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In the old days, coaches and managers viewed people as objects, but that view is shifting, in part due to the concepts of Servant-leadership. The central meaning came to Greenleaf after reading Hermann Hesse's short novel Journey to the East; Greenleaf concluded that a great leader first serves others, and "true leadership (Spears 3) emerges from those whose primary motivation is a deep desire to help others." By first serving, then leading, the leader has a hands-on grasp of what the priorities are, and do those being served (whether baseball players or office staffers) become healthier while being served? Do they grow as persons, become smarter and more likely "themselves to become servants?"
Meanwhile, author Dennis Kinlaw's "total quality management" (TQM) concepts focus much attention on something that is vital to all sporting situations and teams - improvement. Teams rarely stay exactly the same; they are either getting worse, or…
Kinlaw, Dennis. Continuous Improvement and Measurement for Total Quality: A Team-Based
Approach. Homewood, ILL: Pfeiffer & Company, 1992.
Lad, Lawrence J., & Luechauer, David. "On the Path to Servant-Leadership." Insights on Leadership: Service, Stewardship, Spirit, and Servant-Leadership. Ed. Larry Spears. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1996. 54-65.
Manning, George. & Curtis, Kent. The Art of Leadership. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Pages Mehrabian, Albert. Silent Messages. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,
This brainstorming would be an imaginative exercise, as well as encourage students to work together. Then, students could present their findings to the class in the form of a dialogue. The sharing of information in the form of a play would further spur social modeling and creativity. equiring students to imagine 'what if' scenarios enables them to illustrate that they have truly assimilated the lesson material and comprehend its basic principles, and do not focus on reciting facts by rote: "Internalization refers to the process of learning -- and thereby internalizing -- a rich body of knowledge and tools of thought that first exist outside the child" (Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition, 2008, Funderstanding). Presenting a short 'dramatic' scenario would also energize students who are kinesthetic (hands-on) rather than verbal learners.
In the case of the first exercise, students would be assessed in terms of their visual recall by being…
Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition. (2008). Funderstanding. Retrieved February 17, 2011 at http://www.funderstanding.com/content/vygotsky-and-social-cognition
Too often people focus on values, norms, and specifics while ignoring the principles that they are based on.
Principle-centered leadership, on the other hand, can be applied to any generation or any type of organizational culture. Another reason why Covey's book is effective is because he continually reverts to the central ideas of natural law and self-discipline. Natural law is best conveyed through the image of farm work: Covey offers this metaphor throughout Principle-Centered Leadership to underscore why principles, not values, guide effective leaders. After all, what an effective farmer does in his or her daily life is quite different from what an effective CEO does. If one focuses only on their core values, only differences would be evident. However, if one closely examines the principles that guide both the farmer and the CEO, key similarities in their leadership styles and personality traits will be made evident. These are the…
Two of the most pressing issues in corporate leadership today include gender equality and labor rights. In "Women See Slow Progress in Leadership," Gay (2013) cites numerous empirical studies showing that the glass ceiling remains nearly impenetrable at the highest levels of management. The report cites the work-life balance ideal as the most common reason offered for why many women are either opting out of the CEO lifestyle, or are not considered ready or willing to handle the challenges and pressures of senior leadership.
In "The Best etail Companies to Work for ight Now," Smith (2013) describes Costco's approach toward human resources management. The company has recently been named one of the best companies to work for in the United States because of their relatively high salaries, supportive work environment, opportunity for growth, and job security. Its ethical labor rights practices are helping gain positive publicity for Costco, showing…
Gay, M. (2013). Women see slow progress in leadership. The Wall Street Journal. 14 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303289904579196123043065800
Greenleaf, R. (2013). Ten principles of servant leadership. Butler University. Retrieved online: http://www.butler.edu/volunteer/resources/principles-of-servant-leadership/
Lavinsky, D. (2013). Are you a visionary business leader? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/davelavinsky/2013/04/26/are-you-a-visionary-business-leader/
Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership (2013). What is servant leadership? Retrieved online: https://greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/
This is another circumstance, however, that is likely to limit the use of this text in management courses, which is truly a disservice to American industry and consumers. It is ironic that in living up to the principles of clarity and directness that it espouses, this tome will probably be read most by simple admirers of Powell and self-help fanatics, rather than put to extensive practical use in the real world.
Where the book might be lacking in a sense of academic rigor and obfuscation, it is hugely successful in its primary attempt to bring a sense of accountability and nobility back to leadership in this country. The United States has been somewhat short on inspirational and honest leaders in the past decade, and though this book is now seven years old it remains a testament to the type of mentality that apparently still exists even when it has faded…
The passive style is described as management by exception where employees do not receive notice for their positive contributions to the organization, but instead are paid attention by their manager only when an error or problem arises. Punishment or disciplinary action is often the medium used in this approach. Active transactional leadership uses contingent rewards. With this approach, employees are praised for their performance and may be eligible for pay increases or other incentives (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 419). The type of leadership exhibited clearly determines the type of motivation used and often its success or failure.
The situational leadership theory of Hersey and Blanchard proposes that the optimal amount of task and relations behavior depends upon subordinate maturity. As the authors note, what the manager needs is a simple and logical framework for making decisions that will be successful (Hersey & Blanchard, 1990, p. 412). This theory prescribes…
Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bossidy, Larry; Charan, Ram; Execution, the Discipline of Getting Things
Done; Crown Business, New York, NY. 2002.
DuBrin, a.J., R.D. Ireland, & J.C. Williams. Management & Organization. Cincinnati: South-Western, 1989.
However, Avery points out an important shift in managerial leadership styles. She sees it as a shift in the balance of power within an organization, rather than a shift in the way managers perform their daily tasks. She states, leadership involves letting go of conventional notions of control, order, and hierarchy, replacing them with trust and an acceptance of continual change, chaos, and respect for diverse members of the organization...the members are expected to be self-managing and self-leading (Avery, 29-30).
This statement summarizes Avery's view of how leadership styles will evolve in the future. The balance of power is shifting from the leader to the employee. In the future, employees will continue to become more independent and to seek their own methods of self-management. Leaders will have to be wiling to let go and become more of a guidance counselor than an authority figure. This trend was perhaps the most…
Avery, G. Understanding Leadership. London: Sage Publications, 2004.
hether involvement is through full time employment or volunteer service, the challenges of today's fire service demand commitment to training, education, experience and self-development. One's professional development is a journey, not a destination. Remember Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.
You've achieved success in your field when you don't know whether what you're doing is work or play.
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers eekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership…
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers Weekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership 101: Integrity, http://www.withthecommand.com/2002-Aug/MD-TMC-leader-integ101.html (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Therefore, culturally endorsed leadership theory may require some degree of code-switching (employing different languages or emphasizing and de-emphasizing certain cultural elements) on the part of leaders in order to maintain the balance of general attributes associated with positive leadership. In general, however, there is less of a reliance on the leader as an individual in this type of organizational leadership style, and more of a reliance on universally perceived leadership qualities.
