Kidney Failure Essays Examples

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Kidney Disease Children Although Kidney

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31929749

Acute kidney diseases can be severe in the short-term but once treated, the kidney functions return to normal (National Institutes of Health). Hemolytic uremic syndrome and Nephrotic syndrome are acute kidney diseases affecting children. Most acute kidney diseases are caused by trauma, injury, or poisoning.

Chronic conditions include deformed kidneys that are due to birth defects, the hereditary disease polycystic kidney disease (PKD), Glomerular diseases, and Systemic diseases (National Institutes of Health). Birth defects and hereditary conditions are the most common causes of chronic kidney diseases in children under the age of four. Genetic factors are indicated in kidney diseases that develop later in childhood. Among adolescents who develop kidney diseases, glomerular diseases are the most common culprits. Glomerular diseases "attack the individual filtering units in the kidney," which causes blood and protein to leak into the urine," (National Institutes of Health).

Once diagnosed, kidney diseases can respond to a number of treatments. These treatments are crucial to prevent total renal failure. Diet and medications are usually the first line of defense in treating childhood kidney diseases. Vitamins may also be part of the treatment process ("When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease"). In severe cases, dialysis and transplantation…… [Read More]

"Kidney Diseases in Childhood." Kids Health. Retrieved Mar 7, 2010 from

National Institutes of Health. "Kidney and Urologic Diseases Home Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2006. Retrieved Mar 7, 2010 from
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Kidneys and How They Function

Words: 2771 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33287328

However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."

In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus ( explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is also used to treat people who have been weakened by chemotherapy. Epoetin Alfa is "usually injected one to three times weekly" subcutaneously in patients who have a lower than normal number of red blood cells (i.e., anemia), albeit it does not "cure anemia" and it frequently takes from two to…… [Read More]

Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients

With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at
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Acute Renal Failure Is a Serious Medical

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2579717

Acute renal failure is a serious medical condition. The gravity of the condition is manifested itself in the fact that the survival rate for renal failure has not improved for more than forty years. It occurs in 5% of all hospitalized patients and dialysis treatment is required in approximately .5 of cases. Dialysis is required to sustain "fluid and electrolyte balances, minimize nitrogenous waste production and sustain nutrition Infection accounts for 75% of deaths in patients with acute renal failure, and cardiorespiratory complications are the second most common cause of death" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000). Pathophysiology can vary depending upon the type: "patients who develop AKI can be oliguric or nonoliguric, have a rapid or slow rise in creatinine levels, and may have qualitative differences in urine solute concentrations and cellular content.... Oliguria is defined as a daily urine volume of less than 400 mL/d and has a worse prognosis, except in prerenal failure. Anuria is defined as a urine output of less than 100 mL/d and, if abrupt in onset, suggests bilateral obstruction or catastrophic injury to both kidneys" (Workeneh, 2011).

The three types of acute renal failure are categorized as prerenal, intrinsic and postrenal failure. Prerenal acute renal…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Epstein, Murray. (1997). Alcohol's impact on kidney function. Alcohol Research and Health21. 1 (1997): 84-91.

Malay, Agrawal & Richard Swartz. (2000). Acute Renal Failure. American Family
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Dialysis Renal Failure When the Kidneys

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91392127

Physicians, however, prefer hemodialysis because of reimbursement trends (Wellbery).

Dietary Changes - Many patients also prefer peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis because the latter restricts the diet (NKUDICC 2000). Peritoneal dialysis removes body wastes slowly but it always does. In hemodialysis, on the other hand, wastes can build up for two or three days between treatments. In addition, a patient on hemodialysis must observe a restrictive diet. Some clinics help plan the meals of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Their dietitians can give advice on how to prepare more satisfying meals (NKUDICC).

Management and Implications - Managing acute renal failure begins with determining the cause (Agrawal and Swartz 2000). It includes a thorough history and physical examination, blood tests, urine studies and a renal ultrasound examination. Renal failure warrants supportive therapy to maintain fluid and electrolyte balances, reduce the production of nitrogenous wastes, and to sustain nutrition. Death is most frequently the result of an infection or cardio-respiratory complications. Acute renal failure happens to 5% of hospitalized patients, of whom 0.5% require dialysis. In the last decade, the survival rate has not improved because most patients are now older and have already developed enhancing health conditions. Of the causes of death, infection…… [Read More]

Agrawal. M. And Swartz, R. (2000). Acute renal failure. 9 pages. American Family Physicians: American Academy of Family Physicians

Anderson, R.A. (2005). Renal failure: mortality and depression. 2 pages. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Letter Group
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Renal Failure Main Functions of the Kidneys

Words: 1217 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38337923

Renal Failure

Main Functions of the Kidneys

The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, 12 centimeters long, which lie at the sides of the spinal column behind the abdominal cavity (Merck 2010). Their main function is to maintain the proper balance of water and minerals in the body. Their other major functions include filtration and elimination of wastes and toxins, regulation of blood pressure and secretion of some hormones. The amount of water taken into the body must match the amount being eliminated. If the balance is not maintained, water will accumulate fast and illness or death may occur. Excess water will dilute the body's electrolyte and inadequate amount will concentrate electrolytes. The kidneys regulate and help maintain the precise concentrations (Merck).

The kidneys' second major function consists of filtration and excretion (Merck 2010). They pass out urea, a main waste product from protein metabolism. Urea moves through the glomerulus and into the tubuluar fluid and leaves the body as urine. Metabolic waste products, such as acids, toxins and drugs are also eliminated through urine (Merck).

