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Much of Western medicine is predicated on the idea that a cure that works for one person should work for everyone else. If penicillin or measles vaccinations work on one patient or one set of patients then they should -- after have been through a thorough vetting process -- be able to work reliably with other patients. This is central to the most basic scientific model: One of the core aspects of science is that knowledge is generalizable and transferable. The scientist, and others like her, do not have to reinvent the wheel each time a person comes down with a strep throat: What has worked before will work again in predictable ways.
And the above is in many ways true: The human body does respond in relatively predictable ways to a range of medical interventions. But it is also true that there are non-physiological aspects…
Clarke, P. et al. (2009). Caring: Some Reflections on the Impact of the Culture Care Theory by McFarland & Andrews and a Conversation with Leininger. Nursing Science Quarterly 22(3): 233-239.
Garrett, J.T.(1996). Medicine of the Cherokee: The Way of Right Relationship. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Bear & Company Publishers.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nursing Science Quarterly 1(4): 152-160.
Leininger, M. (2002). Culture Care Theory: A Major Contribution to Advance Transcultural Nursing Knowledge and Practices. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 13: 189-192.
Leininger's Theory on Care and Nursing
Leininger's View of Care and Nursing
Establishing a strong theory of practice often requires consideration of theories from a multitude of disciplines, folding the strengths of each theoretical perspective into a cohesive whole (Barnum, 1998; Leininger, 1988). Madeleine Leininger's theory of care and nursing is a prime example of how knowledge taken from one field can synergistically benefit another (Leininger, 1988). In her early clinical practices, Leininger recognized the influence that various cultural orientations could have on nursing practice and the construction of nursing knowledge (Leininger, 1988). In the early 1960s, Leininger worked with the Gadsup people of New Guinea (Leininger, 1988). Her experiences there helped her research and formulate a theory on ethnonursing (Leininger, 1988). Through the construction and evolution of an elegant medley of theory and knowledge from the fields of nursing and anthropology, Leininger realized it was possible to significantly enrich…
Alligood, M. And Tomey, A. (2002). Nursing theory: Utilization and application (2nd ed.). St. Loius, MO: Mosby Inc.
Barnum, B. (1998). Nursing theory: Analysis, application, evaluation (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA Lippincott.
California Nurse Practice Act. (n.d.). Retrieved http://www.rn.ca.gov/regulations/npa.shtml
Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice: Madeleine Leininger's Nursing Theory. (n.d.) [Blog].
Madeleine Leininger's Theory of Cultural Care: Background.
Leininger's Theory of Cultural Care began during the 1950s, when she developed a fascination with anthropology. While she was studying at the University of Cincinnati, she discussed this fascination and how it might influence her work as a professional nurse with visiting professor Margaret Mead (Munoz, 2012). Particularly, she was interested in acknowledging cultural differentiation factors in her nursing practice. She found many concepts that are pertinent to the discipline of nursing within anthropology. This fascination led to her work in the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea, where Leininger studied human behavior in two Gadsup villages to determing the convergence and divergence of human behavior in these locations. She received a national League of Nursing Fellowship for this work. This fascination blended into her studies, and she was the first professional nurse to receive a PhD in cultural and social anthropology…
Alluaigan, D. (2011). Theory Development and Historical Background. Retrieved from: http://nursingtheories.blogspot.com/2011/07/leiningers-theory-of-culture-care.html
Masters, K. (2014) Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice. Barlington, M.A.: Jones & Bartlett.
Munoz, D.N. (2011) Biography of Leininger. Retrieved from:
Nursing Theory and Leininger
The world of contemporary nursing is a complex, yet rewarding, career choice. Far from the outdated paradigm of the Nurse being just the Doctor's assistant, the contemporary nursing professional takes on a partnership role with both the doctor and patient as advocate caregiver, teacher, researcher, counselor, and case manager. The new model of health care holds that the predominant focus be quality patient care - which comprises three important factors -- 1) sound theoretical knowledge of the latest medical procedures, information and innovations; 2) superior communication skills that are multi-culturally based; and, 3) the ability to empathize appropriately with the patient and family to buttress the role of caregiver (Brown, 200). One of these, the Multicultural Nursing Paradigm of Madeleine Leininger, allows for the changes in demographics, psychographics, and indeed, multiculturalism within the field is that of humanistic and transcultural nursing.
