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In all his works, Tolstoy does not lose his sense of reality and only rarely does he veer off the path of his own experience. There is simply no evidence of sentimentality or staginess in any of his works. In seeking to guide and reinforce the reader's understanding of his texts, Tolstoy also makes use of a variety of literary devices. In this case, I will mention just two of these, i.e. imagery and allusion. Through the use of imagery, Tolstoy largely succeeds in bringing his writings to life. In Anna Karenina, the author consistently attempts to associate some characters with specific colors. For instance, in regard to Countess Lydia Ivanovna, the author describes her as having "an unhealthy yellow complexion." In so doing, Tolstoy paints a vivid picture of the character in the reader's mind. In Hadji Murat, Tolstoy also makes use of olfactory and color imagery in phrases…
Bloom, Harold., ed. Leo Tolstoy. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House Publishers, 2003. Print.
Borrero, Mauricio. Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc., 2004. Print.
Leburn, Victor. Leo Tolstoy. Raleigh, N.C: Lulu, 2006. Print.
Orwin, D. Tussing. Leo Tolstoy. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Company, 2005. Print.
Leo Tolstoy was a Russian writer most famous for his works of fiction such as ar and Peace, which discuss the importance of the latter and the hope for the complete eradication of the former. Among his many non-fiction writings is the book A Confession and Other Religious ritings wherein he writes about his own chronic depression and his search for a religion which could give him inner peace. Tolstoy had lived his whole life without fear of starvation and yet he realized that he was not nearly as happy as the peasants that he saw living in the village near his family home. He determined to reexamine his life and to reevaluate the things that were important. hat he was able to finally conclude was that the road to happiness had everything to do with understanding, cooperation and peace. If Leo Tolstoy were alive today and able…
Tolstoy, Leo. A Confession and Other Religious Writings. Digireads. 2010. Print.
Leo Tolstoy's Inclusion In The Literary Canon
In Tolstoy's prolific literary career, it appears that one central concern drove everything he did both in his life and his writing. This concern was the meaning of life. The drive behind the actions of his main characters in both ar and Peace and Anna Karenina is the search for meaning in their lives. As part of this search, Tolstoy and his characters also sought to make sense of the occurrences around them. Historically, Tolstoy writes from the perspective of a country in turmoil. His social commentary is then closely intertwined with the more general search for personal fulfillment. The result is the timeless quality of the works that are still enjoyed by a wide readership today. It is this timeless quality of his work, based upon his search for meaning in life, that most prominently begs for Tolstoy's inclusion in today's literary…
Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Translated by Constance Garnett. New York: The Modern Library, 1944.
Anna Karenina. Translated by Constance Garnett. New York: The World Publishing Company, 1946.
On Life and Essays on Religion. Translated by Aylmer Maude. London: Oxford University Press.
Farrell, James T. "Introduction." In Anna Karenina. Translated by Constance Garnett. New York: The World Publishing Company, 1946.
So art is not necessarily a means of throwing light upon reality, but even a means that will intentionally make things more obscure to our perceptions, so that we might understand the truth beyond the immediate reality. Truth may very well reside therefore in the confusion or the unfamiliarity of perception that modern art puts forth.
Also, it is obvious that art should be first of all free, and not submitted to rules that will constrain its form and content, and that will make it express not the truth but something that "should be." I think that the ideas about art that you express are about what good art should be like, but this is exactly what will drive us farther away from an understanding and a definition of art, because we should search for its essence in its sources and in the things that make artistic creation possible.
Hofstader, Albert Philosophies of Art and Beauty, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1976
Sukla, Ananta Ch. Art and Representation: Contributions to Contemporary Aesthetics, Praeger, 2001
Tolstoy, Leo What is Art?, Indiana: The Bobbs- Merril Company, 1980
He became an ideal of the modern world equipped with his global ethical and spiritual thinking. It was a remarkable effort by him to ground righteousness in a balanced economics and broadened explanation for the assistance of suffering people. He also used literature and art as a medium for truth, for resistance to aggression, for the support of self-perfection and for progress of life, Folk literature took on a devout meaning and elevated to the universal; Tolstoy discharged complicated works. Tolstoy's examination of existence throws more light on the most important currents of notion in our Age which results in raising deeper troubles and realizes more intact territories of the mind than does any other creator. It is due to Tolstoy's fervent seeking of the existence of the spirit that the great ussian writer soars over the men of our day, and it is because his desire for devout fact…
1. Ernest J. Simmons, Introduction to Tolstoy's Writings (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968), 139-142.
2. Rowe, William Woodin. Leo Tolstoy. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1986.
Tolstoy described the height of rye to be "as high as a horse" to show the temptation that Pahom was facing as he heard this. The temptation is best described by Tolstoy with the words "Pahom's heart kindled with desire." Pahom just could not resist the temptation and soon went off to visit the place. When he went there he realized what he was told was true. Pahom drooling with desire disposed off his property and settled here with his family. He bought land and was doing very well. However man cannot resist devil and materialism is the nature of man. Tolstoy has expressed this well in his story. Tolstoy is a magnificent writer. He is never dull, never stupid, never tired, never pedantic, never theatrical. He is head and soulders over the others (ichard Ellmann, p.217).Tired by renting other people's land, Pahom aims to buy more land. His thirst…
1) The Atlantic Monthly - Reading Chekhov: A Critical Journey. Volume: 289. Issue: 1. Publication Date: January 2002. Page Number: 126-31.
