failure has not improved for more than forty years. It occurs in 5% of all hospitalized patients and dialysis treatment is required in approximately .5 of cases. Dialysis is required to sustain "fluid and electrolyte balances, minimize nitrogenous waste production and sustain nutrition Infection accounts for 75% of deaths in patients with acute renal failure, and cardiorespiratory complications are the second most common cause of death" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000). Pathophysiology can vary depending upon the type: "patients who develop AKI can be oliguric or nonoliguric, have a rapid or slow rise in creatinine levels, and may have qualitative differences in urine solute concentrations and cellular content.... Oliguria is defined as a daily urine volume of less than 400 mL/d and has a worse prognosis,…… [Read More]
Main Functions of the Kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, 12 centimeters long, which lie at the sides of the spinal column behind the abdominal cavity (Merck 2010). Their main function is to maintain the proper balance of water and minerals in the body. Their other major functions include filtration and elimination of wastes and toxins, regulation of blood pressure and secretion of some hormones. The amount of water taken into the body must match the amount being eliminated. If the balance is not maintained, water will accumulate fast and illness or death may occur. Excess water will dilute the body's electrolyte and inadequate amount will concentrate electrolytes. The kidneys regulate and help maintain the precise concentrations (Merck).
The kidneys' second major function consists of filtration and excretion (Merck 2010). They pass out urea, a main waste product from protein metabolism. Urea moves through the glomerulus and into…… [Read More]
Renal failure, or commonly referred to as kidney failure, is a condition in which the kidneys do not sufficiently filter out the toxins and waste products that are transported in the body's blood stream. There are two basic forms of renal failure. The first is when there is an acute injury prevents the kidneys from functioning properly. The next is a more serious condition in which the kidneys are chronically inflicted. Chronic kidney disease has the potential to be irreversible and requires immediate medical attention. Some of the symptoms of renal failure include (Lin, 2011):
General ill feeling and fatigue
Itching (pruritus) and dry skin
eight loss without trying to lose weight
Other symptoms that may develop, especially when kidney function has gotten worse, include:
Abnormally dark or light skin
Brain and nervous system symptoms:
Drowsiness and confusion
Problems concentrating or thinking
Numbness in…… [Read More]
blood ion levels, particularly sodium, potassium, and calcium levels, if there is a decrease in overall blood flow to the kidneys. A full credit answer will discuss the mechanisms at the cellular and chemical level.
Kidney failure: What occurs when there is a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys?
A decrease in blood flow to the kidneys can lead to complete organ failure at worst or at minimum severely disrupt the body's state of homeostasis. The kidneys play a critical role in the regulation of electrolytes, particularly sodium, potassium, and calcium. As their name suggests electrolytes, or ions, "are the charged particles in body fluids that help transmit electrical impulses for proper nerve, heart, and muscle function" (Astle 2005). In a healthy organism, positive and negative ions are in a state of equal balance. Decrease in blood flow to the kidneys severely disrupts the body's ability to not only…… [Read More]
These clinics will have to be set up over a number of years as funding becomes available for each. It is envisioned that the combination of clinics and learning programs will help the community to achieve better overall health. Indeed, clinics that focus on the specific health issues faced by the Hispanic community will remove some of the burden from general-purpose clinics and hospitals.
In conclusion, it is projected that the above-outlined prevention strategies can go a long way towards significant improvements in the health of the Hispanic community. In addition to addressing specific renal failure problems, prevention measures and better access to clinics can also result in a better overall health and lifestyle experience for the Hispanic community. It is therefore proposed that these measures be implemented and thoroughly researched for both short- and long-term effectiveness.
Bibby, M. (2009). Advocacy strategies for government sponsored public health agencies:…… [Read More]
Mayor, S. (2009). "UK sees rise in people donating a kidney to unknown recipients." British medical journal 338(7710), pp. 1521.
In this brief yet highly relevant article, the author describes a recently observed trend of increasing live-donor kidney donations for unknown recipients. hough living donors for family members with a need for transplant have been relatively common for sometime, the idea of donating a kidney while still living for a person unknown to the donor is a very recent development in kidney translation and availability. hough the reasons for this increase are not yet clear, as no research has been undertaken to determine the causal effect of this observed trend, initial results suggest that simple awareness of the need for renal donation and the normalcy of life following the donation of a kidney is a major factor.