Theory into Practice -- In…
Brown, C. (2007). "Where are the Patients in the Quality of Healthcare?" Editorial in International Journal for Quality in Healthcare. 19(3): 125.
Curtis, A.J. et.al. (2010), Introduction to Health Psychology, New York: Routledge.
Kozier, B., Erb, G. & Blais, K. (2010), Professional nursing practice (5th edition),
Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Nursing: Nursing Theorist Madeleine Leininger and Imogene King
The objective of this study is to compare the nursing of nursing theorist Madeleine Leininger and Imogene King and to address how pain is perceived by the patient and how it is addressed by the nurse. Nursing theorists have defined their theoretical frameworks though their experiences that are "personal, socioeconomic, political, spiritual and educational…" (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003, p.20) These elements have been applied by the nursing theorists in the development of their theories and in defining terms and concepts that assist in explaining those theories. (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003, paraphrased) Three models of nursing include: (1) interactive; (2) systems; and (3) developmental. Theories and concepts of nursing are reported to develop "as scientific knowledge is supported by research and nursing practice." (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003, p.22)
Madeline Leininger started the development of the first transcultural theory of nursing in the…
Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment (2012) Nursing Theories. Retrieved from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/goal_attainment_theory.html
Leininger, M (1996) Culture Care Theory: Research and Practice. Nursing Science Quarterly 9(2) 72-75.
Tourville, C. And Ingalls, K. (2003) The Living Tree of Nursing Theories. Nursing Forum, Vol. 38, No.3 July-Sept 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.snjourney.com/ClinicalInfo/NgTheory/Nursing-Theory-Tree.pdf
Williams, Leigh Ann (2001) Imogene Kings' Interacting Systems Theory: Application in Emergency and Rural Nursing. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, Vol. 2, No. 1 Spring 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/93/89
Cultural Diversity and Nursing Using Leininger Model
The concept of trans-cultural nursing came from Leininger and the principal goal was put as being to provide culturally specific care. The difficulties of this can be understood only when an individual understands the concepts behind 'culture, cultural values, culturally diverse nursing care, ethnocentrism, race and ethnography'. (The Basic Concepts of Trans-cultural Nursing) The definition given by Leininger was "A humanistic and scientific area of formal study and practice in nursing which is focused upon differences and similarities among cultures with respect to human care, health, and illness based upon the people's cultural values, beliefs, and practices, and to use this knowledge to provide cultural specific or culturally congruent nursing care to people." (The Basic Concepts of Trans-cultural Nursing) In this context it is important to know the parts of human life that we are referring to.
Culture is the norms and practices…
Almuzaini, A. S; Salek, M. S; Nicholls, P. J; Alomar, B. (September, 1998) "The attitude of health care professionals toward the availability of hospice services for cancer patients and their careers in Saudi Arabia. Palliative Medicine. Vol: 12; No: 5; pp: 365-373. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& ; db=PubMed& list_uids=9924599& dopt=Citation Accessed 12 August, 2005
Dennis, Betty Pierce; Small, Ernestine. B. (January-February, 2003) "Incorporating cultural diversity in Nursing care: an action plan" The ABNF Journal. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJT/is_1_14/ai_98250419
Accessed 12 August, 2005
"Encyclopedia: Status of religious freedom in Saudi Arabia" Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Status-of-religious-freedom-in-Saudi-Arabia Accessed 12 August, 2005
healthcare practices and history of nursing in the Jewish culture.
There are several healthcare practices within the Jewish culture. According to the rabbinic lore, no aging process existed until the time that Abraham was born. No disease also existed until the time when Jacob came to existence.
