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United States of America Has a Long

Words: 1938 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 973824

United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).

Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).

On the other hand, Conservatism deems…… [Read More]


Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.

Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.

Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.

Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
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Louis Hartz's the Liberal Tradition in America

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89798640

Conservatism in America

Intellectually, it is indeed correct that post-orld ar II can be divided into two periods of conservatism: the period which emerged directly after the war (1945-1990) and the period from 1990 onwards. Traditionally as Ball explained, conservatism in America were opposed to rapid development and industrialization in the early 20th century: "From their point-of-view, this new mass society posed the same threat that democracy had always posed -- the threat that the masses would throw society first into chaos and then in despotism. In arguments similar to those of Plato, Aristotle, and more recently Alexis de Tocqueville, traditional conservatives maintained that the common people were too weak and too ignorant to take charge of government" (Ball, 108). Essentially, this meant that conservatism in the twentieth century revolved around the notion of self-restraint and a core belief pervades that only a small majority are suitable to govern, while…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ball, Terry and Richard Dagger. Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. London: Pearson, 2014. Print. .

Boland, Joseph. U.S. Political Thought: Lecture 2. 28 September 1995. website. 2013.

Carey, George, W. "The American Founding and Limited Government." Retrieved from: The Imaginative Conservative. Web.

Crick, Bernard. "The Strange Quest for An American Conservatism." The Review of Politics (1955): 359-376. print. .
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Political Ideologies if We Look

Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42905929

This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.

Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.

Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.

On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…… [Read More]

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Political Science History

Words: 6252 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80408978

conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement

Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.

Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]


George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis

Volume Library #2, p. 2146

Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism

McGinnis, National Review Online
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Marx & Machiavelli the Issue

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30489518

Marx would therefore react negatively towards the idea that some economic power cannot be distributed in an absolutely equal sense. Communism entails the equal distribution not only of wealth, but also of economic power. Liberalism does therefore fit into this ideal to some degree, but not entirely.

Machiavelli had a number of beliefs related to his economic paradigm. According ot this philosopher, human beings, society and culture can all be improved by means of education, and that central to such education stood manly virtues. This paradigm is more or less proved by means of the evolution of liberalism in the United States. A system that began as yet another form of coercion has developed to become an altogether improved paradigm. Indeed, the variety of ideologies within society at any given time greatly influenced the evolution of the liberalist ideology. This can be seen above, with the historical movements from World…… [Read More]


Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "Karl Marx." August 26, 2003

The Reader's Companion to U.S. History. "American Liberalism." 2004.
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Leninism Prior to Leninism Refers

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86890375

A democracy based on peaceful demonstrations rather than on a coup or forced government changes is one in which millions of citizens decided to take action for their own future economic and democratic benefit. The political system India has is based on the political culture of the society that governed it - which is England. The Indian system of justice, according to the CIA orld Factbook is based on English common law. But because India is 80% Hindu, 13.4% Muslim and 2.3% Christian, the country has separate codes of law for those three religions. In fact, there is a great deal of hostility between Muslims and Hindu people, so separate law codes show that India has adopted Classical Liberalism.

Classical Liberalism that has evolved into New Liberalism in India means an open democracy where the government uses a free market and fairness in matters of justice along with regular elections…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Central Intelligence Agency. "The World Factbook: India." Retrieved May 18, 2008, at .

Princeton University. "Leninism." Retrieved May 18, 2008, at .

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "Liberalism." Retrieved May 19, 2008, at .
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U S and Int'l Relations International Relations Theories

Words: 1434 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28917783

U.S. And Int'l. Relations

International Relations Theories and the Role of the U.S. In the Middle East

A Short Analysis of U.S. Culture Theories and Interventions

intervention in the Middle East has had very divergent consequences for both Iraq and the United States, with the lasting outcome being undetermined as of yet. The two countries are polar opposites in many ways, including vastly different cultures, different work ethics, and different histories. The divide between the Western Liberalized world and the world of Muslim dictators has always been troublesome in relations between the two populations. Lessons may be learned from the African Union in how to unite deeply divided states, as the institution has been successful in their attempt to unite states divided by religion, ethnicity, language, and culture. The African Union may also learn lessons from the U.S. intervention in Iraq, as the International Relations Theory pursued by the United…… [Read More]

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Mass Politics in Europe at the End

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37859780

Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…… [Read More]


Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.

Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.
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Grand Strategy and Theory There

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83503880

With the widening of economic interdependence and spread of democratic norms, liberalism envisions a slow journey away from the realists' vision. Liberalists do not view a state as a single actor in war, but rather as a coalition of coalitions that is representing different individuals and groups. Limitations of state power, rule of law, transparency of democratic and government processes will make it easier for the sustenance of international cooperation.

In terms of security, liberalists differ from realists as they not only view it in military terms, but also as the promotion and protection of individual rights. In the fight on terrorism, the liberal approach would emphasize on application of legal instruments instead of military force. The liberal approach to the United States war on terrorism would involve issues like organized crime and its potential for creating terrorists.

This would be in contrast to the realist approach of force on…… [Read More]


Drezner, Daniel W. "Does Obama Have a Grand Strategy? Why We Need Doctrines in
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Afghanistan War From All Appearances

Words: 2368 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99262579

" According to anuri "...the inference drawn here is that since there are no inherent rules (or 'guiding principles') in the international system, states act upon their natural predatory instincts in order to prove the 'initial impetus' for conflict, and therefore the states that are preyed upon must respond to the predator by defending themselves, or indeed counterattacking them." (2007)

The realist view is such that holds that the outbreak of conflict is supported alone by domestic policies and predatory practices." (anuri, 2007)

Garib (2003) writes in the work entitled: "Realism and Liberalism Reconsidered in Post 9/11 American Foreign Policy" that while the liberalism of former President George W. ush is "ostensibly present in the National Security Council's 2002 National Security Strategy, which speaks of America crating 'a balance of power that favors human freedom' and of a new American international outlook which seeks to create political and economic freedom,…… [Read More]


Ahmed, Nafeez Mossaddeq (2001) Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States: The Role of Human Rights in Western Foreign Policy. Media Monitors Network. 2 May 2001. Online available at: 

Ali, Noor, U.S.-UN Conspiracy Against the People of Afghanistan, Online Center for Afghan Studies, 21 February 1998 in: Ahmed, Nafeez Mossaddeq (2001) Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States: The Role of Human Rights in Western Foreign Policy. Media Monitors Network. 2 May 2001. Online available at:
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Justice in Society According to Rawls and

Words: 1865 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50343082

Justice in Society According to awls and Hampshire

This is paper contrasting the political philosophies of awls and Hampshire according o their views in 'Political liberalism' the Law of Peoples' and 'Justice as Conflict'. 4 sources are given.

Very few alternatives to the prevalent utilitarianism, dominant in most of the Western world, have emerged and made any significant impact. The theories of John awls however have made an important contribution to political philosophy and if not unanimously agreed upon they nevertheless have led to a revival in the academic study of political philosophy. His work has provoked debate amongst economists, legal scholars, political scientists, sociologists, and theologians alike. His Theory of Justice and subsequent additions and modifications to this hypothesis in the form of 'Political liberalism' and 'The Law of Peoples' is a comprehensive and detailed proposal that evolved over decades.

The 'Justice as Conflict' theory put forward by another…… [Read More]


Hampshire, Stuart. "Justice Is Conflict." Princeton University Press. 2001.

Martin, Rex. "Rawls's New Theory of Justice," Chicago-Kent Law Review, Volume 69: 737-761, 1994.

