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Lance Armstrong Doping Scandal
Standards of Praise: Lance Armstrong as Role Model
Role models exemplify our aspirational achievements that represent the best of what is within our grasp. As children learn by observing the norms by which to govern their own actions, they look to exemplary individuals that demonstrate the virtues of human character. Recognizing that role models are also human and imperfect, witnessing a crestfallen role model compels the question of what principles govern our views of who constitutes an exemplary individual. Lance Armstrong's recent formal striping of his seven cycling titles is the most recent case of how we elevate the individuals that surpass the challenges that are beyond the reach of the ordinary, however with certain implied conditions (Macur).
Lance Armstrong's situation presents a case of contrasts, in which a man afflicted with testicular cancer personifies the frail condition associated with treatment, yet reverses his fortunes to…
Baseball Almanac. "61 Home Runs by Roger Maris." 2012. Baseball Almanac Website. 9 December 2012 .
Macur, Juliet. "Lance Armstrong Is Stripped of His 7 Tour de France Titles." 22 October 2012. New York Times Web site. 9 December 2012 .
Sports Reference LLC. "Babe Ruth Player Page." 2012. Baseball Reference.com Website. 9 December 2012 .
-- . "Roger Maris Player Page." 2012. Baseball-Reference.com Website. 9 December 2012 .
Lance and the Shield
Most Americans have some vague idea of who Sitting Bull was - some image that can be dredged up out of memory of a solemn man, sitting very upright, with all the cares of a people written across his face.
But most of us do not have any comprehensive sense of what his contributions were to his own people or to the American nation as a whole. Robert Utley helps fill in the gaps in our collective memory with The Lance and the Shield: The Life and Times of Sitting Bull. The book is an example of what is often called "new history" in that the style is quite literary. Utley has also written, at least to some extent, from the perspective of the Lakota Sioux: This is not an entirely objective portrait of Sitting Bull. However, this should not be interpreted to be a criticism…
One of the most pressing problems with the doping incidents is that punishment is so lax in many arenas. The WADA recommends a two-year ban from the sport, but increasing the time could reduce the number of doping incidents. An athlete might be less likely to turn to performance enhancing drugs of any kind if they knew they could face a ban for life, or a five-year or more ban from their chosen sport. Laws regarding the use of banned substances should be reviewed and updated so they are the same for each sport, and so they increase the culpability of the players involved. Since many of these athletes serve as heroes and role models to the children of the world, they owe it to them to come clean, stay clean, and support stricter enforcement in their specific sports. Lance Armstrong, in his comeback maneuver, could serve as a catalyst…
Editors. "Anti-Doping Expert Promises to Test Armstrong for 'Everything'." ESPN.com. 2008. 26 Sept. 2008.
Murphy, Austin. "Armstrong Returns With a New Team and a Winning Cause." Sports Illustrated.com. Sept. 2008, 26 Sept. 2008.
How can anyone find a hero these days? With sports stars going on steroids and getting in fights, politicians being arrested for shady dealings, teachers having affairs with students, and so on, it is very difficult to find positive role models. After reading It's not about my bike: My journey back to life, I have now found a person worthy enough to become a hero. Against all odds, Lance Armstrong accomplished what everyone believed to be the impossible. After beating cancer, he become the best ever Tour De France winner.
In his book, Armstrong accepts us, the readers, into his daily life. Nothing is sugar coated and omitted for the fainthearted. In the early pages, we are fortified with his strength and will. We begin to see the support he has in his single mother's unending efforts to improve her family's life as well as Armstrong's early days…
Athletes and Crime
hat situations can you think of where an amateur or professional athlete was charged with a crime, or in your opinion should have been charged with a crime, for physical conduct beyond the rules of the game?
There are a number of professional athletes that have barely escaped legal prosecution for their criminal behavior. One example that illustrates this point well is Lance Armstrong. The world renowned cyclist was at the top of his profession for many years. However, during his reign as the world's top cyclist he was using performance enhancing drugs that were illegal. Not only did he take them himself, but he also pressured other cyclist that belonged to his team when he was representing the United States to take them as well. He was basically the advocate for the use of illegal drugs for team USA that competed in a number of events.…
Gibson, O. (2013, February 6). Lance Armstrong could still face criminal charges in America. Retrieved from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2013/feb/06/lance-armstrong-criminal-charges-america
This is one of the reasons that the United tates upreme Court has noted the difficulty in distinguishing common crime from the "gray zone of socially acceptable and economically justifiable business conduct.