The connections of Jews to the healing process at patients as well as physician level is noted to be ancient with a deep root in history and theology (MyJewishLearning.com, 2011).In most religions, the idea of medical treatment was largely an anathema. In most traditional religions, disease, deformity and accident were regarded as parts of God's creation that those of human beings. Anything to do with medical treatment was largely considered to be a process of meddling with the Creator's (God's) work and will. Judaism however, views the concept of medical treatment in appositive light. It views medical treatment as an obligation on the…
Gesundheit, B., Hada, E (2005).Maimonides (1138-1204): Rabbi, Physician and Philosopher*. IMAJ 2005;7:547-553
Illievitz, AB (1935).Maimonides the Physician. Can Med Assoc J. 1935 April; 32(4): 440-442.
Leininger MM (1997) Overview and Reflection of the Theory of Culture Care and the Ethnonursing Method. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 8:2, 32.52.
Leininger MM (1991) Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Theory of Nursing. National League for Nursing Press, New York.
Caring in Nursing
Over time, nursing and caring have largely been regarded synonymous. With that in mind, it is important to note that quite a number of caring theories have been developed based on caring as a central concept. Some of these theories include the Cultural Care theory by Leininger as well as the Human Caring theory by Jean Watson whose development took place in 1970's. In this text, I will concern myself with caring as a concept in nursing. In so doing, I shall come up with a detailed evaluation of the nature of the practice theory gap most particularly in Bahrain as far as nursing is concerned.
Caring in Nursing: A Definition
To begin with, it is important to note that caring behaviors in the context of nursing can be taken to be those approaches as well as practices that are evidenced by nurses as they seek to…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession. Jones and Bartlett Learning
Callara, L.E. (2008). Nursing Education Challenges in the 21st Century. Nova Publishers
Chitty, K.K. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts and Challenges. Elsevier Health Sciences
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning
For the past several decades, nursing theory has evolved with considerable considerations towards transcultural care. The concept of culture was derived from anthropology and the concept of care was derived from nursing. When one understands the derivative of nursing knowledge and the basis for cultural sensitivity, one may tailor and provide the best nursing care for diverse groups. Each group may have specific needs that may help or hinder healthcare delivery. Hence, if one fully understands the meanings, patterns, and processes, one can explain and predict health and well-being. Although many nursing theories exist, a closer evaluation will be given to Cultural Care Diversity & Universality and Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.
Cultural Competence & Influence
Cultural competence is deemed as essential component in providing healthcare today. Healthcare professionals in healthcare organizations are addressing multicultural diversity and ethnic disparities in health (Wilson, 2004). To better serve…
Kim-Godwin, Y.S., Clarke, P.N. And Barton, L. (2001), A model for the delivery of culturally competent community care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35: 918 -- 925. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01929.x
Maier-Lorentz, M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: its importance in nursing practice. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15(1), 37-43.
Nelson, J. (2006). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory: The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. International Journal For Human Caring, 10(4), 50.
SNJourney. (2007). Purnell's model of cultural competence. Retrieved from http://www.snjourney.com/ClinicalInfo/Select%20Topics/Transcultural/PurnellModel2.pdf
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
Culture Care Universality and Diversity
Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the 1950s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. "Leininger theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality" (Garmon 2011 p 1) is derived from the understanding the fields of culture and anthropology and is credited for her contribution to the nursing theory by establishing the transcultural concept in the nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice. According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice. To discover patterns, and…
Department of Commerce (2010). U.S. Census 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Garmon B. S. (2011). Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nurs Sci Q.1 (4): 152-160
When most people are asked 'what do nurses do," there is a strong likelihood that the word 'caring' will arise in the conversation. Many nurses, particularly new nurses, identify caring as one of the personal qualities that attracted them to the profession. However, caring can be a very nebulous concept, as even non-nurses give 'care' to others and non-nurses can be 'caring' people. Nursing, in an effort to create an empirical and academic basis for itself as a discipline has fought against the idea that nursing is just about caring. However, it cannot 'ignore' the idea of caring, given that one of the concepts that distinguishes nursing from other forms of medical care is its patient-centric and individualistic perspective.
I have chosen caring as the concept I will focus on in this paper, with a specific focus on Jean Watson's Theory of Caring, given that it is one of…
Cara, Chantal. (2011).A pragmatic view of Jean Watson's caring theory.