Another fairly efficacious style of leadership for contemporary organizations is transformational leadership. Transformational leadership theory seeks to actuate a change by empowering the various individuals that comprise an organization with the tools necessary to perform their jobs better. Transformational leadership may require a restructuring of a company's objectives, or a reevaluation of the best ways to achieve those values. Oftentimes, transformational leaders are charismatic and are endowed with natural leadership attributes that endear them to people. Their goals are…
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). "Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military." Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 31 (3): 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Javidan,, Dorfman, P., De Luque, M., & House, R. (2006). "In the eye of the beholder: Cross cultural lessons in leadership from project GLOBE." Academy of Management Perspectives, 20 (1): 67-90.
Traywick, B. (2008). "Reagan's transformational leadership." www.youtube.com Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puB0Bnt5xfY&feature=related
In these kinds of situations, the health care professional is taking the middle ground to satisfy both parties (which will lead to a number of challenges). This is from both sides feeling that they have won and will want more down the road. The only difference is that they are more emboldened in their position. This is problematic, because it can make the underlying situation worse in the future. (Feldman, 2008, pg. 128) (Daniels, 2004, pp. 485 -- 486)
To avoid these kinds of situations requires that compromise should be used as a solution when both sides agree to accept the proposal. This does not mean coming back in the future and exhibiting the same kind of behavior to achieve what they want. Instead, both parties have to be willing to accept the compromise completely. If this kind of approach can be taken it will create win -- win situations.…
Cavanaugh, S. (1988). The Conflict Management Style. Intensive Care Nursing, 4 (3), 118 -- 123.
Daniels, R. (2004). Nursing Fundamentals. Clifton, NY: Thomason.
DiMatteo, M. (1998). The Role of the Physician. Western Journal of Medicine. 168 (85), 328 -- 333.
Feldman, H. (2008). Nursing Leadership. New York, NY: Springer.
According to Henry Fayol's (1841-1925) theory of management, leadership should possess an array of personal attributes that creates a positive environment for work and empower each employee. Notably, the theory encourages the managers and leaders in the enterprise world to promote employee independence, bestow responsibility and authority to junior staff in order to enhance their professional growth and responsibility (Morden 2004). Sadly, some leaders possess traits that are improper, discourage employee independence, and are a gross abuse of power.
Some of the undesirable leadership traits include dictatorial leaders, anti-social tendencies, non-cooperative, poor communicator and egocentric among many others. In the wake of modern business management, employee motivation is derived from the ability to perform activities on their own (Deming & Orsini 2013). They value independence and authority, with dictatorial leaders and management style, employees feels, threatened, intimidated, and often work to impress the bosses. Certainly, through dictating what,…
Deming, W.E., & Orsini, J.N. (2013). The essential Deming: leadership principles from the father of quality management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Morden, T. (2004). Principles of management (2nd ed.). Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.
The balanced scorecard concept highlights a number of different measures that reflect on the success of a company. These measures include the normal financial measures that corporations use, but also measures relating to the customer, to the staff and to the environment/community. The leader must therefore take into account these different dimensions -- innovation, processes, financial outcomes and the customers -- in order to ensure that the company excels (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The role of the leader is both to serve as visionary and strategist, but also as the inspirational leader of the organization. Vision is essential, because the leader has to see how all of the different elements of the organization come together to deliver on the multiple objectives laid out in the balanced scorecard approach.
The first step for the leader is to determine the organization's strategy, something that demands a high level of vision (Porter,…
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D. (1992). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review. In possession of the author.
Porter, M. (no date). Leader as strategist. Leadership Excellence. In possession of the author.
Powell, C. (no date). Leadership principles. Leadership Excellence. In possession of the author.
Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven Pressfield
Gates of Fire written by Steven Pressfield is a famous historical novel published in 1998. It tells the story of 480 B.C when Persian King decided to attack Greece. Persia was the biggest power of the world in those times and it used all its supremacy to focus on this singe goal.
Persian King brought with him a huge army of around two million soldiers with a simple message of "surrender or death" for the Greeks. On the other side, Greece put forward their 300 finest Spartan warriors under the commandment of King Leonydas and ordered them to take immediate action.
Spartans knew very well that they will be killed in this battle with Persian invaders but they did not quit and moved forward towards their mission. They bravely resisted against the Persian forces for six days and created an unbalanced fight…
Bass, B and Riggio, R. (2008). Transformational Leadership. Second edition. Lawrence Erlbaum
Cohen, W. (2010). Heroic Leadership. Leading with Integrity and Honor. Chapter 7: Put Duty Before
Self. Published by Jossey Bass.
He let them know truthfully and honestly what was expected of them, that the journey would be difficult, and that they would all be in the situation together. He was honest about the impending Civil War when he first took office, and he was honest with his cabinet about the difficulties they would face. This path-goal theory of management helped create a very supportive environment that is necessary when people are facing extremely difficult problems, such as Civil War. The leader must be strong and mature, but he must also be extremely supportive and nurturing, and Lincoln was, which commanded respect among just about everyone he dealt with. He worked very closely with his generals during the war, and he set specific goals for them, another aspect of the path-goal theory -- offering specific leadership advice and goals, and expecting the followers to take the appropriate action. He was supportive,…
Elshtain, J.B. (1999, November). Abraham Lincoln & the last best hope. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 43.
Gienapp, W.E. (2002). Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kumuyi, W.F. (2007, August/September). Seven communication tips an effective leader must have. New African 22+.
Rawley, J.A. (2003). Abraham Lincoln and a nation worth fighting for. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Cultures, Social Networking and SPL Model
The modern business environment has contributed to increased international operations by companies in attempts to enhance global presence and gain competitive advantage. However, international companies experience various challenges with regards to hiring and retaining employees in foreign countries or new cultures. As an individual spearheading a study in an international company, one of the major issues to address is determining the advantage or disadvantage of hiring locals or natives vs. sending present company employees for short periods of time and necessary training for those operations.
For the international company, sending present company employees for short periods of time is more beneficial than hiring locals or natives. This is primarily because the knowledge and skills required in the job in the host country are either in short supply or not present in the locals or natives. Moreover, the existing employees have adequate knowledge of…
Atchison, T.J., Belcher, D.W. & Thomsen, D.J. (2000). International Remuneration. In Internet
based benefits & compensation administration (chap. 22). Retrieved from http://dlc.erieri.com/onlinetextbook/chpt22/text_main.htm
Cashman, K. (2008). Leadership from the inside out: becoming a leader for life (2nd ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
The healthcare practitioner must be particular immune to prejudices of an ethnic, racial, sexual or personal nature, with equal treatment quality and personal attention expected for all patrons of the medical system. This is why it is important for members of the healthcare community to be acquainted not just with the idea of a multitude of groups in its public, but with some level of understanding as to how different ethnic groups endure different health scenarios.