Nakamura, Y.; Konno, O.; Matsuno, N.; Yokoyama, ., et al. (2008). "How can…… [Read More]
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…… [Read More]
This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.
It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…… [Read More]
Congestive Cadiac Failue
M Wad is a 71-yea-old male who epots feeling a non-adiating, "heavy" discomfot in the lowe etostenal and epigastic egion paticulaly when he bends ove o walks shot distances. He also epots a futhe 7 days of dyspnoea duing modeate exetion. On examination his blood pessue was 165/95 mm HG, pulse 90 -100 bpm, espiatoy ate of 24 with inspiatoy cackles at both lung bases.
The following blood tests whee odeed: a full blood count (FBC), Uea Electolytes and Ceatinine (UEC), Live Function Tests (LFT), CK and Toponin. All esults wee within nomal limits.
An Ateial Blood Gas was also collected esulting in: pH [HIDDEN], pCO2 38.7mmHg, PO2 69.8mmHg, HCO3 24.0mmol/L, BE -0.7mmol/L and O2 SAT 89.3%
M Wad also has an ECG that showed nomal sinus hythm, and a chest x-ay showing cadiac enlagement and lowe-lobe infiltates, suggesting the pesence of acute exacebation of congestive cadiac…… [Read More]
Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric Patient
Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric
eflect on your analysis of the geriatric patient in multisystem failure by doing the following:
Explain key immediate assessments you should make that would help assess the patient's homeostasis, oxygenation, and level of pain.
There are various diagnoses undertaken in assessing the patient's homeostasis, oxygenation, and level of pain. The immediate objective that nurses prioritize on is checking the patient's vital symptoms. Vital symptoms form the baseline of the assessment by providing significant information that illustrates whether the most essential organs function as required.
The assessment may involve checking the health status of the patient in the laboratory (Kane, 2004). In the laboratory, there is an assessment of the patient's capillary tube, urine test and blood pressure. When there is simultaneous malfunctioning of the body organs, nurses refer to this condition as multiple organ dysfunction (MODs).
Multiple organ dysfunction…… [Read More]
(2012) conducted a cohort study in which a large (over three million) group of patients had their renal activity monitored. The study ultimately came to focus on the subgroup who had undergone kidney stones: these were followed up with and examined, at a median follow-up period of eleven years, in Alberta, Canada. The goal was to examine patients who had experienced at least one episode of kidney stones and to see if that correlated with any other forms of kidney disease (up to and including end stage renal disease) later in life. The basic measure used for examining the patients on the follow-up visit was the level of serum creatinine, the most basic measure of kidney health that is available to physicians. Those patients who had double the expected serum creatinine level were judged to have chronic kidney disease.
The most unexpected finding from the cohort study was the effect…… [Read More]
Community Health Nursing
One of the most important aspects of healthcare today is prevention. Some of the many preventable diseases within the American population today include diabetes and kidney disease. Often, a key to such prevention is medical screening and education. One major challenge medical professionals today are facing is the growing incidence of kidney disease, not only in the general population, but especially among Hispanics. This population is one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the country (Banabe and ios, 2004). This group is also twice as likely to develop kidney failure as those who are non-Hispanic and white. For a community nurse, this is of particular concern, especially in terms of strategies to help this population prevent the prevalence of kidney failure and its causes.
The disease is among this population is of particular interest, since the researcher has worked with this population for some time. Several questions…… [Read More]
incidence of diabetic nephropathy, its etiology, its comorbidities, and how to control it. The best type of 'cure' is, as always, prevention, and close regulation of the disease which is particularly important since diabetic nephropathy can be fatal.
Diabetic nephropathy is the primary etiology of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. Unfortunately, type 2 diabetes mellitus is skyrocketing in the United States alone to over 21 million cases, it is imperative for health care professionals to understand the mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. This is particularly so since early recognition and prevention of the disease as well as tight serum glucose control can help prevent diabetic nephropathy from occurring thereby leading to potentially longer life for its carriers.