Prosecutors are not eager to 'overcriminalize' and the practice of too readily extending criminal law to areas of which it is not suited is known as "overcriminalization."
For these reasons, the statues of white-collar crimes are broad and fuzzy. And the task, therefore, of defining crime and penalties falls firstly to the prosecutors and then to the court. In the 1980s, the prosecutors read the white collar statutes broadly and the courts were expected to set the perimeters of criminal labiality. There is wide scope however of criminal liability under these white collar statutes.
Is this fair?
For decades, academicians have been calling for change in this, what they see, as unjust and partisan system. To them, the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics, United States Department of Justice, Dictionary of Criminal Justice Data Terminology 215, 1981
Justia. U.S. Supreme Court "Braswell v. United States, 487 U.S. 99, 115," 1988
Fallone, B (2012) "Prosecutorial Discretion in the John Doe Investigation" Marq. Univ. Law School blog. Web.
Comparison of advertising: The sublime and the offensive
One of the most popular and most-forwarded advertisements in recent memory is the Volkswagen advertisement that features a young boy dressed in a Darth Vader costume apparently controlling the car. People watched the advertisement over and over again on YouTube, as if were a short film, in an era where 'skipping' past advertisements thanks to recorded technology has become increasingly common. This begs us to ask: what makes one ad memorable enough for an individual to watch it without being compelled to do so, while another ad is almost painful to watch?
Print advertisements that appear in magazines do not have many of the advantages of televised advertisements: they cannot move, or use extensive narrative to tell a story. But many effective fashion advertisements create a sense of ambiance that is very compelling. The 2011 campaign for the fashion line Chanel…
Chanel 2011 campaign. (2011). Accessible at http://burstinstyle.blogspot.com/2011/01/chanel-springsummer-2011-ad-campaign.html
FRS. (2011). Accessible at http://costanostra.net/59286/FRS-Don-t-Crash
Definitions / Descriptions of Trait Leadership
According to Peter Northouse's book, trait leadership focuses on identifying several qualities: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability. Published in 2009, Northouse's book (Leadership: Theory and Practice) goes into great detail as to what constitutes trait leadership and what behaviors and values do not qualify vis-a-vis trait leadership. Northouse isn't alone in providing narrative that defines and describes trait leadership. A University of Cincinnati publication (Army Leadership Traits & ehaviors) explains that leadership trait theory focuses on a leader's: a) values and beliefs; b) personality; c) confidence; and d) mental, physical, and emotional attributes (www.uc.edu).
In the book The Anatomy of Leadership (West, 2000), the author asserts that trait leadership "makes the assumption" that there are "distinctive physical and psychological characteristics" -- above and beyond standard leadership -- that account for the effectiveness of a leader. Those traits include "height, attractiveness, intelligence,…
Bazerman, Max H., and Tenbrunsel, Ann E. 2011. 'Ethical Breakdowns,' Harvard Business Review. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://hbr.org .
Dowie, Mark. 1977. 'Pinto Madness,' Mother Jones. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.motherjones.com .
Gioia, Dennis A. 1994. 'Pinto Fires and Personal Ethics: A Script Analysis of Missed Opportunities', in The Ford Pinto Case: A Study in Applied Ethics, Business, and Technology, D. Birch and J. Fielder, Eds. State University of New York: Albany, NY.
Leggett, Christopher. 1999. 'The Ford Pinto Case: The Valuation of Life As It Applies To The Negligence-Efficiency Argument,' Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.wfu.edu .
Finding and fixing wording and positioning errors in attributions
Review the "ine Guidelines for Wording and Positioning Attributions" on Page 82 and 83 of your textbook. Then, in each of the following sentences, identify and fix any attribution errors you find. If a sentence doesn't include any errors, simply indicate this in the text box.