2) Daniel Akst - Article Title: Buyer's Remorse. Magazine Title: The Wilson Quarterly. Volume: 28. Issue: 1. Publication Date: Winter 2004. Page Number: 42+.
3) Richard Ellmann, James Joyce (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), Page Number: 217.
4) Elizabeth Villiers Gemmette - Book Title: Law in Literature: Legal Themes in Short Stories. Publisher: Praeger Publishers. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1992.
life in prison and finally, the banker bets the lawyer that he cannot live for fifteen years in solitary confinement and if he can do so, the banker agrees to pay him two million dollars. In his self-imposed prison the lawyer reads extensively and reaches an epiphany. He writes his sentiments in a sort of suicide note; he abandoned his station just one day before he was to receive his prize. Renouncing the two million dollars was a profound statement against human greed and materialism. The lawyer writes that most earthly affairs are "worthless, fleeting, illusory, and deceptive, like a mirage." Moreover, the banker had come to kill the lawyer so that he would not have to pay out his bet: illustrating the extent of his inhumane greed. Chekhov's story is consummately persuasive, encouraging readers to contemplate the deeper meaning of life and of human existence.
Both Tolstoy and Chekhov…
Tolstoy and Chekhov
Death is the only true inevitability in a person's life. Once born, the only thing that is guaranteed is that one day that life will be extinguished. People live their whole lives with a death sentence hanging over their heads. For some people, death is terrifying and they rail against it and do whatever they can to avoid it. Others see death as a kind release, excusing them from the world of men, where they toil. Each person reacts differently to their own impending death and to the deaths of their loved ones. There is no single right or wrong way to react to someone's death or to react around someone who is in the process of dying. In both Anton Chekhov's "Rothschild's Fiddle" and Leo Tolstoy's "The Death of Ivan Ilych," the authors explore the ways that a man may deal with the death of those…
Chekhov, Anton. "Rothschild's Fiddle." The Chorus Girls and Other Stories. 1920. Print.
Tolstoy, Leo. "The Death of Ivan Ilych." 1886. Print.
Most people seek after what they do not possess and are thus enslaved by the very things they want to acquire -- Anwar El-Sadat
The Egyptian leader Anwar El-Sadat spoke in condemning terms, towards the end of his life, of the enslaving nature of every human being's impulse to better him or herself through acquisition. He did so, not as a detached observer, but after personally wrestling with one of the most formidable and intransient struggles over land that the human species has waged during modern history. In his own lifetime, before being assassinated, Sadat was able to reach some state of accord with the Israeli leader Begin at Camp David. The two leaders created an equitable arrangement about the land under dispute, but only after their people had endured many years of conflict.
However, Sadat spoke as a man leading a country that already had a certain…
Tolstoy and Shakespeare
"How Much Land Does a Man Need?"
The short story "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" By Tolstoy serves to teach a lesson to the reader. It is a morality play explaining the sin of greed and how it leads to trouble. The story begins with a peasant complaining that he does not have enough land. "If I had plenty of land, I shouldn't fear the Devil himself!" (Tolstoy 140) Land is thereby equated with lack of fear. In the end, greed is what causes the peasant Pahom's death. He believes that he can outwit his neighbors and get their land at a fraction of its value. His cockiness leads him to have a heart attack at sunset and be buried in a six foot grave. "Six feet from his head to his heels was all he needed" (140). The title of the story becomes ironic…
Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice. New Haven: Yale UP, 2006. Print.
Tolstoy, Leo. "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" The Kreutzer Sonata and Other Short
Stories. New York: Dover, 1993. Print.
Compare Ivan Ilych with Robert Frost's "The Road Not Taken." Is there any similarity? What is Ivan's road?
The speaker of Frost's poem takes the road less trodden, which has made all of the difference, he says. The poet strikes out a different, less charted path in the woods, implying he is a nonconformist. In contrast, Ivan Ilych takes a conventional path, the path too often taken. Taking this trodden path makes a great deal of difference in Ilych's life, but to the detriment of his quality of life.
Compare Ivan Ilych with "The Unknown Citizen." Is there any similarity?
Auden's unknown citizen is less powerful in his society than Ivan. However, he leads a similarly drab and spiritually bankrupt existence, ruffling no feathers, working in a boring unionized job, buying all of the typical consumer goods that are supposed to give modern man 'pleasure,' and like Ivan never once…
The Brothers Karamazov and the Death of Ivan Ilyich
Dostoevsky’s Brothers Karamazov and Tolstoy’s Death of Ivan Ilyich examine the role that suffering plays in the transformation of a soul for better or for worse. Being a much longer work, Dostoevsky’s novel examines suffering from a number of different perspectives, giving a number of different outcomes—each depending on the will of the individual character, the psychological situation of that character, the character’s faith, and so on. Tolstoy takes a narrower focus by looking at how the suffering of one character changes the person’s mental state—and how the suffering of his caretaker gives him a window of grace to truly transform his soul and get it ready for judgment on the other side of the grave. This paper will compare these two works and show how suffering and the transformation of a person are linked by the extent to which the…
In the morning when he saw first his footman, then his wife, then his daughter, and then the doctor, their every word and movement confirmed to him the awful truth that had been revealed to him during the night. In them he saw himself -- all that for which he had lived -- and saw clearly that it was not real at all, but a terrible and huge deception which had hidden both life and death. This consciousness intensified his physical suffering tenfold. He groaned and tossed about, and pulled at his clothing which choked and stifled him. And he hated them on that account (Tolstoy, 1981)."
