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Liberalism as an ideology has a long and complex history in politics as well as philosophy. In essence the liberal tradition refers to a system of thought or ideology which emphasizes the concept of freedom and personal liberty as the purpose of government. This also implies the ability to desist and the right of opposition to established systems and rules and governance which may be seen to infringe on the ethos of freedom that forms the kernel of liberal ideologies.
A simple definition of the idea of the liberal tradition is as follows.
Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. It typically favors the right to dissent from orthodox tenets or established authorities in political or religious matters.
( Wikipedia: Liberalism)
Liberalism is also defined and understood in contradistinction to other political ideologies such as…… [Read More]
" These metaphors play a powerful role in the history of philosophy, shaping and often distorting our views both of reason, mind, emotion, and body and of men and women. Other important discussions of gendered metaphors in philosophy include Irigaray," whose disucssion of the female sex calls woman the gender that is not one, in other words that the female body physically denies the male, liberal split of self and other. This split is intrinsic to patriarchy, even liberal patriarchy, and denies the ability of women to assert 'the feminine' as writ upon their bodies and souls. Philosophers such as French feminist and deconstructionist Luce Irigaray thus deny the presumption of liberal's use of temrs such as the individual and pre-exisintg and 'obvious' existance rights. (Saul, 2004)
Liberalism rests upon a conception of the self, and "the topic of the self has long been salient in feminist philosophy, for it…… [Read More]
Liberalism and the modern mind produced a profound effect upon church culture as it was manifested at the turn of the 20th century. The impact of liberalism and many of the concerns of modern man from this epoch also greatly affect the perception of church culture and Christianity today. The effect of liberalism on the church at this time is important, because it occurred when "Western missionary expansion" (Noll, 2012, p. 263) was becoming a global phenomenon. Protestant Liberalism largely arose from the need of Christians to contend with some of the most pressing issues of the late 1800's and early 1900's, which included various aspects of science and history, and zeitgeists such as omanticism. A close look at the various ramifications of these concerns reveals that liberalism and the modern mind ultimately was responsible for a reshaping of values within the Christian Church, in which orthodox principles were readily…… [Read More]
The conservative view -- that of teaching intelligent design, or an alternative to Darwinism, is antithetical to science. In American public schools, religion may be taught about, but not taught. This means, religion may be presented as an historical or philosophical debate, as long as belief systems or spirituality are neither taught nor given predominance by the teacher. The idea of evolution is central to almost every biological and scientific paradigm in contemporary culture, and must be taught in order to students to be well informed. The idea of taking a non-scientific concept and presenting it as science does not make it science, regardless of how it is dressed up (Polkinghorne, 2006).
Indeed, the idea of presenting fairness in a classroom situation is untenable when trying to teach a religious-based concept next to a scientific-based set of principles. When we teach the Civil War, we do not typically teach the…… [Read More]
Liberals tend to emphasize individual rights over governmental authority and to leave the economy alone, unless it needs help. More and more, the economy has been controlled by conservative elements and this has tended to squelch free trade and put too many regulations on imports, while allowing special interests avenues of squeezing more revenue out of the citizens by legalizing higher interest rates, putting tariffs on imports, freezing influx of cheap labor even while raising private profits by raising prices (such as for gas) and shipping manufacturing out of the country to where free labor resides.
here conservatives have traditionally believed in the superiority of the ruling class, today in the United States they have concentrated power and money into smaller numbers of people, corporations and bureaus, and the government is used to protect those interests.
Liberals believe in individual rights, and, as it says in the Preamble, to…… [Read More]
In light of the fact that major wars between democratic nations, which are typically trading partners involved in lucrative import/export arrangements, are relatively rare from a historical standpoint, "liberals argue that economic interdependence lowers the likelihood of war by increasing the value of trading over the alternative of aggression ... (as) independent states would rather trade than invade"4 (Copeland, 1996, pg. 5). Unrestrained liberalism has often been touted by proponents as the prudent path to world peace, even as the world inches closer to a state of open conflict, such as through the Wilsonian foreign policy instituted by President Woodrow Wilson prior to World War I, or the Bush doctrine's fallacious notion of instilling democratic ideals in Iraq by virtue of an outright invasion. In fact, many scholars insist that "the human rights movement was built on a Wilsonian platform, insisting that governments make
4 Copeland, Dale C. "Economic interdependence…… [Read More]
F.A. Hayek argued that there can be no freedom of press "if the instruments of printing are under government control, no freedom of assembly if the needed rooms are so controlled, no freedom of movement if the means of transport are a government monopoly" (Liberalism pp).