Rawls, John. Political Liberalism, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Rawls, John. The Law of Peoples: with "The Idea of Public Reason Revisited" Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999.
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What Is Realism in International Relations

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75015828

International Relations

Realism in International Relations

In the study of politics, the subject of international relations inevitably surfaces, mainly because politics do not only deal with national or domestic affairs, but also international concerns and issues. In the field of international relations, there are two prevailing paradigms: realism and liberalism. Although the focus of this discussion would be on realism, it can be best understood by also identifying and distinguishing it from liberalism.

Liberalism as a political paradigm in international relations posits that conflicts between and among states can be resolved through the help of international institutions like the United Nations and World Trade Organization. As a political ideology, liberalism is idealistic in the sense that its proponents believe that conflicts and even wars can be resolved diplomatically, and effectively through an efficient medium (i.e., international institutions). The Modernist Project of the United States during the Cold War period witnessed…… [Read More]

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Should Australia Have a Bill of Rights

Words: 3069 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77994316

Australia Have a Bill of ights?

Australia is the last remaining Common Law country without a Bill or ights or Human ights Bill. It is important to note that the Australian variant of liberalism differs from the Anglo-American model in two important ways. First, the establishment of Australia as a series of British colonies under authoritarian governors and the absence of any political revolution has meant a lesser stress on the idea of individual rights vs. The state. There has been no one in Australian history to shout 'Give me liberty or give me death', no real pressure to incorporate a Bill of ights into our Constitution (owse, 1978).

Second, these factors combined with the problems of economic development in Australia and the generally inhospitable nature of the land, a staple theme of Australian literature, has meant an absence of any real laissez-faire tradition. 'Socialism' may be abhorred in the…… [Read More]


Conway, Ronald (1978). Land of the Long Weekend, Melbourne, p. 55.

Conway, Ronald (1971). The Great Australian Stupor, Melbourne, Chapter 5.

Rowse, Tim (1978). Australian Liberalism and National Character, Melbourne, p. 239.

Patapan, Haig (1997). Competing Visions of Liberalism: Theoretical Underpinnings of the Bill of Rights Debate in Australia; 21 Melb U.L. Rev. 497.
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Gender Race and Constitutional Change

Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83041050

The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)

Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…… [Read More]


Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at 

Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),

Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)

Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
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Politics International Relations Analysis of Theories the

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91739419


International Relations

Analysis of Theories

The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.

To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…… [Read More]

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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26697487

In this way, religion was used in an attempt not only to make the proletariat content with their lives of alienation, exploitation and poverty, but also as a way to actually encourage them to want less and to enjoy their low stations in life as a sign of their future happiness in the religious afterlife. Regardless of Marx's beliefs concerning the Christian faith, or any other religious belief system, his critique of religion was aimed not at religious institutions per se, but at their implementation of religion as a means of subjugation.

It is for this reason that Marx believes the emancipation of humanity will necessarily involve an emancipation from religion. Because religious teachings, as Marx sees them, reinforce the ideals that create and maintain the inequalities of the capitalist system, such teachings must be done away with if the proletariat are to be able to make fully informed and…… [Read More]

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Modernity the Discourse of Modernity

Words: 3436 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63570272

The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.

From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.

Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]

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Locke One of the Single

Words: 5073 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43486576

This body then has the right and duty, especially if elected to represent to build the laws and enforce the judgment of those laws, as a reflection of the will of the consensus. Locke, having developed a keen sense of a rather radical sense of the rights of the individual and the responsibility of the civil government began his work with the development of what it is that constructs the "natural rights" of man. Locke, therefore begins his Second Treatise on the natural rights of man, as he puts it to illuminate the understanding of the right to rule.

Natural Rights Theory

Locke demonstrates in the beginning of his Second Treatise the idea that the government created by the people can only be so if the people accept that certain rights of nature are true to all men. The development of these rights is not necessary as they are natural…… [Read More]


Arneil, Barbara. John Locke and America: The Defence of English Colonialism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Brown, Gillian. The Consent of the Governed: The Lockean Legacy in Early American Culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press. 2001.