The above passage is a common theme to many as they pass through the acceptance of the inevitable, death.
In Hesse's work however,. The protagonist is not a boring quiet average Joe as Ivan appeared to be. In this work, Siddhartha, is a…
Hesse, Herman. Siddartha Mass Market Paperback: 160 pages
Publisher: Bantam Classics; Reissue edition (January 1, 1982)
Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Llych.
Publisher: Bantam Classics; Reissue edition (March 1, 1981)
Ivan Ilych and Marlow share much in common in terms of their dutiful service to an external bureaucracy, feeling stymied by that bureaucracy, and desiring deeper more meaningful spiritual experiences. At the same time, though, Ilych remains far more traditional than Marlow, whose open-mindedness earns him Kurtz's trust. Ilych is open-minded in terms of his willingness to see through superficiality and social facades, but he rarely sees beyond the mundane until the illness sets in. In fact, Ilych remains completely caught up in the rat race that defines ussian government work to the extent that promotions and salary raises make him "completely happy." Marlow, on the other hand, stares death in the face each day. He also encounters the faces of African people who shock him out of his mundane existence: "I could see every rib, the joints of their limbs were like knots in a rope; each had…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Retrieved May 14, 2008 at http://historyofideas.org/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=ConDark.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1
Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Ilych. Retrieved May 14, 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/short_stories_page/tolstoydeath.html
healing, growing, dying in chapter "A broader view healing" Margaret Coberly argues dying a healing process -discovery. We find a similar claim coming Mwalimu lmara essay "Dying Last Stage Growth" asserts: "dying stage life experienced profound growth event total life's experience.
According to Mwalimu Imara's essay "Dying as the Last Stage of Growth," rather than rejecting death as abnormal (for death comes to us all) or fearing death, death should be viewed as simply another stage of life. Imara recounts the experience of a woman who said that she lived more fully in the last months of her life than she did throughout her entire existence, because only then was she able to appreciate the goodness in people and open herself up enough to be emotionally vulnerable (Imara 1975: 154). The same could be said of Leo Tolstoy's character Ivan Ilyich.
Throughout most of his life, Ilyich is an ambitious,…
Q3. In Ira Byock's book Dying Well, Byock chronicles the painful process of watching his father die. At first, it was inconceivable to him that his father could pass away, and he met the first stages with a denial of the severity of his father's condition. "It was incomprehensible how all this could be lost" (Byock 1998: 5). This parallels the story of "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" by Leo Tolstoy, in which the title character first sees many doctors who give him conflicting diagnoses about his terminal condition and his family tries to ignore the fact that his condition is worsening, despite the treatment he is receiving. However, unlike Ivan Ilyich, Byock stresses that his father Seymour's life was a life 'well lived,' and his father ended his life surrounded by caring family members. Being with the dying person and tending to their needs, believes Byock, can be a powerful way to ensure that the dying process has a component of 'healing.'
However, Ivan Ilyich does experience flashes of insight. For example, he asks the peasant Gerasim to hold his legs to relieve his pain at times. Although this probably has no physical effect, instinctively Ilyich finds that Gerasim's compassion and matter-of-fact attitude towards illness and death is healing for him. He forms his first simple, human connection with someone else. Even though he is at first angry at his wife and children for their materialism, he dies forgiving them.
Ilyich is literally 'killed' by the house he has so carefully decorated -- he dies as a result of the accident he sustained while hanging curtains. However, after feeling anger about the way he is dying and the fact that someone who has tried to 'make it' in the world for so long must die, in death he finally comes to understand the meaningless nature of all of the things he has been striving for and can appreciate simple goodness and kindness. Although Ilyich may not have 'lived well' in the terms defined by Byock, at the very end he can be said to have 'died well' in the sense that he learned from the experience.
Gulliver's Travels," "Tartuffe," "Madame Bovary," "The Death of Ivan Ilyich," & "Things Fall Apart"
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and compare how the theme(s) of "Things Fall Apart" by Achebe relate to the theme and/or storylines of "Gulliver's Travels," by Swift, "Tartuffe," by Moliere, "Madame Bovary," by Flaubert, and "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" by Tolstoy. All these authors use their works to "expose and alter the fundamental moral codes that determine political systems and social mores" (Levine 136).
POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIAL MORES
Things Fall Apart," by Chinua Achebe is a novel about an African family named Okonkwo, who try to fit in to the white man's society. However, their own society was balanced, happy, and complete, and they did not really need to fit in with the white man. hen they did, it ultimately destroyed their society, and way of life.
Gulliver's Travels," by…
Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary: Life in a Country Town. Trans. Gerard Hopkins. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Grossman, Debra. "SparkNotes on Gulliver's Travels." SparksNotes.com. 2002. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/gulliver
Levine, Alan. "Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart as a Case Study in Nietzsche's Transvaluation of Values." Perspectives on Political Science 28.3 (1999): 136-141.