Universite de Montreal. Retrieved www.humancaring.org/conted/Pragmatic%20View.doc
Giguere, Barbara. (2002). Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health science. Nursing Education Perspectives. Retrieved http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3317/is_6_23/ai_n28962844/
Gross, Terry. (2011). Grant Achatz: The chef who lost his sense of taste. Fresh Air. NPR.
Nursing Concept Analysis: Caring
Caring is a concept central to nursing theory. Indeed, an esteemed constellation of nurses throughout history, including Nightingale, Watson, Henderson, and Benner, have integrated the concept of care into their theory and praxis. Caring has been considered a foundational element of nursing such that "compassion and therapeutic relationships" are viewed as essential "underpinnings" of nursing (Skillings, 2008). As with most disciplines, the complexities that accompany professional practice in contemporary settings can pose unanticipated challenges. The ethic of caring that is fundamental to nursing endures an onslaught of competing priorities, barriers to compassionate practice, and adaptations inherent to modern healthcare institutions (Skillings, 2008).
Most behaviors that the nursing discipline considers caring are readily recognized, such as "attentive listening, comforting, honest, patient, responsibility, providing information to the patient can make an informed decision, touch, sensitivity, respect, calling the patient by name" (Vance, 2003). Categorically, many nurse practitioners…
Brenner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Dewar, B. & Cook, G. (2013). Developing compassion through a relationship centered appreciative leadership programme. Nurse Education Today, 14(9), 1258-1264.
Fry, N.A. (1993). Beyond professional caring: teaching nursing students the art of Christian caring. Paper delivered at the Faith and Learning Seminar at Union College in Lincoln, Nebraska in June of 1993. Retrieved from http://ict.aiias.edu/vol_10/10cc_167-185.htm
Leininger, M.M. (1991). Culture care, diversity and universality: A theory of nursing. New York, NY: National League of Nursing Press, p. 35.
Downward Transition From the Role of Physician to That of Nurse
This paper looks at the ideal of a self-concept paper with a view of a personal look at how a person seeks to be part of the medical profession in a change over from the role of the physician to that of a nurse, taking into context their personal views, experiences, and previous roles within the professions.
Leininger, M.M. (1992). Reflections on Nightingale with a focus on human care theory and leadership. Health care.
Porter Rose (2000, July 13), Mizzouu Weekly, [online] accessed at http://proteus.mig.missouri.edu/~news/PORTERMW00.shtml
Weingourt Rita. (1998 July-Sept), Using Margaret A. Newman's theory of health with elderly nursing home residents. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, v34 n3 p25(6)
(Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 67) Staffing coodinatos, often nuse leades must seek to give pioity to educational needs as a eason fo adjusting and/o making schedules fo staff, including offeing incentives to staff not cuently seeking educational goals fo assisting in this pioity egadless of the implementation of a tuition eimbusement pogam. (Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 233)
Nuse Leades as Academic Theoists
The fact that many nuse leades seve as the fundamental souces fo new and emeging nusing paadigms and theoies cannot be ignoed in this eview. The theoies associated with nusing ae as divese as nuses themselves and seve seveal puposes. With egad to nuse ecuitment and the ole that nusing theoy and paadigm plays in it, nuse leades seve to espouse theoy though mentoship and taining that helps individuals see thei futue intinsic ole in nusing. To explain this ole a bief discussion of nusing theoy…
references and Affirmative Action in Making Admissions Decisions at a Predominantly White University. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(4), 269.
Burgener, S.C., & Moore S.J. (May-June, 2002) The role of advanced practice nurses in community settings. Nursing Economics 20 (3) 102-108.
Cimini, M.H., & Muhl, C.J. (1995). Twin Cities Nurses Reach Accord. Monthly Labor Review, 118(8), 74.
Cleary, B. & Rice, R. (Eds.). (2005). Nursing Workforce Development: Strategic State Initiatives. New York: Springer.
Daly, J., Speedy, S., Jackson, D., Lambert., V.A., & Lambert, C.E. (Eds.). (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York: Springer.
Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met
Historical development of nursing timeline
The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.
1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross.