10. Show how you integrate critical thinking, clinical reasoning strategies, and communication methods in nursing practice with clients in varying health states.
The strategies described here above are especially important where addressing the personal and emotional needs of patients are concerned. This is because communication and critical reasoning will go a long way in making the patient feel comfortable, confident and cared for. Accordingly, we find that "one skill in nursing communication that would…
Anderson, L.L. (2010). Nurse Leadership vs. Management. Nurse Together.
Beyea, S.C.; Slattery, M.J. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing. HCPro, Inc.
Leebov, W. (2009). Nursing Communication: How to Make Sure Patients Feel Our Caring. All Nurses.
MacDonald, C. (2002). Nurse Autonomy as Relational. Nursing Ethics, 9(2).194-201.
Leadership is everyone's business it is for women, men and even children. We therefore need leadership now in everything that we do be it in our homes, organizations we work in, in church and many more Ares (Leadership Now, 2014). This means that understanding leadership is a vital thing for everyone. Many treatments of leadership have their focus on high-impact leaders but fascinating as these people are they operate in unique environments that most people will never see .the limitation about getting our leadership principle from carrying out studies on the group of the elite is that they are not so many and each and every one of them is in an extremely different situation. Therefore studies on leadership mainly focus on middle and lower level leaders in organizations (American Psychological Association, pg. 474).This paper will look at two different modern leadership approaches with examples of where they…
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological
Association. ISBN: 1-4338-0561-5
Leadership Now.(2014). Leadership Now; Building A community Leader. Retrieved March 29,2014 from http://www.leadershipnow.com/
Leadership Best Practices
Military leadership depends upon the ability to motivate, support and drive the team to accomplish the mission. Leadership styles are diverse in the military and can include everything from the autocratic style to the servant leadership style. The key to employing best practices in military leadership, however, is to understand the needs of the situation, the needs of the stakeholders, and the needs of the moment so that the right strategy is employed for the goal to be achieved.[endnoteRef:2] This paper will discuss leadership best practices, particularly how sharing leadership best practices can help individual, group, corporation and military success. [2: For this reason, Stogdill asserts that contingency theory is the best way to explain how leaders should perform.]
Leadership has been defined as the ability to give empowerment to others (Conger). Leaders make a difference in the lives of others by helping them…
Leadership Principles in Health Care
Health leader competencies in terms of leadership knowledge are skills consist of communication, professionalism, understanding of the health care system, and a business skill set (Stefl, 2008). These competencies are essential because they allow a leader to be at the head of teams regarding knowledge, know-how, experience, administration and interaction. First off, communication is necessary because without it, lines can get crossed and important information left out. Professionalism is also important because it serves as the framework for workplace behavior, projecting an image to the client and the staff of dignity, purpose, esteem, and knowledge. None of this would matter, of course, if the leader lacked understanding of the health care system, without which he or she is simply an empty suit, devoid of any usefulness whatsoever. And finally a business skill set is required because, after all, the health care industry is a business…
Davis, L., Taylor, H., Reyes, H. (2014). Lifelong learning in nursing: A Deplhi study.
Nurse Education Today, 34(3): 441-445.
Sarabia, M. (2007). Knowledge leadership cycles: an approach from Nonaka's viewpoint. Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(3): 6-15.
Stefl, M. (2008). Common competencies for all healthcare managers: The healthcare leadership alliance model. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(6): 360-374.
Leadership and Change
Leadership is defined as the ability of an individual to influence and guide his or her followers. Therefore, the leader is required to make sound decisions, create and articulate a clear vision, establish goals that are achievable, and provide the followers with the necessary knowledge and tools for them to achieve goals. There are different leadership styles that leaders follow or adhere to. The most common of them being the command and control leadership style. While it might be the most common leadership style in use today, that does not mean that it is the most effective style of leadership. This kind of leadership style has its roots in the military. In the command and control leadership style, the leader is always in command and they are also in control of the employees. According to Smith et al. (2016) the command and control leadership style is authoritative…
Leadership: Enhancing Lessons Experience
According to Johnson, & Giorgis (2002), Leadership is the process in which an individual influences actions of others towards common goals, Formulates policies, strategies, and influence people towards achievement of the same strategies. Over the past decades, various changes in the world have led to various definitions of leadership. The fall of the Soviet Union, globalization and various advances have changed the world we knew. A woman in leadership positions is a new phenomenon; various leadership trainings are available, and leadership as a skill is now an asset for professionals. For African Universities to ensure knowledge transfer and observing millennium development goals, a good leadership structure is essential. A leader has exception skills and acts outrageously to situations (Padam, 2009).
Scholars have advanced various theories on leadership. Leaders' Individual personal attributes beat explains the trait theory, when one looks closely at Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler it…
Johnson, N.J., & Giorgis, C. (2002). Leadership. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 315-316. Retrieved from http:/ / proquest.com/docview/203276035
Padam, S. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(3), 136-137. Retrieved from http://.proquest.com/docview/222728386
Ilgen, D.R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517-543. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205830055
Hanson, K., & Leautier, F. (2011). Enhancing institutional leadership in african universities: Lessons from ACBS's interventions. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 7(2), 385-417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20425961201000040
Analyze describe founding leader(s), leadership style, major business principles a profit-oriented entrepreneurial approach primary goal provide a product service consumers make a profit. 2. Analyze describe founding leader(s), leadership style, major business principles a social-responsibility oriented entrepreneurial approach primary goal make a positive impact society (people, families, ecology, similar) providing a product service consumers make a profit.
Leadership style refers to the method or manner in which a person provides guidance regarding a particular issue, implements plans or motivates people in order to get a particular job done or goal achieved Baumgartel, 1957.
There are there major leadership styles that are seen in the various leaders all over the world Lewin, 1944()
The first is the authoritarian or autocratic leader. This is the leader who is a dictator and tells his employees or servants what they want to be done, how they want it done and any recommendations that…
Baumgartel, H. (1957). Leadership Style as a Variable in Research Administration. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2(3), 344-360.
Hirschman, C. (2008). GIVING Voice to Employee Concerns. [Article]. HRMagazine, 53(8), 50-53.
Lewin, K. (1944). A Research Approach to Leadership Problems. Journal of Educational Sociology, 17(7), 392-398.
Schein, E.H. (1985). Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.
The Role of Leadership in Excellence Initiatives
Leadership is often thought of as a quality that is innate to certain individuals, such as CEOs and Presidents who have demonstrated their tireless commitment to a specific cause. This belief is not entirely true, however, and must be examined so that what leadership entails can be fully understood. (Bennis, 2010) There are two theories of leadership, the trait theory and the process theory. The trait theory teaches that leadership 'resides' in people, and is based on a certain mixture of intelligence, extroversion, fluency, and even physical stature. The trait theory of leadership teaches that having these innate traits will directly contribute to one's ability to lead, and therefore the best leaders will combine the highest amount of these aforementioned traits. The process theory of leadership, however, teaches that leadership comes as a result the interactions of individuals in a group. The…
Bennis, Warren. (2010). Concepts of Leadership. Retrieved September 21, .