The authors describe the characteristics and etiology of diabetic nephropathy explaining how and why it can result in kidney disease and kidney failure.
Understanding these mechanisms can help us prevent kidney failure from…… [Read More]
total I have 13 years in the nursing field. Throughout that combined time I have worked in nursing homes / assisted living facilities, home health, as well as in a hospital setting. During the time that I worked in the hospital I worked in a program called share the care. This entailed me working throughout the entire hospital as a nursing assistant, which gave me experience in various areas, i.e. The emergency room, intensive care, pediatrics, oncology and etc. By being apart of this program it has afforded me the opportunity to do what I truly love, be a part of the whole process of nursing sick patients back to health. This has always been a passion of mine.
A Nurse practitioner is a nurse who has completed a graduate nursing degree and training in providing preventive and medical health care to individuals and families in association with a physician.…… [Read More]
The high levels of blood glucose lead to the production of insulin therefore patients have excessive production of insulin. There is insulin resistance and hence body cells do not respond in an appropriate way in the presence of insulin (Mealey, 2010).
The main difference between diabetes insipidus, and diabetes mellitus, is that in diabetes mellitus insulin resistance is referred to being "post-receptor." This implies that the problem lies with the cells which respond to insulin as opposed to there being a problem in the production of insulin. The onset of diabetes mellitus is slow and the disorder might go undiagnosed for a very long period of time. Diabetes insipidus has an abrupt onset and it might be diagnosed at any age.
Factors affecting diagnosis and treatment prescription of diabetes
There are various factors that might affect the diagnosis and treatment of these two types of diabetes.one of these factors is…… [Read More]
However, many patients suffering with chronic renal disease do not explore this option.
4-6: Increase the proportion of patients with treated chronic kidney failure who receive a transplant within 3 years of registration on the waiting list. Again renal transplantation can improve overall quality of life for patients struggling with this condition.
4-7: educe kidney failure due to diabetes: Type II diabetes is a significant contributor to chronic kidney disease. educing and preventing diabetes can effectively reduce the number of cases of chronic renal failure.
4-8: Increase the proportion of persons with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and proteinuria who receive recommended medical therapy to reduce progression to chronic renal insufficiency. This measure would help improve health outcomes for the patient and reduce the overall impact of the disease on the general population.
elevance of the Objectives and Desired Outcomes
The objective outlined as the principle focus of improving…… [Read More]
Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure
egents Online Degree Program
Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.
M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…… [Read More]
Studies conducted over decades have concluded that there is a significant link between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For instance, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which involves both the impairment in insulin resistance and the defective secretion of insulin by the pancreas. The development of diabetes often comes with a number of cardiovascular complications including "coronary heart disease (CDC), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and possibly neuropathy and cardiomyopathy." (Grundy 1999)
Specifically both diabetes type 1 and type 2 are considered to be risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. "Moreover, myocardial ischemeal due to coronary atherosclerosis commonly occurs without symptoms in patients with diabetes." (Grundy 1999) In other words, patients with diabetes are more likely to be stricken with congestive heart failure. But it is not only the risk of heart failure that diabetes sufferers are at risk from, another…… [Read More]
(Newman, 1) Here, it can be evidenced that the empathy accorded by the theoretical framework will provide an ideological umbrella for how best to address one's condition while simultaneously abiding the regulatory medical requirements common to most forms of modern treatment.
This means possessing a degree of pertinent information where nursing theory is concerned that will allow for such pragmatism and a firm understanding of the practices pertinent to kidney donation as denoted in the annotated bibliography provided here below.
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
The article here described a first-ever successful procedure in which a healthy kidney was removed through a donor's vagina rather than through traditionally employed and far more invasive surgical procedures. This is useful to our discussion because it reduces the strain and cosmetic impact of making a kidney donation. The article cites the…… [Read More]
Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin
a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN
Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.
Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…… [Read More]
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]
Mama Might Be Better off Dead
For the past several decades, health care reform has been on the top of the political lip service agenda. Presidential candidates debate heatedly over which types of Medicare or Medicaid reforms should be instated and purport to want "universal health care." They call out for assistance to low-income families and claim that no American citizen should go without health care services. Yet through all their platitudes one thing remains painfully clear: they really just don't care. Not only has little been done to ensure that every American, regardless of race, receives the best health care services available but the situation seems to be getting worse as the income disparity gap widens with every successive year. In her 1993 book Mama Might be Better Off Dead, Laurie Kaye Abraham illustrates the impact of America's failing health care system by focusing on one family. The Banes'…… [Read More]
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…… [Read More]
"Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors "FN12. The article states that acute episodes of hyperkalemia are commonly triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium, and that illnesses and dehydration can also be factors. The physician must also be aware therefore that a common positive response by patients in these circumstances was to a sodium bicarbonate supplementation.
Another bit of information that might be important to the diagnosing physician would be that "elevated serum aldosterone causes the renal cortical collecting ducts to excrete potassium and retain sodium, further lowering serum potassium" FN13. Potassium levels should be monitored in an ongoing fashion to determine whether they are stable or not. Additional monitoring should take place for hypertension since twenty to sixty…… [Read More]
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate secto, ensuing that a gowing majoity of people, especially in the ichest counties, and paticulaly in the United States, must pay -- often consideably -- fo health cae. Finally, gowing inteest in cosmetic sugey, involving such elective pocedues as hinoplasty, liposuction, beast enhancement o eduction, LASIK eye sugey and so on, o moe simply the emoval of tattoos, have ceated new demands. Vaious foms of dental sugey, especially cosmetic dental sugey, ae not coveed by insuance in counties like the UK and Austalia; hence dental touism has become paticulaly common. In Asia these tends ae 'the unlikely child of new global ealities: the fallout of teoism, the Asian economic downtun, intenet access to pice infomation, and the globalisation of health sevices'…… [Read More]
Diabetes in Australia
The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes esearch Fund (JDF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.
Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be…… [Read More]
Healthcare Plan for the Management of Genitourinary Disorders
Objective of this paper is to carry out a care plan for the patient, aged 60 years, who is suffering from genitourinary disorder. The study carries out the case evaluation and identifies the symptoms of the patient complication. The study also provides a comprehensive healthcare plan used for the treatment of the patients.
Case Study Evaluation
HPI (History of Present Illness).
Evaluation of the case study reveals that the patient is a Hispanic male, aged 60 years of age and complains of a decline of urinary flow. While the patient has experienced the symptom for more than two years, however, the symptom has increased significantly for the past two weeks. Although, the patient has not been diagnosed in the past, however, he faces difficulties in achieving a free flow of urine that interferes in his daily activities. The gradual worsening of the…… [Read More]
Alcohol on Urine Formation
The functioning of cells in the body depends on the supply of the required nutrients and the elimination of waste in the body. The extracellular fluid that surrounds different cells also thrives in stable chemical and physical conditions. While water is one of the most vital substances that provide such an environment; the concentration of hydrogen ions in the body influences the permeability, cell structure and rate of metabolic reactions (Epstein, 1997). In the human body, the kidneys are responsible for regulating different amounts and concentration of all these substances. They ensure that the large variation in the intake or loss of different substances does not interfere with the normal functioning of the body.
The consumption of alcohol has been proven to have adverse effects on the process of urine formation. According to Dasgupta (2011), this may occur directly because it affects the functioning of the…… [Read More]
patient is a 35-year-old (male?), he was diagnosed with diabetes twenty five years ago at the age of ten years old, he claims that this is hereditary in his family. He has one sister who has Type 2 diabetes and a brother who has type 1 diabetes. He manages his diabetes and other illnesses from home and through a medical clinic; for most of his life he has known he has diabetes and manages to regulate it through insulin shots, glucose tablets as well as through the right nutrition, however he claims that this is difficult and there are most days where he experiences draw backs. Many complications have arisen from his diabetes. This patient was selected because of the certain case he has in regards to his diabetes and other complications which had developed from it. His treatment and management also includes an extensive study. At the young age…… [Read More]
OLE OF GOVENMENT IN CEATING A HEALTHFUL ENVIONMENT
ecent data show that Americans consume, on average, more than three times the recommended level of sodium per day in their food and beverages. High salt intake contributes to high blood pressure and its complications -- stroke, heart attack, congestive heart failure, and kidney failure (Gulis? et al., 2014). In fact, thousands of lives could be saved if sodium consumption could be lowered in people with hypertension (high blood pressure).