1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced…
Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm
Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…
Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
Madeleine Leininger's place of birth was Sutton, Nebraska. She earned her Ph.D. in social and cultural anthropology in 1965, from Washington University, Seattle. In her initial years of working, she was a nurse. This was where she gained insight on how important it is to care. Frequent appreciative statements from care patients inspired her to center her attention on care; she realized that 'caring' is a fundamental part of nursing. In the 50s, she worked in a guidance home for children. Madeline discovered that the recurrent habits among children seemed to have been inspired by culture. She stated that nurses had no knowledge about care and culture, and this led to their ignorance on the numerous components needed in caring for patients to support healing, wellness and compliance. This knowledge led to the introduction of transcultural nursing; a phenomenon and construct based on nursing care, in the 50s.…
Gil Wayne. (2014). Madeleine Leininger's Transcultural Nursing Theory. Nurseslabs.
Kathleen Sitzman MS, & Dr. Lisa Wright Eichelberger. (n.d.). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory. In Kathleen Sitzman MS, & Dr. Lisa Wright Eichelberger;, Understanding the work of Nurse THeorists (pp. 93-102). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Melanie Mcewen, & Evelyn M. Wills. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. Wolters Kluwer.
Madeleine Leineger's Cultural Care Theory
Theories are made of interrelated ideas that systematically give a systematic view about a certain phenomenon (an event or fact that is observable) that can, then, be predicted, and explained. Theories entail definitions, concepts, propositionspropositions, and models. Theories are created on the basis of assumptions. There are two ways in which theories are derived; inductive and deductive reasoning. The theory of nursing is meant to describe, explainexplain, and predict the nursing phenomenon.
It should give the bases of the nursing practice a strong foundation, thereby assisting in further creation of knowledge and show the future direction that for nursing should take. Theory is of great significance as it guides us in our decisions of what we already know as well as what we ought to know. Theory describes the nursing practice, hence giving us the foundation of nursing. The merits of a definite theory body…
Current Nursing. (2012, January 28). Application of Theory in Nursing Process. Retrieved from Current Nursing: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_nursing_theories.html
McFarland, M., & Eipperle, M. (2008). Culture Care Theory: a proposed practice theory guide for nurse practitioners in primary care settings. Contemp Nurse, 28(1-2), 48-63.
Raudonis, B., & Acton, G. (1997). Theory-based nursing practice. J Adv Nurs, 26(1), 138-45.
Wayne, G. (2014, August 26). Madeleine Leininger's Transcultural Nursing Theory. Retrieved from Nurse Labs: http://nurseslabs.com/madeleine-leininger-transcultural-nursing-theory/
The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).
The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices.…
Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,
January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html
Capps, R., Kenny, G., & Fix, M. (2003). Health insurance coverage of children in mixedstatus immigrant families (Snapshots of America's Children, No. 12).
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Healthcare Service Delivery
Interpersonal communication in delivery of health communication
Interpersonal communication is the form of communication that exists between two people and it is the type of communication that is deemed universal in many measures. Interpersonal communication involves the daily exchange which could be informal or formal in nature depending on the purpose and surrounding, it can take the form of facial expression, sounds, gestures, written words, spoken words and postures (MBA Knowledge base, 2011).
Interpersonal communication, involves dissemination and reception of objective message or information between two or more people/groups with an aim of getting the desired effect on the receiving individual or groups (Ally & Bacon, 1999). Some professional however contend that for a communication to qualify to be considered interpersonal communication then the two parties involved must be at close proximity and must be familiar with each other or share something in common. The health sector…
Ally & Bacon, 1999. Interpersonal Communication: Definition of Interpersonal Communication.
Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/interpersonal/indefinition.html
Education Resources Information Center, (2008). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ818590&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ818590
Health Promotion at EACH, (2014). Planning: Needs assessment: what issue should your program address? Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.each.com.au/health-promotion/health-promotion-at-each/what-is-health-promotion/planning/
Homelessness and the Effect it Has on Social Health
Few people acknowledged that there was anything like homelessness in the rural areas in Canada. Indeed, it is possible that it was never even thought of Assessment of the needs of homeless people in rural areas in Canada is almost nonexistent. There is clearly biased focus on the urban areas. Issues affecting non-urban and rural homeless communities are overlooked. Therefore, there has been little research directed to such locations. eports of the existence of homelessness emerged in the last decade after reliable reports cast light on the phenomenon and its uniqueness (Christensen, 2011). Homeless people in rural areas face such challenges as lack of social services, harsh climate and sparsely populated places. There are reports to the effect that people are living in dilapidated conditions and overpopulated spaces (Christensen, 2012; Schiff, Schiff, Turner & Bernard, 2015).