"I saw people running. Then a big guy in a yellow hat swerved and smashed into me and I didn't see anything else," Szelensky said.
I saw people running. Then, I say a big guy in a yellow had that swerved and smashed into me. I was unable to see anything else besides that.
"A newspaper is a device for making the ignorant more ignorant and the crazy crazier," H.L. Mencken, one of the most famous journalists of his time, said.
H.L. Mencken, a famous journalist, is known as saying "A newspaper is…
No apparent issues.
11. "For the first time and these are no longer rumors, or insinuations, these are proven scientific facts someone has shown me that in 1999, (cyclist Lance) Armstrong had a banned substance called EPO in his body," Tour de France director Jean-Marie Leblanc told the French newspaper L'Equipe. "When I gave those samples, there was not EPO in those samples. I guarantee that," Armstrong responded.
"For the first time and these are no longer rumors, or insinuations, these are proven scientific facts someone has shown me that in 1999, (cyclist Lance) Armstrong had a banned substance called EPO in his body," Tour de France director Jean-Marie Leblanc told the French newspaper L'Equipe. .Armstrong responded by saying "When I gave those samples, there was not EPO in those samples. I guarantee that."
(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).
CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).
Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.
Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm
Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm
Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke
Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:
Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest
Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).
Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.
Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…
Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.
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Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?
Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
he most effective of these strategies were those related to sales. In general, all things go from being attainable to a select few, to mainstream, to a degree of specialization in which fragmentation naturally occurs. raining sales people to recognize and account for this fact and simplify their sales rap was definitely needed.
he primary strength of Shimano was its 2005 sales. his was bolstered by the popularity of Lance Armstrong and by the dedication of specialized, cycling enthusiasts. Its strength was also in recognizing change before it comes. his prescience included knowledge of the impending cycling decline and a knack for creating trends.
he primary weakness of Shimano was that it was too deeply entrenched in th specialized world of cycling. It had virtually forgotten about the casual cycler. Its weakness was also that as a cycling parts manufacturer, it had limited input as far as setting industry-wide trends.…
The primary weakness of Shimano was that it was too deeply entrenched in th specialized world of cycling. It had virtually forgotten about the casual cycler. Its weakness was also that as a cycling parts manufacturer, it had limited input as far as setting industry-wide trends.
The principle opportunity this organization faced was tapping into the plethora of U.S. denizens who did not ride bikes. As such, the organization could potentially tip the balance of the nature of the cycling industry, by changing it from one of specialized enthusiasts to average, recreational users.
The main threat was the fact that during the midway point of the first decade of the 2000's, Lance Armstrong was retiring. Additionally, the number of casual bicycle users had declined sharply. The actual cycling industry itself had grown smaller. Moreover, it was based on specialization, which alienated the common, layman interested in cycling or in buying a bike.
The NFC eb site is out of date (offering February deals in April) and when a user clicks on "FAQS" a box comes up, "Coming soon!" The NFC doesn't say how many facilities it has, and seems to be hyping its invitation: "…Come in today, you won't regret it!" The NFC claims its facilities "surpass our competitors" -- but how?
Conclusion / Recommendations for Bally. If Bally was really interested in a new marketing strategy, they would use the latest obesity data from CDC and other reliable sources to their benefit. They could guarantee that if you follow our nutritional and exercise program you'll lose weight. There are reality TV shows on weight loss and Bally could certainly get into that genre as well. The company needs to provide some sort of meaningful pledge to lure Americans into their stores -- and that meaningful pledge should take into account things…
24-Hour Fitness. "About Us." Retrieved April 12, 2010, from http://www.24hourfitness.com/company/about_us .
Bally. "The Leader in Fitness / Our Fitness Approach / Frequently Asked Questions / Bally
Financing -- Today's Best Fitness Opportunity." Retrieved April 12, 2010, from http://www.ballyfitness.com .
Centers for Disease Control. "Obesity and Overweight." Retrieved April 12, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm .
Productivity can also be influenced by tax cuts. Cutting taxes can enable consumers to buy more goods and services, and enable companies to produce more and to invest more in their enterprises. Productivity can also be limited or enhanced by regulation. In the short-term, less regulation tends to increase productivity but makes prices and wages less stable. In the long run, not enough regulation can have a counter-productive effect, as occurred with the lack of regulation over the banking industry and the subsequent credit crisis of 2008. Deregulation and a failure of oversight can also incentivize corruption
Productivity can be formally regulated through price ceilings and floors. Price ceilings tend to discourage production, given that prices that are artificially too low can make it impossible for sellers to meet demand. Price floors can encourage too production, given that producers are guaranteed a specific minimum price for their output, but can…
"Gross Domestic Product." Economic productivity article from Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
"Price ceilings and floors." Investopedia. October 15, 2009.
272). However, the authors do not include a counterbalance to such arguments -- longer seasons also can result in viewer attrition of interest, the competition from other sports beginning while the season sprawls on, and the anger of fans if they feel that their team has been unfairly treated by new rules.
The authors do acknowledge there are also psychological facilitators of interest in sports besides win-loss competition, and could have treated this critical issue with greater depth. The hope that the underdog will triumph can create a psychological perception of competition that occasionally, as in the case of the recent SuperBowl between the undefeated New England Patriots and the New York Giants, is substantiated in fact, especially in the selective memory of sports fans (Sanderson & Siegfried, 2003, p. 261). The local desire to have a winning team and fan loyalty will also factor into the success of creating…
4P's Marketing Mix
Nike Marketing mix
Nike as a company was initiated by two visionaries from Oregon, Bill Bowerman and a runner at that time for the University of Oregon Phil Knight. They were then working together in athletic with Knight being the runner supervised by Bill. Bill saw the endless possibilities that existed within people in terms of sports potential and it was with this that they set the tone for the company in 1972. This has remained the inspiration that runs the company to date and keeps the employees of the company from one generation to the other motivated to uphold the motto of the company (Nike, 2011). The company has grown from being a U.S. based footwear distributor to a mega world supplier of athletic shoes, equipment and apparel whose dominance is unrivalled in the entire globe.
The goal of the company is to have a legacy…
China CSR Map, (2011). Nike Sports (China) Co., Ltd. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.chinacsrmap.org/E_OrgShow.asp?CCMOrg_ID=737
Matthew Forney at.al., (2004). Marketing: How Nike Figured Out China. Retrieved November
23, 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,995462,00.html
Marketing Mixx, (2011). Marketing Plan for Nike. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://marketingmixx.com/marketing-plan-2/164-marketing-plan-of-nike.html
I have been a big fan of the Dallas Cowboys and especially Emmitt Smith for many years. For example, one of the most difficult moments in my appreciation of sports occurred when the Dallas Cowboys released Smith and he ended up on a lackluster Arizona Cardinals. This was after he had just surpassed the late great alter Payton to become the number one rushing running back in the history of the National Football League. "They are the two most punitive judgments that can be handed down for a running back: Too small, too slow. And yet that was the harsh assessment of Emmitt Smith, 5-foot-9 and 199 pounds, by the pro-scouts although he was an All-American at Florida. That same Emmitt Smith who skittered and stutter-stepped his way past the NFL rushing record held by his idol, alter Payton, and finished with 18,355 yards." (Schwartz) There are…
Edensor, Tim. National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life. Oxford: Berg, 2002.
Gonzalez, John. "Smith Blarney." Dallas Observer October 17 (2002): Retrieved on 22 Apr. 2005, from .
Owens, Kerry. "Cowboys." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. 2002 ed. Retrieved on 22 Apr. 2005, from .
Rich, Wilbur C. The Economics and Politics of Sports Facilities. New York: Quorum, 2000.
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…
Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.
Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf
Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.
Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
Storm Over Mt. Everest
Film - Storm Over Mt. Everest
As Norgay Tenzing, the legendary Sherpa climber, said of George Frey, "Like many men before them, they had held a great mountain lightly, and they had paid the price.
The Law of Significance. No one can do anything of significance alone. Throughout the two days that the four teams of climbers were on Mt. Everest, nearly all of the climbers had times when they felt they were alone on the mountain. This was especially true when they climbed at night and the only evidence that there were other climbers on the mountain was the moving headlamps of the climbers ahead of them. Each climber ascended Mt. Everest for his own individual reasons, and each Sherpa aided the climbers for his own reasons, too. Each climber was on his or her own and, yet, was part of a time.