Myatt, M. (2012). A Leadership Job Description. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved September 21, .
No Author. (2012). A Definition of Leadership. Oxford University. Retrieved September 21, .
No Author. (2012). Our Definition of leadership. The Teal Trust. Retrieved September 21, .
High-performance teams are self-directed and empowered to achieve powerful results in a very short period of time. Team members will learn and grow as they work together.
Negative team members or malcontents are individuals who will come into the process already with a bad attitude and not agree with anything that is suggested. This can bring the entire team down. It is up to the team leader to reinforce the strengths of this individual and the purpose for his/her role on the team. The person should have the opportunity to address his/her concerns with an objective and non-judgmental environment. The leader should ask the person to give three reasons that are of most concern. Then narrow it to two, and finally to one. Then the leader can transfer to a more positive approach and ask the person to give ways to address the concerns. Positive group members keep an open…
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
Defining an Ethical Leader
Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric
The nature of leadership is multifaceted and often requires the continual mastery of new skills, insights, intelligence and perspectives to stay effective over the long-term. Such is the nature of ethical leadership, which requires a steadfast focus on a core set of ethical principles and values that guide a leader's judgment, ensuring consistency over the long-term. These are also the fundamental aspects of any leader's long-term credibility as well, and their ability to transform their enterprises over the long-term as well (John, 2005). Ethical leaders often resonate with credibility and the willingness to also change quickly in response to the needs of their organizations, employees, stakeholders and customers.
The purpose of this analysis is to define what an ethical leader is, how managers can progress to being more ethical in their leadership style, and how Jeff Immelt, CEO of general Electric,…
Crainer, S. (2009). From Edison to Immelt: The GE Way. Business Strategy Review, 20(3), 18-22.
Gonzalez, T.F., & Guillen, M. (2002). Leadership ethical dimension: A requirement in TQM implementation. The TQM Magazine, 14(3), 150-164.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Immelt, J. (2010). Renewing American Leadership. Vital Speeches of the Day, 76(2), 53.
This week, maybe not my most charismatic week to be honest. There are definitely times when I can turn on the charm and be very charismatic, but this week I don't think I've excelled in this regard. I think that I should pay attention to opportunities to be charismatic because this is a skill that can be developed. Since I know that I have it in me to be this way, I figure that I should probably cultivate this skill a little more, because that will help me to be a better leader.
I think back to a recent trip I took. I was able to get a free seat upgrade just by asking, and when I met people I was able to impress them right away, gain their confidence and talk business effectively. I got a lot out of that trip in that regard, just be…
Also, virtue ethics must ensure that the leader acts in the best interest of those who he represents, works with, and works for. However, this does not suffice in order to implement an effective leadership style.
In addition to this, the leader must be surrounded by individuals with similar ethical behavior. This would help the leader to achieve ethical responsibilities. Also, it would make it easier to observe any unethical conduct from the leader.
As mentioned above, there are also different levels of ethics, like mandatory and aspirational ethics. The lowest level of ethics, but not the least important, is represented by mandatory ethics. This type of ethics refers to compliance with the law. In this case, things are clear. All individuals, especially leaders, must respect the law.
Aspirational ethics refer to the effects and influence that leaders' actions have on others. The first people leaders influence are represented by…
1. Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in Top Management Teams: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation. Academy of Management Journal. No. 8. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
2. Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W. (1992). Integrated Manufacturing Resources Management, A Human Capital Perspective. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 35, No. 2. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
3. Kings, Queens, and Dictators (2000). Forbes.com, Inc. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/0703/6515256a.html?partner=whiteglove_google .
4. Saddam Hussein (2005). Global Security Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/saddam.htm .
Leadership and Human Resources
Sunflower Electric Power Corporation certainly had compelling circumstances that motivated management to pursue cultural change. Having recently undergone debt restructuring and charges of mismanagement and corruption, employee morale was at an all-time low. The major priority for the company was to completely change its corporation culture with a huge emphasis on interpersonal relationships.
The culture of Sunflower was a command-and-control culture characterized by authoritative and conservative leadership. This culture had encouraged turf wars among managers and had inhibited effective job performance. Sunflower's new CEO, Chris Hauck, undertook many initiatives to change the culture to a competence culture in which leadership is visionary, sets high standards and encourages people to achieved new heights.
Competence cultures, unlike command-and-control ones pursue excellence and innovation. However, resistance to change would make Sunflower's cultural evolution a challenging one. There are four basic reasons for resisting change (Greene, Adam and Ebert, 1995):…
Greene, C., Everet, A, and Ebert, R. (1005). Management for effective performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Maxwell, J. (2003). Leadership by example is key to guiding a strong company. Houston Business Journal. Retrieved November 13, 2003 from Houston Business Journal Web Site: http://houston.bizjournals.com/houston/stories/2003/10/06/smallb2.html
Schneider, B., Competence run amok. Retrieved November 13, 2003 from Hanigan Consulting Web Site: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:frizEcXV4IUJ:www.haniganconsulting.com/competence_run_amok.pdf+%22Competence+culture%22&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
However, the sum total of the organization's output extends beyond the realm of the quantifiable. Qualitative measures also exist, and they can impact on the quality of the organization's output as well. It can be argued that even qualitative outputs will eventually impact on quantitative outputs. Ford's loss of reputation as the result of the Pinto scandal, for example, cannot be quantified but the sales and profit decreases that flow from the scandal can be quantified. The implications, however, of the damaged reputation cannot be avoided once the damage has been done. Thus, it is important for managers to control the qualitative output before the impacts appear in quantitative form. It may be impossible to control the impacts once the damage has already occurred.
In this way, the notion of quality as typically defined in production-oriented theories like Six Sigma or TQM, proves inadequate. As Ordonez, et al. (2009) showed,…
Ordonez, Lisa D,; Schweitzer, Maurice E.; Galinsky, Adam D. & Bazerman, Max H. (2009). Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Overprescribing Goal Setting. Academy of Management Perspectives.
Wood, J.C. & Wood, M.C. (2002). F.W. Taylor: Critical Evaluations in Business and Management, Vol. 1. Taylor and Francis: London.
Hashmi, Khurram. (2009). Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM). iSixSigma.com. Retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c031008a.asp
Kouzes, Jim & Posner
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Leadership Qualifications in the orkplace
Proposed Leadership Model
For eras there have been people and leaders have discussed what the qualifications that make a great leader are. Leadership travels all the way back to the period of the ancient Greeks. In the 1500's, there was an Italian statesman named Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, and in this book he talked about the different methods for leaders to use in obtaining power (Leadership 2003). This all led to the current events dating to the early 1900's and what has been used and developed in today's society. There are a lot of theories of what a leader in the workplace should have and the idea that leaders during history have been people who were seen or looked up to as leaders and deeply appreciated. As people say "There are those that lead and those that follow." An individual with…
Akinboye, J., 2005. Executive behaviour battery. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers.