As Thomas Paine wrote in 'Common Sense,' "Government even in its best state is a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one..." (Sturgis pp). Thomas Jefferson focused on creating an independent citizenry capable of maintaining the democratic republic, and he found his key in the yeoman farmer, believing "that the self-sufficient landowner possessed the ability to cultivate himself and therefore treasure his freedom" (Sturgis pp).
illiam Godwin, author of 'Political Justice' 1798, and hailed by many as the father of English anarchism, blended previous forms of classical liberalism into his belief in "the self-perfectibility of man and the law of progress reflected…… [Read More]
Virtues and Liberalism
For several decades, many politicians and professors have been promoting the belief that the fate of liberal democracy in America is correlated with the quality of citizens' character (erkowitz, 1999). President George W. ush campaigned as a compassionate conservative, promising to restore honor and dignity to the Presidency. In 1992, former President ill Clinton sought to set a new tone for the Democratic Party, campaigning as a New Democrat -- devoted not only to the protection of individual rights and the promotion of the social and economic bases of equality but also to the principle of personal responsibility. Clinton's campaign was inspired by the ideas of William Galston, a professor of political science and fellow member of the Democratic Leadership Council, whose writings discussed "liberal virtues" and defended the propriety of a liberal state that cultivates qualities of mind and character that form good and decent citizens.…… [Read More]
Another section of capitalism needing more study according to scholars in general is; how the Constitution relates to all citizens as a whole in regards to traditions, values and such. Cosmopolitans seek to bridge this gap and then promote it on a larger world scale.
Liberalism is not as tolerant of the world community as many people would be lead to believe. Liberalist view themselves more along the lines of referees to the world's problems and fail to treat all people of the world as equals. In the article, "Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Liberalism," Anthony Langlois states, "liberalism must be egalitarian towards all the conceptions of the good life held by these individuals. Such extension of liberalism's tolerance and egalitarianism would in fact undermine liberalism's core values and render the cosmopolitan project a series of contradictions in terms" (Langlois, Abstract). The view point of liberals reflects the national concept…… [Read More]
Therefore, this inequality is just another method of alienating the proletariat from the opportunities provided for the bourgeois. Therefore there should be no difference between natural or gained abilities and the proletariat trait of hard work.
Another major Marxist critique of Rawlsian Liberalism is the idea of choice in each individual's life as a benefiting factor which in turn gives each member of society the potential to earn as much as he or she is capable of based on those individual choices. However, Marx sees this completely differently. Marx believes that every member of the proletariat has only two choices, to work and therefore be exploited, or to not work and essentially starve for lack of compensation. This shows how individuals of the proletariat do not actually have a real choice. If one were to choose to not be exploited, and therefore not work, that person would not be able…… [Read More]
Moreover, they saw religious faith as critical to promoting moral stability in the community (Breslin, 2004). Here we see how federalists adhere in the idea of liberalism by siding with sovereign nation-states where a central type of government is a political strategy. Moreover, Federalists side with the Hobbesian doctrine of liberalism where no religious power should be exercised among people as Anti-Federalists argued that religious faith is crucial is the stability of communities. For Federalists, political rule is the only legitimate rule of power, at least in the socio-political sense.
Berkowitz, P. (1996). Intellectual History of Classical Liberalism. etrieved from www.dailyrepublican.com/liberalhistory.html. onMarch 12.
Breslin, B. (2004). The Communitarian Constitution. etrieved from www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/breslin904.htm. onMarch 12.
Moseley, a. (2006). Political Philosophy. etrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/polphil.htm#SH3aonMarch 12, 2009.
Mount, S. (2007). Constitutional Topic: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists. etrieved at http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_faf.html. onMarch 12, 2009.
New World Encyclopedia. (2008). Age of Enlightenment. etrieved from www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Age_of_EnlightenmentonMarch…… [Read More]
Consistency, coupled by approval generates legitimacy. A government system is only legitimate if it receives the support of plural citizens. Therefore, a good example is Hosni Mubarak's one party, which was illegitimate. Any policy enjoying the majority approval of the citizens is said to be a legitimate policy. In this context, the United States invasion into Iraq has been perceived as illegitimate. This is not because many citizens of Iraq disapproved the policy but also due to the fact that majority of the Arabs recorded substantial support. As the global military utility continues to decline, a country perceived as consistent and legitimate will encounter minimal resistance from the new Arab world while the U.S. continues to execute its policies.