A third major function is the regulation of the body's blood pressure (Merck 2010). Blood pressure tends to increase when too little sodium is excreted. The…… [Read More]

Hudson, K 2007, 'Acute renal failure -- nursing CEs,' Dynamic Nursing Education

[Online] Available at

Merck 2010, 'Kidneys,' Merck Manuals [Online] Available at
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Renal Failure or Commonly Referred to as

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28794269

Renal failure, or commonly referred to as kidney failure, is a condition in which the kidneys do not sufficiently filter out the toxins and waste products that are transported in the body's blood stream. There are two basic forms of renal failure. The first is when there is an acute injury prevents the kidneys from functioning properly. The next is a more serious condition in which the kidneys are chronically inflicted. Chronic kidney disease has the potential to be irreversible and requires immediate medical attention. Some of the symptoms of renal failure include (Lin, 2011):

Appetite loss

General ill feeling and fatigue


Itching (pruritus) and dry skin


Weight loss without trying to lose weight

Other symptoms that may develop, especially when kidney function has gotten worse, include:

Abnormally dark or light skin

Bone pain

Brain and nervous system symptoms:

Drowsiness and confusion

Problems concentrating or thinking

Numbness in the hands, feet, or other areas

Muscle twitching or cramps

Breath odor

Easy bruising, bleeding, or blood in the stool

Excessive thirst

Frequent hiccups

Low level of sexual interest and impotence

Menstrual periods stop (amenorrhea)

Shortness of breath

Sleep problems, such as insomnia, restless leg syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea…… [Read More]

Lin, H. (2011, September 21). Medline Plus. Retrieved from Chronic Kidney Disease:

MedlinePlus. (2011, September 21). Chronic Kidney Disease. Retrieved from MedlinePlus:
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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68003192

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder distinguished by the growth of lots of cysts in the kidneys ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 1). In the majority of cases, this genetic disease is passed down through families as an autosomal dominant trait. If a parent is the carrier of the gene, there is a fifty percent chance for the children to develop the disorder ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").

The kidneys are two organs. Each kidney is about the size of a fist and is found in a human being's abdomen (upper part) towards the back. Extra fluid and wastes present in the blood are filtered by kidneys forming urine as a result. Kidneys also help in the regulation of amounts of certain essential substances in the body. When cysts are formed in the kidneys, they are full of fluid. The normal structure of the kidneys thus becomes greatly enlarged due to the PKD cysts. As a consequence, kidney function is reduced which ultimately leads to kidney failure ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 1).

When kidneys fail due to PKD, the need of dialysis or patient kidney transplantation becomes inevitable. Polycystic kidney disease also causes cysts formation in the liver. Other organs in the body…… [Read More]

"Polycystic Kidney Disease." NIDDK. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2013. .

"Polycystic kidney disease." National Center for Biotechnology Information. A.D.A.M., Inc., 20 Sept. 2011. Web. 5 Jan. 2013.
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A& 38 P 2 Kidneys

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1650968

blood ion levels, particularly sodium, potassium, and calcium levels, if there is a decrease in overall blood flow to the kidneys. A full credit answer will discuss the mechanisms at the cellular and chemical level.

Kidney failure: What occurs when there is a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys?

A decrease in blood flow to the kidneys can lead to complete organ failure at worst or at minimum severely disrupt the body's state of homeostasis. The kidneys play a critical role in the regulation of electrolytes, particularly sodium, potassium, and calcium. As their name suggests electrolytes, or ions, "are the charged particles in body fluids that help transmit electrical impulses for proper nerve, heart, and muscle function" (Astle 2005). In a healthy organism, positive and negative ions are in a state of equal balance. Decrease in blood flow to the kidneys severely disrupts the body's ability to not only regulate electrolytes but the fluid balance those electrolytes help to maintain (Astle 2005). For example, it is critical that sodium and potassium remain in a state of equilibrium to maintain appropriate blood pressure and a stable heart rate. An imbalance can lead to escalating blood pressure and abnormal muscle function,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Astle, S. (2005). Restoring electrolyte balance. Modern Medicine. Retrieved:
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Renal Failure

Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35117784

These clinics will have to be set up over a number of years as funding becomes available for each. It is envisioned that the combination of clinics and learning programs will help the community to achieve better overall health. Indeed, clinics that focus on the specific health issues faced by the Hispanic community will remove some of the burden from general-purpose clinics and hospitals.


In conclusion, it is projected that the above-outlined prevention strategies can go a long way towards significant improvements in the health of the Hispanic community. In addition to addressing specific renal failure problems, prevention measures and better access to clinics can also result in a better overall health and lifestyle experience for the Hispanic community. It is therefore proposed that these measures be implemented and thoroughly researched for both short- and long-term effectiveness.


Bibby, M. (2009). Advocacy strategies for government sponsored public health agencies: The BCCDC a case study. Simon Frasier University. Retrieved from:

DaVita Healthcare (2014). Risks for CKD in Hispanic-Americans. Retrieved from: -- hispanic-americans&articleID=5009

Healthy People 2020. (2013). Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:… [Read More]

Bibby, M. (2009). Advocacy strategies for government sponsored public health agencies: The BCCDC a case study. Simon Frasier University. Retrieved from: ?
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Kidney Donation and Renal Availability

Words: 775 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33044616

Mayor, S. (2009). "UK sees rise in people donating a kidney to unknown recipients." British medical journal 338(7710), pp. 1521.

In this brief yet highly relevant article, the author describes a recently observed trend of increasing live-donor kidney donations for unknown recipients. Though living donors for family members with a need for transplant have been relatively common for sometime, the idea of donating a kidney while still living for a person unknown to the donor is a very recent development in kidney translation and availability. Though the reasons for this increase are not yet clear, as no research has been undertaken to determine the causal effect of this observed trend, initial results suggest that simple awareness of the need for renal donation and the normalcy of life following the donation of a kidney is a major factor.

Nakamura, Y.; Konno, O.; Matsuno, N.; Yokoyama, T., et al. (2008). "How can we increase living related donor renal transplantations?" Transplantation proceedings 40(7), pp. 2104-7.