Moliere, Jean Baptiste Poquelin. "Tartuffe." Project Gutenberg. 2002. http://digital.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=2027
Happy families have certain traits and attributes in common which make the relationship between their members stronger and more respectful for each other. The most important factors which make a happy family include love and care, effective communication, commitment, conflict resolution, and resilience. When family members show true care and respect for each other, resolve their family conflicts in a polite and friendly manner, show a high level of resilience in bitter circumstances, and ensure an effective communication without distance and time constraints, the members live like a happy and ideal family. Family happiness gets spoiled when hatred, mistrust, arguments, and criticism take the place of love, care, and mutual understanding.
A Happy Family
Before discussing what makes a happy family and what elements contribute towards making a strong relationship among all family members, it is important to explain how the word 'family' has been defined by the…
Banks, R. (1986). My Mother's Memoirs, My Father's Lie, and Other True Stories. In M. Krasny and M.E. Sokolik (Eds.) Sound Ideas (pp. 173-179). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Haltzman, S. & DiGeronimo, T.F. (2009). The Secrets of Happy Families: Eight Keys to Building a Lifetime of Connection and Contentment. 1st Edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Ricker, A., Calmes, R.E., & Sneyd, L.W. (2006). How Happy Families Happen: Six Steps to Bringing Emotional and Spiritual Health into Your Home. 1st Edition. Center City, Minn.: Hazelden.
Rodriguez, R. (1992). Nothing Last a Hundred Years. In M. Krasny and M.E. Sokolik (Eds.)
Man's struggle against the absurd emerges in Ivan Ilych's death, as he contemplates the meaning of his life. Psychological alienation results as Ivan begins to doubt his existence. Nabokov explains, "Egotism, falsity, hypocrisy, and above all automatism are the most important moments of life" (Nabokov 239). Nature, by means of death, removes all of the things to which Ivan has become accustomed. He is dying and that is all that matters. As he asks himself if he lived his life the right way, he begins to feel compassion for others. Here we see how Ivan must face the fact that the things he believed in and lived for were worthless. The absurdity is that the man had to die in order to realize certain truths about his life.
The Metamorphosis," and "The Death of Ivan Ilych," are stories that demonstrate man's psychological and spiritual struggles through absurd experiences. By capturing…
Goldfarb, Sheldon. "Critical Essay on 'The Metamorphosis.' Short Stories for Students. 2001. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 10, 2009. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Hibbard, John. "The Metamorphosis: Overview." Reference Guide to World Literature. 2nd ed. 1995. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 10, 2009.
Danger ith Serving the Self in Anna Karenina and Madam Bovary
It is a classic human trait to make life more difficult than it needs to be. e live in a me-centered society and those with their focus turned inward usually generate enough drama in the world for the rest of the population. hile reality shows like American Idol and America's Got Talent increase the need for money and fame, the need for more has always been around. The old adage that the grass in greener on the other side of the fence is true because it is human to think something is missing and that something will make life better. Two authors that explore this concept are Leo Tolstoy and Gustave Flaubert. In the novel, Anna Karenina, we have a wealthy woman who senses something is wrong with her life and is bent on finding out what that something…
Flaubert. Gustave. Madame Bovary. New York: Brentanos. 1919. Print.
Melfi, Mary Ann. "Keeping secrets in Anna Karenina." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology.
25.1-2 .2004. Gale Literature Resource Center. Web. 12 July 2011.
The passage, "If I fully experience all that is within me, embracing what I am -- that which seems evil as well as that which seems good -- I am freed to do what I am capable of doing, and to grow beyond my present limits," focuses on how human life is lived and manifested in the present time. As stated in Chapter 8 of the book, entitled, "The Universe," "fully experiencing freedom" in everything that an individual sees, feels, believes, and does is illustrated through a "new vision of the world." This feeling is synonymous to enlightenment in Buddhism, where the present life of a person plays a significant element in achieving contentment in life.
This belief is subsisted in this chapter in the book, where the author believes that "full acceptance of the present moment... conduces to greater responsiveness. In yielding to the fullness of my own…
There is much to the assertion by Nachman Syrkin that the Jews have persisted in history because the performed a socio-economic function that other peoples did not want to do or could not do. In his 1898 "The Jewish Problem and the Socialist Jewish State, " Syrkin lays out these ideas. Regarding this, Syrkin argued that a classless society and national sovereignty were the only means of solving the Jewish question completely. He felt that this social revolution would be the key to the normalization of the Jewish condition. ith this in mind, he argued that the Jew must therefore join the proletariat as the only way to end class struggle and redistribute power justly. Since the bourgeoisie betrayed the principles of liberalism, then Jews must be the torchbearers of Socialism.
hile Syrkin is many times seen as working on his own, however he had predecessors and contemporaries who had…
Borochov, Ber. "The national question and the class struggle." 1997. In the Zionist idea.
Edited by Arthur Hertzberg, 355-360. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
Hess, Moses. "Rome and Jerusalem." 1997. In the Zionist idea. Edited by Arthur
Hertzberg, 120-139. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
Characters Struggling Authenticity
The state of being authentic in our lives, in our personalities, and in our actions can be a difficult, but important concept to come to terms with. As we grow, events and people in life can shape who we are, and we can choose to be true to ourselves or succumb to pressures and assume an inauthentic identity. In the stories "Signs and Symbols," "The Lady with the Dog," and "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" (written by Vladimir Nabokov, Anton Chekhov, and Leo Tolstoy, respectively), we can examine characters influenced into inauthenticity, and the realization of their example can help us reflect upon the authenticity of our own lives.