Dunn, John. The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the 'Two Treatises of Government' London: Cambridge

Univ. Press, 2006.
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Political Philosophies When We Talk

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62498066

Marx further included that finally the biased behavior of the working class will end this dictatorship period, and a class less society will establish. He believed that for the formation of this society people need to launch an organized movement against the dictatorship and only a successful revolution would lead to the formation of society of "Communism" (Skoble, 2007).

When we talk about the political philosophy, we can observe that both John Locke and Karl Marx are in favor of the idea that when there is a need of change then an organized revolution is compulsory. People cannot get their rights until they demand for it because it's natural thing that you need to raise your voice in order to get your right otherwise other will keep it as their own possession.

The point of differ come when we talk about the scenario in which both of them forwarded their…… [Read More]


Riemer, N., & Simon, D. (1997). The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. San Diego: Collegiate Press.

Skoble. (2007). Political Philosophy: Essential Selections. London: Pearson Education India.

Tully, J. (1993). An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
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Protestant Fundamentalism in Early-Twentieth-Century U S

Words: 2457 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99708579

These are not matters of arguments as concerning the holiness of the Christianity. The conservatives could easily agree regardless of their respective schematizations of the redemptive history and holiness. Therefore, this united opposition to the rise of modernism reached the multitudes in the form of multiple famous publications, the Fundamentals (1910-1915) (Babinski, 1995). This publication presented enough moderation for the movement. This allowed people to speak of any firm fundamentalist. The conservatives still belonged to the mainstream church and worked for their reforms from within the church.

Marsden makes clear in his definition the diversity of the conservatives question to the church relationship with the world. He presents different perspectives; these are, the 'premillennial extreme', which condemned the present age and could not fathom the use of the widespread efforts of reform. In their congregation, the premillennialists' interests in evangelism and civic reform simply over rode the pessimism that we…… [Read More]


Marsden, G.M. (2006). Fundamentalism and American culture. New York: Oxford University


Coreno, T. (2002). Fundamentalism as a class culture. Sociology of Religion, 63(3), 335-360.

Retrieved from
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Theory of Punishment

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88007145

Locke's Theory Of Punishment

John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.

Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the…… [Read More]


Locke, J. (1924). Of civil government: Two treatises. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
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Latin America in the National Period

Words: 1493 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33223336

Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.

Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…… [Read More]


Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.

Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
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The President and the Demands

Words: 1244 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60184222

In the course of
this duration, it will be his duty to connect his ideological orientation-
and that of his supporters-to the issues and structures defining the state
Therefore, when we consider such issues as Cold ar policy, for
instance, which was a dominant matter to presidents occupying the office
between orld ar II and the end of the Reagan era, we note that
philosophical distinctions proving a vast chasm between figures such as
Eisenhower and Kennedy, or Carter and Reagan, would nonetheless be bridged
by their collective attention to the issues of Soviet power, global nation-
building and the provision of national security in a time of great
rhetorical conflict. For all occupying presidents during this time, the
obsessive public attention to the issue of the communist threat, the
military demands which required American boots on the soil in a wide array
of theatres and the systemic internal…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Grover, W. (1989). The President as Prisoner. Willis Monie Books.
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Rating Ideologies Environmentalism Is the

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96562242

6. I disagree with fascism. Fascism promotes the whole of society over the individual, which appears to be a sound policy. However, in reality, fascist societies result in the widespread denial of basic human rights to those who do not fit into the government vision of normalcy.

7. I disagree with communism as an ideology, because its focus on collective ownership of resources ignores one of the basic truths about human nature: greed. Communist systems place far too much power in the hands of those who control the resources, and that power has been abused in every single communist government that has ever been established.

8. Conservativism is one of the ideologies I agree with the least. I disagree with it because one of its driving principles is an entirely free market. Conservatives believe that "Economic freedom is essentially about ensuring human rights. Strengthening and expanding it guarantees an individual's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Democratic Socialists of America.

