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Starting from the very beginning of the Colonial Era, Latin America has been dominated politically, economically, socially and even physically by European powers. Spain and Portugal are famous for their conquest into this region of the world, but other European countries such as England, France and the Netherlands also had their hand in essentially taking over and reshaping Latin America. There is an extensive and abundant amount of published research done on this subject and the historiography of Latin America and the account of its past runs deep and wide.
What this short essay hopes to accomplish is to evaluate and reflect on the reported history of the Latin American regions, specifically focusing on the readings and lectures from this semester. This essay will also discuss in particular John Charles Chasteen's claim from his book, orn in lood & Fire: A Concise History of Latin America, that "non-whites…
Minster, Christopher. Latin American History: Introduction to the Colonial Era. (2009). Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.latinamericanhistory.amherst.edu/
Chasteen, John. Born in Blood & Fire - Exploring Further. (2011). Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.wwnorton.com/
Chasteen, John. Born in Blood & Fire: A Concise History of Latin America: 3rd Edition. (2011). Norton, W.W. & Company, Inc.
Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. (2006). University of New Mexico Press.
China vs. Latin America -- two studies in colonial influence
Although both the Chinese and the Latin American geographic areas stretch across vast territorial expanses, the impact of colonial rule upon the Chinese nation and the Latin American region was notably different, throughout both areas' respective exposures to European domination. The first reason for this pertains to the centralization of political authority in China, before Europeans ever set foot upon the land. In Latin America, different explorers from different European nations encountered Aztec and Incan natives in dispersed settings, creating a sense that no one 'owned' the land, because the control of these different tribal units was not centralized. In contrast, China had a very clearly defined political leader of its territory, in the form of the emperor and a hierarchical structure of power the European nations could identify with, if not respect, and could negotiate with in…
Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa
This report aims to distinguish some comparable differences in problems between Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The report incorporates the findings of three articles on immigration, environmental concerns and family planning. The report aims to discuss how these areas of concern are being addressed and how they have been or may be solved. From there, the objective is to forecast some possible solutions for these serious long-term issues that are all too apparent throughout many of the African continent.
People are the true source of success. Therefore, when the best people in a country or region leave to find a better way of life abroad through education or other opportunities, they inadvertently have some effect on the country they left behind. "For example, the number of immigrants from Spanish-speaking Latin America increased by seven million and those from East Asia rose by over two million.…
Getting the best and the brightest of nations to return home may be an impossible problem to solve. For example, if a new doctor from the Sub-Saharan African region stays in England or the United States because of the advantages seem greater than that same doctor working without facilities back home, there is more of a chance of his staying abroad. In Latin America, the rewards are greater because the nations of South America are better developed and therefore offer more of a reward to return home.
A major concern in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Latin American nations is family planning & sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and Aids. "The ideal family size of about four children is lower in Rwanda than in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. However, the annual rate of change observed between the periods of 0-3 and 4-7 years preceding the surveys (-4.2%) is clearly greater than those noted in the first phase of the fertility transition in Botswana, Kenya, and Zimbabwe."(Pillet) The use of contraceptives in Africa has declined as the use of contraceptives increases. The changes can be compared to Latin America in the 1970's. "In Asia and Latin America, the accelerated decline in fertility observed in a few countries in the 1950s and 1960s was repeated in most of the others in the 1970s." (Pillet)
The world will not be able to feed its entire population if the overall birthrate is not slowed. Unfortunately, those having the babies are often the poorest and least capable of providing adequate opportunities to house, cloth and feed their young. The efforts to slow the birthrate in Africa is a positive sign but that is not to say that the problem
On the contrary, they maintained -- and in some cases, further improved on -- the Spanish centralizing tradition."(Pinera, 409)
Tendencies towards authoritarian rule continue to survive nowadays preventing Latin America from gradual development, as in majority of Latin American countries military putsches turned into a common practice on the hand with populism of national leaders and corruption. For a number of governments in the twentieth century protection of private interests was the main priority of state political and economical program, while the interests of the nation were often neglected, which always led to economical and political crisis:
"Deep and persistent social inequalities have distorted the nature of both economic growth and recession in Latin America. It is the poor who bear the brunt of recession through job loss, downgraded working conditions, declining real wages, small-business bankruptcies and so on. It is the wealthy, on the other hand, who are the…
Knight, Franklin W. Race, Ethnicity, and Class: Forging the Plural Society in Latin America and the Caribbean Baylor University Press 1996, p.8
Pinera, Jose Latin America: A Way Out The Cato Journal, Vol. 22, 2003 p.409
Vilas, Carlos M. Article Title: Inequality and the Dismantling of Citizenship in Latin America. NACLA Report on the Americas. Volume 31 Issue 1, 1997
Demographics Miami available online:
American terrorism issues and possible convergence with drug cartels in Central and South America
Terrorism in Latin America
The leftist National Liberation Army (ELN)
United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)
The leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
Iranian Activity and Sponsorship Focus
Tri- oarder area of Argentina, razil and Paraguay
Regional Overview and Criminal Activities and Concerns
Parallel developments of Terrorism and Organized Crime
Poverty, Discrimination and Relative Denial
Interconnections between Terrorism and Organized Crime
Abu Nidal organization (ANO)
The leftist National Liberation Army (ELN)
United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)
The leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)
Hizballah (Party of God)
Types of Crime which may also Finance Terrorist Activity 25
Drugs and Drug Cartels 25
Credit Card fraud
Religious "Zakat" tax 27
International Organizations 27
U.S. Concerns, Response and Possible…
Bibliography." Communication Research Trends (2002): 12-14.
Murillo-Urrutia, Luis Gilberto. "Contemporary Challenges in Colombia: An Afro-Colombian Perspective ." The Journal of Pan African Studies (Online) (2007): 44-56.
-- . "Contemporary Challenges in Colombia: An Afro-Colombian Perspective ." Journal of Pan African Studies (2007): 567-589.
Perez, Ricardo Torres. "Economic Changes in Cuba: Current Situation and Perspectives ." Harvard International Review (2012): 33-45.
Procell, Richard,. "Global Security Challenges with Potential Links to Terrorism." Military Review (2002): 28-32.
Latin America Drug Trafficking to the United States: Why Making This Legal in the United States is Not a Good Option
Drug trafficking in Latin America is linked to many violent crimes including murder. Many people believe that were drugs that arrive from Latin America be legalized that the situation would be much easier to cope with allowing taxation on drug products. This work reviews why making drug trafficking by Latin American cartels to the United States is not a viable option. Indeed, were the United States to do so, the very principles and values of Democracy would be violated as these drug cartels are directly opposed to democratic principles and for these drug cartels to profit democracy would have to suffer greatly.