Borman, W., 2004. The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), p. 238 -- 241.
Cameron, J.D.E.K.R. & R.R., 2001. Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic: Reconsidered once again.. Review of Educational Research, pp. 30-54.
Charlton, G., 2000. Human Habits of Highly Effective Organisations.. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Leadership Style Book Review: Summary of Book
"Blessed are the flexible, for they shall not be broken," reads the quotation on the title page of 17 Essential Qualities of a Team Leader: Becoming the Kind of Person Every Team ants, by management guru John C. Maxwell. The word 'leadership' on its own often brings to mind rather stultifying and outdated modalities of leading by command, much like a general, or cliches about being true to one's values. Besides, few readers will be put in charge of a military unit, or hold the title of CEO -- but virtually every individual who participates in the business world will one day either lead or be part of a team designated to work on a particular product or target area of interest for the company.
To suit the needs of today's marketplace and corporate structure, thus John C. Maxwell offers a different concept…
Maxwell, John. (2002) 17 Essential Qualities of a Team Leader: Becoming the Kind of Person Every Team Wants. Atlanta, Georgia: Maxwell Motivation, Inc.
Self-confidence is one of the most universally agreed-upon traits of a leader. In order for the organization as a whole to have confidence, the leader must exude confidence. There will be moments in any initiative the followers cannot see the benefits of the initiative or do not feel that they will be able to execute the initiative. It takes the confidence of the leader in order to enable the rest of the organization to believe in the initiative.
Locke's knowledge, skills and ability form the second of the four key to leadership. These are relatively self-evident, but they are still important aspects of genuine leadership. Knowledge of the industry, for example, is built up over the course of years. This knowledge allows the leader to make the right decisions and forge the right strategies. In addition, the leader will also have more ability to instill confidence in their followers if…
Locke, E. (1991). The Essence of leadership: The four keys to leading successfully. New York: Lexington- Macmillan.
Website of Edwin A. Locke, Ph.D., various pages. (2009). Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://www.edwinlocke.com/
Indeed, without these legitimacy criteria, a leader would not be able to influence followers to either change or progress towards organizational goals: "The acceptance of leadership from another person involves an implicit contract in which followers sacrifice some level of personal autonomy and pledge loyalty and effort to the leader.... The followers must be sure that the leader has the competency to lead effectively and the trustworthiness and loyalty to the group and its goals to lead in the direction promised." (Chemers, 1997, p. 153) Since the focus of management is to build power, the nature of the image that ensues will perforce differ from that of leadership.
It is evident, by the discussion so far, that relationship building, image management, and inspiring confidence are essential parts of the leadership phenomenon. However, it must be noted that ultimately performance and productivity are the goals of effective leadership. Therefore, it is…
Chemers, M.M. (1997). An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles, and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
According to the Ohio State University (2004), both could be equally appropriate in terms of overall company outcomes, as they are very similar in terms of valuing and inspiring follower excellence.
When considering the motivation towards leadership for each type of leader, the contrast is sharper. The servant leader, for example, leads from a motivations basis of egalitarianism. The leader's fundamental belief is that he or she is no better than followers. The company's collective goals are then reached by means of an egalitarian team effort, where both leader and followers learn from the experience. Servant leaders are therefore much more focused upon the non-traditional form of leadership, which exists in beign servants themselves (Patterson, edmer and Stone, 2003, p. 6). Followers are provided with a large amount of freedom to exercise the abilities they can bring to the promotion of the business goals. This means that a very high…
Bugenhage, M.J. (2006, Dec). Antecedents of Transactional Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A constructive-Development Theory Approach. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=aglecdiss
Changing Minds (2011). Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/bass_transformational.htm
The Ohio State University. (2004, Dec. 22). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Leadership Center. Retrieved from: http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2004/december-2004-transformational-and-servant-leadership-content-and-contextual-comparisons
Patterson, K., Redmer, T.A.O., and Stone, a.G. (2003, Oct.) Transformational Leaders to Servant Leaders vs. Level 4 Leaders to Level 5 Leaders -- the Move from Good to Great. Regent University. Retrieved from: http://www.cbfa.org/Patterson.pdf
This is going to get done by means of using email, text messaging and the Internet to interact with my workers in a professional manner. egardless, I am shaping my staff to change and become better people. I will have to maintain an open mind to their various ideas, and see whether or not they are able to get implemented within the Hospice.
As I strive to become a better leader through using humility, freewill and delegation. I know that I can positively impact others through my hard work. They may want to one day become a Nurse Practioner themselves in any setting of their choosing. The decisions I make could become the deciding factor on whether or not they go further in the medical field. I want to set aside my pride, and become a better servant and transformational leader. This will mean that I strive to put others…
Collins, J. (2001). Good to great. New York, NY: HarperBusiness.(Chapters 2).
Collins, J. (2005). Good to great and the social sectors, A monograph to accompany Good to Great. Boulder, CO: Jim Collins.
Goleman, D. Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam
2. Leadership analysis of the two former Arab leaders
Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Alnahyan and Saddam Hussein were two great Arab leaders that significantly influenced the Arab world, but there is very little resemblance in their leadership styles. As a manner of manifestation, the two had very distinct leadership styles, although their objective was somewhat common: the prosperity and unity of the Arab world.
2.1. General leadership analysis
The two Arab leaders had similar objectives, the unification of the Arab world, but different leadership styles, almost opposite.
Saddam Hussein exerted an autocratic leadership style that consisted in the strict surveillance of his subordinates, informational flows directed mostly up-down, inspiring fear to his subordinates, using fear as a way of control.
In opposition, Sheikh Zayed exerted a democratic leadership style, having as most main traits: sociability, flexibility, cooperation, communication, open spirit and friendly environment. The democratic leadership style is the most…
Saddam Hussein (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saddam_Hussein#Secular_leadership .
DuBrin, Andrew J. (2005). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Fifth Edition. Chapter 1: The Nature and Importance of Leadership. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://college.hmco.com/business/dubrin/leadership/5e/chapters/chapter1.html.
DuBrin, Andrew J. (2005). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Traits, Motives, and Characteristics of Leaders. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://college.hmco.com/business/dubrin/leadership/5e/chapters/chapter2.html.
DuBrin, Andrew J. (2005). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Fifth Edition. Chapter 7: Power, Politics, and Leadership. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://college.hmco.com/business/dubrin/leadership/5e/chapters/chapter7.html.
Leadership in Nursing: "The How and What of Leadership"
There are those who would define leadership "as a social influence process in which leaders use interpersonal behaviors to motivate followers to contribute to group goals" (Kaiser, McGinnis, & Overfield, 2012, p 119). Yet, there are staunchly different opinions which present a much different view of leadership and the role it plays within contemporary organizations. According to modern business perspectives, there is less emphasis on the individual being motivating, and more importance placed on the whole of the organization. Thus, there is an internal conflict with using leadership strategies based on a psychological perspective within a business context. Kaiser, McGinnis, and Overfield (2012) explores what real managers working in the field feel about the two polar opposite views of leadership; understanding what elements of leadership are deemed most effective can then be used in contemporary healthcare settings in order to lead…
Domjan, Michael & Grau, James W. (2009). The Principles of Learning and Behavior. Cengage Learning.