Where We Stand. WWW.DSAUSA.ORG.2008.

Democratic Socialists of America. 14 Feb. 2008 .

Kim, Anthony. "The Link Between Economic Freedom and Human Rights."
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Fractured Worlds Over the Last

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 93720930

Yet, in certain regions of the world (i.e. The Middle East) religion has become a part of the national identity for many states by: combining its principals into government policy. Over the course of time, this has led to increased amounts of tension between the West and these nations. This is important, because it is showing me how the West's ideas have failed to address their intended objectives.

n response to these issues, Pasha feels that slam is embracing similar ideas of Western philosophy to include: tolerance, following the rule of law, respect for the ideas of others and helping to support the community. However, many of these ideas have been high jacked by extremists who are imposing their own stricter version of rules that is based on: hate and following stringent moral guidelines. As a result, Pasha believes that Western ideas have helped to fuel more radical ideologies. The…… [Read More]

In the article that was written by Pasha (2003), he talks about how this transformation is occurring based upon the declining amounts of influence that many Western nations are experiencing. This is because some of these countries have tried to impose their social ideas and culture upon others. The problem with this approach is that many countries have rejected these views. This is because they are trying change their way of life through encouraging them to follow practices that are common in select nations (such as: the separation between the church and state). Yet, in certain regions of the world (i.e. The Middle East) religion has become a part of the national identity for many states by: combining its principals into government policy. Over the course of time, this has led to increased amounts of tension between the West and these nations. This is important, because it is showing me how the West's ideas have failed to address their intended objectives.

In response to these issues, Pasha feels that Islam is embracing similar ideas of Western philosophy to include: tolerance, following the rule of law, respect for the ideas of others and helping to support the community. However, many of these ideas have been high jacked by extremists who are imposing their own stricter version of rules that is based on: hate and following stringent moral guidelines. As a result, Pasha believes that Western ideas have helped to fuel more radical ideologies. The problem is that no single theory is completely accurate and they are all filled with inconsistencies. This means that applying them in the real world can be exercise in futility. These elements are important, because they are illustrating to me how alternate theories are ineffective.

When you step back and reflect upon these ideas, it is clear that Western philosophy has helped contribute to a number of international incidents. This is because these nations are attempting to impose their social, political and religious influences on them. At which point, many countries became resistant to these changes. As Pasha, is correct in his analysis of applying alternative ideologies (i.e. Islam) to these situations. This is because; they are following similar ideas as Western culture. Yet, many of the basic principals have been taken over by radicals. Once this occurred is when Islam became ineffective (due to its lack of openness and flexibility). As a result, the last ten years have illustrated how Western philosophy and other alternatives are unable to deal with a host of issues.
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Economics Crisis as an Inevitable

Words: 4733 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43936576

The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).

Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…… [Read More]


Avizius, R. 2009. Financial Crisis Big Picture: What has the Government Response Been? [ONLINE] Available at: . [Accessed 22 May 2012].

Centeno, M.A. & Cohen, J.N. 2012. The Arc of Neoliberalism. [ONLINE] Available at: . [Accessed 22 May 2012].

Crotty, J. 2009. Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the 'new financial architecture' . [ONLINE] Available at: . [Accessed 22 May 2012].

Esteva, G. (n.d.). The Meaning of the Global Crisis and "Recovery" for Study Abroad: What are we Preparing Students for? [ONLINE] Available at: . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
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Gw Bush Less Than Six

Words: 1386 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42547438

hen a president of the United States begins incorporating religious rhetoric into his speeches, alarm bells must sound. hen that same president allocates taxpayer monies to religious groups, then citizens should be experiencing widespread panic.