Latin American Countries and Drug Policy
United States drug policy toward the countries in Latin America is formulated by many factors and in fact so…
Gamarra, Eduardo A. (2005) State, Drug Policy and Democracy in the Andes. Andean Working Paper. Inter-American Dialogue. June 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.thedialogue.org/PublicationFiles/Gamarra%20-%20State,%20Drug%20Policy,%20and%20Democracy%20in%20the%20Andes%20%20 (June%202005).pdf
Koops, Megan (2009) "The Divide of the Coca Leaf: National Culture and the Drug Policies of Bolivia and the United States," SPNA Review: Vol. 5: Iss. 1, Article 3. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/spnareview/vol5/iss1/3
Kroeber, A.L. & Kluckholn, F. (1952). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge: Peabody Museum in: Koops, Megan (2009) "The Divide of the Coca Leaf: National Culture and the Drug Policies of Bolivia and the United States," SPNA Review: Vol. 5: Iss. 1, Article 3. Retrieved from:
Under the next Emperor, William II, Germany took a more imperialistic course that led to a lot of friction with many of the neighboring countries, which was similar to the course that other European powers also took. After this took place the alliances that Germany had with various countries were not renewed by those countries, and when new alliances were created they did not include Germany in them.
France, specifically, was one of the countries that did not renew any alliances with Germany, and many other European countries followed suit. With the exception of Hungary and Austria, Germany found itself more and more alone. During this period of time Germany was reaching out and taking over parts of Africa, as were many other countries in Europe. However, this was causing a lot of tension between the larger powers in Europe and because of that problems were growing. It is believed…
Argentina was the first country that experienced after the Second World War the rising of a regime that was claiming to be on the side of the working classes. It was led by Juan Peron. He gradually distanced himself from any democratic means of governing and was eventually overthrown by a coup d'etat, in 1955. From exile, Peron continued to influence the political scene in his country of origin. The regimes that followed were still unable to provide political stability, although the country was in economic progress. Peron was able to influence and lead the masses and his supporters once more so that he was reelected for the last time in 1793, in order to survive only until 1974 when he died, leaving his wife as his successor.
razil is an example of military coup after a successful democratic regime that followed closely the end of the Second World War.…
Brazil is an example of military coup after a successful democratic regime that followed closely the end of the Second World War. The country was governed by a military authoritative regime from 1964 until 1985. During these years, Brazil was confronted with major socio-economic problems, political scandals, conflicts between the landowners and those living in the countryside that did not own any land etc.
Columbia was another country that was often devastated by political conflicts. Fights between the two opposing parties did not end once World War Two ended. The struggles for power went through, being fueled by assassination on one side or another. Various guerilla groups appeared during the 1960s. The violence increased at a different level when powerful drug cartels literally took over control in different areas off the country. They were also financial sources for the different political players, fueling the political war. A few joined forces with some guerilla groups, becoming armed and dangerous factions fighting for power and control.
The reasons for the political violence in the Latin American countries after the Second World War are diverse. They reflect not only huge social differences, social exclusion, gaps between the majority formed of poor and a handful of oligarchs, but they go deeper in history, on the traces of the first conquistadors. The fate of the Indians that were unfortunate enough to live during the times Cortez and his men set foot on this land was sealed by the sacrifice of millions of innocent natives. Latin America never really recovered after those wounds inflicted by the so called European civilized world. Natives, Creoles, slaves were brought together by the tides of history and thrown into a world that is still trying to find the resources of organizing itself.
Latin America: The National Period
Under serious threats to a country's national security, it is unavoidable to commit some abuses against freedom of the press and individual rights."
In his book, "Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number" Jacobo Timerman elaborates on his experiences as a journalist and political prisoner during Argentina's Peronist period. Because of his political views and ability to voice them in the liberal daily "La Opini n" he was deemed a threat to national security, and was subsequently stripped of his citizenship and became one of many Argentina's 'missing'. Unlike so many others, Timerman was fortunate enough to be released into Exile where he publicly denounced the Argentinean regime and brought to light the many atrocities against humanity.
Timerman recalls that the newspaper was called "an adversary of the military government for being terrorist, an adversary of mass culture for publishing sophisticated writers, an adversary…
The consolidation of power was a successful venture and helped catapult the indigenous leader (Morales) into position to win re-election.
Example number two looks closely into the successes and failures the indigenous groups had in the country of Columbia. The country of Columbia has a robust 81 distinct indigenous groups and has been financially and legally dominated via a two party system made up of Liberals and Conservatives (Van Cott, 2003). The strength and stability of the two party system kept any new 3rd or indigenous parties from being formed. A constitution was resurrected in 1991 so that Columbia could begin the process of weakening the stranglehold of the Liberal and Conservative parties (Van Cott, 2003).
The newly invoked constitution detailed five ways in which legislation would help the indigenous political parties. First, there was a creation of a single district for the National Constituent Assembly elections and the…
BBC news- profile: Bolivia. (2011, January). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12166905
Van Cott, D.L. (2003). Institutional change and ethnic parties in South America. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/3176978
Latin American Economy
Between years 1880 and 1930 the Latin American nations had an unprecedented amount of growth. Throughout Latin America, nations were increasing their revenue which led to stronger economies and consequently much stronger political structures and governmental support as well. This was largely due to the development of communication and the influence of American interests throughout the region. The increased levels of communication allowed more individuals to exchange products as well as ideas. ith this, there was a larger groups of potential consumers for products and services, meaning a dramatic increase in revenues collected.
hat are the basic characteristics of economic development in Latin America between 1880 and 1930?
Many Latin American nations utilize agriculture to support their economy. hen lines of trade became more widely-spread, these agricultural products were able to be exported to Europe and to the United States of America as well. All the economic…
Andrews, George Reid. "Black Workers in the Export Years: Latin America, 1880-1930."
Pittsburgh, PA. 1997. Print.
Skidmore, Thomas E., and Peter H. Smith. Modern Latin America. New York: Oxford UP, 1984.
Both social and financial inequality has been a contentious issue within society for decades. Poverty, particularly in Latin America has been a large issue as countries become industrialized. As many Latin American countries develop, the poverty gap becomes wider. Many rallies, protests, political movements and government upheavals have been centered on the issue of inequality. Currently, the problem is exacerbated by the economic struggles of many around the world. As many economies become global in nature, so too do there interconnectedness. A fiscal or monetary policy in one nation will have adverse consequences for an unsuspecting nation in another. We need not look any further than the current economic calamity within Europe as proof. In the United States and abroad nations are taking defensive action in the event of a Euro zone default which would have cataclysmic consequences for the global economy. Even more profound is the nature…
However, despite the severe competition, the people of Latin America still hold the traditions of the church close to their hearts and give a lot of respect to religious figures (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
The relationship between the church and the government has been very closely bonded. The message coming from the religious quarters has been very finely tuned in line with the policies of the governments as well as the status quo. Contradiction and conflict does seem to exist on the surface, however, deep down the bond between the state actors and the church is very strong. Lately, the church has also power of becoming a very strong instrument of political and social campaign, capable of bargaining with the state actors so as to meet its own ends (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
The relationship between the church and the military has been perhaps the strongest of them all. Religion has been a major…
Alvaro Llosa, Alvaro Vargas. Latin American liberalism: a mirage? Independent Review; 1/1/2002.