Gazzaniga, Michael, Heatherton, Todd, & Halpern, Diane. (2009). Psychological Science. 3rd ed. W.W. Norton & Company.
Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves & Kaplan, Frederic. (2007). What is intrinsic motivation? A typology of computational approaches. Front Nuerobiotics, 1(6). doi: 10.3389/neuro.12.006.2007
Leadership in Organizations
Leadership refers to the process of influencing other people towards attainment of organizational or group goals. Leadership entails three key factors: first, leadership is a process of social influence. It is non-existent without followers and a leader. Second, leadership requires that the followers act voluntarily. The nature of compliance is voluntary thus differentiating leadership from other forms of influence based on formal authority. Finally, leadership elicits behavior in followers that are goal directed in an organized setting (Griffiin, 2010).
Most organizational sciences focus on the topic of leader-behavior approach. There is enough documentation showing that thousands of leader-behavior approach studies have undergone publication. However, the precise nature and correlation of leadership with key criterion variables such as commitment, subordinate satisfaction, and performance remains uncertain (Green & obinson, 2010). This paper focuses on leader-behavior research approach for studying leadership. It also incorporates the strengths and weaknesses…
Green. G., P. & Robinson, J.W. (2010). Introduction to Community Development: Theory,
Practice, and Service-Learning. Michigan: SAGE
Griffiin, R. (2010). Management. New York: Cengage Learning
Leadership ehavior for Effective Decision Making
Effective decision making in the competitive business environment is closely linked with leadership skills. Managing change in existing organizations can often be extremely difficult, as it requires changing the organizational culture, the very roots that bind its members. This paper analyses the characteristics of a successful leader, illustrated with a practical example. Contrary to popular understanding, there is no unique style of leadership for all situations and the leader needs to be flexible and change his approach depending on case to case basis. The analysis takes into account the various theories on leadership - behavioral, contingency and transformational and evaluates the response of the leader to various situations in a typical organization operating in a fiercely competitive environment.
From the analysis, it is observed that the leader exhibited varying leadership styles and behavior to address and resolve various issues. The leader is found to…
Bennis, W. (1994) 'Visionary Leadership', in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) - 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.32-34
Gardner, H. (2001) 'Leading Minds' (ed) Manrik, J - 'Writers on Leadership', London: Penguin, pp. 73-76
Hampden-Turner, C. (1994) 'Charting the Corporate Mind' in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.110-114
Jacobson, R. (2000) 'Leading for a Change: How to master the Five Challenges faced by every leader', MA: Butterwoth-Heinmann, pp.135-138
"An older, more experienced teacher questions whether 15- to 17-year-old kids are really ready yet to handle Keating's brand of freedom. 'Gee, I never pegged you for a cynic,' says Keating. 'I'm not,' says the other teacher. 'I'm a realist.'… Although there's a carefully placed scene in which Keating tries to make the distinction between unfettered self-expression and self-destructive behavior, the principles behind the re-formation of the Dead Poets Society eventually lead to catastrophe. It becomes clear that at least some of the boys really aren't emotionally equipped to incorporate into their own lives the kind of freedom and nonconformism that Keating is selling" (Emerson 2010). The extremity of Neil's reaction shows the vulnerability of his unformed adolescent emotions and his inability to deal with his resistance to his father in a rational fashion.
However, for all of his faults, by the end of the film, Keating's students have clearly…
Dead Poet's Society. (1989). Directed by Peter Weir.
Emerson, Jim. (2010). Dead Poets Society. Retrieved February 13, 2010 at Screening room. http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm
Straker, David. (2010). Charismatic leadership. Changing Minds. Retrieved February 13, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htm
This guideline can also be related to that of unifying the followers with a corporate mission. (Phillips, 1996) forth guideline advises the leader to give his followers all the support he can, and act on the presumption that they will do the best they can with what he gives them. (Phillips, 1996) This means that by getting involved in the employees' problems and trying to solve them, the manager will give an example of commitment that will be followed by the employees in regard to solving the company's problems.
The fifth guideline is efficient as it establishes the dominating power of the leader. "Try not to feel insecure or threatened by your followers" (Phillips, 1996) as they will not follow an undetermined person with a weak character.
3. Leadership powers
Leadership in Organizations defines five distinct powers detained by the leader: 1. Reward
Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN-10: 0131494848. ISBN-13: 978-0131494848
Phillips, D.T. (1996). Lincoln on Leadership; Executive Strategies for Tough Times. New York: Warner Books, Inc. ISBN-10: 0446394599. ISBN-13: 978-0446394598.
National Business Research Institute, 2006, http://www.nbrii.com/Employee_Surveys/Employee_Performance.html , last accessed on October 16, 2007
Lincoln on Leadership, 2007, at&T Worldnet, http://home.att.net/~coachthee/Archives/Lincoln.html, last accessed on October 16, 2007
Response to Post #1
Your example of Shaar Mustaf, founder and leader of the Take Charge Juvenile Diversion Program, Inc. does exemplify the value of programs dedicated to helping at-risk individuals, especially young people, to overcome some of the most serious challenges they face in becoming productive and law-abiding members of society. However, I am not clear from your post what style or personal philosophy of leadership Mr. Mustaf uses to achieve the worthwhile objectives of the Take Charge Juvenile Diversion Program. I would be curious to know how much of his success and that of the organization and program is a function of his substantive knowledge and the effectiveness of the organization in other areas and how much of the success of the organization and program might be directly related to leadership style or leadership effectiveness on the part of Mr. Mustaf and, more generally, within the hierarchy…
This requires non-computer specialists to understand what the company's products do, to make its advertising clear and effective. In short, harnessing the diverse talents of many different types of people in service of the organization's mission requires a clear, concise organizational value statement that is inclusive in its embrace of the talents and unique perspectives of all of the workers laboring for the organization.
Having a clear vision for the organization also means that employees are aware of what is expected of them in terms of their work ethic, but also in terms of their ethical performance and standards. The recent accounting scandals have made government regulators hypersensitive to any potential impropriety in a variety of areas. It is crucial that the climate of the organization does not condone unethical behavior that could damage its name and reputation. It is not enough that ethics be affirmed in words, but ethical…
The Importance of Vision." Manning, G & Curtis, K. (2007). The Art of Leadership.
Second Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, pages 59-71.
The Motive to Lead." Manning, G & Curtis, K. (2007). The Art of Leadership. Second Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, pages 72-75.
Organizational Climate." Manning, G & Curtis, K. (2007). The Art of Leadership.