15) The Law of the Edge The meaning of this law of leadership is that the difference between two equally talented teams is leadership. This was clearly the case on the May 11, 1996, when the leadership from one team vanished altogether, leaving its team members to fend for themselves or link up with climbers from other teams. More of the climbers who were able to find Beidleman and Groom survived.
16) The Law of High Morale When you are winning nothing hurts, according to the law of high morale. Perhaps it is part of the culture of mountaineering that all the hardships and pain become inconsequential once a climber has reached the summit. That euphoria of being at the top of the world must be like a narcotic -- one siren song that certain people are unable to resist. Each of us has experienced that happy-to-be-alive feeling, and most of us recognize how addictive it can be. We seek that feeling when we go on vacation. For the competitive types, the feeling comes when they win some challenge. It is not human nature to think about the bad things when one is surrounded by good and happy events and feelings. When this does happen, we call it depression. Yet, it is important to be prepared, as any outdoorsman will attest. And that is achieved by -- at least for a time -- keeping the good feelings at bay long enough to deal with the eventual or possible realities.
17) The Law of Dividends. This law stresses the importance of investing in the team such that the investment compounds over time. While in principle, this makes sense, but the power of experience can only take one so far. Investment in gear, equipment, training, and know-how is essential, but it may be insufficient. Nevertheless, up to a point, experience does compound -- as part of that crystallized intelligence that accumulates as one gets older, as one practices or even optimizes a skill. It is the experienced and well-prepared guide that is sought as a leader of expeditions.
Loner in Me
I have always been a loner, it seems. I am an only child, and I never minded, really. Sometimes I wish I had a brother or sister, but more often, when I see the many problems some siblings suffer, I'm grateful I'm the only one, but it wasn't always so.
When I was younger, I would beg my mother for a little brother or sister, never knowing she couldn't have any more children. How could I know? She'd just smile, and send me out to play, or to read a book, one of my favorite occupations when I was young, but I'm sure it hurt her, yet she never let on.
I used to go to bed and dream of having a baby brother or sister to love and care for. I was jealous when I saw other families who had lots of children, and wondered why…
Hello, my name is Fadi Awwad. Apologies for the late submission -- for some reason the due date was not showing on my Blackboard! The most recent book I read that really subverted the concept of Freytag's Triangle was probably The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon. In the spring semester 2014, I wrote a research paper on Pynchon for a course on postmodern narrative here at UHV. Pynchon is considered the postmodern novelist par excellence, so it is no surprise that The Crying of Lot 49 subverts traditional narrative structure.
Pynchon's short novel tells the story of a California housewife, Mrs. Oedipa Maas, who is given the duty of being executor for the estate of an ex-lover, Pierce Inverarity, who has just died. The central plot of the novel, however, hinges on whether Oedipa has inadvertently discovered the existence of a vast conspiracy called "The Trystero"…
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
4) Wheelworks offers a few different forms of financial compensation. They pay wages that they describe as "the highest possible." This meets the safety needs of their employees, which is key in the retail business. It was stated that many of the employees have good educations, so if they could not meet their safety needs at Wheelworks, they would be forced to do so elsewhere.
Wheelworks does not offer commission. This is good practice, since their staff are more motivated by higher-level needs such as achievement and competition. Commission is insufficient and does not support Wheelworks' attempt to differentiate themselves with their high level of customer service. There are also profit sharing plans, which motivate the employees but also foster teamwork. This is also true of the seasonal bonuses. These also reinforce the belonging needs. In this way, these types of incentives reinforce the higher order needs, while de-emphasizing the…
Magic Johnson and HIV
Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:
Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).
Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).
Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).
Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…
Aidsinfonet.org. Fact Sheet 801: "Vitamins and Minerals." Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view.801. 2012.
Cancer.org. "Kaposi Sarcoma: What is Kaposi Sarcoma?" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.cancer.org . 2009.
Mayo Clinic. "HIV / AIDS" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com . 2011.
Medical News Today. "What is Tuberculosis? What Causes Tuberculosis?" Retrieved June 24,