C. Rene Padilla. The future of Christianity in Latin America: missiological perspectives and challenges. International Bulletin of Missionary Research; 7/1/1999.
Catalina Romero. Globalization, civil society and religion from a Latin American standpoint. Sociology of Religion; 12/22/2001.
David Schrieberg. Dateline Latin America: the growing fury. (widespread discontent due to rising unemployment rates). Foreign Policy; 3/22/1997.
Economy of Latin America:
The economic situation of any specific geographic and geopolitical area is an integral part of the overall "picture" of the state of that area. Although much is said about the increasing "globalization" of the world economy -- that, essentially, the individual market areas of specific countries and regions are moving toward a single, world economy, there remain significant economic trends and pressures within varied geo-political areas that are quite unique. Indeed, although a so called "new economy" may be emerging in which all nations may be directly interconnected, that does not mean that all will be equal. Instead, it seems that there will be some nations (at least for a time), squarely on the top of the hill, while those countries that are already on the bottom will stay there as a result of their "top down" dependence. The economic situation of Latin America…
CIA World Fact Book: Brazil, 2000 Retrieved from Web site on March 26, 2004 http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/br.html#econ
Koreisha, Sergio. My Brazil. Homepage. 1997. Retrieved from Web site on March 26, 2004 http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~sergiok/brasil.html
Reynolds, Alan. "
The end of the affair?" Economist Feb 18, 2004.
195-196). The crushing poverty of the region, when combined with sometimes extreme civil rights abuses, led Catholic Church leaders in Latin America to establish Base Christian Communities (CBEs) committed to raising awareness of social injustices (Green, 2006, p. 206-208). As a result, many of the church and CBE leaders died at the hands of the military. These were the conditions in place when the Sandinistas expelled Somoza from power; therefore leftists in the neighboring dictatorships viewed the Sandinista victory as a way forward.
To prevent the domino theory from being realized, newly elected President eagan created an aggressive anti-leftist Latin American policy (Green, 2006, p. 65-66). The U.S. invaded Grenada and replaced the leftist government with a more 'friendly' one. In Nicaragua and El Salvador the U.S. funded proxy armies to undermine the Sandinistas and the Salvadoran guerillas, respectively. In Nicaragua, the Contras (proxy army) were able to weaken and…
Gilmour, S. (Reporter), & Brinkley, D. (Anchor). (1979, Aug. 2). Latin Dominoes: Will Nicaragua's Revolution Spread Over Central America? [Television series episode]. NBC Nightly News. Retrieved 8 Apr. 2013 from: https://archives.nbclearn.com/portal/site/k-12/browse/?cuecard=45345.
Green, Duncan. (2006). Faces of Latin America. 3rd Ed. London, UK: Latin American Bureau.
Several groups were formed according to Arm the Spirit (2006):
In the middle of the 80s, a new mass movement formed by workers, Christians, feminists, blacks, indigenous people, and the inhabitants of slums was spreading and taking over the streets... Socialists, communists, and former guerrillas of the FARC-EP established the 'Union Patriotica' (UP). Sympathizers of the EPL ran as the 'Frente Popular' in the local elections. The most radical parts of the mass movement founded the political movement 'A Luchar!'."
The etancur government was clever enough to handle the situation through reporting to the general public that he was having a dialogue with the guerrillas while the truth was he created paramilitary groups. Murder of guerrillas leaders were continued to vanished and in 1984, the paramilitary group purposely shot Jaime Pardo Leal who was the presidential candidate of Union Patriotica. The government military group attacked the camp of the guerrillas…
Arm the Spirit (Accessed: 2006) "The History Of The Guerrilla Movement In Colombia" [Online] Available at: http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/7078/g.txt
Macko, S. (1997) "Latin American Guerrilla Groups Come and Go" ENN Daily Intelligence Report - ERRI Risk Assessment Services-Tuesday, June 24, 1997 Vol. 3-175 [Online] Available at: http://www.emergency.com/latngurl.htm
Kent, R. (2005) "Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement" Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2005.
O'Connor, T. (2006) "Latin America" [Online] Available at: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/areas/latin.htm
They began rounding up people by the hundreds and shipping them back to Europe to work as slaves; the conditions of travel were so severe that approximately half died at sea. On the New World islands, the Spanish explorers forced the native inhabitants to mine for the gold that the Spanish erroneously believed was present in great quantities and they enforced ridiculously unrealistic daily quotas through barbaric means such as cutting off the hands of any Indian who failed to reach his required yield. They also routinely raped, tortured, and killed the peaceful native inhabitants, sometimes for no reason whatsoever besides their amusement. During the entire Colonial period, the European explorers eventually completely wiped out native civilizations, some of which had previously numbered in the millions.
Describe the social hierarchy of the Latin American and Caribbean colonies.
Many of the Spanish and other European explorers who were ordinary citizens in…
poverty in Latin America. Latin America has always been in poverty and although there have been some ups and downs, the poverty level remains great. First, we will discuss the region that is known as Latin America, the determining factors of poverty, the statistics and history of the poverty in Latin America and the future of the poverty in Latin America.
Latin America refers to the areas of America in which the Spanish or Portuguese languages prevail. These areas include Mexico, most of Central and South America, Cuba, Dominican epublic, Puerto ico and Brazil. Latin America can be subdivided into different regions, such as North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean. (Wikipedia, etrieved 2012).
Latin America consists of many different ethnic backgrounds and races. It is one of the most diverse regions in the world. Some of the predominant races/backgrounds include European-Amerindians (Mestizo), Amerindians, European, Mulatto, Black, Asian…
Latin America. (2010, June 7). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Latin_America&oldid=366711869
Poverty. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/poverty
Poverty in the Developing World -- Latin America and the Caribbean, (2010). Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2676/Poverty-in-Developing-World-LATIN-AMERICA-CARIBBEAN.html
defends a definition of populism, addressing its ideology, social base, charisma, clientelism, and the extent of institutionalization; the second part argues that populism and guerrilla movements are very similar phenomena, divided only by the level of their extremism.
There are many definitions of 'populism', as seemingly each academic uses his or her own definition of this term, expecting all readers to automatically agree with this definition. As Roberts (1995) says, "few social science concepts can match populism when it comes to nebulous and inconsistent usage." As Roberts (1995) says, "These multiple dimensions have allowed the populist concept to be applied to a wide range of loosely connected empirical phenomena, ranging from economic policies and development phases to political ideologies, movements, parties, governments, and social coalitions": some of these will be discussed below.