The occurrence of the Second World War is reflected from the relations between the American grand strategy and the initial existence of the realism, constructivism, and liberalism. Moreover, it is evident…… [Read More]
hile the contemporary society might regard an issue such as one's marriage with the sister of his deceased wife as being absurd, this problem dominated affairs in Great Britain for most of the Victorian era. "The "Deceased ife's Sister" controversy was about the potential for triangular desire: two women as potential rivals for one man and one man desiring two women -- who, moreover, are sisters" (Chambers). Religion was particularly important in this situation, as concerns regarding rivalry between sisters go back to biblical times. The authorities saw this problem as one that would negatively affect the cleanliness of the English family and the individuals who were involved in the controversy claimed that the government should be able to impose moral laws upon British citizens.
The relationship between biological sisters was apparently one of the strongest connections from the Victorian era, thus meaning that a disruption would severely affect individuals…… [Read More]
("U.S. Names Coalition of the Willing," 2003)
From the Liberal perspective, the Iraq War is considered to be illegal. This is because, the ush Administration failed to seek the support of the international community before conducting an invasion. They felt that if the White House had taken a different approach about Iraq and WMD's (mainly allowing more time for inspectors to confirm / deny the existence of such programs). This would have created a favorable outcome in line with international law. This is important, because it shows a common theme that is often embraced by the Democratic Party and heads of state (i.e. The EU). Where, they would criticize the war and the conduct of these events, by constantly pointing out how these actions are against international law. ("The War on Iraq," 2007)
Which one do you think is more accurate and why?
Neo-Realism is more accurate. The reason why,…… [Read More]
Another fundamental element of liberal theory and ideology is the right for each individual to pursue and hold private property. According to Locke, each individual has the opportunity and the right to work to better oneself through the accumulation and improvement of their own private property, "it is allowed to be his goods who hath bestowed his labor upon it," (Locke, 21).
This is also a crucial feature in the foundations of capitalism as well. It ensures that as long as one works and labors hard enough, he or she will be entitled to a certain amount of private property to compensate for that labor, "As much land as a man tills, plants, improves, cultivates, and can use the product of, so much is his property," (Locke, 22). It is with this idea that many societies have promised their underprivileged or poor the chance to rise above their inherited ranks…… [Read More]
The Jewish and Italian communities of Canarsie had slowly assembled in this pocket of the city a other neighborhoods became increasingly dominated by African-Americans, accompanied b greater poverty and reduced opportunity. The Jewish and Italian groups were not looked on much better than the African-Americans by many other New Yorkers, and often could not afford to leave their neighborhoods for nicer neighborhoods as many others did, which led to a further decrease in value and opportunity in these neighborhoods. Canarsie became dominated by these two communities -- which solidified into one out of a common set of oppositional circumstances -- as they moved out of other neighborhoods in East New York and consolidated against the encroachment of general degradation. This also explains the deep-rooted mistrust of outsiders, which exists in these cultures to some degree historically.
This directly relates to the issues Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton identify in American…… [Read More]
Classic Liberalism Tradition
Classical liberalism tradition comes from a tradition of thinkers who developed an ideology, rather than a political system. Although many say that classical liberalism stopped after the nineteenth century, libertarians argue that is no interruption in the classical liberal tradition. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx offer a critique of various aspects of the Classical Liberal Tradition argument.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was somewhat supportive of the liberalism tradition, which argues that society exists in order to protect the basic inalienable rights of its citizens. However, he also disagreed with the tradition.
According to Rousseau" "Man is born free and yet we see him everywhere in chains. Those who believe themselves the masters of other ceases not to be even greater slaves than the people they govern. How this happens, I am ignorant but I believe it may be in my power to resolve the question." (p. 205)…… [Read More]
Social liberalism debates that beneficial liberty is indispensable for global human freedom, especially for the poor. Therefore, the government should involve themselves in economic matters for the sake of the unprivileged members of the society (Adams, 2001). Social Liberals equally support the enforcement of agricultural reforms and land leases and are also in favour of a solid and well-controlled state.
Were you surprised by the political ideology to which you belong? Why or why not?
In the United States, the general situation is in conformity to the ideals of social liberalism which I have no problems with, I have no reservations for and may even dare to say, I like.
What are the origins of that political ideology?
The sociologists, economists and philosophers who lived in the 1700s and the early 1800s created a political framework which guided social policy in England, later the United States, then Europe and finally…… [Read More]
libertarianism and liberalism. In your comparison, include a description of how each concept is related to ethics.