It is reported that there…
Christensen, J. (2012). 'They want a different life': Rural northern settlement dynamics and pathways to homelessness in Yellowknife and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. The Canadian Geographer/Le Geographe Canadien, 56(4), 419-438.
Christensen, J. B. (2011). Homeless in a homeland: Housing (in) security and homelessness in Inuvik and Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: McGill University.
Echenberg, H. & Jensen, H. (2008). Defining and enumerating homelessness in Canada. Ottawa: Library of Parliament (PRB 08-30E).
Gaetz, S., Donaldson, J., Richter, T. & Gulliver, T. (2013). The state of homelessness in Canada. Retrieved from http://homelesshub.ca/resource/state-homelessness-canada-2013 on 11 May 2016
It is important to understand nursing theory for a couple of reasons. The first is that nursing theory forms the basis for how the nursing role has evolved in health care today. There is a saying that in order to understand where one is going, it is necessary to understand where one has been. For this reason alone, it is important to understand how nursing theory has evolved over time, and how nurses today see their roles, and how those roles fit within the greater context of the health care system. If we look at seminal works like Jacox (1974) we can get a pretty good picture of how nursing was viewed up until the modern age, but then we need to see how the profession has evolved in the information age as well. The sorts of philosophical debates about what nursing is and what it should be form the…
Professional Development Plan
Attaining a Master’s degree in Nursing requires a great deal of focus and coordinated effort. It also requires that the student’s personal and professional goals be aligned, as the Master’s degree in Nursing is really the ultimate expression of this alignment: a student whose personal values and aims do not reflect the professional aims represented by the Master’s in Nursing is a student who is likely to be pulled in two different directions at once. Unless the ultimate aims converge, divergence will result—and that is why it is so important that a nursing student reflect upon how his or her personal and professional goals correlate. This paper will serve as a professional development plan: it will give some background on my personal history, my professional accomplishments, my future aspirations, while also identifying my academic interests and my goals for my Walden educational experience.
Personal and Professional Goals…
range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .
There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?
Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to…
Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.
Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://www.nurses.ab.ca/Carna-Admin/Uploads/Entry-to-Practice%20Competencies.pdf
Is nursing theory important? (2099). All Nurses. Retrieved September 25, 2011 at http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-discussion/nursing-theory-important-406192-page4.html
Kennedy, Shawn. (2009). New nurses face reality shock in hospital setting. AJN.
homever recommended that the authors employ such a tactic simply needs to return to a 'two-tier" education program wherein the primary objective is to increase one's content knowledge of statistics. Although the authors also make mention of using an ANOVA to garner statistical value nowhere in the report as these values reported other than on a cursory basis. Again, when statistical values are produced they must, at all time be aligned with the null hypotheses previously stated if the conclusions presented are to be accepted.
Substantive orth. There are those who would argue that any word placed on paper is of value, now or in the future. However, when it comes to healthcare and for those responsible for its delivery, that which is most important is to provide all healthcare practitioners the ways and means to deliver unto the medical consumer that which is effective, that which is holistic, and…
With respect to other qualitative aspects of the research article being review there are both positive and negative comments. The article, although showing a need for additional nursing education, presented supportive research that was rather aged. Whether this indicates a lack of current research or the authors' unwillingness to cite current research finding is not know. The rule of the thumb, however, is to use supportive data that is no more than five years old - unless a breakthrough or classic theory is being reported upon. Lastly, as there exist no real basis for the conclusion, based on faulty sampling and data analysis it is only fair to conclude that the intent of the article has a great deal of merit, but the findings and conclusions are scientifically empty.