Some definitions label political populism as, "excessive centralization of decision-making, i.e., rule by decree, with decreasing depoliticization" (Eder,…
Buxton, J. (2000). Hugo Chavez and Populist Contunuity in Venezuela. To be found at http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/2000/Buxton%20Julia.pdf . Accessed on 3rd December 2003.
Canovan, Margaret. "Democracies and the Populist Challenge" Chapter 2 (Taking Politics to the People: Populism as the Ideology of Democracy. (1999).
Coslovsky, S.V. (2002). Neoliberalism, populism and presidential impeachment in Latin America. To be found at http://nils.lib.tufts.edu/Fletcher/SaloCoslovsky.pdf . Accessed on 3rd December 2003.
De la Torre, Carlos. Populist Seduction in Latin America: The Ecuadorian Experience (Athens OH: Ohio University, 2000) Chapters 1-4 & conclusion
U.S. And Latin America, through discussion of the following case studies: Cuba and the U.S. trade embargo; Mexico and the use of U.S. branch plants (or maquiladors); Colombia and the U.S.A. war on drugs; razil and the U.S. environmental standards in the rainforest; Panama Canal and U.S. actions regarding U.S. involvement; and the Chile-U.S. fair trade agreement. The paper finds that the relationship between the U.S. And Latin America is not a positive one for Latin America.
has a long history of interaction with Latin America, from its involvement with Cuba, which stemmed from the Cuban missile crisis, to its current covert activities in Colombia, in response to the drug problems created in the U.S. from cocaine production in Colombia. The paper will discuss the history and workings of six of these interactions, as detailed in the Executive Summary, and the effect of these interactions upon Latin America. The paper…
The following books are also useful in the further examination of the issues presented in this paper:
Agosin, M. (1995). Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America.
Atkins, E. (1980). Sixty Years in Cuba. Arno Press.
Bagley, B. "La Globalizacion de la delincuencia organizada," in Foreign Affairs en Espanol, Vol 3, num 2 (2003) pp. 110-137
At the basis for this type of illogical action on the part of the United States, according to the authors, is the American fear of communism. The authors categorize this fear within American ideology, as opposed to their economic and political ends. The authors note that American policy with regard to their political and economic goals are generally sound. The same is not however true in terms of their ideology.
This point is substantiated by a consideration of the American mentality during the time of the Cold War. There was an extreme, almost religious fear of the "communism" concept during the time. Both politicians and citizens regarded the communist ideology as directly opposed to the American ideal of democracy and freedom. The government therefore had the blessing of the people whenever policies were instated to combat communism in Latin American countries. In the name of their democratic ideology, and in…
Imperialism has been present in the world for many generations and encompasses many different events throughout the world including Boer ars, the murder of Congolese people by Leopold ii of Belgium, the Suez Canal and the presence of the Dutch East India Co. Imperialism in Latin America has been advantageous in some respects and disadvantageous in other respects. Latin America encompasses all of the Americas inclusive of Spanish and Portuguese empires. The United States has played a key role in Latin American imperialism in world history. This role is particularly evident after 1775.
Imperialism in Latin American can be seen in several instances. One of the most important instances occurred with the battle of Manila bay (1898) during the Spanish-American war. At the time George Dewey was the admiral of the American navy. The battle of Manila bay marked the beginning of American imperialism in Cuba. At the time of…
Ebeling, R. M. (1990) Panama and the Canal: Children of American Imperialism and Socialism Retrieved from: http://www.fff.org/freedom/0590b.asp extraterritoriality. (2011). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/199129/extraterritoriality
Lotta, R.U.S. Imperialism, the Cuban Revolution, and Fidel Castro. Retrieved from: http://revcom.us/a/056/cubahist-en.html
"The New Imperialism" Retrieved from: http://www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/TheNewImperialism.pdf
To ensure Allende never came to power, before resorting to "jackals," the United States, through the CIA, spend three million dollars campaigning against him, mostly through radio and print social marketing. Allende had a warm relationship with Cuba and had openly criticized the invasion of the Bay of Pigs.
This all was in line with the earlier outlined U.S. policy which invoked control of Latin American countries as key to U.S. primacy. In 1971, Nixon's National Security Council articulated, that if the U.S. could not control Latin America, then how could it expect "to achieve a successful order elsewhere in the world?" (Nimmo)
1. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 71 a Realist Views Latin America George F. Kennan.
2. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford…
5. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 78, 81,84 With Castro in the Sierra Maestra Herbert L. Matthews, Debating Cuba and Castro, Lessons of the Bay of Pigs John F. Kennedy.
6. Nimmo, Kurt. CIA Assasination Program Revealed: Nothing New Under the Sun, Infowars.
Accessed at: http://www.infowars.com/cia-assassination-program-revealed-nothing-new-under-the-sun/
Economic Geographies of Contemporary Brazil
Economic geographies of contemporary Latin America (Brazil), using globalization theories
Economic geography is defined as the branch of Geography that is concerned with the interrelations between the economic and the physical conditions to the production and distribution of the available commodities or resources (Merrriam Webster Incorporated, 2011). It deals with the influence of both the organic and inorganic environment on the activities of man.
This paper is focused on divulging how the physical conditions relate to the resources available for the people living in Brazil and the Latin America in general. In the bid to find out this relationship, there will be several globalization theories that will be looked into in order to be able to understand clearly the relationship and the distribution that there is.
Definition of terms
According to Hunington (2011), the economic geography covers the distribution of various types of resources, institutions,…
Celio Hiratuka, (2008). Foreign Direct Investment and Transnational Corporations in Brazil:
Recent Trends and Impacts on Economic Development. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/DP10HiratukaApr08.pdf
FAO, (2011). Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved June 5, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/Wairdocs/TAC/X5789E/x5789e02.htm#TopOfPage
Frank Lenchner, (2001). Globalization Theories. Retrieved May 30, 2011 from http://www.sociology.emory.edu/globalization/theories01.html
Industrialization was the metropolis' privilege; in poor nations, it was unsuited to the system of dominance of rich nations. The culmination of the Second World War saw European interests completely waning from the Latin American region, and the triumphant advance of American investments. Ever since, a significant change has been observed, in investment's focus. One step after another, one year after another, capital investments in mining and public services have lost prominence, while petroleum investments, and, in particular, investments in the manufacturing sector, have proportionately grown. Presently, one out of every three dollars Latin America invests is in the industrial sector (Galeano 1973; 205).
In exchange for minor investments, giant corporations' affiliates cross the customs barriers absurdly erected against foreign competitors, and take possession of the domestic process of industrialization. They export industrial units or, often, waylay and consume those that already exist. Moreover, such investments, which transform the factories…
ECLA/BNDE. Quince anos de politica economica en el Brasil. Santiago de Chile, 1965.
Galeano, Eduardo. Open Veins of Latin America. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973.