Bush's No Child Left Behind Act is no less frightening than the faith-based initiative. Hiding behind good intentions, the No Child Left Behind Act fails to take into account a major factor: reality. Jim Donlevy notes, "It simply is not reasonable to continue to identify thousands of failing schools throughout the United States and then to see through to completion the sanctions written into the Act." The Act includes provisions for annual testing for schools, with progress requirements in core subjects such as English, math and science. "The idea is to be sure that all students are learning at higher standards," (Donlevy). However, the Act demands too much too soon. Forcing some schools to shut…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anders, Christopher E. 2001. They must remain separate. The World & I. Washington: Jul 2001.Vol.16, Iss. 7; pg. 55 .

Dobbins, James. 2005. Iraq: Winning the Unwinnable War. Foreign Affairs. New York: Jan/Feb 2005.Vol.84, Iss. 1; pg. 16 .

Donlevy, Jim. 2003. Teachers, Technology and Training: No Child Left Behind: Failing Schools and Future Directions. International Journal of Instructional Media. New York: 2003.Vol.30, Iss. 4; pg. 335, 4 pages .

Patterson, Thomas E. We the People. 5th edition. McGraw-Hill.
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Conflict and Security in the

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6129801

This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.

While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…… [Read More]


Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
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Private Property and the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75365249

Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Private Property in 16th Century Spain

Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]


Abercrombie, T.A. (). Colonial relandscaping of Andean social memory.. In Pathways of memory and power: Ethnography and history among an Andean people (pp. ). University of Wisconsin Press.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1996). Q'aqchas and la plebe in "rebellion" -- carnival vs. lent in 18th-century potosi. Journal of Latin American, 2(1), 62-111.

Alban, J.P.V. (1999). Introduction: The decline of propriety. In Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (pp. ). Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.

Elliott, J.H. (1991, Autumn). Renaissance Quarterly, 44(3) A Review: Nader, H. (1990). Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516-1700. Baltimore and London, The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Herbert Hoover

Words: 4508 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29389765

Herbert Hoover

When Herbert Hoover became president in 1929, the foundations of economic stability were already beginning to crumble. The demand for mass produced items had peaked, and new areas of spending that would recover the downturn were leveling off. Investors were not hurrying to build new areas of growth since market creation was troublesome. Hoover, or the Great Engineer as he called himself, had many plans for large studies of social trends and corresponding services for child welfare, housing, recreation, education and public health. In fact, he came into office pledging "a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage" and "a final triumph over poverty." In his view, the marriage of private enterprise with science and technology would end poverty and welcome in a new humane social order. However, it did not take long before Hoover found that his attention would be diverted toward much more…… [Read More]

Barbara Polikoff. Herbert C. Hoover. (Ada, OK: Garrett, 1990), 92.

Alonzo Hamby, 33.

Ellis Hawley essay in Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism. (Rochester, VT: Schenkman, 1973), 117.
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Studying International Relations

Words: 1699 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90254220

International relations studies is the specialization that focuses on the study of foreign affairs and the global events significantly influence the trend of the states that are within the international system. These systems are categorized as governments, countries, organizations and even people who are the main agents of relations and interchange between people within varying geographical locations (WITS University, 2014). There are pertinent issues that are involved in the study of international relations such as war, disease, democracy, poverty, diplomacy, globalization, economics and trade. The significance of continued study of international relations are numerous and important to any organization and governments. From the study of international reactions between two entities in the past, it is possible to predict the future and the significance and possible repercussions of some international decisions that a government or a president or even the organizations may take. International studies a reason geared towards having a…… [Read More]


Business Dictionary, (2014). Constructivism. Retrieved November 21, 2014 from 

Donnelly J., (2000). Realism and International Relations. Retrieved November 21, 2014 from 

Global Policy Forum, (2014). What is a "State." Retrieved November 21, 2014 from

Gul A., (2014). Olson: U.S.-Pakistan Relations Still Challenging, Improving. Retrieved November 21, 2014 from
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capitalism industrial revolution and'social change