Retrieve from University of California, Berkeley library database on May 11, 2005:
Results for 'Vallerand, a., Riley-Doucet, C. Hasenau, S. And Templin, T. (2004). Improving cancer pain management
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…
Basford, L. And O. Slevin. (2003). Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice. New York: Nelson Thomas.
Beckstead, J. And Beckstead, L. (2004). A multidimensional analysis of the epistemic origins of nursing theories, models and frameworks. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43
Cohen, J. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists - Leininger
This PowerPoint compares culture chooses a patient I interview. Please feel free write a report style bold headings, I research put a PowerPoint speaker slides. I add information interview I slides. I 5 days I complete interview.
Hispanic: Cultural health beliefs
"Currently, the nation's 53 million Hispanics comprise 17% of the total U.S. population" (Awakened giant, 2012, Pew Center). According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a Hispanic or Latino person is someone "of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto ican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race" (Hispanic or Latino populations, 2012, CDC). Hispanics are the fastest-growing U.S. ethnic demographic. "The U.S. Hispanic population for July 1, 2050 is estimated to reach 132.8 million, constituting approximately 30% of the U.S. population by that date" (Hispanic or Latino populations, 2012, CDC). Hispanics are also one of the youngest demographics so the population…
An awakened giant: The Hispanic electorate is likely to double by 2030. (2012). Pew Center.
Bouie, Jamelle. (2010). Skinny people shop at Whole Foods. Think Progress. Retrieved:
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
Stakeholder Education Plan
The Hispanic population is one of the largest populations in the United States with more than 50 million people. Elderly Hispanic residents and Mexican Americans who are predisposed to various health conditions including diabetes account for a significant portion of this Hispanic population in the United States. One of the major issues facing elderly Hispanic patients aged 50-75 years when seeking for healthcare services is communication problems since they are not proficient in English. This project seeks to examine whether the use of professional interpreters enhance medication adherence as compared to using family members as interpreters. The implementation of this project requires the involvement of various stakeholders who control resources and are necessary in the implementation process. The administrative stakeholders required for implementation of this project is the hospital management while the clinical stakeholders include healthcare providers, nurses, patients, and professional interpreter. The necessary financial stakeholders include…
There is a clear divide between the real care nurses must give -- and do give, every day -- and the layperson's perceptions of nursing (Scher 2003).
Scher, Betty. (2003). Second opinion. Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing Journal.
1(1). Retrieved http://www.son.jhmi.edu/JHNmagazine/archive/spring2003/pages/second_opinion.htm
In my work as a nurse on the med/surg floor of an urban hospital, I encountered many individuals with lifestyle-related issues. Heart disease, diabetes, and strokes may present themselves as acute situations, but often the real precipitating cause is related to choices about diet and exercise the individual has made over the course of a lifetime. A recent sociological theory that can help address this issue is the concept of 'social contagion:' individuals tend to norm their health behaviors to the lifestyle choices of their friends. If their friends make good choices regarding food, exercise, and preventative care, they are likely to do so as…
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L. & Cassie L. Cunningham, Cassie L. (2008). Geographical
clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41 (3): 209-214.
Cultural Diversity in Rural Settings for Nurses
On a continuum of cultural awareness to cultural relativity, how do you view yourself and your interactions with others?
As a nurse practitioner, it is easy to see the patient simply as a patient, as a sick person needing treatment, rather than a well person who perceives his or her body as only temporarily ill, but sees his or her person as permanently a part of a family and culture outside of the hospital. As Small and Dennis (2003) counsel, the increase in immigration has resulted in greater diversity of both patients and practitioners within the United States, rather than in traditional urban locations. Thus Small and Dennis remind the nurse that it is not simply enough to treat the patient, but the patient must also understand his or her illness in culturally comprehensible terms. A nurse must be able to communicate to…
Dennis, Betty Pierce & Ernestine B. Small. (Jan-Feb, 2003) "Incorporating cultural diversity in nursing care: an action plan" The ABNF Journal.
"New Position Statement Originated by: Council on Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice, Congress of Nursing." (1996) Adopted by: ANA Board of Directors.