Many of these modern characteristic of a leader have been passed down to us in the form of the business and political leaders. For example, a company leader or business manager nowadays will certainly be required to have charisma, to be able to organize his personnel so as to obtain the desired strategic and tactical results. It is by being a respected personality and by a certain charisma that the leader is able to impose his will over the rest of the employees. This is perhaps the best reflection of a meritocracy at work, as well as that of its most important benefits.
The meritocracy-based leadership view is certainly the most inspiring. There are several reasons for this. First of all, this type of view guarantees that the best leaders make it to the top rather than that they are selected based on birth and rank criteria. This will guarantee…
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
In order to accomplish this, I will need to in some ways "symbolize the norms" of what others expect (Wren 1995, pg. 188). This does note mean subsuming my identity, but making sure that I am more easily identified with than my mannerisms and extreme intellectualism sometimes allow.
How to ecognize Change
ecognizing change in oneself is supremely difficult, but there are tangible measures in leadership situations that can be used. The best way for me to tell if my expectations have fallen more in line with reality, for instance, would be to see how well and how easily my group accomplishes the set goals. If the goals seem to be creating an inordinate amount of stress and work, then it might be best to reduce expectations again. When it comes to changing the emotive content of my communication, asking a few trusted members of the team for their input…
Bass, B. & Riggio, R. (2006) Transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Covey, S. (1991). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Simon & Schuster.
George, W. & Bennis, W. (2003). Authentic leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Goleman, D.; Boyatzis, R.; McKee, A. (2004). Primal leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Thankfully, in my role I have become experienced in dealing with multiple stakeholders. I utilized my transformational leadership skills to have all stakeholders buy into my vision of the project, allowing me to shape the project in a manner that would allow me to deliver satisfactory results to all of the stakeholders.
I knew that I was going to demand a lot from all of the different stakeholders, and therefore I needed to lead by example. I took this as the core of my vision for my leadership. I was a situational leader, moving between transformational and transactional as the situation required. I was tough when necessary, in particular with respect to ethics, but I was also able to make contributions that improved the positivity surrounding the project. I worked with the union representative to build a set of disciplinary actions based on my code of ethics, which…
A leader carries with him/her a vision that he/she shares with those that are led.
In today's society a leader must by dynamic and flexible, as society is constantly changing and with that the rules that govern society. Thus a good leader must be possessed of a solid ethical and moral constitution, must be flexible in nature, adaptable to circumstances and perhaps above all else a good communicator. A leader must work with people to establish rapport and subsequently develop strategies for success.
Some people are born leaders whereas others need some tutelage, thus the journey toward leadership may begin in the schools, where teachers have the ability to cultivate young leaders and help them flourish for a time when they will later step out into the world to lead. It does not end there however, and must continue throughout the lifetime of the leader, as a successful leader is…
Chemers, Martin M. An integrative theory of leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Frequent virtual meetings at the onset of the change team would be required to create a sense of teamwork and also to clarify roles. The virtual team can take full advantage of technologies that enable collaboration. By keeping in mind the core vision and its underlying values, a virtual change team can be every bit as effective as a live one.
Hay, I. (n.d.). Transformational leadership. etrieved online: http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinlearning/transformationalleadership.htm
Lim, J.Y. (n.d.). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. etrieved online: http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/transformational-leadership-organizational-culture-and-organizational-effectiveness-sport-or
Yukl, G.A. (2002). Leading change in organizations. etrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:3HhW9jlhnmMJ:www.hss.doe.gov/deprep/archive/oversight/OrgCultureList/YuklOnCulture.pdf+yukl+functional+change&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShM_w6gqSrEzWZ-uUX-v-AkxkiiFJutzoFrD6O2zj5Hu1zrCbgTzEL33_cpW5nN-aMhYqy_2HLWsdJVQq5fbn9wNqxrJTZlpnMXKi283D4M4IGnfc1QgUBErPwk7Khr-5zne&sig=AHIEtb3ujTiWDQkDjiKKZZD-jvFmpeTyw
Yukl, G.A. (2008). The importance of flexible leadership. etrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:0ZB72AcLc6kJ:www.kaplandevries.com/images/uploads/Importance_of_FL_SIOP08Yukl.pdf+multiple-linkage+model:+yulk&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiDSwYcHX-gcBwH_QGKITxVgh5HmHfX5IYnSzMaPH0DDnOa5andwhqokJYcLSMmJ1-IUf0ZB9VPF0ib9x-tJseuG8kScir9-yK0zgNN073O-nAtAGysTtLJGXIQ6ua_aOYoBD&sig=AHIEtbQbvVU6LmhLhTJcWpWDpnUytxw1Q
Yukl, G.A. (2010). Leadership in Organizations. Prentice-Hall.
Hay, I. (n.d.). Transformational leadership. Retrieved online: http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinlearning/transformationalleadership.htm
Lim, J.Y. (n.d.). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. Retrieved online: http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/transformational-leadership-organizational-culture-and-organizational-effectiveness-sport-or
Yukl, G.A. (2002). Leading change in organizations. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:3HhW9jlhnmMJ:www.hss.doe.gov/deprep/archive/oversight/OrgCultureList/YuklOnCulture.pdf+yukl+functional+change&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShM_w6gqSrEzWZ-uUX-v-AkxkiiFJutzoFrD6O2zRj5Hu1zrCbgTzEL33_cpW5nN-aMhYqy_2HLWsdJVQq5fbn9wNRqxrJTZlpnMXKi283D4M4IGnfc1QgUBErPwk7KRhr-5zne&sig=AHIEtbR3ujTiWDQkDjiKKZZD-jvFmpeTyw
Yukl, G.A. (2008). The importance of flexible leadership. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:0ZB72AcLc6kJ:www.kaplandevries.com/images/uploads/Importance_of_FL_SIOP08Yukl.pdf+multiple-linkage+model:+yulk&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiDSwYcHX-gcBwH_QGKITxVgh5HmHfX5IYnSzMaRPH0DDnOa5andwhqokJYcLSRMmJ1-IUf0ZB9VPF0ib9x-tJseuG8kScir9-yK0zgNN073O-nAtAGysTtLJGXIQ6ua_aOYoBD&sig=AHIEtbQbvVU6LmhLhTJRcWpWDpnUytxw1Q
Integrity is defined as wholeness, as the matching of words to deeds. A person with integrity has no divided loyalties, nothing to hide, and expresses themselves exactly as they are. Maxwell claims that integrity leads to happiness and contentment. Leaders with integrity put into action what they believe, and therefore others follow. Integrity builds trust among others and therefore has influence value. Moreover, integrity in a leader facilitates high standards in an organization. The result is a solid reputation based on fact not superficial image-building.
In Chapter Four, Maxwell points out that the ultimate test of leadership is creating positive change. Without change, an organization is doomed to failure. Maxwell breaks down the process by which change happens via the people responsible. Change begins with innovators -- those 2% of the population who initiate new ideas. A small group of early adopters are the first followers of the new idea…
John Maxwell Developing the Leader within You. Nashville: Nelson, 1993.