Each of the characters in these stories is influenced by a different motivator. Through their judgment of their circumstances, they choose to react in the way they see fit. In "Signs and Symbols," for example, a…
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Dog." 26 March 2011. .
Nabokov, Vladimir. "Signs and Symbols." 26 March 2011. .
Tolstoy, Leo. "The Death of Ivan Ilyich." The Classical Library. 2001. 26 March 2011.
In 21 Grams, the narrative darkens and is localized. Inarritu deepens his exploration of class differences, but this time on the U.S. side of the New orld Order that has been brought about by the North American Free Trade Agreement. According to Ohchi, 21 Grams consists of three narratives whose protagonists differ from each other, but are interconnected (ibid. 3-4)
Babel is just really Amores Perros and 21 Grams written on an international canvas and echoes much of the social commentary in Inarritu's 2000 maiden film. According to Soelistyo and Setiawan, another term for this type of film is hyperlink cinema. hile in many films, this methodology can result in a film where the interlocking stories spin out of control, in Babel Inarritu is fully in command and retains full control of the stories and plot lines (Soelistyo and Setiawan 176). As the name implies, seemingly disparate story lines are…
D'Lugo, Marvin D. "Amores Perros Love's a Bitch." From the Cinema of Latin
America ed. Alberto Elena & Marina Diaz Lopez. London: Wallflower Press. 2003.
Durham, Carolyn a. "Is Film a Universal Language? Educating Students as Global
Citizens." ADFL Bulletin. 40.1 (2008): 27-29.
The heartfelt letter denouncing materialism shocks the banker and makes him realize what it took the lawyer fifteen years to discover: that life is meaningless unless filled with spiritual love.
Characterization is strong in both "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" And "The Bet." The peasants, especially protagonist Pahom, in Tolstoy's story are strong characters who work hard to achieve upward social mobility. Their effort is admirable when tempered with wisdom, but pitiable when taken to an extreme like Pahom does. In "The Bet," the two men are equally as strong, their opinions powerful enough to make them willing to enter into an outlandish bet.
Suspense is key to "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" And "The Bet," stories in which both authors build tension. Readers have no idea what will become of Pahom when he walks around the plot of land until the very end of the…
Recurring Western Preoccupation
One of the most frequently recurring themes in Westernized culture is that of death. This motif is certainly evinced in a number of forms of literature -- particularly those esteemed to possess literary value -- including Leo Tolstoy's "Death of Ivan Ilyich" and in Henrik Ibsen's "Hedda Gabler." Death dominates the plot of both of these works of literature. There are multiple deaths in Ibsen's work, whereas the protagonist in Tolstoy's realizes early on that he is fated to die and the proverbial shadow of death looms over the ensuing pages. An analysis of the thematic device of death and its importance in both of these works reveals that it largely functions as a petty escape in Ibsen's text, and is a means to a more profound level of transcendence in that of Tolstoy.
There is a point of despair that accompanies both of the deaths portrayed…
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.
As great a figure as the Noble-prize winning civil rights leader Martin King Luther Jr. may be accounted in the annals of world and American history, and in political, religious, and social rights activism, no man's thought stands alone -- no man's thought springs from simply his own brain in isolation. Every great thinker and leader is part of a larger and complex history of human thought and social influences. Martin King Luther Jr. was a Christian minister and philosopher whose nonviolent philosophy of civil disobedience was profoundly influenced by Biblical, New Testament documents of Jesus and other Christian spiritual writers, as interpreted through the African-American tradition. King also wrote during a time period when the philosophy of the Indian nonviolent leader Gandhi had shown the world how, through nonviolence, the oppressing power's wrongful influence could unintentionally act as a public relations force of…
Blethen, Frank. "Diversity: the American Journey." Martin Luther King, Jr. Retrospective. Editorial. January 17, 2003. The Seattle Times.
King, Martin Luther. Jr. "I've been to the Mountaintop." April 3, 1968. AFSCME Organization. Original Primary Source Retrieved 2005 at http://www.afscme.org/about/kingspch.htm
King, Martin Luther. Jr. "Letter From a Birmingham Jail." April 16, 1963. Historical Text Archive. Original Primary Source Retrieved 2005 at http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle& ; artid=40
Norrell, Robert J. Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee. Chapel Hill, UNC Press, 1985.
But their independence did not come easily.
n fact the Chechens are essentially a Muslim nation of about a million and a half, and since the early 19th century the Chechens have been fighting the Russians for their independence. Understanding a bit of history helps the viewer understand the political tensions in the film. The dictator Joseph Stalin ordered the entire population of Chechens deported to Central Asia in 1944, because the Chechens allegedly collaborated with the Nazis to bring down the Russians. This bitter memory is part of what drives the Chechens to insist on being independent of Russia.
Another subplot that has impact is the fact that the two captive Russian soldiers may be wearing the same uniform but they see the world in vastly different ways. They both dance to a Louis Armstrong song ("Let My People Go") and yet they bother each other too. But when…
In fact the Chechens are essentially a Muslim nation of about a million and a half, and since the early 19th century the Chechens have been fighting the Russians for their independence. Understanding a bit of history helps the viewer understand the political tensions in the film. The dictator Joseph Stalin ordered the entire population of Chechens deported to Central Asia in 1944, because the Chechens allegedly collaborated with the Nazis to bring down the Russians. This bitter memory is part of what drives the Chechens to insist on being independent of Russia.