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79668110

Although economic, political, and social structures had been changing for at least a century prior, the Industrial Revolution did have a tremendous and far-reaching impact on reconfiguring socioeconomic classes. Industrial capitalism shifted the centers of economic power to the private sector, and economic systems became far more decentralized than ever before due to the emergence of market capitalism. The new economic regime necessitated new political institutions, which in turn transformed social structures. Nineteenth century social formations included a leisure class known as the bourgeoisie and the working class, known as the proletariat, while the new political ideologies that supported capitalism included liberalism and socialism.
Prior to the Enlightenment, European social, economic and political institutions were dependent on Church authority (Burke, n.d.). The French Revolution was a harbinger of the new social and political institutions like liberalism and socialism. Monarchic rule was a thing of the past; once the seeds of…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Applications on Why Bill

Words: 1905 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3464459

Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.

One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…… [Read More]


Bacevich, a.J., and Eliot a. Cohen. 2001. War over Kosovo. Columbia University Press.

Morgenthau, Hans J. 1978. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 5th ed. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.

Sell, Louis. 2003. Slobodan Milosevic and the destruction of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press, September 1.

Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46, no. 2 (Spring): 391-425.
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Branksome Hall a Private All-Girls

Words: 894 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73062961

The article also appears to support the use of a free market and competitive capitalism which are both elements of the private school system reviewed. Both of these elements are important to all-girl schools, as they are run as businesses and must attract ample numbers of students to remain profitable. For example the article discusses the marketing techniques of the school in attracting pupils, who may be considered as clients. The paradigm is considered to be the neo-capitalist approach as opposed to the liberalism paradigm, as the nature of schools means that there is some governmental control exerted over the business to ensure it meets legislation and standards.

ritical Analysis

The article is well written overall, for instance the structure is laid out to describe a personal story, but with external examples used to provide explanations. The provision of examples may have been improved, however. The use of one school…… [Read More]

Critical Analysis

The article is well written overall, for instance the structure is laid out to describe a personal story, but with external examples used to provide explanations. The provision of examples may have been improved, however. The use of one school in Toronto to provide figures illustrating the school's popularity was successful in illustrating that the one specific school had increased their intake between 1993 and the present. This popularity was then applied as a generalization to the entire all-girl schooling system in Canada. There were no overall figures presented to illustrate this conclusion however. The fact that one school had increased the number of enrolled children does not necessarily indicate that all-girl schools overall have experienced increased popularity. For example it may simply be that as the school was only opened recently the size has only expanded slowly to accommodate a large number of pupils. It may be that if the school had been opened for many more years it would have already reached the current capacity at some stage in the past.

The article also surmised the reasons for which parents decide upon sending their child to an all-girls school. While the author speaks to one family, the information would have been more useful if it had come directly from families. For example the perceptions of the school as to why parents select to send their children there do not necessarily reflect the views of the parents. It would also have been interesting if information were presented about how the school chose to market itself. For example it may be that the school has selected one particular characteristic of the school to highlight in their marketing campaigns. The decision of the parents may then therefore be focused upon that one characteristic. This may help to explain the presence of an increase in popularity. The characteristics presented in the marketing campaign may reveal the characteristics with which parents are least pleased in the public school system.
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Gift Cards Unredeemed Gift Cards

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4310312

The article does however support the view that although the businesses should be able to profit from people not redeeming their gift cards, there should be measures in place to ensure that businesses are not allowed to abuse the system. This is in contrast to liberalism, the other paradigm which focuses on the business perspective, as there is no model proposed to monitor the capitalism. The article instead appears to be fully in favor of capitalism, as there is no negative view given as to the benefits which companies may gain from the situation.

Critical Analysis

The article is well-written overall. The article accurately reports the findings of the study which are the focus of the article. The study provides empirical evidence for the observations which are detailed in the article. There are not only the statistics reported in the article, but also a thorough explanation of what the results…… [Read More]