One of the most insightful things that I ever read about leadership and leading a group of people, is that "leadership is less about your needs, and more about the needs of the people and the organization you are leading" (wsj, 2014). I totally believe that effective leadership continually needs to be adapted to the needs and demands of a given situation, the needs of the people involved and the particular obstacles that face the group as a whole. I believe that ultimately, a good leader has a repertoire or a toolbox of different leadership styles that he or she can use when a specific situation calls for it. Having different leadership styles in this manner helps one to continually adapt more rapidly and specifically to particular situations, empowering one to apply the most relevant tactic. I consider my own personal leadership style to be a hybrid or…
Fera, R. (n.d.). Principles of Creative Leadership. Retrieved from fastcompany.com: http://www.fastcompany.com/1764044/ken-robinson-principles-creative-leadership
George, J. (2000). Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved from sagepub.com: http://hum.sagepub.com/content/53/8/1027.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr
Sonoma.edu. (2014). Daniel Goleman's five components of emotional intelligence. Retrieved from sonoma.edu: http://www.sonoma.edu/users/s/swijtink/teaching/philosophy_101/paper1/goleman.htm
WSJ. (2014). Leadership Styles. Retrieved from wsj.com: http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
Leadership and Change Management
History and experience suggest that effective leadership is integral to organizational success, as well as the success of individual members within the organization. Well, studies have given different perspectives as to what exactly constitutes effective leadership; however, what they all agree on is that effective leadership aids in the effective and efficient management of organizational resources and relationships as well as in the building of power and strength in the organization. Employees need leadership to inspire and motivate them to align their personal goals with those of the organization, and to give their all in the conduction of their duties. In the same way, clients and customers need leadership to inspire confidence and trust in an organization's output. Investors too need leadership to inspire confidence in the organization's stocks and assets. Good leadership, therefore, invariably produces greater benefits for the organization in terms of motivated employees,…
Daft, R., The Leadership Experience. 6th ed. Stamford, CA: Cengage Learning
Griffin, R., 2012. Management. 11th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Hamilton, C., 2010. Communicating for Results: A Guide for Business and the Professions. 9th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
Hitt, M., Ireland, R.D., and Hoskisson, R., 2006. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. 7th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Conversely, those who are psychologically insecure, mistrustful of others without cause, and who regularly project negative expectations onto social interactions tend to make other uncomfortable and to provoke negative responses from others (Maxwell, 2007; Fitch, 2010).
This point can be illustrated by the following example. A male Soldier (PVT John Doe) arrives to his first unit after graduation from basic training. He hasn't taken any initiative within his team, does only what he is told, and fails to show any leadership qualities. A female Soldiers reports to the same unit during the same time and is promoted ahead of her peers because she take the initiative and gets the mission accomplished.
Those who lead with anger does more damage than the good they were hoping for. It tears down the fabric, the pride that unite an organization are costumed to having. The command climate of an organization is a true…
Louis and Smith (1991) identify such congruence as an indicator of the quality of work life influencing levels of teacher engagement with their work."
An appreciation by teachers of a significant gap between their current practices and those implied by the changes being proposed within their schools." perception, on the part of teachers, that participating in the school's change initiative is a significant but achievable challenge. Shedd and Bacharach (1991) argue that teaching provides intrinsic motivation under those restructuring initiatives which conceptualize teaching as a highly complex act and help teachers significantly expand their technical repertoires and their capacities to apply them reflectively and constructively. Contributing to the perception of a goal's achievability are opportunities to learn more about how the goal can be accomplished." perception by teachers that they know, specifically and concretely, what they will need to do (or that such specificity can be developed) eventually to implement…
The only constant in life is change. Perhaps, it is the recognition of this fact that led the management guru, Peter Drucker, to observe, "Leaders grow; they are not made." Peter Drucker's words are significant because they imply that the test of true leadership lies in the ability to grow by leading change (1999). Indeed, some of the world's greatest leaders such as Franklin D. oosevelt, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King are admired precisely because they possessed such a quality: "Effective leadership, research suggests ... is a function of the situation in which it is found." (Kotter, 1988, p. 21) Thus, it is evident that good leaders are people who continuously engage in a process of change in order to secure a better future.
The examples of oosevelt, Gandhi, and King also serve to illustrate another quality that a good leader must possess, which is the quality of…
Drucker, P. (1999, June). The new commandments of change. Excerpt from Management
Challenges for the 21st Century. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004: http://www.inc.com/magazine/19990601/804.html
Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Heart Quotes Center. (2004). Leadership Quotes and Proverbs. Retrieved Nov. 7, 2004:
Welcome to the 21st Century, my friends. This is your century of reward and your day of awards. The Eagle Award, established in 2001, is organized and sponsored by Transcoast London Ltd. It aims to create, or rather -- to recognize -- the astounding role models and leaders like yourselves. As leaders you are important, for others may feel inspired by your achievements. The word "inspired" is an important one, because it is further defined as "in-spirited." What controls our lives are the meanings we associate with things in our lives, which are shaped by our own personal psychology, our world view, and the beliefs and values that we have created. You, as role models and leaders, have a unique spirit in you, and "inspiring" spirit, and that what makes you leaders is that this spirit touches others and gives that spirit to them. You have added…
The consequence of participative leadership can also be successful decisions suggested by specialists in the particular field. In this type of business management, the supervisor does not only engage team members, but can also take leadership from his peers (ampur, 2010).
One of the most appropriate participative leadership examples can be when a supervisor segregates project work in his team associates including himself converses the project necessities and prospects with the team manager and other associates, and then they work on it together. Participative leadership definitely augments worker approval, decreases the workload of administrators, and generates better collaboration; with all this ultimately contributing to high-quality work in the project (ampur, 2010).
The major advantage of participative leadership style is that this method encourages the resolve and progress of possible leaders who are already present in the team. Since this method of leadership and management necessitates all the team associates to…
Leadership Styles. (2010). Retrieved December 6, 2010, from Web site:
McCrimmon, Mitch. (2007). What is Participative Leadership? Retrieved December 6, 2010,
from Suite 101 Web site: http://www.suite101.com/content/what-is-participative-leadership-a23335
For example a
monitoring surveillance strategy could tell a nation that they need more
heart specialists and possibly an entire medical clinic dedicated to heart
disease to treat both their aging population and the emergencies more
elderly visitors to their nation experience.
Conversely an evaluation strategy of surveillance would look at the
processes in use throughout the emergency room and see which are performing
well, which aren't and what can be done to make the processes physicians
and nurses use to treat patients more efficient. The underlying difference
then of an evaluation versus a monitoring strategy is the focus on
improvement to a specific goal or objective. Evaluation strategies of
surveillance focus on progress to a specific goal or objective first, while
monitoring strategies seek often to quantify the behavior of any process,
procedure or approach to treatment from a healthcare perspective.
Question 3 Response
In the nation you serve…