If the respective happening has given birth to different feelings in different individuals, then their perceptions and memories will also differ. The same is true for countries. And as the insights vary based on subjectivity, the same can be said about the decisions affecting the state, and taken by the state in relationship with its citizens, neighbors or the overall global community.
In this context then, it is understandable that the very personal characteristics of the country make the United States' citizens and political wings portray the state as the strongest and most important one in the global arena. But as the report quoted by William ogers (1984) shows, it is not sufficient for the U.S. To be strong, resourceful and important, and as such impose its ways onto the other states. It is however expected of them to get involved in the problems of the foreign countries and offer…
Hoffmann, S., January 1968, The American Style: Our Past and Our Principles, Foreign Affairs
Rogers, W.D., 1984, The United States and Latin America, Foreign Affairs
Sigmund, P.E., 1981, Latin America: Change or Continuity? Foreign Affairs
I do not think Hollywood would accept many Latina performers if they did not play to this exotic idea of Latina women. It seems to be a stereotype that has held on from even before Carmen Miranda, and she just underscored it. Americans accept and promote stereotypes like this, and the performers mold to them, either consciously or unconsciously, in an attempt to broaden their careers and become famous, and even infamous. Lopez is so well-known for her sexy dresses and her music, and it is interesting that she seems to play to a Latin crowd, while promoting the stereotypes of Latina women. It seems like Latina women may never be able to shake off that stereotype of sex and exaggeration if they do not shake off their acceptance of it in their performers and lives.
Editors. "Biography." CarmenMiranda.com. 2005. 31 Aug. 2007. http://www.carmenmiranda.net/about/biography3.htm
Editors. "Jennifer Lopez." JenniferLopez.com. 2007.…
Editors. "Biography." CarmenMiranda.com. 2005. 31 Aug. 2007. http://www.carmenmiranda.net/about/biography3.htm
Editors. "Jennifer Lopez." JenniferLopez.com. 2007. 31 Aug. 2007. http://www.jenniferlopez.com/
Stam, Robert. Tropical Multiculturalism: A Comparative History of Race in Brazilian Cinema and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most…
Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico by Stuart B. Schwartz Hardcover: 272 pages; Dimensions (in inches): 0.77 x 8.58 x 5.77
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; (March 2000)
59-84). A lack of rule of law equates to lawlessness and high levels of violence and theft.
In aggregate the factors of investment, fertility, schooling, and socio-political openness to new venture create statistically significant differences in economic performance between the regions. What De Gregorio (et. al.) also found was Latin American nations are continually coming in and out of economic crises, which makes their banking system, money supply and balance-of-payments highly risky and difficult to invest in even when there is a growth opportunity. Latin America's greatest challenge will be in overcoming the tendency to continually cycle from one economic crisis to another.
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth…
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth in Latin America." De Gregorio, Jose Journal of Development Economics 39(1): 59-84.
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
John Burdick in “The Lost Constituency of Brazil’s Black Movements” questions the narrative that race mixing, or mestizaje, is a solution to the problem of race in Brazil. Burdick states that “in Brazil the social perception of race exists along a continuum that encourages passing toward whiteness, making it difficult to forge a unified nonwhite identity” (139). What Burdick implies is that many Brazilians lack a distinct racial identity because of race mixing. The Black Identity in particular is negligibly felt socially in Brazil, and Burdick’s research indicates as much, with thirty participants claiming “to have used, for most of their lives, one or more of the ‘middle-range’ color terms,” such as moreno, marrom, mulato, mestico or pardo (140). Another 42 participants identified in varying degrees of blackness, using terms like black, very black, or dark. In short, race as an identifier was relatively lacking in Brazil. What this shows…
El Mall: The Spatial and Class Politics of Shopping Malls in Latin America
This paper delineates a summary and discussion of what the author points out in chapter two and three of the book.
The main argument made by the author in chapter two is how the retail world is experiencing globalization and how shopping mall professionals are on the rise. The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) in the past ten years or so has slowly been backed with substance. The international motivation and incentive was perceptible in the year 2013 where the commercial property development organizations flaunted maps of the globe with markings of their international footprints and where one could meet developers emanating from China, Canada and Europe. In turn, this instigated he development and enhancement of living standards across the world (Davila, 2016).
As pointed out, there is an increasing yearning for additional professional development from…
Women, lacks and Indigenous People in Colonial Latin America
Colonial Latin America was a diverse country, though it largely consisted of women, blacks and indigenous peoples. The manner of life for these groups was not always the same, as class could be divided between slaves and owners; and even in the work, there was diversity according to region. For example, in various urban areas, women "administered bakeries and worked in wax and tobacco factories."[footnoteRef:1] Thus, women's work depended upon social and ethnic orientation, with "some being considered more appropriate for the urban non-affluent white woman, and others most commonly carried out by Indians, castas or blacks."[footnoteRef:2] This paper will discuss the ways in which these particular groups worked and lived in Colonial Latin America. [1: Asuncion Lavrin, "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie ethell (UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 330.]…
Burkholder, Mark; Johnson, Lyman. "Population and Labor" in Colonial Latin America.
UK: Oxford University Press, 2008
Hemming, John. Red Gold. MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Lavrin, Asuncion. "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge
Civilizations of Latin America
Human beings have always expressed themselves through culture; throughout history. The achievements made are a product of continued refinement over the ages. They are an inherited product of a diverse modified and complex evolution from the past through time. The Latin American case is a complex one. There is plenty of diversity exemplified but there are contradictions too. The complication arises from the fact that there is a remarkable cultural diversity in the vast continent; spanning Patagonia to Mesoamerica and from the past to modern day. The Latin American region has been full of controversies, disagreements, legends and mysteries that show the reasons why the continent should exist despite great pressure mounted by the West[footnoteef:1]. In order to understand our existence as unique people, and for a clear coexistence attitude embedded in a social fabric, we must study, live and imagine the cultural orientations of Latin…
Kahn, J.S. El concepto de cultura: Textos fundamentales. Anagrama. (1974)
Nanda, Serena. Antropologia cultural. Adaptaciones socioculturales. Mexico. 1987
Navarrete Orta, Lu's. Literatura e ideas en la Historia hispanoamericana. Cuadernos Lagoven. 1991
Zea, Leopoldo. La esencia de lo americano. Mexico. 1971
China's Relations With Latin America And Caribbean Countries
China's presence in Latin America and the Caribbean countries has increased in the past decade following the country's improved diplomatic initiatives. China has essentially increased its presence in this region through establishing cultural, military, trade, and financial relations. o enhance its diplomatic ties with Latin America and the Caribbean countries, China has used several foreign policy initiatives that have contributed to deeper relations. Actually, the strategies used by China to develop ties with Latin America and the Caribbean countries have not only deepened relations but pose an imminent threat to the United States.