The government has the sole purpose of providing safe and healthy environments to its citizens at all times. A healthy environment is beneficial directly to the people, and indirectly to the government. The safety of the environment is dependent on the legislative, social, and commercial actions that are taken by the individual people within and without governments. For instance, the world climate is largely dependent on the sole contributions of each…… [Read More]
Intradialytic weight gain has become a major problem for End Stage enal Disease (ESD) patients who are dependent on hemodialysis. This issue has resulted in more complications and hospitalizations of ESD patients who need effective IDWG management programs that are driven by nurses. This project proposes a project that is geared towards improving IDWG management for these patients by 10% through a 12-week educational program. The paper demonstrates how the project will be implemented in a 19 chair dialysis clinic that functions 6 days every week in order to accommodate 150 hemodialysis patients. The discussion includes a description of the proposed change, rationale for selecting it, implementation methods, and expected results. The author provides evaluation of baseline data collected from patients during implementation and conclusions based on the collected data.
Objectives of CNL Internship Project
The objectives or aim of this CNL Internship Project is to coordinate a plan of…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth. While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.
Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this…… [Read More]
"Valve sparing root replacements may be performed to replace the entire ascending aorta without leaving residual dissection behind" (Type A, 2011, Columbia Surgery). For type B, the usual prescription is blood pressure control, given the risks of surgery. However, endovascular stent grafting is often offered as an alternative and less invasive treatment (Type B, 2011, Columbia Surgery).
When operating, the femoral artery is usually selected for aortic cannulation. But in some patients, "although the femoral artery seems to be intact, its use for aortic return carries a high risk of cerebral embolism because of the atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Alternatively, surgeons may use the axillary artery in the presence of peripheral artery disease or femoral artery dissection" although "the use of the axillary artery for cannulation can be troublesome because of the vessel's small diameter" (Yamamoto et al. 2001). Aortic cannulation through the apex of the left ventricle…… [Read More]
Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.
Fast Food's link to Obesity
People…… [Read More]
The Food and Drug Administration has published recommendations that warn pregnant women, nursing mothers, women who might become pregnant, and children not to ear swordfish, shark, tilefish, and king mackerel due to high methylmercury content. They also warn women and children to limit their consumption of tuna (DHHS/EPA, 2004). However, if guidelines are followed, these women and children are told that they can eat limited amounts of low mercury fish.
What Levels of methylmercury are safe?
There are many factors that help to determine how much mercury is considered to be safe. The EPA reference dose (fD) is the amount of mercury that a person can be exposed to on a daily basis over a lifetime without appreciable risk of effects from it. The EPA fD is 0.1 ?g mercury per kg body weight per day. This level translates into a blood mercury level 5.8?g/L or 5.8 parts per billion…… [Read More]
The article summarizes the herbal medicine also known as botanical medicine to refer to the usage of plant seeds, roots, leaves and berries for the medicinal purposes. The article also indicates that use of herbal is today becoming more mainstream as improvements in the quality control with the advances in a clinical research shows the significance of the herbal medicine in treating and prevention of diseases (Herbal medicine, 2011).
How Herbs work and used
The herb contains ingredients that work together in producing a beneficial effect. For instance, the type of the environments in which the herbs plants grow may affect the herb. The use of the herbs has drastically increased over the past 40 years. Presently, the medicines are categorized as the dietary supplements by the people of United States of America (USA). This therefore means that, herbal supplements can be sold before being tested to prove that they…… [Read More]
Persons with diabetes are at risk for complications such as amputations, heart attacks, strokes, blindness, kidney failure and gum disease (Arizona Department of Health Services, 2006). The Arizona Department of Health (2006) notes several activities that the individual and their family can follow to manage and prevent diabetes. For example, practicing a basic health regimen can reduce the risk of developing diabetes as well as preventing the complications once the disease is present. Family members should note that eating regular healthy meals is necessary, and complications can be prevented by recording blood sugar levels daily, exercise, and taking medication as prescribed.
Social and Economic Implications of Diabetes
There are many social and economic implications of diabetes in the Phoenix, Arizona population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is currently working with the Arizona Diabetes Prevention and Control Program to assist with the prevention of diabetes and develop the state's…… [Read More]
Constipation, Hypertension, Seizure
This is the infrequent or difficult bowel evacuation (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). While there are no strict standard for bowel elimination, it is generally believed that fewer than thrice a week constitutes constipation. Stools are usually hard and dry. Other common symptoms associated constipation include excessive straining during bowel evacuation, a sense of rectal blockage, a sense of incomplete evacuation and the need to perform manual measures to evacuate the bowels. Constipation may be the consequence of insufficient fluid intake or dehydration, inadequate fiber in the diet, foregoing elimination, irritable bowel syndrome, lack of physical activity, illness, abuse of laxatives and certain medical conditions. Those more likely to develop constipation are older adults, those who are sedentary, confined in bed, dehydrated, on low-fiber diet, on certain medications and undergoing chemotherapy. It is more common in women and children. Causes for alarm include fewer…… [Read More]
Other rivals will have a more secure market share as well, and new drugs may develop. However, although the rise may not be as astronomical, hopefully from AstraZenica's perspective, Crestor's next phasing into the 'decline' phase of the product life cycle will not be as impressive, either.
CNN. Com. (18 Nov 2004) "Merck, FDA grilled at Senate hearing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://cnnmoney.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=Merck%2C+FDA+grilled+at+Senate+hearing+over+Vioxx+-+Nov.+18%2C+2004&expire=&urlID=12326029&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmoney.cnn.com%2F2004%2F11%2F18%2Fnews%2Ffortune500%2Fmerck%2Findex.htm%3Fcnn
Crestor. (2004) "About Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/
Crestor. (2004) "Side Effects: Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/sideeffects.asp
Drugrecall.com. (2004) "FDA says Crestor ads are false and misleading." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.adrugrecall.com/news/crestor-safety.html
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Pricing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_pricing.htm
Marketing teacher." Product Life Cycle." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_plc.
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Value Chain." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_generic_strategies.htm… [Read More]
However, with large nuclear weapons the majority of the harm is caused by the explosion itself and the harm caused by the radioactivity is peripheral, although obviously still potentially horrific.)
The damage caused by a dirty bomb would be twofold: There would be damage caused by the conventional parts of the bomb (in this case, the det cord) and damage caused by the radioactive elements. A dirty bomb's effects would be greater in terms of the conventional aspects of the weapon, and we are not given enough information in this scenario to determine the amount of energy that will result in an explosion of the detonation cord. There is no single standard for detonating cord, although given that we know that it has come from a mining company we can assume that it is some of the stronger -- or more explosive -- type. We also do not know how…… [Read More]
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…… [Read More]
Yellow fever is a tropical disease that is spread to humans by infected mosquitoes, and although most infections are mild, the disease can be severe and life threatening (Yellow pp). Found in Africa and South America, yellow fever is preventable by immunization and travelers to those countries are advised to get the vaccine (Yellow pp). In South America sporadic infections occur mostly in forestry and agricultural workers from occupational exposure in or near forests (Yellow-1 pp).