Another subplot that has impact is the fact that the two captive Russian soldiers may be wearing the same uniform but they see the world in vastly different ways. They both dance to a Louis Armstrong song ("Let My People Go") and yet they bother each other too. But when the older soldier, Sasha, comes down to earth from his crustiness and becomes softly nostalgic, he reaches out and touches the hand of his younger colleague and the music in the soundtrack blares the song "The Slavyanka," which is a patriotic hymn in Russia.
In conclusion, that touching moment between Russian soldiers, and the relationship between Vanya and Dina, among other soft, human scenes, is apparently designed by the director Sergei Bodrov to reveal the irrationality of war. Again, as presented earlier in this paper, a perceptive person viewing this film could reach a conclusion that this is a pacifist film; at the very least the director and screenwriter have brought a short story from a giant of literature into a modern context and presented most of the characters as quite human and likable. The Muslim nation has been brutally mistreated over the centuries by the Soviets / Russians, so the story takes that overall theme and brings it down to earth with very human tensions that result in very human interactions. This film shows tired soldiers juxtaposed against fierce rebel fighters whose convictions are more powerful than the Russians. Interestingly, one of Dina's roles is to tell the soldiers they will have a proper burial, but the audience does not know at the end exactly what happened.
Short story -- A brief story where the plot drives the narrative, substantially shorter than a novel. Example: "Hills like White Elephants," by Ernest Hemingway.
Allusion -- A casual reference in one literary work to a person, place, event, or another piece of literature, often without explicit identification. It is used to establish a tone, create an indirect association, create contrast, make an unusual juxtaposition, or bring the reader into a world of references outside the limitations of the story itself. Example: "The Wasteland" by T.S. Eliot alludes to "Paradise Lost" by John Milton.
epetition -- The repeating of a word or phrase or rhythm within a piece of literature to add emphasis. Example: The story of Agamemnon in The Odyssey by Homer.
Blank verse -- Unrhymed lines of ten syllables each with the even-numbered syllables bearing the accents, most closing resembling the natural rhythms of English speech. Example: "The…
Wheeler, Dr. L. Kip. "Literary Terms and Definitions." Web.
"Word List of Literary and Grammar Terms." Web.
geniuses, history will never even be aware that most people even lived at all, much less that their lives had any real purpose, meaning or worth. All ideas of human equality and natural rights are just pious little myths and fables, since only a handful will ever have the talent and intelligence to be recognized as standing out from the anonymous masses. This world is a very cruel and Darwinian place in which only a handful achieve success and recognition, at least by the material and monetary standards that the capitalist system values so highly. In short, the majority of people who ever lived have simple been drones and worker bees, and if they have any talents or worth, few will ever notice them outside of their narrow little spheres of existence. Many people may have certain natural talents but make little effort to develop them, and through bad luck…
Boss, Judith. Perspective on Ethics, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2002
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP). http://plato.stanford.edu/
Tile: Becoming a vegan
Background information and literature on being a vegan
Justification of the problem
Why the issue of becoming a vegan is relevant in the contemporary socisty.
An interview with a student who is a vegan and noting down of the factual firsthand experience of a vegan
Environmental easons for being vegan
Outline reasons from the student and other sources on how eating meat diets hurt the environment
Becoming a vegan
The notion of becoming a vegan and leaving out all the animal meat in our diet is by and large becoming an essential and almost an inevitable trend in the near future if the current trends are anything to go by. There are various people, famous and infamous, who have condemned the act of killing animals for their meat. One such figure is Leo Tolstoy who is widely quoted to have emphasized that "A man can live…
Richard Ryder, (2013). 49 Reasons why I am Vegetarian. Retrieved February 10, 2012 from http://www.britishmeat.com/49.htm
The Vegan Wolf, (2004). 10 Reasons for going Vegan. Retrieved February 10, 2012 from http://www.veganwolf.com/reasons_to_be_vegan.htm
Both characters found ways to avoid living through isolation. They alienated themselves from practically everyone and this resulted in severe pain. The message here is to think about the things that consume us and then consider how important those things will be at the end of our lives or when our lives become difficult.
The Death of Ivan Ilych" and "ard No. 6" are compelling stories that force us to think of life and death through the most painful experience of others. The search for the meaning of life becomes significant with these men who have lived rather aloof lives until they are stricken with a confounding truth. Ivan must face the truth that his life was not lived the best way that it could have been. Andrey must come to terms that he has been living has been terribly misguided. Both men realize that to some extent, their lives…
Chekhov, Anton. Ward No. 6." Read Print Online Library. Information Retrieved February 27, 2009. http://www.readprint.com/work-356/Anton-Chekhov
Tolstoy, Leo. "The Death of Ivan Ilych." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981.
It may be too late but he does come to understand what is right and good.
In "The Murders in the Rue Morgue," we find another type of struggle, which aims at working toward solving a mystery. This story is noted for being one of the first of its kind and the narrator reaches his conclusion through analysis. How Dupin comes to his conclusions is his struggle because he is working with disarray. The atrocity of the murders and the chaos of the of Mademoiselle L'Espanaye's apartment set the scene for a rather messy situation. The furnishings in the apartment were "broken and thrown about in all directions" (Poe 63) and the bed was tossed in the middle of the floor. Someone had stuffed the daughter in the chimney, "head downward" (63) in such a way her body had been "thrust up and disengaged" (63). The mother's throat was cut…
Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Murders in the Rue Morgue." The Complete Tales of Mystery and Imagination.
Minnesota: Amaranth Press: 1984. Print.
Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Ilych. The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Shorter Sixth Ed.
Eds. Cassill, R.V. And Bausch, Richard. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. Print.
In the Metamorphosis, it is the image of the main character's family and those around him that is transformed. However, in the Death of Ivan Llyitch it is the main characters image of himself that is transformed. Gregor is the same person on the inside in his cockroach form that he was when he was a salesman. However, his family fails to see him the same. Gregor was happy, but becomes depressed as his family isolates themselves from him more and more. In the Death of Ivan Llyitch the main character moved from depression to joy. The characters in these novels occupy different ends of the emotional spectrum. Their emotional spectrum moves in the opposite direction.
The emotional transformation of the two main characters is opposite as well. Ivan's is an inner transformation. His physical world changes little, it is his emotional world and inner sense of self that changes.…
Kafka, Franz the Metamorphosis and Other Stories, trans. Donna Freed. New York:
Barnes & Noble. 1996.
Tolstoy, L. The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Master and Man. Slater, Ann (trans.). New York,
Modern Library. 2004.
A number of literary, philosophical, psychological, religious and other writers are of the view that the subject of 'the meaning of life' forms one among the most central issues experienced by people. Tolstoy (Rowlands) claims that science is unable to provide assistance in this regard. While it can describe what life is, it is incapable of describing its meaning. It is able to explain the things in this world and what's possible; however, it is unable to explain their meaning and importance. Tolstoy states that faith provides an answer to this question. Hence, he asserts that irrespective of the answers provided by faith, it accords the finiteness of humanity's existence a sense of infiniteness, which fails to get vanquished under conditions of death, afflictions, and hardship (Tolstoy). As a result, faith alone provides the possibility and meaning of life. One may describe faith as knowledge regarding life's meaning, as…
Life's Subjections: Changes To The ays Of Life Found In Tolstoy's ar And Peace
ar and Peace is a truly epic novel in that details a number of important themes as well as major events in the lives of its characters. In this respect it actually uncovers some of the most major events that are bound to take place throughout a person's life -- birth, death, marriage, divorce, war and peace. hat makes this particular novel so compelling is the fact that it largely depicts these life altering events through the fates of a couple of aristocratic Russian families during the time in which the usurper Napoleon Bonaparte is wreaking havoc on the European continent in the early part of the 19th century. As such, there is a certain romantic quality to this tale and to the life-altering events it depicts of people who in some cases are noble personages…
Close, Adam. "Sancho Panza: Wise Fool." The Modern Language Review. 68(2), 344-357. Print. 1973.
Knowles, Alexander. Count Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy, The Critical Heritage. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul Books. Print. 1997.
Southgate, Beverly. "Tolstoy and Ethical History: Another look at War and Peace." Rethinking History. 13(2), 235-250. 2009. Print.
Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. www.archive.org. Web. 1805.
He alone knew that with the consciousness of the injustices done him, with his wife's incessant nagging, and with the debts he had contracted by living beyond his means, his position was far from normal." (Tolstoy, Chapter III). Not everyone thinks Ivan Ilyich's salary is meager, and he chooses to live beyond his means, thus although he is ordinary, his world is not absent of examples of how it is possible to live differently. Likewise, the married lovers of "The Lady with the Dog" could theoretically leave their spouses, although divorce is difficult in 19th century Russia. hat impedes them seems to be the fact that openly leaving their spouses and children will make them societal pariahs, and result in a loss of financial and social status. At the end of the tale, their resolve to begin their life anew rings hollow, and they may very well remain willing to…
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Dog." Online Literature E-text. [23 Jul 2007]
Ibsen, Henrik. "Hedda Gabler." Project Gutenberg E-text. [23 Jul 2007]
Failure of Family: The Irony of the Vicar of akefield
Tolstoy states that every happy family is the same (Tolstoy 1). He says this because happiness is the effect of a life well lived and not of any other cause, which is also the philosophy of Plato (Plato 47). Unhappy families, however, are unhappy mainly because they have failed to live well, or virtuously. That is the case of the Primrose family in The Vicar of akefield: the family undergoes terrible misfortunes mainly because it fails to live for the good or to understand its own place in the world. The primary responsibility for the misfortune falls on the parents who fail to recognize their own faults and do not raise their children correctly. The parents also fail to realize who they are in social terms and thus deceive themselves as to their actual social value. This paper will show…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. UK: Dover, 1995. Print.
Dahl, Curtis. "Patterns of Disguise in The Vicar of Wakefield." ELH -- Johns Hopkins
University Press, vol. 25, no. 2 (1958): 90-104. Print.
Goldsmith, Oliver. The Vicar of Wakefield. UK: Dover, 2004. Print.
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:
Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN
Politics.Com. Cited in:
Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.
Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.
In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) The Miracle of Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
Fisher, Eugene J. (2008) Jewish-Christian Relations 1989-1993. International Council of Christians and Jews. A Bibliographic Update. Online available at http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=809#Biblical%20Studies:%20Jewish%20and%20Christian
Dubnow, S.M. (2005) Jewish History. Plain Label Books. ISBN:1603031006 http://books.google.com/books?id=zdQY_pHP0FYC&dq=jewish+history&pg=PP1&ots=DDVycu70fB&source=citation&sig=r6dn9cM2TswSod-OTzjaFHqQE6Q&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=gmail&q=Jewish+History&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=1&cad=bottom-3results#PPA20,M1
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) Why Study History. Crash Course in Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
Nevertheless, Christian values require that in exercising parental authority over children, Christian parents do so humbly, without anger, ego, and without any motivation of selfishness of self-importance. In principle, Christian parents discipline their children on behalf of God and as a means of ensuring that they follow Christian teachings while they are at impressionable ages.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Perhaps the only weakness in relation to Christian values that pertain to sex, marriage, and family is that it is somewhat unclear what the role of marriage and sexual relations in marriage are among couples who choose not to become parents or who know in advance that they are incapable of conceiving. To the extent they have no interest in procreation, marriage and sexual relations would seem to be pointless. In other respects, Christian values about sex, marriage, and family provide a consistent and sound framework for social relations, particularly in the…
A comprehensive framework of one's basic beliefs about things and their relationships, a worldview addresses a stance that one believes is critical and fundamental about the world (Downers, 2008)
According to Phillips (2008) a worldview is an explanation and interpretation of the world and it involves application of this view of life, in simple terms worldview is a view of the world and a view for the world.
Why am I living?
According to Kennedy (2010) God placed a living soul into a lifeless human body; this tells us that man is more than the offspring of primeval animals. Man is created with unique and vast higher nature inside the mortal is something immortal. God introduced a form of life into the human organism which is soul. Soul is eternal, does not breath air, drink water or consume food it is sustained entirely by the design and will of…
Downers Grove, (2008) the transforming vision, shaping a Christian world views.
Kennedy Raggio, (2010) I am here for a reason retrieved from www.kenraggio.com
Phillips, W.G., Brown, W.E. & Stone Street, J. (2008). Making sense of your world: A biblical worldview.
Fictional Elements in Selected orks from Kate Chopin and Anton Chekhov
In both of Kate Chopin's works, "The Story of an Hour" and "Desiree's Baby," the most important element of fiction which the author invokes is plot and conflict, for the simple fact that this element is the most effective way of imparting the powerful irony which grips both of these tales. "The Story of an Hour" in particular is too brief to provide a significant level of characterization or setting, yet it's brevity actually helps to accentuate the irony of a work in which the principle protagonist, Mrs. Mallard, believes that she has escaped the overbearing will and presence of her husband and reaffirms her devotion to live -- only to die suddenly at the unexpected presence of the latter at the story's conclusion. Chopin utilizes such a plot to emphasize the situation irony with which her tale is…
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Dog." 1899. Web.
Chekhov, Anton. "Darling." n.d. Web.
Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." 1894. Web.
Chopin, Kate. "Desiree's Baby." 1899. Web.
Nostalgia for the Past
Nostalgia can take many forms, but can perhaps be summarized by the phrase 'appropriating selected aspects of the past for the use of the present'. It tends to involve an emotional or spiritual response to the past rather than a rationalizing one, and as a result is associated with the art of sentiment rather than of intellect. As we shall see, however, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artists who made use of nostalgia were prepared to shape its appeal in intellectual as well as purely sentimental or aesthetic forms.
Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) was a passionately political artist, a proponent of history painting in its most elevated form and of the neoclassicist aesthetic. His 'The Oath of the Horatii' of 1784 (Louvre, Paris) depicts a scene from the Roman historian Livy: the three Horatii brothers pledge to fight the three Curiatii brothers in order to settle a dispute between…
However, in line with the Paz prompt at the outset of this discussion, Keats merely uses this tradition as a bridge on which to extend toward motivation on behalf of the evolving form. The subject matter is where this work takes a step toward modernity. The manner in which Keats describes the reality of dying is startling for its time primarily because it lacks religiosity. In describing death, the poet tells, "where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies; / here but to think is to be full of sorrow / and leaden-eyed despairs; / here beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes, / or new Love pine at them beyond to-morrow."
The notion of discussing death from a decidedly humanistic rather than spiritual perspective is more daring and innovative than perhaps we are won't to give credit for. It is remarkable that the poet would invert a steadfastly traditional form…
Dickinson, E. (1862). #303 (the Soul Selects Her Own Society). Poets.org.
Eliot, T.S. (1917). The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. University of Virginia. Online at http://people.virginia.edu/~sfr/enam312/prufrock.html
Keats, J. (1819). Ode to a Nightingale. Arthur Quiller-Couch, ed. 1919. The Oxford Book of English Verse: 1250 -- 1900.
Russia was a highly backward agricultural country prior to the revolution of 1917. Most of the agricultural land was owned by the royal family, the nobility and the clergy. Most peasants had to manage to survive on less than three acres of land using primitive tools and methods of cultivation. To compound their problems they were required to pay huge sums in rent and tributes to their land owners every year. These hardships created great discontent. Moreover, Russian industry was behind the times and highly dependent on foreign investment capital. Industrial workers had to endure hard conditions, received extremely low wages, and worked 12 to 14 hours a day. During this period it was considered a crime to form trade unions. The government did nothing to improve these conditions and the majority of the Russian people suffered from poverty and disease ("Causes of the Russia Revolution").
"Causes of the Russian Revolution." Pink Monkey Online Study Guide -- World History. (ND). Web. 22 October 2012.
"Causes." The Russian Revolution. (N.D.). Web. 22, 2012. < http://akussr.com/index.html>