One of the ways through which China has achieved its deeper relations with Latin America and the Caribbean countries is through emphasizing on developing South-South cooperation. his emphasis has granted governments and business in the region an alternative to the U.S., which has in turn created stronger political, military,…
The relations between the United States and Cuba have been characterized by a policy of economic sanctions and diplomatic isolations. This policy has been adopted by successive administrations in the United States since the 1960s. One of the major factors that have fueled such relations with Cuba is the communist political ideology by Castro's regime. However, in the past few years, the U.S. and Cuba have resumed diplomatic and other relations after many decades. President Obama and Raul Castro have played a crucial role in the re-establishment of relations between the two countries.
President Obama was elected into office seeking improved engagement with Cuba, which has played a vital role in re-establishment of the countries' diplomatic and other relations. The first initiative that has contributed to resumption of these relations is President Obama's reversal of some restrictions that had been established by his predecessor, President George Bush. In 2009, President Obama reversed sanctions on remittances and travel that were established by the Bush administration. This was followed by granting American telecommunication firms liberty to offer cellular and satellite service in Cuba.
The other way through which U.S. and Cuba resumed diplomatic and other relations was the reopening of embassies in the U.S. and Cuban capitals. Cuban foreign minister traveled to the country's embassy in Washington to raise his country's flag in an event that was televised in Cuba. President Raul Castro also helped improve relations with the United States through retracting some of the tight security measures that characterized the American diplomatic mission in Havana. President Obama and President Castro also committed themselves to a long process towards normalizing the countries' relations through finding solutions to problems that have lasted for decades and hurt their ties.
The accident in the Tonkin Gulf when North Vietnamese forces attacked the U.S. vessels and caused two airplanes to crash was a good reason to start the conflict, as the troops of North Vietnam violated the Geneva Convention and attacked a foreign navy in the neutral international waters. The United States has to react on this accident, as it was the mater of international respect, but at the same time the presidents administration had to estimate the future consequences of the military strike back. It was not secret that a lot of Soviet weapon was concentrated in North Vietnam, and Viet Kong army was ready to start the war for the unification of the country as it was guaranteed to have a support from Soviets.
Invention in Grenada was caused by the Cuban influence on Grenada's government in early 1980 iers. Grenada changed its political orientation and turned to the…
John J. Johnson, a Hemisphere Apart: Foundations of U.S. Policy toward Latin America Westview Press; 2nd edition (January, 2001)
Alonso Aguilar, Pan-Americanism from Monroe to the Present Monthly Review Pr (June 1, 1969)
A Critique of Democracy: the Latin American Left
The Latin American Left was mainly inspired by the idealism of Marx. Marx (1873) believed that “the ideal is nothing else than the material world reflected by the human mind and translated into forms of thought.” For the Left, the main problem has always been rooted in class—as materialism is the basis of their worldview, class and class struggle was the biggest issue, and equality and egalitarian principles enacted and served in society were the goal. Marx wanted the workers to own the means of production and thus end the rule of the bourgeoisie over the laborers. This was his ideal—and the Latin American leaders on the Left made it their priority to nationalize private industry and for the state to take control of the means of production. Whether it was Evo Morales in Bolivia, Chavez and Maduro in Venezuela, Castro…
US Foreign Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean
Pastor, .A. & Long, T. (2010). The Cold War and its Aftermath in the Americas: The Search
for a Synthetic Interpretation of U.S. Policy. Latin American esearch eview, 45(3), 261-273.
Pastor and Long conducted a search of synthetic interpretation of the United States foreign policy in Latin America and the Caribbean in the aftermath of the Cold War through examining existing literature of U.S. foreign policy in the Americas. This search was carried out on the premise that some scholars have focused on understanding U.S. foreign policy and inter-American relations in the aftermath of the Cold War. This analysis is carried out on the premise that numerous books and review essays have been developed to examine the Americas in the post-Cold War era and current or future issues in the inter-American agenda. The focus of this article is to examine how…
Pastor, R.A. & Long, T. (2010). The Cold War and its Aftermath in the Americas: The Search
for a Synthetic Interpretation of U.S. Policy. Latin American Research Review, 45(3), 261-273.
Born to Die
hy did the native populations, such as the Incas and the Aztecs, appear to be, not equals to be met with military and diplomatic force, but as victims born to die in the eyes of the invading European powers? hy were they not feared, despite the extensive technological capacities of their civilizations, and the detailed political and religious theology these civilizations created? Simply put, the invading Europeans came to regard them as sick and ailing bodies of a sick and ailing body politic, born to die because of their lack of immunity to European diseases, even more than European firearms.
The book Born to Die thus presents the provoking thesis that disease was the major cause of the European power's seemingly never-ending successes of colonial successes and conquests in Latin America, rather than these nation's prowess in military conquest. In some cases, the nations had already been…
Cook, David Noble. Born to Die. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
"Kurds." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001 -- 04. www.bartleby.com/65/. 8 November 2003.
Lim, Louisa. "Analysis: Disease as a Weapon." BBC News. 2003.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2634753.stm . 8 November 2004.
Ceramics- exhibition review (New Territories exhibit)
New Territories: Laboratories for Design, Craft and Art in Latin America
If a viewer were to initially wander into the exhibition New Territories: Laboratories for Design, Craft and Art in Latin America, he or she might initially believe that the Museum of Art and Design (MAD) was showcasing a catalogue of traditional works from Latin America. However, upon closer examination, New Territories is actually a series of modern pieces by contemporary artists from the region who make use of techniques such as appropriation and pastiche of traditional designs. These works are reconfigurations of traditional images, hence the expression of 'new territories' in their output.
For example, Les Crayons Noirs (in collaboration with Felipe (Flip) Yung, Herbert Baglione, Sesper, and Thais Beltrame) makes use of traditional images and ways of rendering the human body common to many Latin American traditional works and transposes…
omen played an unheralded, unsung role in the history of Latin America. Just as women's roles in global history has been relegated to domestic servitude, much of what women did in Latin America was household-related. Farming was also a female duty (Chasteen). Given the importance of farming and childrearing to the cohesiveness of a society, though, women did play an important role in the history of Latin America. Even if many of the most influential women did not get recognized for their deeds, the role of women should never be downplayed. Some women, though, do make their names known even within the patriarchal structure of Latin American society and within the patriarchal hegemony of historiography. For example, Rigoberta Menchu was raised in a gender-egalitarian native society that enabled her to become a political activist. Menchu's activism earned her a place in the history of her people and Guatemala…
Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. W.W. Norton, 2001.
Fraser, Nicholas and Navarro, Marysa. Evita: The Real Life of Eva Peron. Norton, 1980.
Menchu, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta Menchu. Verso, 1984
Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).
This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…
Arrom, Silvia Marina. 1985. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Burns, Kathryn. 1999. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Caulfield, Sueann. 2000. In Defense of Honor: Sexual Morality, Modernity, and Nation in Early-Twentieth-Century Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Fisher, John. 2003. Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press.