Though various methods and schema for renal transplantation exist, this study points out the benefits of living donor donation in the combating of end-stage renal failure, in Japan specifically. Citing a decreased need for recipient medication and an…… [Read More]

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Nursing Kidney Nursing Perceptions and

Words: 2121 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89660948

(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.

Subjects and Sampling Technique:

The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive surveys to account for all members of a nursing staff. Respondents will receive a survey and self-addressed stamped envelope with which to submit the survey to the researchers.

Data Collection and Analysis:

The survey instrument would use a Likert Scale in order to measure the level of approval or disapproval…… [Read More]

Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.

Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
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Public Information on Kidney Donation

Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80584463

This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.

It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for options that might keep them alive. The research provided by MNT indicates as much, and simultaneously illuminates a non-traditional approach to organ-donation courtship that should be exploited. According to its research, "if one accepts that, as the waiting list grows, more and more patients will consider the public solicitation of…… [Read More]

Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.

Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
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Congestive Cardiac Failure Mr Ward Is a

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2196173

Congestive Cardiac Failure

Mr Ward is a 71-year-old male who reports feeling a non-radiating, "heavy" discomfort in the lower retrosternal and epigastric region particularly when he bends over or walks short distances. He also reports a further 7 days of dyspnoea during moderate exertion. On examination his blood pressure was 165/95 mm HG, pulse 90 -100 bpm, respiratory rate of 24 with inspiratory crackles at both lung bases.

The following blood tests where ordered: a full blood count (FBC), Urea Electrolytes and Creatinine (UEC), Liver Function Tests (LFT), CK and Troponin. All results were within normal limits.

An Arterial Blood Gas was also collected resulting in: pH [HIDDEN], pCO2 38.7mmHg, PO2 69.8mmHg, HCO3 24.0mmol/L, BE -0.7mmol/L and O2 SAT 89.3%

Mr Ward also has an ECG that showed normal sinus rhythm, and a chest x-ray showing cardiac enlargement and lower-lobe infiltrates, suggesting the presence of acute exacerbation of congestive cardiac failure.

The following questions relates to the patient within the first 24 hours.

1. Outline the causes, incidence and risk factors of chronic congestive cardiac failure (250 words)

Congestive heart failure is defined as "the inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of oxygenated blood to meed the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
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Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric Patient

Words: 2043 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98093554

Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric Patient

Multisystem Failure in a Geriatric

Reflect on your analysis of the geriatric patient in multisystem failure by doing the following:

Explain key immediate assessments you should make that would help assess the patient's homeostasis, oxygenation, and level of pain.

There are various diagnoses undertaken in assessing the patient's homeostasis, oxygenation, and level of pain. The immediate objective that nurses prioritize on is checking the patient's vital symptoms. Vital symptoms form the baseline of the assessment by providing significant information that illustrates whether the most essential organs function as required.

The assessment may involve checking the health status of the patient in the laboratory (Kane, 2004). In the laboratory, there is an assessment of the patient's capillary tube, urine test and blood pressure. When there is simultaneous malfunctioning of the body organs, nurses refer to this condition as multiple organ dysfunction (MODs).

Multiple organ dysfunction is a condition that alters the normal functioning of the organs. When it occurs, the patient is unable to maintain homeostasis, and the only way out to deal with the condition is through intervention and optimization of oxygen supply. In using vital signs is the initial criterion applied in analyzing…… [Read More]

Esteban, A., Anzueto, A., Frutos-Vivar, F., Alia, I., Ely, E.W., Brochard, L., et al. (2004).

Outcome of older patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care
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Pcos Kidney Stones

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19312282

(2012) conducted a cohort study in which a large (over three million) group of patients had their renal activity monitored. The study ultimately came to focus on the subgroup who had undergone kidney stones: these were followed up with and examined, at a median follow-up period of eleven years, in Alberta, Canada. The goal was to examine patients who had experienced at least one episode of kidney stones and to see if that correlated with any other forms of kidney disease (up to and including end stage renal disease) later in life. The basic measure used for examining the patients on the follow-up visit was the level of serum creatinine, the most basic measure of kidney health that is available to physicians. Those patients who had double the expected serum creatinine level were judged to have chronic kidney disease.

The most unexpected finding from the cohort study was the effect of kidney stones on young women. In this particular subgroup of the cohort -- of young women who had experienced at least one episode of kidney stones, and were followed up on by the study ten years after the original diagnosis -- the linkage of kidney stones to later renal…… [Read More]

Alexander, RT, Hemmelgarn, BR, Wiebe, N, et al. (2012). Kidney stones and kidney function loss: A cohort study. British Medical Journal 2012 Aug 29-345:e5287. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5287. PMID: 22936784

DuRant, E and Leslie, NS (2007). Polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of current knowledge. Journal of Nurse Practitioners 3(3):180-185.
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Racial Disparities Nursing

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6722824

Community Health Nursing

One of the most important aspects of healthcare today is prevention. Some of the many preventable diseases within the American population today include diabetes and kidney disease. Often, a key to such prevention is medical screening and education. One major challenge medical professionals today are facing is the growing incidence of kidney disease, not only in the general population, but especially among Hispanics. This population is one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the country (Banabe and Rios, 2004). This group is also twice as likely to develop kidney failure as those who are non-Hispanic and white. For a community nurse, this is of particular concern, especially in terms of strategies to help this population prevent the prevalence of kidney failure and its causes.

The disease is among this population is of particular interest, since the researcher has worked with this population for some time. Several questions might also be asked about the disease among this population. The first, and likely most important, question would relate to the underlying reasons for the high prevalence of kidney disease among the Hispanic population. Second, one might ask what preventative measures might be implemented to mitigate this prevalence. Finally, a…… [Read More]

Benabe, J.E. And Rios, E.V. (2004, Jun.). Kidney disease in the Hispanic Population: facing the growing challenge. Journal of the National Medical Association, 96(6). Retrieved from: 

DaVita Healthcare (2014). Risks for CKD in Hispanic-Americans. Retrieved from: -- hispanic-americans&articleID=5009
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Incidence of Diabetic Nephropathy Its Etiology Its

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65181658

incidence of diabetic nephropathy, its etiology, its comorbidities, and how to control it. The best type of 'cure' is, as always, prevention, and close regulation of the disease which is particularly important since diabetic nephropathy can be fatal.

Diabetic nephropathy is the primary etiology of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. Unfortunately, type 2 diabetes mellitus is skyrocketing in the United States alone to over 21 million cases, it is imperative for health care professionals to understand the mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. This is particularly so since early recognition and prevention of the disease as well as tight serum glucose control can help prevent diabetic nephropathy from occurring thereby leading to potentially longer life for its carriers.

The authors describe the characteristics and etiology of diabetic nephropathy explaining how and why it can result in kidney disease and kidney failure.

Understanding these mechanisms can help us prevent kidney failure from occurring since the way to do so is by monitoring serum concentrations of AGEs so that nephropathy can be caught in its early stages.

Education on diabetes is important not only for nurses but also for patients and should be ongoing covering all aspects of the disease. It is also…… [Read More]

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Advancing in My Life Is Important to Me

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98373374

total I have 13 years in the nursing field. Throughout that combined time I have worked in nursing homes / assisted living facilities, home health, as well as in a hospital setting. During the time that I worked in the hospital I worked in a program called share the care. This entailed me working throughout the entire hospital as a nursing assistant, which gave me experience in various areas, i.e. The emergency room, intensive care, pediatrics, oncology and etc. By being apart of this program it has afforded me the opportunity to do what I truly love, be a part of the whole process of nursing sick patients back to health. This has always been a passion of mine.

A Nurse practitioner is a nurse who has completed a graduate nursing degree and training in providing preventive and medical health care to individuals and families in association with a physician. The nurse practitioner provides health screening, performs physical examinations, orders laboratory tests and prescribes specific medications authorized by the physician. Nurse practitioners also educate patients about staying healthy. They often take care of special populations such as the rural poor, migrant farm workers, elderly persons and children. In communities or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Greensboro AHEC Kids (2005). Nurse practitioner. Retrieved 09/23/05, from

U.S Department of Labor (2004-2005). Physicians Assistant. Occupational Outlook Handbook,, . Retrieved 09/23/05, from
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Diabetes According to America Diabetes

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73144084

The high levels of blood glucose lead to the production of insulin therefore patients have excessive production of insulin. There is insulin resistance and hence body cells do not respond in an appropriate way in the presence of insulin (Mealey, 2010).

The main difference between diabetes insipidus, and diabetes mellitus, is that in diabetes mellitus insulin resistance is referred to being "post-receptor." This implies that the problem lies with the cells which respond to insulin as opposed to there being a problem in the production of insulin. The onset of diabetes mellitus is slow and the disorder might go undiagnosed for a very long period of time. Diabetes insipidus has an abrupt onset and it might be diagnosed at any age.

Factors affecting diagnosis and treatment prescription of diabetes

There are various factors that might affect the diagnosis and treatment of these two types of of these factors is age; when it comes to diabetes mellitus age plays a big role in the diagnosis. This is because its onset is slow and thus it might not be diagnosed early in life. Therefore since it can not be diagnosed early in life it might be difficult to treat it once…… [Read More]

Mealey, B.L. (2010).Diabetes Pathophysiology. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from 

MediLexicon International Ltd.(2013). All about Diabetes. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from
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Teaching on the Cognitive Learning

Words: 9169 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78651518

The kidneys of someone that has chronic renal failure are generally smaller than average kidneys, with some notable and important exceptions (Rogers, 2004). Two of these exceptions would be polycystic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy (Rogers, 2004). Another diagnostic tool that is used, that of the study of the serum creatinine levels, can not only diagnose chronic renal failure, but also help to distinguish it from acute renal failure, as the acute version would see a rapid and sudden spike in the serum creatinine levels over several days or several weeks, as opposed to a gradual rise that is seen over months or even over years (Rogers, 2004).

Sometimes, the levels of serum creatinine have not been measured in the past, and therefore the patient is often first treated as having acute renal failure. Only when blood tests continue to show elevated serum creatinine levels and it is determined that the renal failure is irreversible will the diagnosis be made as chronic renal failure as opposed to the previously assumed acute renal failure (Rogers, 2004). A numerous amount of uremic toxins also accumulate in individuals that have chronic renal failure and are involved in the treatment of standard dialysis, which…… [Read More]

Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.

Arszyla, D.M. & Gastelum, K. (2001). Coursework Document: Theorist Presentation. Retrieved at
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Department of Health and Human

Words: 4237 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16378217

However, many patients suffering with chronic renal disease do not explore this option.

4-6: Increase the proportion of patients with treated chronic kidney failure who receive a transplant within 3 years of registration on the waiting list. Again renal transplantation can improve overall quality of life for patients struggling with this condition.

4-7: Reduce kidney failure due to diabetes: Type II diabetes is a significant contributor to chronic kidney disease. Reducing and preventing diabetes can effectively reduce the number of cases of chronic renal failure.

4-8: Increase the proportion of persons with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and proteinuria who receive recommended medical therapy to reduce progression to chronic renal insufficiency. This measure would help improve health outcomes for the patient and reduce the overall impact of the disease on the general population.

Relevance of the Objectives and Desired Outcomes

The objective outlined as the principle focus of improving health in this area is targeted toward reducing the complications and costs associated with chronic renal failure. Reviewing the data provided with regard to the sub-objectives, it seems reasonable to argue that this target goal is the most feasible given the specific parameters of the condition. Research from DHHS (2000,…… [Read More]

Chronic Kidney Disease, Midcourse Review. (2006). Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed November 11, 2007 at

Healthy People 2010. (2000). Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed November 11, 2007 at
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Security Consulting Firm

Words: 3345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26764992

Critical Pathway: Chronic Renal Failure

Advanced Pathophysiology

Regents Online Degree Program

Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure

Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.

M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that passed, Mr. M.A. had been undergoing hemodialysis 3 days in a week for 3.5 hours via left arm arteriovenous fistula. For the last 3 days he had undergone dialysis following his scheduled dialysis on the day of visit.

Three months before Mr. M.A. was admitted, he had developed a non-healing…… [Read More]

Ahern J, Kruger DF, Gatcomb P, Petit W, Tamborlane W.,(1989). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): the trial coordinators perspective. Diabetes Educ 15:236 -- 281

Bassilios N, Launay-Vacher V, Khoury N, et al. (2001) Gabapentin neurotoxicity in a chronic haemodialysis patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant.
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Quality of Life and the

Words: 3455 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8580647

It is also important to distinguish between the subjective or personal view of quality of life and the professional's objective evaluation of the health status of individuals (Tyrrell et al., 2005, p. 375).

With regard to the patient's quality of life and treatment the above study notes that; "We have observed that some older dialysis patients experience considerable difficulties with this treatment regime. Apart from physical discomfort, some patients have difficulty complying with treatment, or repeatedly express the wish to give up dialysis" (Tyrrell et al., 2005, p. 375). These and other problems emphasize the fact that the treatment regime can be arduous for elderly patients and, if not in administered and managed correctly by the nurse or caregiver, can radically decrease the quality of life of the patient and his or her family.

Another issue that is reiterated in the literature is the degree to which the elderly patient understands the treatment. This is an area where the philosophy of care and the holistic approach to nursing praxis comes into play; and where the nurse can help in the process of explanation and understanding. Related to this are the various psychological issues that can inhibit the treatment process. These…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Acute kidney failure. Retrieved October 2, 2009, from

Ashby et al. (2005) Renal dialysis abatement: lessons from a social study.
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Nursing Dialysis Among the Elderly

Words: 2931 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63393486

Nephrologists are expected to play a role in this determination, but all too often the nephrologist, like other physicians, must be prompted to deal with end-of-life issues. If no one is available to do the prompting, the patient's death may be needlessly prolonged. The amount to which the nephrologist takes on end-of-life care will be reflected in their approach to the patient. At one end of the spectrum, discomfort with dying can lead to passivity, where the nephrologist serves purely passive role, overseeing dialysis and focusing on fluid and electrolyte balance. At the other end, the nephrologist can be seen as taking a leading role in end of life care (Siegler, Del Monte, Rosati, and von Gunten, 2002).

Chronic diseases are now thought to be the leading causes of death around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that there were approximately 58 million deaths worldwide in 2005, with 35 million of these being caused by chronic disease. In many developed countries CVD and cancer are thought to be the leading causes of death. The WHO report has called for governments to provide leadership in addressing the projected continued increase in deaths due to chronic diseases (Levey, Atkins,…… [Read More]

Addressing Chronic Kidney Disease in Texas. (2009). Retrieved February 18, 2010 from Web

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Nursing Theory the Ethical Implications

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15934456

(Newman, 1) Here, it can be evidenced that the empathy accorded by the theoretical framework will provide an ideological umbrella for how best to address one's condition while simultaneously abiding the regulatory medical requirements common to most forms of modern treatment.

This means possessing a degree of pertinent information where nursing theory is concerned that will allow for such pragmatism and a firm understanding of the practices pertinent to kidney donation as denoted in the annotated bibliography provided here below.

Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's Vagina. CNN. Online at

The article here described a first-ever successful procedure in which a healthy kidney was removed through a donor's vagina rather than through traditionally employed and far more invasive surgical procedures. This is useful to our discussion because it reduces the strain and cosmetic impact of making a kidney donation. The article cites the possibility that this new procedure could help to encourage potential donors.

Griffin, D. & Fitzpatrick, D. (2009). Donor Says He Got Thousands For His Kidney. CNN. Online at

This article describes figures and exchanges on the organ black market. The piece identifies black market kidney sales and purchases as…… [Read More]

Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's

Vagina. CNN. Online at 
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Effects of the Experimental Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin on the Body

Words: 2091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73531200

Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin


Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.

Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell growth of the cancerous cells. They affect the cancer cells which rapidly divide themselves up to spread fast throughout the body. However, they are not selective and affect other cells in the organ. It can affect the brain, heart and the kidneys this way. It may also affect the immune…… [Read More]

Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.

Nootropic. Available at: Http:// (Accessed at 2 December 2011)

Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
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Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901

Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes it possible to establish early diagnosis before the onset of complications arising from the proliferation of tumors (Shuin et al., 2006).

Types of Von Hippel-Lindau

The Von Hippe-Lindau disease is classified into two types depending on the presence or absence of pheochromocytomas: (Maher, Neumann, Richard, 2011)

Type 1: those without…… [Read More]

He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.
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Book on Poor African-American Family and Race Posing a Problem for Health Care

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31341910

Mama Might Be Better off Dead

For the past several decades, health care reform has been on the top of the political lip service agenda. Presidential candidates debate heatedly over which types of Medicare or Medicaid reforms should be instated and purport to want "universal health care." They call out for assistance to low-income families and claim that no American citizen should go without health care services. Yet through all their platitudes one thing remains painfully clear: they really just don't care. Not only has little been done to ensure that every American, regardless of race, receives the best health care services available but the situation seems to be getting worse as the income disparity gap widens with every successive year. In her 1993 book Mama Might be Better Off Dead, Laurie Kaye Abraham illustrates the impact of America's failing health care system by focusing on one family. The Banes' are poor, and they happen to be African-American: what will turn out to be two strikes against them in their pursuit of adequate -- not even exceptional -- health care. Abraham offers in intimate view of the Banes' lives, four generations of men and women who suffer from various ailments…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Abraham, Laurie Kaye. Mama Might be Better off Dead. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
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Community Health Middle School Officials Have Been

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22683436

Community Health

Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.

The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a special contagion, such as the West Nile Virus.

On May 19th the bands at both schools competed in a "Battle of the Bands" for school supremacy. When groups get together for any type of competition they typically eat together at either restaurants or catered parties. Either are breeding grounds for…… [Read More]

Community Health dept. Intranet

Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from:
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Nephropathy Recent Searches for Information

Words: 3031 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74023954

"Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors "FN12. The article states that acute episodes of hyperkalemia are commonly triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium, and that illnesses and dehydration can also be factors. The physician must also be aware therefore that a common positive response by patients in these circumstances was to a sodium bicarbonate supplementation.

Another bit of information that might be important to the diagnosing physician would be that "elevated serum aldosterone causes the renal cortical collecting ducts to excrete potassium and retain sodium, further lowering serum potassium" FN13. Potassium levels should be monitored in an ongoing fashion to determine whether they are stable or not. Additional monitoring should take place for hypertension since twenty to sixty percent of diabetics are affected by it.

Antihypertensive agents are used to treat the hypertension and the physician should be aware when prescribing calcium channel blockers or ACE inhibitors, even though most studies have shown that ACE inhibitors do reduce the progression towards microabluminuria. One recent study showed that "a…… [Read More]

Pietrow M.D., P.K.; Karellas, M.D., M.E.; (2006) Medical management of common urinary calculi, American Family Physician, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 86-94

Wolf, Jr. J.S., MD, FACS, Bloom, D.A. (2008) Nephrolithiasis,,, Accessed June 12, 2008
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Nursing Critique Qualitative Research in

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77879444

Thirdly they used member checks in which participants were asked to comment on the data themes and the researcher's interpretations in a follow-up telephone call. Lastly an extensive literature review was conducted prior to the start of the research (Landreneau and Ward-Smith, 2007).

Philosophical and Theoretical Connectedness

The researchers stated that in reviewing the literature, there was only one study found that addressed patients' perceptions concerning their choices, and this choice was only related to renal transplant. This three pronged study explored discussions between patients and nephrologists regarding transplantation as a treatment option for kidney failure. This ground-breaking study concluded that treatment options, and the order of the presentation of the options, influenced renal transplantation as a choice. It is unclear if there was any mention of knowledge obtained from sources other than the nephrologists (Landreneau and Ward-Smith, 2007).

It is noted that the findings in this study support Waitkin's (1985) research on the impact of medical treatment and its effect on choice. It is seen that namely, risks and benefits are taken into account when making treatment choice. Data from the present study established that the other treatments carry risks that the participants often thought were too great and…… [Read More]

Concerns about kidney failure. (2009). Retrieved August 8, 2009, from Web site: 
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Health Education for Personal Care

Words: 9314 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66373376

Diabetes and Self-Care Ability of High School Diabetics

The diabetes menace has become on of the central health challenges that ail our contemporary society. The trends have change significantly over the last 50 years and now the high school population that suffers form diabetes has vastly increased. This is informed by the predisposing factors that the children are exposed to at their younger age and the fewer physical activities like sports that they engage in before the high school stage. The dietary habits of most young children is yet another factor that leads to the development of diabetic conditions among the children with the easiest foods that they indulge in on a daily basis being high sugar low-carb diets. These being the prevailing facts, there is need to have an intervention plan which will help the high school students who suffer from diabetes to better handle the condition. This is a plan that is aimed at ensuring that the students lead a near normal life and are informed about their condition such that they do not have to limit their lifestyle for fear of having diabetic attacks and yet far away from a doctor. It is an intervention plan that…… [Read More]

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Poor Socio-Economic Background and Conditions

Words: 3403 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17295052

Above all it has followed the deliberate marketing of health care (in association with tourism) as medical care has gradually moved away from the public sector to the private sector, ensuring that a growing majority of people, especially in the richest countries, and particularly in the United States, must pay -- often considerably -- for health care. Finally, growing interest in cosmetic surgery, involving such elective procedures as rhinoplasty, liposuction, breast enhancement or reduction, LASIK eye surgery and so on, or more simply the removal of tattoos, have created new demands. Various forms of dental surgery, especially cosmetic dental surgery, are not covered by insurance in countries like the UK and Australia; hence dental tourism has become particularly common. In Asia these trends are 'the unlikely child of new global realities: the fallout of terrorism, the Asian economic downturn, internet access to price information, and the globalisation of health services' (Levett, 2005, p. 27). (Medical tourism: Sea, sun, sand and y surgery)

The added problem to this of course, is that patients on dialysis are no longer able to work, and therefore cannot pay taxes. This results on a double blow on the economy. People, it is a fact, that…… [Read More]

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Diabetes in Australia the Australian Government and

Words: 2674 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52651244

Diabetes in Australia

The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes Research Fund (JDRF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.

Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be achieved from the various prevention and treatment programs that were thereafter launched (Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing, 2012).

What then is diabetes? This disease is described by Department of Health (ditto) as "a chronic disease characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood." Normally, the blood sugar…… [Read More]

American Diabetes Association, (2013). Kidney Disease (Nephropathy). Retrieved May 13, 2013 from 

Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing, (2012). Diabetes. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from
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Human Genome Project May Be

Words: 2793 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46892228

Since the antigens are closely linked to race and ethnicity, it is much easier to find a biological match among people with similar ethnic and racial backgrounds than it is among any two randomly selected individuals. On the basis of tissue matching, organs from blacks will almost always go to blacks and organs from whites will almost always go to whites. Blacks, however, have a much higher incidence of kidney failure than whites. But since whites significantly outnumber blacks in the American population, there are still large numbers of whites waiting for organs. There are so many, in fact, that nearly every white donor is matched to a white recipient. Blacks and other minorities must rely on a much smaller pool of kidneys. The situation for potential black kidney transplant recipients is made even worse by the fact that blacks have a lower rate of cadaver organ donation than do whites. So there is a disproportionately small share of black cadaver kidneys available for a disproportionately large group of blacks in need of kidney transplants. By deciding to use biology in the name of efficiency and, it must be added, fairness, whites wind up with a much larger number of…… [Read More]

Andrew, Lori. "Public Choices and Private Choices: Legal Regulation of Genetic Testing."

Justice and the Human Genome Project. Ed. Timothy Murphy and Marc Lappe. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994, 46-75.
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Lupus - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Words: 2310 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56821001

CellCept drug for the treatment of kidney complications could be a boon to lupus patients (Chang, 2005). A small study showed that the drug delivered better results than standard chemotherapy, which could cause infertility and other medical problems. A recent experiment compared the effects of CellCept and the older treatment, cyclophosphamide, in patients for 6 months. Those taking CellCept reported fewer side effects. The researchers were led by Dr. Ellen Ginzler of the SUNY Downstate Medical Center. The disease develops mostly in women of childbearing age. The immune system attacks its own organs and tissue. The cause is still unknown. But in a third of patients, the most common symptom is inflammation of the kidney. This can, in turn, lead to kidney failure (Chang).

Chemotherapy has been the standard treatment for lupus for the past 30 or more years (Chang, 2005). But it produces unpleasant side effects, which include hair loss, nausea and infertility. These side effects discourage many patients to discontinue treatment. CellCept is an FDA-approved drug, manufactured by Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. It is used primarily to prevent organ rejection in transplant patients. But it is recommended to lupus patients who cannot endure chemotherapy. A study was conducted on…… [Read More]

Chang, a. (2005). New hope for lupus patients. Deseret News: Deseret News Publishing

Company. Retrieved on February 13, 2009 at;col1
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Genitourinary Disorders Healthcare Plan and Management

Words: 2366 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41801097

Healthcare Plan for the Management of Genitourinary Disorders

Objective of this paper is to carry out a care plan for the patient, aged 60 years, who is suffering from genitourinary disorder. The study carries out the case evaluation and identifies the symptoms of the patient complication. The study also provides a comprehensive healthcare plan used for the treatment of the patients.

Case Study Evaluation

HPI (History of Present Illness).

Evaluation of the case study reveals that the patient is a Hispanic male, aged 60 years of age and complains of a decline of urinary flow. While the patient has experienced the symptom for more than two years, however, the symptom has increased significantly for the past two weeks. Although, the patient has not been diagnosed in the past, however, he faces difficulties in achieving a free flow of urine that interferes in his daily activities. The gradual worsening of the patient's case makes him seeking for medical helps. Moreover, the patient has complained of increased in nocturia within the past two weeks, which consequently decline his strength of urinary flow as well as slight terminal dysuria.

While the patient seeks for no treatment in the past, however, he faces a…… [Read More]

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Diabetes and Hearing Loss

Words: 2848 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40141784

Diabetes Has on Hearing

Diabetes is regarded one of the major health concerns in the United States given the increase of diabetes cases throughout the country. In the past few decades, diabetes has continued to affect adults and children in the United States. The increase of this condition has been associated with several considerable impacts since it generates numerous medical and related phenomena in the American society. One of the medical phenomena generated by diabetes is hearing loss given that diabetes changes the hearing of many people in America. This paper focuses on examining the perceptual phenomenon of hearing changes brought by diabetes. This analysis will include a discussion of what it feels to live with the effect of diabetes and hearing loss among Americans. The other elements included in this article is methods for prevention, treatment, and cure of hearing impairments from diabetes as well as dangers of having hearing loss brought by diabetes, and statistics on likelihood of hearing loss.

Overview of Diabetes

According to Born (n.d.), diabetes has become a growing concern throughout the world with an increase of diabetes related cases by 4.1% since 1985. There are currently 285 million people suffering from diabetes and it…… [Read More]

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Effect of Alcohol on Urine Formation Alcohol and Urine Formation

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56050784

Alcohol on Urine Formation

The functioning of cells in the body depends on the supply of the required nutrients and the elimination of waste in the body. The extracellular fluid that surrounds different cells also thrives in stable chemical and physical conditions. While water is one of the most vital substances that provide such an environment; the concentration of hydrogen ions in the body influences the permeability, cell structure and rate of metabolic reactions (Epstein, 1997). In the human body, the kidneys are responsible for regulating different amounts and concentration of all these substances. They ensure that the large variation in the intake or loss of different substances does not interfere with the normal functioning of the body.

The consumption of alcohol has been proven to have adverse effects on the process of urine formation. According to Dasgupta (2011), this may occur directly because it affects the functioning of the kidney and impairs its ability to regulate the composition and volume of electrolytes and fluid in the body; or indirectly due to liver disease that is also caused by excessive alcohol consumption. One of the effects of alcohol is that it increases the volume of urine that is produced by…… [Read More]

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Patient Is a 35-Year-Old Male He Was

Words: 2109 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70723968

patient is a 35-year-old (male?), he was diagnosed with diabetes twenty five years ago at the age of ten years old, he claims that this is hereditary in his family. He has one sister who has Type 2 diabetes and a brother who has type 1 diabetes. He manages his diabetes and other illnesses from home and through a medical clinic; for most of his life he has known he has diabetes and manages to regulate it through insulin shots, glucose tablets as well as through the right nutrition, however he claims that this is difficult and there are most days where he experiences draw backs. Many complications have arisen from his diabetes. This patient was selected because of the certain case he has in regards to his diabetes and other complications which had developed from it. His treatment and management also includes an extensive study. At the young age of 35, the patient has already lost an eye, had both kidneys fail and developed leukemia through diabetes.

Studies have shown that among a number of chronic diseases found in children, are those which have underlying immune dysfunction. Examples of the diseases are diabetes and leukemia. These are two diseases…… [Read More]

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Manufacturer S Role in Creating a Healthy America

Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60200786



Recent data show that Americans consume, on average, more than three times the recommended level of sodium per day in their food and beverages. High salt intake contributes to high blood pressure and its complications -- stroke, heart attack, congestive heart failure, and kidney failure (Gulis? et al., 2014). In fact, thousands of lives could be saved if sodium consumption could be lowered in people with hypertension (high blood pressure).

The government has the sole purpose of providing safe and healthy environments to its citizens at all times. A healthy environment is beneficial directly to the people, and indirectly to the government. The safety of the environment is dependent on the legislative, social, and commercial actions that are taken by the individual people within and without governments. For instance, the world climate is largely dependent on the sole contributions of each nation in having it is protected at all times. Likewise, the government of the United States of America should be wary of the levels of sodium consumed by its population. With such high salt intake, there have been cases of high blood pressure and its complications -- stroke, heart attack,…… [Read More]

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Medical Futility in Oncology Settings

Words: 2228 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43900514

, 2007).

In another relative study, Soares and colleagues (2008) focus on the impact that a prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the ICU setting can have on the cancer patients. This particular approach to analyzing medical futility is rare and hence is important as the scarcity of research leads to gaps in our knowledge on this particular aspect. Hence, this study mainly assessed the personality traits and influences of cancer patients on their treatments of fatal medical intricacies that took place during their in the ICU for ? 21 days (Soares et al., 2008). They define the ICU LOS as simply that lasted less than or equal to 21 days in total.

The results of the study were as follows:

There were a total of 1,090 patients in the ICU, 15% (163) of which experienced prolonged ICU LOS

The total ICU bed-days for these patients were a total of 48% only i.e. 5,828 out 12,224

The hospital mortality rate was at 50%

The 6-month mortality rate was at 60%

The hospital mortality rate was at 51%for patients experiencing LOS longer then 21 days

The 6-month mortality rate was at 61%for patients experiencing LOS longer then 21 days

Most frequent…… [Read More]

Hinkka, H. Kosunen, E., Metsanoja, R., Lammi, U.K. And Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P. (2002). Factors affecting physicians' decisions to forgo life-sustaining treatments in terminal care. Journal of Medical Ethics, 28:109-114

Munshi et al. (2001). Out come of renal replacement therapy in the very elderly. Nephrology dialysis Transplantation. 16, 128 -- 133.
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Aortic Brief History of Acute

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83230679

"Valve sparing root replacements may be performed to replace the entire ascending aorta without leaving residual dissection behind" (Type A, 2011, Columbia Surgery). For type B, the usual prescription is blood pressure control, given the risks of surgery. However, endovascular stent grafting is often offered as an alternative and less invasive treatment (Type B, 2011, Columbia Surgery).

When operating, the femoral artery is usually selected for aortic cannulation. But in some patients, "although the femoral artery seems to be intact, its use for aortic return carries a high risk of cerebral embolism because of the atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Alternatively, surgeons may use the axillary artery in the presence of peripheral artery disease or femoral artery dissection" although "the use of the axillary artery for cannulation can be troublesome because of the vessel's small diameter" (Yamamoto et al. 2001). Aortic cannulation through the apex of the left ventricle and the aortic valve is recommended as the safest place of entry (Yamamoto et al. 2001).

"Perioperative risk in patients with aortic stenosis depends on the interaction of factors such as the severity of valve disease, concomitant coronary artery disease, and the severity and/or urgency of the surgical procedures" (Christ…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Aortic dissection. (2011). Columbia Surgery. Retrieved

Christ, Michael; Yulia Sharkova, Gootz Geldner, & Bernhard Maisch. (2005). Preoperative and Perioperative care for patients with suspected or established aortic stenosis facing noncardiac surgery. CHEST, 128 (4) 2944-2953.
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Proposed Project for Idwg Management

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91987406

Intradialytic weight gain has become a major problem for End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who are dependent on hemodialysis. This issue has resulted in more complications and hospitalizations of ESRD patients who need effective IDWG management programs that are driven by nurses. This project proposes a project that is geared towards improving IDWG management for these patients by 10% through a 12-week educational program. The paper demonstrates how the project will be implemented in a 19 chair dialysis clinic that functions 6 days every week in order to accommodate 150 hemodialysis patients. The discussion includes a description of the proposed change, rationale for selecting it, implementation methods, and expected results. The author provides evaluation of baseline data collected from patients during implementation and conclusions based on the collected data.

Objectives of CNL Internship Project

The objectives or aim of this CNL Internship Project is to coordinate a plan of care that focuses on enhancing the intradialytic competence and results of hemodialysis patients admitted to the clinic. To this extent, the CNL Internship Project seeks to improve IDWG management in patients dependent on hemodialysis by 10% through implementing an education program that will last for 12 weeks. This project will…… [Read More]

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Treating Scleroderma as Chronic Condition

Words: 2702 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67965648

Scleroderma Patient


The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth. While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.


Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this hypothetical situation has it in her lungs, it can actually affect many other places within the body. Scleroderma, at its core, just refers to a group of rare disorders whereby there is hardening and/or tightening of the skin and connective tissues of the affected area. These tissues and fibers are…… [Read More]

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Obesity Is When a Person Has an

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5029382

Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.

Fast Food's link to Obesity

People think that the nutritional values of fast food won't harm their health. However they are more likely to increase the risk of obesity due to excessive gorging. According to experts at the medical research council, a lot of fast food is dense in calories. A human being just needs a…… [Read More]