There are two kinds of yellow fever which are spread by two different cycles of infection (Yellow pp). Jungle yellow fever is mainly a disease of monkeys that is spread from infected mosquitoes to monkeys in the tropical rain forest (Yellow pp). It is then spread to people who are bitten by mosquitoes that have been infected by monkeys (Yellow pp). Jungle yellow fever is rare and usually occurs in persons who work in…… [Read More]
On the surface, both ethical relativism and ethical egotism are appealing theories. The ethical relativist avoids many of the problems that arise from encounters with different moral codes, and can help to eliminate some of the culture clashes and social problems inherent in the human condition. For example, when many esterners come into contact with Middle Eastern cultures such as that of Saudi Arabia, they are tempted to pass judgment on the status of women. However, ethical relativism holds that all moral systems are valid, that ethics cannot be absolute or imposed from without. Therefore, ethical relativism is closely connected with cultural relativism. Such a stance makes it easy for people to get along and to resist fighting. "Anything goes," and "live and let live" are in fact some of the basic hallmarks of a liberal democracy and to an extent ethical relativism should always be at least entertained.…… [Read More]
Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorders
WHAT IS PTSD
Many adults suffer from the mental illness of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, otherwise known as PTSD. PTSD is an extreme anxiety mental disorder that causes excessive concern, or worry over common problems, or problems that might happen, such as automobile not starting in the morning to get to work, although it has been running smoothly, the house catching on fire during the middle of the night with no apparent reason. Various treatments for PTSD have been experimented with, producing just as many different results, although a cure has not yet been discovered. In this essay, we will be discussing PTSD, how the drug Serzone has been used in treating this illness, and other possible cures for PTSD.
PTSD is a serious mental disorder, and the seriousness of this disease should not be underestimated, however, it is not to be confused…… [Read More]
Indigenous Australians and Diabetes
In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).
Diabetes and the afflicted person
Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:
Physically (Shaw, 2012)
Physical…… [Read More]
Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Kingdom.
The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the UK
Science of the problem
Type II diabetes progresses through two stages. The initial stage is referred to as insulin resistance. During this stage, the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the body's cell are unable to respond to insulin. The pancreas increases the production of insulin in the body to compensate for the resistance. The body cells absorb more and more insulin resulting in the pancreas continuously increasing its insulin production. Eventually, the pancreas will shut down the production of insulin because it is unable to keep up with the demand, which results in type II diabetes. The lack of sugar for conversion to energy results in the starvation of cells and there is a buildup of glucose levels in the…… [Read More]
Self-Help Group Observation
The purpose of the group (diabetic group) is basically to educate patients on how to sustain a healthy lifestyle in case they are diabetic. The main aim for patient education is for individuals suffering from diabetes to enhance their knowledge, confidence and skills, allowing them to have increased control of their condition and incorporate effectual self-management into their day-to-day lives. High quality structured education could have an intense impact on health outcomes and considerably enhance the quality of life (Tidy, 2014). Some of the potential benefits that patient education could have on individuals suffering from diabetes are:
Enhancing health, knowledge, beliefs, and lifestyle changes
Enhancing patient outcomes, for instance, smoking, weight, and psychosocial changes like depression levels and quality of life
Enhancing physical activity levels
Minimizing the need for, and potentially better targeting of drugs together with other items like blood testing strips.
Educational events, like community…… [Read More]
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…… [Read More]
In looking at some of the other similar legal actions ongoing, it does not appear standard practice to target executives, but just the company, which can suffer fines in the hundreds of millions of dollars. A judgment of that size would hit the income statement, which is incentive enough for executives to curtail such marketing efforts.
However, the fact that executives have not been specifically named probably appears to reflect the nature of the case -- it is not an isolated incident but a company-wide situation. Multiple plaintiffs are likely affected, but it may also be difficult to establish a clear link between the off-label use of Natrecor and specific deaths, even from kidney failure. The structure of the qui tam lawsuit appears to be best suited for this type of situation, which is why executives have not been individually targeted.
Barrett, a & Carey, J. (2005). "Off-label"…… [Read More]
"Forgive me, Majesty. I'm a vulgar man.
But I assure you... my music is not."
Peter Shaffer's play madeus was adapted into a film in 1984 by director Milos Forman. Opening with a dramatic portrayal of the now old and anguished composer Salieri attempting suicide. His attempt is a failure, and narrates the rest of the film to a priest as a confession. Salieri had been court composer in Vienna, where he first heard -- and was overwhelmed by -- Mozart's music. Salieri attempts to use his political sway to get Mozart a position as music tutor to the princess, but the composer's arrogance is an obstacle. Mozart's wife makes efforts to secure this position through sharing her husband's compositions with Salieri (in a scene notably lacking the sexual tension of the play.) Mozart's original drafts of music are flawless, and this enrages Salieri with jealousy and rage.…… [Read More]
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…… [Read More]
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SARs, Swine…… [Read More]