Many are unaware that in the United States today, people are blessed with a variety of Spanish-language and other Latin American cultures that are in the midst -- which were brought to the country by individuals from numerous different parts of the hemisphere. In attempting to understand and appreciate these cultures, we can learn much from their music Mexican-American music is something that has high regards in their culture. Over the years it has been expanded crossing over into many cultures ith that said, this essay is intended to analyze the many methods and styles of music and musical cultures that have been able to make their way into the United States from Latin American nations.
Surprisingly, Latin American music is a subject where there has not been a lot written about it. There is very little research on Latin music perhaps because many are not interested.…
Gonzalez, J.P. "Third latin american conference of the international association for the study of popular music." Popular Music 20.9 (2009): 269-274.
Loza, Steven. Barrio Rhythm: Mexican-American Music in Los Angeles. University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Moehn, F. "From tejano to tango: Latin american popular Music/Musical migrations: Transnationalism and cultural hybridity in Latin/o america, volume I/Situating salsa: Global markets and local meaning in latin popular music." Ethnomusicology 49.1 (2010): 137-142.
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.
2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…
Latin American Revolution: New Tactical Approach
The transition in how revolution occurs in Latin America can be explained by a growing awareness of the inefficiency of modern bureaucracy and/or government. In the past, revolution has occurred primarily through the overthrow of one government and the establishment of another. Today, however, revolution is more cultural—it is rooted more in the living of lives and less in the dynamic of governmental oversight. As Holloway states, “We are flies caught in a spider’s web…We can only try to emancipate ourselves, to move outwards, negatively, critically, from where we are” (Holloway 5). What this means is that it is useless to attempt to act as the spider acts—which is what replacing one government with another essentially signifies in the modern age. The web is what needs to be avoided—and so revolution is now centered on escaping the web—the web of politics, the web of…
Latin America Revolutions
Except for the glaring exception of razil, the Latin American revolutions established republics from Mexico to Argentina, although the new governments were never particularly liberal or democratic. They certainly did not grant equal citizenship to, much less social and economic equality, while women, slaves, servants, and indigenous peoples mostly remained under traditional patriarchal controls. Some revolutionaries like Jose Morelos in Mexico and atista Campos in razil did demand a more liberal or radical social order in which the racial caste system had been abolished, but in most parts of Latin America this has not really occurred yet. Morelos did not intend to abolish the class system or even the economic power of whites, but he did call for the end of slavery, the elimination of titles of nobility and equal education for all. In the early-19th Century, such ideals as equality of citizenship regardless of color counted…
Andrews, G. Reid. "Argentina's Black Legions" in James A. Wood and John Charles Chasteen (eds), Problems in Latin American History: Sources and Methods, 3rd Edition. Rowman and Littlefield, 2009, pp. 10-14.
Chambers, Sarah C. "What Independence Meant for Women" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 18-24.
Chasteen, John Charles, "The Brazilian Path to Independence" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 15-17.
Krause, Enrique. "The Vision of Father Morelos" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 7-10.
"Coffee is King": The rise and fall of coffee in Colombia, economic growth and social change.
Colombia first became an exporting area in the sixteenth century, under the Spanish arrangement of mercantilism. Spanish imperial rule defined a great deal of Colombia's social and economic development. The colony became an exporter of raw materials, predominantly precious metals, to the mother country. ith its colonial position came a highly planned socioeconomic system founded on slavery, indentured servitude, and restricted foreign contact. Colombia's contemporary economy, based on coffee and other agricultural exports, did not materialize until well after its independence in 1810, when local entrepreneurs were free to take advantage of on world markets other than Spain. The late nineteenth century saw the development of tobacco and coffee export industries, which really enlarged the merchant class and led to population growth and the enlargement of cities. ealth was concentrated in agriculture and…
"Colombia -- Economy." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
"Colombia History." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
America's Cuban Conundrum
The Helms-Burton Act and the Cuban-American Trade Relations
The United States and Cuba have had increased amounts of hostility toward each other present in their relations ever since the Cuban revolution. Not only did Cuba nationalize property held by U.S. interests during the revolution, but also Cuba became an ally to Russia during the Cold ar; which was critical to the Soviet strategy since Cuba is in close proximity to the U.S. Both actions consequently undermined the stated values of the American free-market system in regards to America's corporate holdings in the country. This tension has furthermore been manifested by blatantly vocal opposition on both sides of the dispute. In this paper such ongoing tension will be illustrated by one of the most timely and extreme examples of hostility in foreign relations as well as propose an avenue for future trade arrangements.
Cuban Pretexts for Military Action…
Alejandre, A., & Costa, C. (1999, September 29). Human Rights Library. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from University of Minnesota: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/86-99.html
Brothers to the Resue. (2010, January 29). Background and Information. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from hermanos.org: http://www.hermanos.org/Background%20and%20Information.htm
Canadian Senate. (1996). 45 Elizabeth II. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from House Publications: http://www2.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?pub=bill&doc=C-54&parl=35&ses=2&language=E&File=16
Snow, A. (2010, October 26). Cuba embargo: UN vote urges U.S. To lift embargo. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Latest-News-Wires/2010/1026/Cuba-embargo-UN-vote-urges-U.S.-to-lift-embargo
One of the best points is brought forth by Higgins, who writes that an estimated force of 1500 men were sent to take on no less than 25,000 Cubans (Higgins 1987). "In the end, of approximately 1300 men who actually landed on the beaches from the Brigade, almost 1200 were captured and about 100 killed in combat (Higgins 149). The Brigade, if they failed, were expected to escape into the protected areas that connected to the Bay of Pigs; when in fact those areas, the conditions of the terrain, the poor training and preparation of the Brigade, made such escape impossible (Higgins 149).
Years later, declassified papers and tapes from the hite House would lend insight into the fiasco, but not clarity. One thing that was evidenced from the hite House tapes is that the Bay of Pigs continued to be a source of humiliation and annoyance to President Kennedy…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105514152
Blight, James G. And Peter Kornbluh, eds. 1999. Politics of Illusion: The Bay of Pigs Invasion Reexamined. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105514456 .
Chomsky, Noam. 1993. Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. Political Culture. Boston: South End Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24098683 .
Human development and evolution across all cultures mean that there will be a gap between older generations, who tend to cling to outdated ideals and paradigms, and younger generations, who tend away from the traditional and towards new developments. While there are merits in both positions, subscribers to each respective position seldom see the value in the viewpoint of the other. Hence, the conflicts that arise are often difficult to manage and impossible to overcome.
Such conflict is clearly portrayed in Nash Candelaria's "El Patron," and also to a degree in Oscar Hijuelos's "Visitors, 1965. n the former, the traditional viewpoint is represented by Lola's father, Senor Martinez, while the more progressive viewpoint is represented by the other three major characters in the story; Lola, her brother Tito, and her husband, the narrator of the story. The difference in viewpoints can be seen on a variety of platforms, including…
In "Visitors, 1965" on the other hand, the differences between respective generations, traditions, and paradigms are far more complex and multi-dimensional than in Candelaria's story. The story begins with an atmosphere of hope and joy as a result of Fidel Castro assuming power in Cuba. One of the main characters, Alejo, is a cook and the time, and chosen to be in charge of the dessert for Castro's visit to the United States. Alejo observes that "Only in America could a worker get so close to a fat little guy with enormous power" (295).
This event represents the difference in power relations as observed in the United States and in Cuba. The contrast is further strengthened as time increasingly reveals the suffering brought about by Castro's rule. American citizens have enough to eat and receive fair trials, along with humane treatment in prisons, while the same could not be expected in Cuba.
Another dichotomy is the one between cultures as represented by language. This is particularly embodied in the character of Hector. As the story progresses, so does Hector's feeling of displacement between cultures. He is not sufficiently confident to speak his native Spanish, nor is he happy in the United States, which he associates with feelings of loneliness and despair. He relates best to his displaced aunts and cousins from Cuba. In this way, the story offers a vision of the displaced and the necessity of adjustment amidst war and uncertainty.
Although Friedman claims that the use of religion as a common bond among early Americans is no longer relevant, there are scores of Americans who still believe that the nation is essentially a Christian one. The identity of Tea Party people is inextricably tied into an identity that may seem outmoded to many Americans. Yet to the Tea Party, their identity is more American than any apple pie.
Most Americans throughout most of American history considered it perfectly fine to deny half the (white) population the right to vote on the basis of gender. Being female was considered a handicap, which systematically denied women the right to be Americans even if they identified with the culture of the United States. Asian men who worked on the railroads in nineteenth century America were not even permitted to start families because their Otherness was too much for the ASP majority. Now, Asians…
Alba, Richard. Ethnic Identity. Yale University Press, 1992.
Friedman, Michael J. "American Identity: Ideas, Not Ethnicity." 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307154033ebyessedo0.5349237.html
Huntington, Samuel P. Who Are We: The Challenges of America's National Identity.
Rorty, Richard. Achieving Our Country. Harvard, 1998.
Inca and Spanish ideas regarding the roles of females and males
This paper presents a detailed description and comparison of the Inca and Spanish ideas regarding the roles of females and males. The writer uses examples of similarities and differences to illustrate the point.
TAKING STEPS BACKWARDS
As the world continues to globalize, mankind pats itself on the back and believes that it continues to move in a forward motion. All one has to do is observe the equality of the sexes today to know that the world has come a long way from the old days. However when one studies the history of two cultures, the Spanish and the Incas one discovers that a long ago and forgotten civilization had as much if not more gender equality than has ever happened since without a fight. The Inca society was so far ahead of its time when it came to…
After some ineffective negotiating with the police both Sandro and a passenger on board of the bus get killed.
The main concept of the movie revolves around the unjust system; the blind Brazilian authorities that single-handedly create criminals by neglecting and aggressing most of the poor people instead of creating ways of improving their lives.
Favela Rising" is yet another motion picture intended to expose the truth concerning the Latin-American slums. The action again takes place in Rio de Janeiro, but the intriguing part about the film is that it is a documentary which tells the story of Anderson Sa, a former drug dealer from the Vigario Geral district.
Anderson had been living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro when he heard that his brother has been accidentally shot in the middle of a gang war. Just as the characters in the previous movies and in Carolina's book, Anderson…
De Jesus, Carolina Maria, and St. Clair David. Child of the Dark. Signet Classic, 2003.
Bus 174. Dir. Jose Padilha. 2002.
City of God. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Miramax, Buena Vista International. 2002.
Favela Rising. Dir. Matt Mochary, Jeff Zimbalist. HBO/Cinemax. 2005.
Crime and Violence in Mexico
Introduction recent study by the orld Bank reveals that Mexico has become one of the most violent and crime-ridden regions in the world (Hart). After a slight decrease in the 1960's, the report shows that the murder rate has increased again in the 1990's to more than 16,000 murders per year (p. 111-113). The country's homicide rate was double that of the United States, with 18 killings for every 100,000 people.
Over the past few decades, Mexico's population has increased and urban poverty levels have risen. As a result of these two factors, Mexico has seen a significant increase in crime and violence. Residents have resorted to illegal means of making money, including drug rings and street crime, as the country struggled to incorporate a capitalist system.
A recent study from the Citizen's Institute for the Study of Insecurity reveals that 4.2 million Mexicans were…
Babb, Satrah. Managing Mexico: Economists from Nationalism to Neoliberalism. Princeton University Press, 2001.
Carl, Tracy. Rudy To The Rescue. The Associated Press. Oct. 10, 2002.
Hart, John. Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War.
University of California Press, 2002.
Great all of America? A Bad Idea.
It is widely known that the United States is a country of immigrants. The country's indigenous population constitutes a tiny miniscule of its population, while the rest came mostly from Europe, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Nevertheless, immigration to the United States has always been a divisive and controversial issue. In the nineteenth century, nativist feelings among the ASP (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants) made the East Coast a very inhospitable place for Catholic Irish immigrants, while the legislators in the est Coast targeted immigrants and migrants from the Far East, singling out the Chinese in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Chinese Exclusion Act"). Today, cross-border movement of people through the southern border of the United States has become a hotly debated issue for ordinary folks, legislators, anti-terrorist law enforcement agencies, Congressmen and Congresswomen as well as Presidential candidates. Criticizing the…
"Chinese Exclusion Act." Harvard University Library Open Collections Program. Web. 14 March 2012
"Environmental Rules Waived for Border Fence." Associated Press. 15 January 2007. Web. 14 March 2012
Drehle, David Von. "The Great Wall of America." Time. 19 June 2008. Web. 14 March 2012
Kenner, Robert, et al. Food, Inc. Los Angeles, CA: Magnolia Home Entertainment, 2009.
The crux of his research focused on the technological aspects of CM supporting is the essence of rising above all these other forms of unwanted communication and staying relevant for the long-term to prospects and customers.
The proposed research design will focus on interviewing approximately 500 customers of Latin American tourism providers in the last twelve months and assessing their relative levels of satisfaction using a survey designed using the SEVQUAL methodology. Using a series of questions included in the SEVQUAL instrument to focus on the ten aspects of service quality including reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding the customer and tangibles of service. Consistent with the goal of this study to focus on the gap between service delivery ad expectations (Huang, Sarigllu, 2008) the research design will be stratified by originating nation of the respondent. This stratification of responded by country will be useful…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed January 20, 2009).
Jeffrey G. Blodgett, Aysen Bakir, Gregory M. Rose. 2008. A test of the validity of Hofstede's cultural framework. The Journal of Consumer Marketing 25, no. 6 (September 20): 339-349.