It provides health-related advice on its website that all readers can benefit from, not simply those who use its services. As well as reaching out to the wider population of patients, it honors those within its fold who serve the organization with nights such as its "Celebrating Our Talent" ceremony designed to honor organizational members who have shown excellence in their duties (Boyd 2012).
The climate at the organization stresses valuing employees as well as clients, and serving the needs of its employees is included in the organization's statements of its critical functions. This acknowledges the need for caregivers to be cared for as well as patients. There is also a commitment to technological change to facilitate care: the organization was praised in 2003 for completely reconfiguring the way in which it kept track of patient data, switching to an entirely online system, to comply with changes in regulation and…
Boyd, Tracey. (2012). VNSNY home care agency praises nursing talent. VNSNY. Retrieved:
Mission and vision. (2013). VNSNY. Retrieved:
Two elements that are extremely useful in the examination of health care. In this regard therefore, quality is also differentiated along SES. Persons who are higher on the socioeconomic ladder experience better "desired health outcomes."
The access to quality health care also has cultural and SES elements to it. Dressler & Bindon (2000) identify cultural consonance as a factor in determining blood pressure in African-American communities. The implications of this work are that cultural elements play a big role in health care quality and access. Whites tend to have greater access to better health care than minority groups. This access is in terms of the proximity of quality physicians, medical services, and facilities.
The ethical implications of the differential access to health care are troubling (Kulczycki, 2007). This is primarily because a health care discussion is a life and death discussion. Quality health care is the right of every citizen,…
Dressler, W.W., Balieiro, M.C., & Dos Santos, J.E.(1988). Culture, Socioeconomic Status, and Physical and Mental Health in Brazil Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 12
Dressler W.W., & Bindon, J.R. (2000).The Health Consequences of Cultural Consonance:
Cultural Dimensions of Lifestyle, Social Support, and Arterial Blood Pressure in an African-American Community American Anthropologist, New Series, 102
emote Nursing eview
The oles of egistered Nursing in Shaping and Providing Care in ural and emote Locations: A Literature eview
The roles and perspectives of nursing have undergone major changes in the past several decades, continuing the rapid and profound development that this area of medical science and art has experienced in its relatively brief history. For quite some time, nursing existed either as a highly denigrated and unskilled profession looked down upon my others in the medical establishment and society at large, or as the semi-sacred and highly secret practice of healing through natural remedies and purely experiential knowledge transmitted orally and though demonstration from generation to generation. An appreciation and codification of nursing as a science -- albeit a science with certain subjective and aesthetic principles, making the designation of nursing as an art somewhat appropriate as well -- did not really occur until the nineteenth century,…
Banner, D., MacLeod, M. & Johnston, S. (2010). Role Transition in Rural and Remote Primary Health Care Nursing: A Scoping Literature Review. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 42(4): 40-57.
Coyle, M., Al-Motlaq, M., Mills, J., Francis, K. & Birks, M. (2010). An integrative review of the role of registered nurses in remote and isolated practice. Australian Health Review 34(2): 239-45.
Naylor, M. & Kutzman, E. (2010). The Role Of Nurse Practitioners In Reinventing Primary Care. Health Affairs 29(5): 893-9.
Encouraging Seatbelt Usage as Part of Primary Care
Unintentional injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents represent one of the leading causes of death among adolescents in Western nations today (Jones & Schultz, 2009). Despite legislation requiring their use in many countries, adolescents and young adults are among those with the lowest rates of seat belt usage with the highest risk of being injured in a motor vehicle accident (Cross, 1999). To determine what role nurses can play in encouraging self belt use and reducing the current levels of morbidity and mortality associated in the future, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
More young people aged 13 to 19 years die from unintentional injuries received in traffic-related collisions on U.S. public roads than any other cause (Jones & Schultz, 2009). In fact,…
Cross, H.D. (1999). An adolescent health and lifestyle guide. Adolescence, 29(114), 267-269.
Jones, S.E. & Schultz, R.A. (2009, April). Trends and subgroup differences in transportation-related injury -- risk and safety behaviors among U.S. high school students, 1991-2007.
Journal of School Health, 79(4), 169-173.
Kendall, S. (2008). Nursing perspectives and contribution to primary health care. Geneva: