Kinship Essays (Examples)

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Role of Anthropology in Studying

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50933845

Kinship structures, then, are not normative, but is actually consisted of the mother and child alone, illustrating how the role of males have been gradually decreasing to being 'suppliers' of sperm cells for the women's use in assisted reproduction.

Studies from Carsten and Stone demonstrate the aspects demonstrated in Kahn's research. Carsten's research centers primarily on the kinship system extant in Malaysia, while Stone looks at how females have managed to gradually increase and assert their role in human society, eventually having their own choice to actively participate in the process of reproduction or not.

Carsten's analysis of the Malaysian kinship system shows that the concept of family goes beyond the traditional distinction of blood relations -- that is, people consider an individual as part of the family even though they are not related in blood. Being considered as part of family, then, happens through a process of constant interaction…… [Read More]

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Navajo Indians Navejo Indians the Navajo Indians

Words: 2577 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78957892

Navajo Indians

Navejo Indians

The Navajo Indians also referred to as Dine are semi-nomadic people. It is interesting to note that Navajo people are at times known as 'Holy Earth People (Iverson, 2002). This comes from their beliefs in supernatural beings as well as traditional practices of ritual songs and dance. Navajo people are found in north-eastern areas of Arizona and north-western region of New Mexico (Iverson, 2002) .the regions where the Navajo people live in arid and desert areas that have minimal rainfall. The Navajo people are highly family oriented people, and have a rich culture that is full of ceremonies and other traditions. This paper looks at the history of pastoralists of the Navajo people, their beliefs and religious practices and kinship, sickness and healing, which are important elements with the culture of Navajo people.

Pastoral ways

The traditions and practices of a society, which are to some…… [Read More]

References

Haile, B (1993). Origin Legend of the Navaho Enemy Way: Text and Translation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Iverson, P. (2002). Dine: A History of the Navajo. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Kluckhohn, C and Leighton, D (1960). The Navaho. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sander, D (1979). Navaho Symbols of Healing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Social Relations While Every Individual

Words: 1932 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36621445

This break-down of local hierarchies is first witnessed in the nuclear home, where friendship and kinship are forced to commingle and self-distinguish.

ecause friendship is tied to relationship building learned in the home, the relationship of family members is inevitably tied to the degrees of intimacy, compatibility, and power hierarchy at play at home. While most studies of kinship are an examination of the family in the great social sense, Carsten understands that the modern-day ideas of kinship put previously held principals on their heads. The tenants of blood and bonds in kinship are undeniable, but not mandatory. In El arrio, kinship was created through unrelated individuals because of the fulfillment of shared needs, responsibilities, and contextualization on the margin of society. Additional problems of families spread across the globe, evidenced in the Puerto Rican - Manhattan splits that many of the families in East Harlem had, kinship can be…… [Read More]

Bourgois, Phillippe. 1995. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bourois, p. 9.

Bourgois, p. 12.
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Western Contact With One of

Words: 2336 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34871386

460). This research focuses more on the latter as displaying more indigenous cultural subsistence evidence, which is nonetheless indicated and measured against more modern developments in the less traditional periphery. The result is a one-stable culture experiencing major structural transition or demic change, resulting primarily from population density changes driven by resource scarcity and subsistence mode of different cultures, specifically "everyone else," i.e. The global demand for forest and mineral resources (oil) located under the Huaorani home range (Belaunde, 2008, p. 460). The traditional Huaoranis resisted invasion by neighbors while those neighbors were peer tribal cultures, but are having more difficulty resisting invasion by industrialized nations themselves driven by subsistence mode constraints. One major cultural change has become the necessity for a more articulated central 'government' to represent Waos against encroachment by the states that have arisen around them, where their previous subsistence mode allowed less formal norms and roles…… [Read More]

References

Beckerman, S., Erickson, P., Yost, J., Regaladod, J., Jaramilloe, L., Sparks, C. et al. (2009, May 19). Life histories, blood revenge, and reproductive success among the Waorani of Ecuador. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106 (20), 8134 -- 8139.

Belaunde, L. (2008). Review, Rival, L., Trekking through history: the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 2002. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 14, 431-472.

Lu, F. (2006). The commons' in an Amazonian context. Social Analysis 50 (3), 187-194.

Lu, F., Fariss, B. And Bilsborrow, R.. (2009). Gendered time allocation of indigenous peoples in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Ethnology 48 (3), 239 -- 268.
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Sex and Marriage When a Person Gets

Words: 1701 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6721406

Sex and Marriage:

When a person gets married to another, one of the first rules is that there should be 'exogamy' in the selection of the partner, which also means that the partner has to belong to a well defined outside group, or there should be 'endogamy', which means that the partner must be within some large defined group of people, and both of these two rules work within any given society at any given time, so that there are limits maintained as to the preferability and the acceptability of the marriage partner. The number of spouses that an individual is allowed to marry, however, is generally dictated by the culture and the religion to which the individual belongs. In most of Europe as well as in America, the general rule followed by almost everyone is that of 'monogamy', and this means that one person is only allowed one spouse…… [Read More]

References

Definitions. Retrieved From

 http://academic.regis.edu/areich/definitions.htm  Accessed on 20 March, 2005

Glossary of Terms. Retrieved From

 http://anthro.palomar.edu/kinship/glossary.htm#bilineal_descent  Accessed on 20 March, 2005
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Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest the

Words: 2795 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78428505

Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest

The Mbuti pygmies are a nomadic tribe who inhabit the southern and central portions of the Ituri forest, in the epublic of Congo. They are an ethnocentric and homogenous society whose traditions, gender relations, kinship, social organization have remained unchanged until the last fifty years. The Mbuti tribe is divided into two sub-groups, the Efe and the Mbuti. Currently there are between 20,000 and 50,000 Mbuti people in the Congo (Ojo, 1996). The Mbuti pygmies are hunter-gatherers and have practiced hunting and foraging for thousands of years. Many of the foods they find in hunting and foraging expeditions, especially meat and wild honey, are used as trade items with neighboring tribes like the Bila or Bira people. The Mbuti pygmies are primarily net hunters while the Efe sub-groups of the Mbuti tribe use the bow and arrow. According to Denslow and Padoch (1988) in…… [Read More]

References

(Bayrock E 20110517 Comparison of kinship systems) Bayrock, E. (n.d.). Comparison of kinship systems. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from  http://www.2cyberwhelm.org/archive/diversity/commun/htm/compare.htm 

(Denslow J. Padoch C. 1988 People of the tropical rainforest) Denslow, J., & Padoch, C. (Eds.). (1988). People of the tropical rainforest. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

(Ichikawa M. 1999 Mbuti of northern congo) Ichikawa, M. (1999). The Mbuti of northern Congo. In R.Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge enclyclopedia of hunters and gatherers (pp. 201-215). Cmbridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

(Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures 1999 Effe and Mbuti) Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures. (1999). Effe and Mbuti. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://find.galegroup.com/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=alamco_main
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Social Anthropology Economic Systems Generally

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26547026

Animism is the concentration of those foundational powers within high-status members of social groups and is most common with clans and tribes. Monotheism evolved in the same manner whereas polytheism is more common within larger and more intellectually and economically sophisticated societies.

4. Kinship:

The concept of family varies considerably among different types of societies. Kinship societies are unique in the degree to which the concept of family encompasses horizontal relations as well as vertical relations. The study of terminology is important precisely because similar phrases such as "family" and "kin" have such different connotations in different societies. Whereas kinship societies are typically endogamous, larger human societies are almost always exogamous and subscribe to strong cultural taboos prohibiting incest. Within kinship societies, endogamous rules apply only to vertical and immediate horizontal relations.

5. Applied Anthropology:

Academic anthropology refers to the empirical study of human societies and to anthropological research. Generally,…… [Read More]

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Yanomamo People

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50174573

Yanomamo people of Central Brazil are one of the oldest examples of the classic pre-Columbian forest footmen. They are believed to be the most primitive, culturally intact people in existence in the world. They are literally a Stone Age tribe. Cataloged by anthropologists as Neo-Indians with cultural characteristics that date back more than 8000 years. They have never discovered the wheel and the only metal they use is what has been traded to them from the outside. Their numbering system is one, two, and more than two.

The Yanomamo live in almost complete seclusion in the Amazon rain forests of South America. Apart from their periodic warfare, they have managed to build and sustain their unique culture through adaptations to their environment for generations.

There are approximately 23,000 Yanomamo spread among roughly 225 villages in the Amazon Basin. Each village acts autonomously, but has alliances with other villages that carry…… [Read More]

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High Rate of Marriages to

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65383824

"..."

In a Pakistani family, a person who get married with kin, will be having a life long obligation with the relatives from the same caste. In this frame work, there is a bit of flexibility but as socio economic considerations are significant for particular marriage choices. In such cases, an individual who is involved in such situation, calls upon an idea of a shared blood concept even if there is no inherited relationship. This way, participants considers themselves as the nature of the relationship between the inherited kinship and the household. This however, it effect's the rule of fraternal solidarity, which is explained in various ways. It highlights the give and take concept forming a mutual bond between the households. This concept does involve the members of family or friends clearly reflecting both kinship relationships plus fraternal solidarity between kin and non-kin.

Anthropologists describe the exchanging of gift as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Shaw, Alison. Kinship and Continuity: Pakistani Families in Britain. Published: 2000. Routledge. Retrieved on November 23, 2007. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=KVQ5Lxd8rNMC&dq=kinship+and+continuity&psp=1
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Enga the Culture Plays a Vital Role

Words: 2619 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13217125

Enga

The culture plays a vital role in the society. In this paper we have researched the different aspects of the society and the effect of culture on the society. The primary mode of subsistence is that of culture values and belief. Culture is usually taken for granted by many societies. However, it affects the way people act and belief in a particular society. Culture sets the norms and it is the primary mode of subsistence in a society. The behavior of the society is also according to the culture. The in depth analysis has been conducted on Enga society. This society is unique in its culture and beliefs. The tradition that is followed by the Enga has some pros and cons. The aspects studied in details of Enga are the kinship, values and belief, and gender relations. (Glazer, 2000)

The Enga primary mode of subsistence is that of agrarian…… [Read More]

References

Benedict Y. Imbun, (2002), Enga Social Life and Identity in a Papua New Guinea Mining Town. Oceania. 66.(1). 51+, Publication Year: 1995.

Jacka, J. (2002) Cults and Christianity among the Enga and Ipili. Journal Title: Oceania. Volume: 72. Issue: 3. Page Number: 196+.

Wallace, I. (1992). The Global Economic System. London, Routledge.

Glazer, N. (2000). Culture and Achievement. Public Interest, 49.
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Primordialism Ethnicity Is One of the More

Words: 4088 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54926074

Primordialism

Ethnicity is one of the more fluid concepts in sociology because one's ethnicity is largely defined by membership in a social group. The social group shares a common background, whether through experience or ancestry and they share characteristics that set them apart from other groups. Many times these characteristics are stereotyped, but the stereotypes are derived from a reality where the majority of members of the group do, indeed, share those characteristics. Moreover, one's ethnicity is not limited to a single background. A person can have multiple ethnicities by having a family that derives from multiple different ethnic traditions. However, a person can also have multiple ethnicities because larger ethnic groups can be further subdivided into smaller ethnic groups, sometimes referred to as tribes.

Ethnicity is also intertwined with race, which is an interesting concept. Genetic analysis has revealed that there is greater similarity than difference among humans from…… [Read More]

References

Bayer, M. 2009. "Reconsidering primordialism: An alternative approach to the study of ethnicity." Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1639-1657.

Caliendo, S. & Mcilwain, C. 2011. The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity, London:

Routledge.

Cornell, S. & Hartmann, D. 2007. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World,
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Characteristic Features of the Basseri of Iran

Words: 2867 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46648104

characteristic features of the Basseri of Iran. Its first part will identify and classify "pastoralism" as the Basseri culture's primary mode of subsistence. He second part will show that "tribal chiefship" is underlies the organization of the Basseri society. Furthermore it will show that agriculture and trading determine the Basseri economic organization. Finally, as regards to gender relations, the paper will point out that the importance of the male contribution to subsistence in sheep herding leads to an emphasis on male social roles and patrilineality

Identify and classify the selected culture's primary mode of subsistence

The Basseri are a prime example of a pastoral tribe that is not self-sufficient (Pastoralism, p. 2). They are a tribe of nomads who inhabit the Iranian province of Fars and migrate along the steppes and mountains near the town of Shiraz (Johnson (1996), p. 1). In general, societies specializing in animal husbandry requiring periodic…… [Read More]

References

Barfield, T. (1984). Nomads: Stopped in their tracks? 1-5. Accessed 2 October 2011.Cached -- Similar



Basseri. 1-3. Accessed 2 October 2011.

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Anthro if Anna Tsing Author of in

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66196166

Anthro

If Anna Tsing, author of In the ealm of the Diamond Queen, were to apply her methodologies, theories, and approaches to ethnography to the Nuer people, the result would be a far different book than E.E.E. Pritchard's (1969) The Nuer. Flipping the perspective would completely alter Tsing's goals in the research, and the view the researcher takes on what the appropriate role of the ethnographer is to provide context and meaning to the work. Both Tsing and Pritchard would remain concerned about issues like kinship, lineage, and basic socio-political structures. Both would also include explication of economic institutions and processes, and might mention gender roles, norms, and hierarchies, too. However, Tsing would bring multiple dimensions to the Nuer study that Pritchard misses. Tsing starts her analysis of the Meratus people by describing how they are perceived not by the foreign ethnographer, but by the modern nation-state in which they…… [Read More]

References

Pritchard, E.E.E. (1969). The Nuer. Oxford University Press.

Tsing, A.L. (1993). In the Realm of the Diamond Queen. Princeton University Press.
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Btsisi & Sav H Ga Cultures Comparative

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63249229

Btsisi & Sav "h Ga Cultures

Comparative Analysis: Btsisi and Savannaha Ga (Sav" h Ga) Cultures

Differences in geographic location of societies gave birth to different cultures and traditions, influenced by the people living in a specific geographic area, and the way of life they have developed over time. One of the salient features of cultural differences is the kind of kinship system established within the culture, which includes the behavior, actions and lifestyle within. In this paper, two cultures will be compared in terms of the kinship system, behavior, actions, and lifestyle established within each culture. The cultures under study are the Btsisi of Selangor, Malaysia, and the author's own cultural/ethnic group, the Savannah Ga (Sav" h Ga).

As a cultural group, the Btsisi traces its heritage from a primarily matriarchal society, wherein villages are led by a woman leader called Batin. The significance of women and the Batin…… [Read More]

References

Ember, C. And M. Ember (Eds.). (2003). Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures. NY: Springer.

Nowak, B. (2010). "Can the partnership last?" Cultural Survival, Vol. 8, No. 2.

Nowak, B. (2000). "Dancing the Main jo'oh: Hma 'Btsisi' celebrate their humanity and religious identity in a Malaysian world." Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 11, Issue 2.
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African and Native Americans When Discussing the

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4056412

African and Native Americans

When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22

(2005): 273-284.

Maass, John R. "The Frontier War for American Independence/The French and Indian War."

The Journal of Military History 69 (2005): 228-230.
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Guests of the Sheik Ethnography of an Iraqi Village

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11151107

Ethnographic Perspective: Guests of the Sheik

Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village -- analysis

Elizabeth Fernea's book "Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village" provides readers with a complex description of women in Iraqi village during the 1950s. The text is meant to enable people to abandon stereotypes they might have considered when coming across Iraqi women. The book should not necessarily be understood as a form of criticism with regard to society's understanding of this particular community, as it is actually meant to inform readers and to make it possible for them to employ more open-minded attitudes with regard to the group. The fact that the writer provides a personal account regarding Iraqi women during the 1950s contributes to the overall authenticity of the manuscript.

The book is based on Fernea's experiences in Iraq during her stay there with her husband, an…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Warnock Fernea, E. (2010). Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
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Mole People Is a Fascinating

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54912806

The communities that they form are tribes, not societies. There is a general frame of organization, a leadership, but no government in the real sense. If there is a hierarchical scale of leadership, most likely it is not set as in modern societies. ut some facts described by Toth are very much similar to a society. For example, Toth describes one enclave under Grand Central with showers using hot water from a leaky stream pipe, with cooking and laundry facilities, and even an exercise room. Each person has its own role in the community, some go outside to gather food and such, and other stay underground and cook, do laundry, nurture children and such. This organization resemblances very much with a tribe, as it has far too few members and it has few of the attributes of a society. Most of these people live like animals, though. As described in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Toth, Jennifer, The Mole People: Life in the tunnels beneath New York City, Chicago Review Press, 1993
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Women Wolf Margery Uterine Families

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15347771

A woman who has yet to make a son is the lowest of the low, far beneath her mother-in-law. Once she produces a male heir, she increases her status in the family, in her husband's eyes, and as the mother of the father's child, thus reducing the status of the mother in law and her power over the girl as well. Before, her own mother only spoke of the future without her, in her brother's terms, and only when married does she have a future -- but with a past door of her childhood "slamming shut."(243)

Question

This creates a fragmented household, pitting woman against woman, all eyes turned to the husband for authority. And before, in a house with daughters, no "matter how fond of his daughter the father may be" she is a temporary member of his household, with no ties to him, and she will not protect…… [Read More]

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Anthropology One of the Major Organizational Consequences

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10351938

Anthropology

One of the major organizational consequences of matrilineal descent is that it results to the dominance of women while at the same time eradicating the "territorial" nature of males. This important feature of a matrilineal organization is vital, especially in the case of the Mosuo tribe, wherein the absence of territoriality discourages the practice of marriage. That is, women are bound only to their families and not their husbands or male relatives; the dominance of women in the tribe and dependence of males to females creates a matriarchal society instead of a patriarchal one.

The men's role in a matriarchal society is parallel with women's role in a patriarchal society, that is, to aid women in the process of procreation. Apart from his role as a father (but not a husband, as in the context of the Mosuo culture), males also help in daily household chores and to serve…… [Read More]

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Shinto Is a Japanese Religion

Words: 341 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35890559

The ritual is the most important aspect of Shinto; thus performing the ritual the right way is the most important part of worship in Shinto. The rituals serve to bind Japanese to their past as well; since the rituals themselves are sacred they do not change.

The other key element of Shinto is purification. iping clean restores the natural process, which is clean and beautiful, and free from pollution. For the Japanese, purity and religion are one and the same (Boyd & illiams, 1999).

Festivals are also important in Shinto. Adherents use festivals as a means to bring the community together. Festivals also become celebrations of ritual, or are held to ask the spirits for prosperity in a profession, or for a harvest.

orks Cited:

No author. (2009). Shinto at a glance. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/ataglance/glance.shtml

Boyd, J. & illiams, J. (1999). Artful means: An…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Shinto at a glance. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2009 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/ataglance/glance.shtml 

Boyd, J. & Williams, J. (1999). Artful means: An aesthetic view of Shinto purification rituals. Journal of Ritual Studies. Vol. 13, 1, 37-52.
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Beauty the Nature and Principles

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90777667



Socrates and Plotinus also have very similar ideas on how Beauty is recognized, which though intimately related to their ideas on the nature of Beauty are somewhat different, also. For both men, Beauty was connected to the eternal. Socrates, being at least somewhat (and perhaps completely) atheistic, does not immediately or necessarily connect the concept of the eternal with the concept of the divine, however, but rather recognizes the inherent Beauty in the only act of immortality that mortals can engage in -- procreation and generation, which leads to "beauty in birth." The physical act of love between a man and a woman is described by Socrates -- through the voice of Diotima -- as an act of supreme beauty, and its effects are equally beautiful, as it causes immortality and hence touches upon the eternal. Beauty is also connected to love because love cannot occur with deformity; the closer…… [Read More]

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Luhrmann in What Ways Might

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49122993

Students would undertake self-directed research projects, guided or led by teachers at their request. Agency would enable students to play a few hours of sports instead of read, or to read instead of play the piano. Teachers expressing their agency could hold classes outdoors, and teach about any subject they wish.

2.What contradictions might result?

The teacher's agency can easily conflict with that of the student. The teacher's agency might also clash with prevailing social values and norms. For example, a teacher who wanted to include Intelligent Design in the course curriculum could do so if all structure to the educational system were removed. With that structure in place, the teacher cannot teach Intelligent Design. The contradiction between structure and agency becomes poignant in an educational setting.

Between teacher and student, conflicts would arise between what is being taught and what is being learned; between what students want to learn…… [Read More]

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Mbuti Unmovable The Mbuti of the Ituri

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58776139

Mbuti

Unmovable: The Mbuti of the Ituri Forest

For more than 2,000 years, the world has been aware of the Mbuti (Pygmy) hunter-gatherers that reside in the Ituri Forest of northern Zaire. References have been made to Pygmies that date as far back as Ancient Egypt, with mentions made by Herodotus, Aristotle and Homer (McDonald, 2004). Little however, was known about the daily lives of the Mbuti Pygmies until the 1950's. In an effort to find the values of goodness in the world post World War II, the public became interested in an isolated people who seemed far freer and more egalitarian than most self described "civilized societies (McDonald, 2004).The Mbuti are part of a larger group of forest dwellers referred to as the ambuti. According to the most recent statistics, there are reportedly less than 20,000 pure blood ambuti remaining in the world (Turnbull, 1998).

The Mbuti are described…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adovasio, J., Soffer, O., & Klima, b. (1996). Upper Paleolithic fibre technology: Interlaced

Woven finds from Pavlov I, Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago, Antiquity 70,

526-534.

Driver, J. (1990). Meat in due season: The timing of communal hunts. In L. Davis, and M. Reeves, (Eds.), Hunters of the recent past. London: Unwin Hyman.
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Nuer People and Cattle Three of the

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42944379

Nuer People and Cattle

Three of the most prominent pieces of literature to explore the relationship between the Sudanese tribe of Nuer people and cattle include Sharon Hutchinson's "Nuer ethnicity militarized," the same author's "The cattle of money and the cattle of girls among the Nuer," and E.E. Evans-Pritchard's The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People. All of these works examine, either directly or indirectly, the relationship between this particular tribe and cattle from a variety of perspectives. The first mentioned work of Hutchinson's does so through examining the exacting civil war in Sudan during the 1990's and its causes in the time period preceding that decade. The second mentioned work of Hutchinson's does so by considering the social and economic implications of this relationship while primarily focusing on this latter aspect. Evans-Pritchard's book covers this topic extensively from a variety…… [Read More]

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Company Critical Elements

Words: 1783 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88732858

Company Critical Elements

Business Continuity is a vibrant industry dedicated to identifying, prioritizing and safeguarding critical business functions. From small businesses such as neighborhood bakeries to business titans such as Microsoft, each entity that can name, rate and guarantee the continued functionality of its required systems can survive in crisis. As the following analysis shows, the critical processes of all modern businesses fall into common basic categories that are vital to survival.

The Bakery

A bakery has several critical functions, some common to all businesses and some unique. "Agility Recovery" generally identifies "business critical functions" as those that: "(1) are most sensitive to downtime; (2) fulfill legal or financial obligations to maintain cash flow; (3) play a key role in maintaining your business' market share and reputation; (4) safeguard an irreplaceable asset" (Agility Recovery, 2010, p. 1). Simplifying the process somewhat for small businesses, CSO defines critical areas as those…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agility Recovery. (2010). Prepare My Business: Critical Business Functions. Retrieved from Agility Recovery Web site: http://www2.agilityrecovery.com/assets/SBA/criticalbusfuncsba.pdf

Anderson, J. (2011). Planning Strategy for Business Continuity | Small Business. Retrieved from Small Business Demand Media Web site:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/planning-strategy-business-continuity-5157.html 

Okolita, K. (2009, December 2). How to Perform a Disaster Recovery Business Impact Analysis. Retrieved from CSO Security and Risk Web site: http://www.csoonline.com/article/509539/how-to-perform-a-disaster-recovery-business-impact-analysis?page=1

Smith, C. (2011). Business Continuity Planning Guidelines | Small Business - Chron.com. Retrieved from Small Business Demand Media Web site:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/business-continuity-planning-guidelines-2552.html
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Seasons of Life That Are Characteristic of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42354102

seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.

Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.

Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.

Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?

Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…… [Read More]

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American Criminal Justice Systems and Policies

Words: 3251 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16883688

History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police

It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.

The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)

Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.

Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9487482

Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
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Love and Mythology

Words: 1476 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78043976

Mythology

Tales of love begin with the creation of humans, and continue to the graphic media driven "reality TV" shows that televise the private lives of the bachelor and bachelorette and all the people competing for their love. Love is a feeling everyone can relate to, but it is unlikely most people would claim to understand love. ithin almost every literary genre there are myths about love that fuel ideals that are rarely if ever realized. There is no place where this is truer than in the stories of mythology.

The perpetual love myths that exist in classical mythology demonstrate ideals that are confronted even today by individuals searching for love today. The ideals of love that will be explored in this work are: love at first sight, the myth of one true love and the human phenomenon of over idealizing unobtainable love. The stories of classical mythology charter the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000493001

Ahmed, Ehsan. "Clement Marot, Redemption and the 'Temple De Cupido.'." The Romanic Review 88.3 (1997): 357+. Questia. 25 July 2004 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7864312

Fairbanks, Arthur. The Mythology of Greece and Rome Presented with Special Reference to Its Influence on Literature. New York: Appleton, 1907. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77385689

Ovid, and A.S. Hollis. Metamorphoses. 1st ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
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Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

Words: 1507 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13042925

Grandparents as Caregivers

An Introduction to the Skipped Generation

Families in the late 20th and early 20th century are not the same as they were prior to World War II and even up into the 1960s. The idea of marriage is both a social and religious contract that is sanctioned by society as a valid contract and event. Depending on the particular society and culture, marriage combines the institution of family with intimate and sexual relationships, and the idea of the unit growing from this union. Traditionally, marriage has been with a man and a woman with the potential of having children, thus creating kinship ties to extended families. Historically, this was also an economic unit; families joined forces with land or property, or even joined nations together. Over the past few decades, though, marriage has weakened as the prime social institution of family life. There are a number of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Collins, W. (2011). A Strengths-Based Support Group to Empower African-American Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren. Social Work and Christianity. 38 (4): 456-66.

Goodman, C., et al. (2008). The Health of Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: Does the Quality of Family Relationships Matter? Families, Systems and Health. 26 (4): 417-30.

Lipscomb, R. (2005). The Challenges of African-American Grandparents Raising Their Children. Race, Gender and Class. 12 (2): 163-77.

Strom, P., Strom, R. (2011). Grandparent Education: Raising Grandchildren. Educational Gerontology. 37 (1): 910-23.
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Kafr El Elow

Words: 2197 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19645233

Kafr El-Elow is based upon the novel Kafr El-Elow: Continuity and Change in an Egyptian community written by Hani Fakhouri. This paper takes into account two chapters from the novel and explains why both of them are absolutely essential in understanding the social structure of the village, Kafr El-Elow. The paper also highlights some very important traditions and customs followed by the villagers.

Kafr El-Elow

The writer of the novel, Kafr El-Elow chose the village of Kafr El-Elow for the ethnographic research not because of its close association with Cairo but because of its location in the middle of Egypt's colossal mercantile complex. According to the author, the small village of Kafr El-Elow is bound to experience a lot of changes due to its most central location, as it is the industrial complex of a country that experience advancement. The people of Kafr El-Elow as result of urbanization and industrialization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hani F. Kafr El-Elow. Wave Land Press. May 1987.
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Social Organization & Social Systems

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65542814

Fischer entitled: "Representing Anthropological Knowledge: Calculating Kinship: Analyzing and Understanding Cultural Codes" states that:

Kinship is one of the more important, pervasive and complex systems of culture. All human groups have a kinship terminology, a set of terms used to refer to kin. The study of kinship is the greatest common denominator across the different fractions of social anthropology. The first scientific study of kinship was conducted by Lewis Henry Morgan and reported in the work entitled: "Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family" (1870) (Fischer, 2001)

The work entitled: "The Anthropology of Kinship" states that social groups based upon matrifiliation are social groups in which membership is: "recruited through mothers" (Parkin, 2004) with the rationalization being a model of conception that appoints the father little if any role in the conception of a child. Filiation and descent groups are stated to: "...continue to play an important role…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kittelson, a. And Stafford, a. (nd) Yanomamo. MSU. Online available at http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/southamerica/yonomamo.html

Schwimmer, B. (1998) Intergroup Relations and Social Distance among the Yanomamo. Online available at  http://umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/case_studies/yanomamo/soc_dist.html .

Schwimmer, B. (1998) Marriage Systems. Online available at  http://umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/marriage/intro.html .

Sexual Relations among Young People in Developing Countries (2001) World Health Organization. Online available at http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/RHR_01_8/index.html.
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Mountain Village in Nepal the

Words: 4108 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87968049

Of course, Western culture often holds material consumer products in high regard as status symbols, such as homes, automobiles, elaborate clothing, and the like. In the case of the Nepalese, however, the case is vastly different. In the mountain villages, land is the primary commodity that is held in the highest regard as a symbol of status, wealth and power. This is so for very specific reasons, given the fact that land is in short supply in Nepal, land is vital in a mostly agrarian society such as that of the Nepalese villages, and the very simple way of life that the villagers lead makes many of the common Western status symbols unnecessary at best and outright ridiculous at the very least.

The status symbol of land in Nepal seems to be mostly centered on the males of the culture; for the females, who are generally prohibited from owning land,…… [Read More]

References

Childs, G. (2004). Tibetan Diary: From Birth to Death and beyond in a Himalayan Valley of Nepal. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hitchcock, John T. (1980). Mountain Village in Nepal (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.

Palomar. (2006). Sex and Marriage. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site: http://anthro.palomar.edu/marriage

Palomar. (2006). The Nature of Kinship. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site: http://anthro.palomar.edu/kinship
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Affirmative Action Policies Grew Out of a

Words: 3213 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33025024

Affirmative action policies grew out of a need to address the historic discrimination against minorities and women. Since its inception, affirmative action has helped open the door for many minorities seeking gainful employment and higher education. However, the same policies have also spawned charges of reverse discrimination against others and, paradoxically, of harming the very people they were intended to help.

This paper looks at whether affirmative action policies remain relevant today, with a particular focus on racial minorities such as African-Americans and Latinos. In the first part, the paper defines affirmative action, traces the policies' history and examines their goals. The second part is a critical examination of the arguments of affirmative action supporters. The third part studies the arguments against affirmative action by evaluating both the policies' effectiveness and their deleterious consequences for African-Americans and other racial minorities.

In the conclusion, this paper maintains that though they were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowen, William G. And Derek Bok (1998). "The Shape of the River: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university application." Excerpted in Race Relations. Mary E. Williams (ed). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 124-130.

Brookings Review (1998). "Affirmative Action: What Everyone Hates in Theory but Likes in Practice." Excerpted in Interracial America. Mary E. Williams (ed). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 153-156.

Chavez, Linda (1996). "Promoting Racial Harmony." Excerpted in The Affirmative Action Debate. George E. Curry (ed). Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 314-325.

Cohen, Carl (1998). "Race Preference in College Admission." Excerpted in Interracial America. Mary E. Williams (ed). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 144-152.
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Yanomamo Indian Tribe

Words: 2995 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63348102

Yanomamo

The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe also called Yanomamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma who live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern razil. The society is composed of four subdivisions of Indians. (Yanomami Indians) Each subdivision has its own language. "They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area."

(ibid)

The Yanomamo are one of the largest unacculturated aboriginal groups left in South America, with a total population of around 12,000. Their subsistence is based on hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. The predominant crops are plantains and bananas. Their diet includes yams, sweet potatoes and the fruit of the peach palm. (eierle, J.M.)

The social construction of the culture is composed of small groups numbering approximately 75 people in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barnes, M.H. (2000). Stages of Thought: The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Beierle, J.M. Society-YANOAMA. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from CSAC's Ethnographics Gallery. Web site: http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7884

Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Buss, D.M. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books.
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Sociology of Families Making Families

Words: 3136 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89493662

They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:

Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed

Constructivist epistemology)

Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.

Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.

Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism

Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
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Management Karl Marx Is Highly Regarded as

Words: 2589 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4431206

Management

Karl Marx is highly regarded as one of the foremost authorities in economics and social structure. It is through his beliefs that the thought process of Marxism was created. Although very controversial in this thoughts and beliefs, Marx outlined, what he believed to be, a social framework for society. According to Marx, society often begins a series of transformations directly related to the primary flow of labor and production (Singer, 200). Through division of labor each organizational structure has a central conflict. According to Marx, each organizational structure is characterized with conflict among different parts of society with particular emphasis on economic status. Marx focused a disproportionate amount of his research on the social relationships between the economic classes prevailing in society (Marx, 1990). Marx tended to focus on the relationships between entry level workers and those of their immediate supervisor. Marx identified historical epochs from the beginning of…… [Read More]

References:

1) Curtis, Michael (1997). Marxism: the inner dialogues. Transaction Publishers. p.201- 291. ISBN 978-1-56000-945-0

2) David McLellan 1973 Karl Marx: His life and Thought. New York: Harper and Row. pp. 189 -- 190

3) Engels, Frderick "Principles of Communism" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 6 (International Publishers, New York, 1976) pp. 341-357.

4) Enrique D. Dussel; Fred Moseley (2001). Towards an unknown Marx: a commentary on the manuscripts of 1861 -- 63. Psychology Press. pp. 33 -- 67. ISBN 978-0-415-21545-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=-Ld9fM0DOYQC&pg=PR33.
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Assembly 3014 and Identical Senate

Words: 3053 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10388248

(Musil, 1998)

Although there has been some examination of the stresses and supports of grandmothers with primary or partial responsibility for raising grandchildren, there have been no comparisons between grandmothers in these two types of care giving situations. Longitudinal studies are lacking, and the few published cross-sectional studies have highlighted the difficulty in obtaining a sample from this population. (Musil, 1998)

There may be particular stressors and consequences of care giving for custodial grandmothers with primary responsibility that differ from those who live with the grandchild but do not assume primary responsibility for their care. For example, lack of reciprocal support by the middle generation, the need to care for multiple children (of multiple children), and conflict ridden relationships with the grandchild's parent(s) are likely to affect primary grandparent caregivers. Further, grandparents with primary responsibility have reported high degrees of role restriction, social isolation, and financial difficulty. Yet because the…… [Read More]

References

Dressel, P. (1996). Grandparenting at century's end: An introduction to the issue. Generations, 20(1), 5-7. Retrieved September 25, 2006, from Academic Search Premier Database.

Dye, J.L. (2003). Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association: Grandparents living with and providing care for grandchildren: A comparison of data from census 2000 and 2000 American community survey. San Francisco, CA.

Hayslip, B., Jr., & Kaminski, P.L. (2005). Grandparents raising their grandchildren: A review of the literature and suggestions for practice. The Gerontologist, 45(2), 262-269. Retrieved September 27, 2006, from Social Services Abstracts Database.

Landry-Meyer, L. & Newman, B.M. (2004). An exploration of the grandparent caregiver role. Journal of Family Issues, 25(8), 1005-1025. Retrieved September 27, 2006, from Sociological Abstracts Database.
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Cultural Schema Hypothesis on Aboriginals

Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20294139

Aborigines are Australia's original inhabitants and until the late 1700's -1800's the aborigine had little contact with Western civilization. Local dialects and the territorial nature of bands provided the different social groups their distinctive identity. The Mardudjara (Mardu) aborigines are part of the Western Desert cultural block in Australia (Tonkinson, 1978). The Mardu culture, societal system, etc. has never been recorded in its pristine state as anthropologic researchers did not study the group until well after alien influences had occurred. Nonetheless, the nomadic lifestyle of the Mardu was dictated by the harsh climate in which they live and they are an extremely interesting group. Nomadic groups like the Mardu often have a perception of gender or a cultural gender schema that fits in functionally with their lifestyle and is based on a division of labor and status that allows the group to maintain an identify, clearly defined roles, and survive…… [Read More]

References

Bird, R. (1999). Cooperation and conflict: The behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8 (2), 65-75.

Holmes, L.D., & Holmes, E.R. (1992) Samoan Village (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Tonkinson, R. (1978). The Mardudjara aborigines: Living the dream in Australia's desert. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Gender
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Close Is Too Close What Is Wrong

Words: 2098 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23157076

Close is Too Close: What is Wrong with Incest?

This paper outlines incest as a social taboo with reference to the Jewish, Native American, and Malagasy cultures and identifies what is wrong with the practice of incest. It has 7 sources.

Definition of Incest

Incest or the sexual relations between persons to whom marriage is prohibited by custom or law because of close kingship [Kottak 2002] is a social phenomenon that differ from culture to culture and by definition too they differentiate from one group to the next. The reason being that customs, traditions and cultures all vary due to the accepted norms as well as religion found in these groups and hence the prohibition or the allowance for people to marry siblings differs greatly. Inter-marriage to close relatives in the American culture for instance is considered taboo while in the Jewish it is considered compulsory. What triggers such social…… [Read More]

References

Sander L. Gilman Sibling incest, madness, and the "Jews." Social Research Summer, 1998.

J. Shepher, Incest: A Biosocial View, New York: Academic, 1983.

Kottak, Conrad P. Cultural Anthropology, 9/e University of Michigan, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002.

Williams, Walter L. The Spirit and the Flesh, Sexual Diversity in the American Indian Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986.
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Rural Irish Society and Gender

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17495399

Family and the Land" addresses gender roles and social structures in traditional rural Irish society. "Systems of kinship" are discussed liberally, as is the social construction of identity. Each individual maintains a network of social ties, and plays different roles in the society depending on the relationship and its ascription of status and hierarchy. Thus, a son is inferior to the father but superior to his own son or daughter.

Marriage in traditional Irish society forms the backbone of family and community life. Marriages are matches made for social expediency and political reasons, as well as for economic purposes. The marriage ritual confers adult status upon the young person and reaffirms a patriarchal social order. Moreover, marriage enables the legal transactions of inherited estates. Generally, large families hope for at least one son to marry well enough to create a situation in which the family farm possesses a clear heir.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"The Family and the Land."
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History of Popular Nationalism Wiebe

Words: 894 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74893054

But Nazism was, in fact, an internationalist movement of expansion, much like the expansionist aims of the Soviet state. Similarly, what is most feared today is not Islamic nationalism, but rather Islamic fundamentalist internationalism, the result of the Arab Muslim world's "shallow-rooted, kleptocratic" authorities that preside over disenfranchised "impoverished Moslem populations" with little sense of national loyalty (Wiebe 204). In his conclusion, Wiebe argues for a weaker nation state with more deeply-rooted local and less expansionistic ties as the antidote to the negative effects of nationalism.

At the end of Wiebe's preface to his book, he writes: "my hope is not that you will come to like nationalism -- I am not its advocate -- but that you will come to see it as so thoroughly human that no simple judgment does it justice" (Wiebe xvii). However, while Wiebe may be fair in reproaching most American's poor sense of history…… [Read More]

Reference

Wiebe, Robert. Who we are: A history of popular nationalism. Princeton: Princeton

University Press, 2001.
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Anthropology Japanese-American Internment During the

Words: 5857 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22390575

... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'

The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001051692

Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29225288

Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
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Son of God -- a

Words: 1816 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2856793

According to the concept of homoousion, Christ the Son was consubstantial (sharing the same substance) with the Father." (Gill, 2006) Only then was it resolved that although Jesus was the Son of God, the unique nature of Jesus as Son meant that Jesus, God the Father, and the Holy Spirit all were won.

The interpretation of the term "Son of God" continues to divide Judaism from Christianity, theologically and linguistically, as well as provided a source of division amongst Christians themselves. And interpretations of the phrase continue to change in emphasis, even amongst fellow Christians. Recent interpretations of Jesus in the American cultural context have used the notion of 'sonship' to personalize Jesus, rather than to alienate Jesus, in an attempt to have a more accessible divinity. (Prothero, 2003) In its original theological context, the notion of God's dual spiritual and physical essence was just exciting and divisive as it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aherene, (2002) "Son of God." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 Nov 2006.   http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14142b.htm  

Gill, N.S. "The Arian Controversy." About.Com. Retrieved 19 Nov 2006. http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/godsreligion/p/aa082499.htm

Kaufmann, Koheler & Emil G. Hirsch (2002) "The Pious as the Sons of God." Article

Retrieved from the Jewish Encyclopedia 19 Nov 2006 at http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=964&letter=S&search=Son%20of%20God
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Children and Youth Services

Words: 1523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46502813

youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.

Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…… [Read More]

References

Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.

Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.

Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.

Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.
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Judaism and Early Christianity

Words: 2542 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58197076

Jewish History

The Hebrews do not actually appear in history until about 1224-1211 B.C.E. during the reign of Marniptah, king of Egypt (Ancient pg). Marniptah was the son of Raamses I, 1290-1223 B.CE, who is thought to be the kind of Egypt at the time of the Hebrew exodus (Ancient pg). In an account of Marniptah's military campaign in Asia, 1220 B.C.E., inscribed in granite is listed all the conquered peoples including the Israelites, who are mentioned as "now living in Canaan" (Ancient pg). Before this, the only history is that which was written by the Hebrews themselves who trace their origins to a "single individual, Abraham, who comes originally from Mesopotamia" (Ancient pg). This pre-Egyptian Hebrew history is referred to as the age of the patriarchs, which means father-ruler (Ancient pg). More than a thousand years had passed before this era of history was written down, and although it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ancient Jewish History

http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/Judaism/jewhist.html

Davidmann, Mandred. "History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees."  http://www.solbaram.org/articles/fn2.html 

Department for Jewish Zionist Education
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Talcott Parsons' Analysis U S Sex Roles 1940s

Words: 1660 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46284383

Talcott Parsons' analysis U.S. sex roles 1940s essay, "Sex oles Amer

Parsons' essay "Sex oles in the American Kinship Theory," analyzes the American social structure of the 1940's from several different perspectives. Specifically, the author examines societal structure from a familial or "kinship" (Parsons 1943:300) perspective, an occupational perspective and, finally from a perspective between the two sexes. The primary focus of his argument is that the unit of the family is the basic foundation of society but the effects of romantic relationships and occupational perceptions ultimately contribute to a "tension" (Parsons 1943:303) that is inherently manifested between the sexes. He largely bolsters this viewpoint with a functionalist perspective that was far from unique at the time, and which would have readily supplied a conflict theorist with the means to likely overturn his conclusions -- which partly explains later trends in gender relations.

The principle point of departure in this…… [Read More]

References

Hardman. 2013. On the 50th Anniversary of the Publication of The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan. Women & Language. 36(1): 57-61.

Parsons. Talcott. 1943. "Sex Roles in the American Kinship System."

MacDonald, Kevin. 2009. "Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture." Evolutionary Psychology. 7(2): 208-233.

McClelland, Kent. 2000. "Functionalism." http://web.grinnell.edu  http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
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Coast Salish Culture

Words: 3450 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17909114

Ceremonies and Celebrations

The Coast Salish people are people from Nations and Tribes whose traditional roots are found along the west coast of British Columbia and ashington State. Actually, the Coast Salish region expands from the northern Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland regions to western part of the ashington State. Most of the Coast Salish First Nations Groups are found in British Columbia and ashington State ("Coast Salish Fast Facts," p.1). The Coast Salish people seemingly have some similarities with other cultures in the Pacific Northwest Coast. An analysis of their traditions and customs and ceremonies and celebrations demonstrates that they are different from the other cultures, which make them distinct people. The process of proving this thesis will entail examining a brief history of Coast Salish people and thorough evaluation of their traditions and customs as well as ceremonies and celebrations.

The Coast Salish People of British Columbia

As…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"COAST SALISH FAST FACTS." S'abadeb -- The Gifts: Pacific Coast Salish Art and Artists. Royal BC Museum, 17 Nov. 2009. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish." First Nations - Land Rights and Environmentalism in British Columbia. First Nations, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish Peoples." The Seattle Times. Newspapers in Education and Hibulb Cultural Center, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .

"Coast Salish Spinning and Weaving." Coast Salish Wool Dog Poster. Coast Salish Fashion, 2007. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .
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Adult Thematic Similarity Has Come

Words: 1738 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93203262



If we can study these thematic relationships, and understand how persons with disorders are interpreting and judging these relationships, then we can perhaps intercede in those interpretations and judgments by way of thematic relationships that help train people with disorders to respond differently, or to process the relationship in a way that treats them away from cognitive processes that impair them, and towards processing these relationships in ways that help them move forward as healthier adults with a higher or improved quality of life.

Thematic similarity relationships are worthy of further study in adults. There is much room for progress in this regard as an applied science, and we should strive to gain as much clinical and practical information about its usefulness as a therapeutic approach as possible.

eference List

Cottrell, G. (1996). Proceedings From the Eighteenth Annual

Conference of the Cognitive Science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Gray,…… [Read More]

Reference List

Cottrell, G. (1996). Proceedings From the Eighteenth Annual

Conference of the Cognitive Science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Gray, W. And Schunn, C. (2002). Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual

Conference of the Cognitive Science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
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Okonkwo One of the Most

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76589967

Nwoye, however, is attracted by the external trappings of Christian rhetoric, that promise him peace and a way out of a society in which he cannot compete because of his physical, emotional, and spiritual weaknesses. For Okonkwo, of course, the religion of Christianity is completely antithetical to his principles.

Q8. The end of the novel did surprise me. I expected that there would be a final, bloody clash between the tribesmen and the British. However, the real conflict occurs within Okonkwo's soul, when he is frustrated that his people will not fight with him, as they know they cannot overcome the superior military technology of the British. Okonkwo's suicide, however, once it is clear that his tribesmen will not stand with him, is not surprising, given that it is consistent with his militaristic and inflexible character -- he would rather die than submit. However, the fact that suicide is considered…… [Read More]

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Agonquin Indian Tribes of Michigan

Words: 7164 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10710962

Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."

Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.

3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.

Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
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Feminist Diversity Women's Liberation With

Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41534872

Interestingly, the Politics of Passion proves that just the opposite is true. Women who reject traditional paradigms also reject Western idealisms about sexuality, marriage, families, desire and identity. Through their sexual activities, the mati women described by Wekker embody each of these elements, and liberate themselves sexuality, which in turn leads to greater power, greater autonomy and greater independence. Women are encouraged in this environment to rely on their own instincts, knowledge and expertise to do what they feel is best for them. They are encouraged, contrary to what most women experience, to do what makes them feel good. In this way they escape the chains that bind and subordinate many women living in other cultures who are brought up to believe gender distinctions exist and women have certain responsibilities and places.

If one were to adopt the mati perspective and apply it to their life, they would find that…… [Read More]

References

Beagan, Brenda. (2001). Micro inequities and everyday inequalities: "Race," gender, sexuality and class in medical school. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 26(4): 583.

Wekker, Gloria. (2006). Politics of Passion. New York: Columbia University Press.

Power of Passion
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Hatshepsut as Manned Sphinx Letter

Words: 1315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61545992



As well I can see that she has wore royal headdress that usually a king wears but the uraeus (cobra) is linked with the female individuals, though both kings and queens use it. The uraeus is linked to the sun god. Here I remember and you also know dear Zeus one of our beliefs that God took the eyes from Sun. This uraeus in front of her headdress makes me feel like she is the goddess though it symbolizes her kinship.

Yet I am feeling that her portrayal and imagery is different from the Canonical practice however, I am also feeling that it was essential for creating her female king identity. It also makes me feel that Hatshepsut created her image very carefully and slowly and was able to cultivate her identity because in her images she is portrayed as female king and not as a male king.

And tell…… [Read More]

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Environment Ethics

Words: 2625 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38223158

Environmental ethics is a conjecture and an application in relation to apprehensions for principles in, and obligations regarding the natural world. Ethics, basically, is people relating to people in impartiality and love. Environmental ethics begins with human distresses for quality surroundings (Gaston 52). This concern shapes the ethic from beginning to the end. Beyond inter-human concerns, ideals are at pledge when individuals relate to animals, plants, species and ecosystem. Humans ought to find nature morally considerable, and this turns ethics into new directions.

Environmental ethics maintains that humans, not until they reach a more considerate ethic, are ignorant as opposed to popular opinion (Keller and Golley 67). Humans are the only self-reflective, deliberative moral agents. Nature has endowed the wise species with a conscience. Ecological quality is essential for eminence of human life. Individuals significantly re-establish their surroundings and live in an innate ecology where resources are subjects of life…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carlstrom, P. As The Solar Gets Bigger, Its Future Gets Brighter. San Fransisco: Sage, 2005.

Gaston, K.J. Biodiversity And Extinction. New York: New York Publishing Press, 2003.

Keller, G. And A. Golley. The Philosophy Of Ecology. New York: Oxford Publishing Press,
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The Oedipal Loop Substance Abusers vs Royalty

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89304537

The Oedipal Loop: Substance Abusers vs. "Royalty"


The psychologies of substance abuse and of royalty may seem on one level to be worlds apart. One is, after all, literally on top of things by law, decree, and birth-the other only gets "to the top" in an illusory world created by reliance on the drug of choice. But upon closer examination, especially in the play Oedipus the King, the mindset of the substance abuser and that of a misguided monarch turn out to be similar in an almost uncanny number of ways.
It has been said that Oedipus is above all a "victim." He is a victim of fate; of the machinations of people around him; of a curse. Similarly, many people in the web of substance abuse consider themselves "victims" of their addiction. However, this sort of view of both King and addict is something of an oversimplification. In both…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Is Substance Abuse Your Fault?" Children of Alcoholics Foundation. 2000, Phoenix House. .
"Playing the Victim Role." Workshop transcription. Marsha Summers.com Innerman page..
Stevenson, Daniel C. The Internet Classics Archive. Sophocles, "Oedipus the King." .

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Tiwa of North Australia

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Tiwi of Northern Australia

A classic in its field, Hart and Pilling's book The Tiwi of North Australia offers objective, anthropological insight into this indigenous culture. The authors' objectives are twofold, as stated in the Introduction: to provide an account of how the Tiwi functioned before colonization and to describe how the Tiwi changed after contact with Europeans and the subsequent modernization of Australian culture. The Tiwi posed problems for Christian European settlers for a number of reasons, namely their social structures and religious beliefs. The Tiwi are a close-knit polygamous society that exhibits sophisticated social stratification. The Tiwi differ from the native peoples of mainland Australia, as the authors are quick to point out. This is due to their unique geographical position on a set of islands north of Australia. Their physical isolation created an ideal state for the Tiwi to develop singular tribal characteristics and culture. Their weapons,…… [Read More]

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How Did We Get a Market Society

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Market Society Material and Ideological Conditions

A great transformation occurred at the end of the Medieval Age, when a resurgence of classical humanism and an age of Enlightenment led the way to an industrial revolution and a restructuring of European affairs. The Old World religion gave way to a Protestant ethos which shaped the philosophies of the centuries that followed and the rise of democratic societies and the "middle class" altered the way nations conducted business. This paper will discuss the material and ideological conditions that supported this "great transformation" (Polanyi), the characterizations of the market society, the significance of the transformation, and the connection between the "Protestant work ethic" and the "spirit of capitalism" as defined by Max Weber (Bendix).

The transition from medieval to market society came about by a shifting of societal values. Trade between East and West increased as technology and the means of travel increased.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bendix, "German Society and Protestant Ethic."

Heilbroner, "Economic Problem."

Polanyi, "Rise and Fall of Market Economy."

Rinehart, "Alienation and Development of Industrial Capitalism in Canada."
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Analyzing the Mossi Kingdom

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43460939

Mossi Kingdom, an ancient African empire that was located in the Upper Volta region of present day Burkina Faso. The political, social, language, culture, history and other peculiarities of the kingdom will be discussed in detail. The paper is divided into three parts: introduction, body and conclusion.

Ethnonyms?

Mosi, Moshi, Moose, Mossi

Orientation

Identification: The ancient Kingdom of Mossi was made up of the Mossi tribe. The Mossi tribe still forms the majority of the population in the Upper Volta region (Burkina Faso in particular). They are well regarded in anthropological literature as one of the most industrious tribes in the whole of the West African region. Historically, the tribe has been noted for its resistance to Christian missionaries and Islamic states, even though its cultures show several correlations with Islam.

Location: The Mossi tribe has traditionally occupied what is now known as the Mossi plateau in the Upper Volta…… [Read More]

References

Anyanwu, S. (2011, July 25). The Mossi: A People Of Culture. Retrieved from https://face2faceafrica.com/article/the-mossi-a-people-of-culture#.VtDeWUPnWRR

Finnegan, G. (1996). Mossi. Retrieved from Encyclopedia of World Cultures:  http://www.encyclopedia.com /topic/Mossi.aspx

Finnegan, G. A. (1998). Mossi. Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/fiske/135b/moose.htm

Greenberg, J. H. (1963). The Languages of Africa. Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics, Publication no. 25. The Hague: Mouton.
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Democrats Independents and Republicans on

Words: 1502 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20318908

nd their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?

The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. ny instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.

Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E.,…… [Read More]

As an illustration, consider this statement of the hypothesis in a study done by Burger et al. (2001): "[S]mall, ephemeral increases in liking toward a stranger will lead to an increased likelihood of complying to a request from that person." The preceding section of the article -- the introduction -- cited numerous examples that provide evidence that this hypothesis might be supported, such as findings that repeated exposure increases interpersonal liking, or that people are more likely to donate to a cause (e.g. comply with a request for money) if they are given a "free gift" (to increase liking). The authors were careful to draw attention to the negligible, marginal character of the degree of liking -- going so far as to call it a "mindless heuristic" -- suggesting that a null outcome for this study was perfectly conceivable, if in fact the increase in liking had no direct effect on compliance with a request. And their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?

The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. Any instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.

Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E., & Somervell, E. (2001). The Effect of Fleeting Attraction on Compliance to Requests. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27: 1578-86.
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Epistle of Paul to Philemon

Words: 20604 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75843868

The divisions ere as such:

1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.

2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.

3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.

4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]

works cited at the end.

If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!

Bibliography

JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997

Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
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Journals Ethnographies and Ethnologies Must

Words: 2045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1455771

The provincial capital of Enga is Wabag. The two other main centers of population are Wapenamanda and Laiagam. Porgera, at the western edge of the province, is home to a gold mine operated by Barrick Gold.

Enga is unique among the provinces in Papua New Guinea in that it has only one major linguistic and ethnic group: Enga speakers. Although dialects of the Enga language vary greatly from Laiagam in the west to Wapenamanda in the east,

Engans' shared ethnic identity overshadows the existence of other ethnic groups in the province, such as Ipili speakers

(around Porgera) and Nete speakers.

Porgera, the giant gold and copper mine in the far west, has brought about rapid change for some, but most people still grow cash crops -- coffee, pyrethrum and cool-weather

European vegetables -- in their steep mountain gardens.

Porgera is all but spent, but other nearby mineral finds mean that…… [Read More]

References

Feil, D.K. (1978, May). Women and men in the Enga te. American Ethnologist, 5: 2: 263-279.

Meggitt, M.J. (1974). "Pigs are our hearts!" The te exchange cycle among the Mae Enga of New Guinea. Oceania, 44.3.

Waddell, Eric. (1975). How the Enga cope with frost: Responses to climatic perturbations in the central highlands of New Guinea. Human Ecology. 3.4:249-273

Baki, Gari. Speech by Mr. Gari Baki, OBE, O.St.J, DPS, Commisioner of Police. First Constable Martha Taian. PNG National Woman's Day. Hideaway Hotel, National Capital District. 23 March 2007.
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Caregiving and the Resultant Subjective

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42010442

Baronet's second assumption was that a low level of family support and a high level of relationship would also be associated with low feelings of satisfaction (the epistemological assumptions on the part of the caregiver). Results, however, showed that family support played no part neither in determining feelings of satisfaction nor in providing subjective burden resultant from caregiving activates.

Science as a discipline incorporates eight characteristics. hese are: empirical (i.e. evidence-based, hard facts); systematic (i.e. related to or consisting of a system); theoretical (i.e. related to or consisting of a theory); provisional (i.e. temporary until replaced by another theory that makes more sense); public (i.e. he findings of science are not restricted to any specific sector, but are available to the public sector as a whole); objective (i.e. attempting to be corroborated by reality rather than biased and subjective); self-reflective (i.e. aiming to step back and criticize itself); and open-ended…… [Read More]

The empirical and the objective characteristics are obvious in her attempts to connect qualitative emotional factors (i.e. subjective feelings of satisfaction) to 'hard' conditions, and to pronounce association only after scientific association was gauged. The systematic (and similarly theoretical) principle can be demonstrated by Baronet's use of theoretical measures. Each of these measures has, in turn, been formulated on empirical principles, but they consist of particular theories -- or systems -- that posit a means to assessing and gauging certain situations.

Source

Baronet, a.M. (2003). The impact of family relations on caregivers' positive and negative appraisal of their caretaking activities. Family Relations, 52, 137-141
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Public Communication in December 2005

Words: 2469 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46084230

A good example of some of the different texts that were utilized to insight anger and violence can be seen with one that was sent to number Anglo Saxons in the commonwealth. Where, it would encourage all youth in Western Australia to show up at Cronuella each, in an effort to protect the beach and women. This is significant, because it shows how the use of heated SMS messages could help to enrage both groups. As this form of written communication would increase the overall amounts of rage that the two side were feeling towards each other.

Visual languages were used to help increase the overall negative opinions that many Australians would feel towards the Arabs. Where, the women and men would dress differently in public (with many women covering themselves). This is problematic, because it would cause a number of groups in society to view Arabs as untrustworthy, based…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Racial Tensions at Cronuella Beach. Everything 2. 2005. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.

"Responsible Gambling and Reconcilation Australia Campaigns and Link to Celebrity Gambling Story." N.d.

Gouggin, Gerald. "SMS Riot." Journal of Media Culture. 2006. Web. 31 Oct. 2010

Perera, Suvendrini. "Aussie Luck."ACRAWSA 3.1 (2007). Print.
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Ecological Approaches Provide a Strong

Words: 2215 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88550917



According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)

Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.

Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.

Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469

Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.
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Vietnamese Immigration to California 1975

Words: 1731 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7273681

Moreover, the research also showed that the vast majority of all of the immigrants from Vietnam have managed to overcome the hardships and obstacles facing them upon their arrival to become assimilated into the larger American society and create new lives for themselves and their families.

eferences

Do, Hien Duc, The Vietnamese Americans (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press).

Menjivar, Cecilia, "Immigrant Kinship Networks: Vietnamese, Salvadoreans and Mexicans in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Comparative Family Studies 28(1, 1997): 1-2.

Profile of General Demographic Characteristics -- California: 2000 Census. (2009). U.S. Census

Bureau. [Online]. Available: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-

geo_id=04000US06&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_DP1&-

ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-redoLog=false.

Wood, Joseph, "Vietnamese American Place Making," The Geographical eview 87(1, 1997):

58-59.

Yang, Philip Q. Post-1965 Immigration to the United States: Structural Determinants (Westport,

CT: Praeger, 1995).

Profile of General Demographic Characteristics -- California, U.S. Census Bureau.

Philip Q. Yang, Post-1965 Immigration to the United States: Structural Determinants (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995), p. 23.

Cecilia…… [Read More]

References

Do, Hien Duc, The Vietnamese Americans (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press).

Menjivar, Cecilia, "Immigrant Kinship Networks: Vietnamese, Salvadoreans and Mexicans in Comparative Perspective," Journal of Comparative Family Studies 28(1, 1997): 1-2.

Profile of General Demographic Characteristics -- California: 2000 Census. (2009). U.S. Census

Bureau. [Online]. Available: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-