Libertarianism vs. liberalism
Liberalism is the foundation of the American political system. The philosophies of John Locke, John Stewart Mill, Rousseau and other political philosophers who maintained liberty to be inherent to the human condition inspired the Founding Fathers. Although the need for individual liberty might seem 'self-evident' in the minds of most Americans today, in the 18th century the notion of the divine right of kings to exercise authority over their subjects was still profoundly influential. Liberals believe that restrictions on liberty must be justified and citizens have the right to autonomy. During the 18th century, the ability of private citizens to exercise authority over private property formed the core of the classical, liberal concept of the right to life, liberty, and property. In the modern political discourse, libertarians who advocate minimal…… [Read More]
This alone is a powerful image of civil rights, yet the scene evolves into one of the chief antagonist of the film trying to intercept the secret codes from the child. These codes are critical to unlocking the anagram on the back of the Declaration and while the antagonists succeed in learning from the boy what he is doing, Ben Gates' team misses being captured. This tension in the film continues with the conflict centering on knowledge of the treasure, and all along the real treasure is freedom.
The many explosive scenes that Director Jerry Bruckheimer is famous for also underscore the liberalism within this film. Starting with the first explosive scene where the Charlotte, an ancient whaling ship that contains a critical piece of evidence that will be used for solving another clue leading to the location of the map of the Templar's fortune. The center of conflict in…… [Read More]
President Obama's remarkable ability to combine his liberal inclinations on humanitarian issues with expertly wielded applications of America's economic and military superiority was presaged in an article published by Harvard Magazine before ballots had been cast in the 2008 election. When professor of international relations Joseph S. Nye Jr. boldly declared that "the old distinction between realists and liberals needs to give way to a new synthesis that you might choose to call 'liberal realism'"4, (2008, pg. 36), he
3 Douthat, oss. "Obama the ealist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011.
4 Nye, Joseph S. "Toward a Liberal ealist Foreign Policy: A memo for the next president." Harvard Magazine 110 (2008): 36-38.
provided a startlingly accurate prediction of President Obama's methodically effective strategy of relying on liberalist motivations to enact firmly realist foreign policy directives in relation to Iran.
Other commentaries on American public opinion towards Iran have focused…… [Read More]
Strauss on Moral Relativism
The Shifting Sand of Moral Relativism
Current political and social thought which is built on the foundation of moral relativism can no more chart a path for a nation to follow out of confusion into an enlightened and orderly society any more than a blind man can describe an elephant, or a child can pilot a 777 airliner. The tools, talents, skills, and abilities of moral relativism are completely inadequate for leading a nation. As can be seen by the steady social and societal decay which has been evident in our county since political and moral relativism have become the dominantly accepted social understanding since the early 1960's, the fruit of such a philosophy pits one group against another, one segment of the population against another without giving them any shared basis to build upon. 'My rights' replace a shared vision of 'our well-being;' and 'my…… [Read More]
Combat. A French Resistance Newspaper from 1944
COMBAT: THE RESISTANCE NESPAPER
Big Brother: The Physical Embodiment and Symbol of the Party in Oceania
Big Brother's Predecessors: Hitler, Stalin and an Old British Recruiting Poster Featuring Lord Kitchener
BIG BROTHER IS HITLER AND STALIN, INCLUDING THE MOUSTACHE
By O'Brien X
Unlike the real dictators Hitler and Stalin, Big Brother does not really exist and has never existed, except as the symbol of English Socialism (Ingsoc) and the Party that controls all aspects of life in Oceania through totalitarian, police state methods. After all, a dictator with a physical body will eventually become ill, decline with age and die, Big Brother will live forever as the image of a Party that intends to remain in power forever. Its members will die off, even at the privileged Inner Party levels, but that matters no more than cutting off dead fingernails. As…… [Read More]
American Religious History
Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…… [Read More]
Mills on Liberty
John Stuart Mill's on Liberty
To whom does Mill's principle of liberty apply? To whom does it NOT apply? Mill justifies the liberty principle according to "the permanent interests of man as a progressive being" (On Liberty, p. 4). What are the strengths and weaknesses of this argument?
Liberty should apply to everyone with a few exceptions. First, liberty should only be granted to the extent in which this liberty does not harm another's liberty. This is known as the harm principle. People should be granted liberty however the right to liberty must stop when it hinders on someone else's well-being. The same principle can also be applied to help others prevent self-harm. For example, children and "backwards" people are unable to prevent self-harm to themselves when granted too much liberty. Therefore, Mill's believes that in such examples despotism is appropriate so long as the ruler is…… [Read More]
United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).
Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).
On the other hand, Conservatism deems…… [Read More]
Conservatism in America
Intellectually, it is indeed correct that post-orld ar II can be divided into two periods of conservatism: the period which emerged directly after the war (1945-1990) and the period from 1990 onwards. Traditionally as Ball explained, conservatism in America were opposed to rapid development and industrialization in the early 20th century: "From their point-of-view, this new mass society posed the same threat that democracy had always posed -- the threat that the masses would throw society first into chaos and then in despotism. In arguments similar to those of Plato, Aristotle, and more recently Alexis de Tocqueville, traditional conservatives maintained that the common people were too weak and too ignorant to take charge of government" (Ball, 108). Essentially, this meant that conservatism in the twentieth century revolved around the notion of self-restraint and a core belief pervades that only a small majority are suitable to govern, while…… [Read More]
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…… [Read More]
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]
Marx would therefore react negatively towards the idea that some economic power cannot be distributed in an absolutely equal sense. Communism entails the equal distribution not only of wealth, but also of economic power. Liberalism does therefore fit into this ideal to some degree, but not entirely.
Machiavelli had a number of beliefs related to his economic paradigm. According ot this philosopher, human beings, society and culture can all be improved by means of education, and that central to such education stood manly virtues. This paradigm is more or less proved by means of the evolution of liberalism in the United States. A system that began as yet another form of coercion has developed to become an altogether improved paradigm. Indeed, the variety of ideologies within society at any given time greatly influenced the evolution of the liberalist ideology. This can be seen above, with the historical movements from World…… [Read More]
A democracy based on peaceful demonstrations rather than on a coup or forced government changes is one in which millions of citizens decided to take action for their own future economic and democratic benefit. The political system India has is based on the political culture of the society that governed it - which is England. The Indian system of justice, according to the CIA orld Factbook is based on English common law. But because India is 80% Hindu, 13.4% Muslim and 2.3% Christian, the country has separate codes of law for those three religions. In fact, there is a great deal of hostility between Muslims and Hindu people, so separate law codes show that India has adopted Classical Liberalism.
Classical Liberalism that has evolved into New Liberalism in India means an open democracy where the government uses a free market and fairness in matters of justice along with regular elections…… [Read More]
U.S. And Int'l. Relations
International Relations Theories and the Role of the U.S. In the Middle East
A Short Analysis of U.S. Culture Theories and Interventions
intervention in the Middle East has had very divergent consequences for both Iraq and the United States, with the lasting outcome being undetermined as of yet. The two countries are polar opposites in many ways, including vastly different cultures, different work ethics, and different histories. The divide between the Western Liberalized world and the world of Muslim dictators has always been troublesome in relations between the two populations. Lessons may be learned from the African Union in how to unite deeply divided states, as the institution has been successful in their attempt to unite states divided by religion, ethnicity, language, and culture. The African Union may also learn lessons from the U.S. intervention in Iraq, as the International Relations Theory pursued by the United…… [Read More]
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…… [Read More]
With the widening of economic interdependence and spread of democratic norms, liberalism envisions a slow journey away from the realists' vision. Liberalists do not view a state as a single actor in war, but rather as a coalition of coalitions that is representing different individuals and groups. Limitations of state power, rule of law, transparency of democratic and government processes will make it easier for the sustenance of international cooperation.
In terms of security, liberalists differ from realists as they not only view it in military terms, but also as the promotion and protection of individual rights. In the fight on terrorism, the liberal approach would emphasize on application of legal instruments instead of military force. The liberal approach to the United States war on terrorism would involve issues like organized crime and its potential for creating terrorists.
This would be in contrast to the realist approach of force on…… [Read More]
" According to anuri "...the inference drawn here is that since there are no inherent rules (or 'guiding principles') in the international system, states act upon their natural predatory instincts in order to prove the 'initial impetus' for conflict, and therefore the states that are preyed upon must respond to the predator by defending themselves, or indeed counterattacking them." (2007)
The realist view is such that holds that the outbreak of conflict is supported alone by domestic policies and predatory practices." (anuri, 2007)
Garib (2003) writes in the work entitled: "Realism and Liberalism Reconsidered in Post 9/11 American Foreign Policy" that while the liberalism of former President George W. ush is "ostensibly present in the National Security Council's 2002 National Security Strategy, which speaks of America crating 'a balance of power that favors human freedom' and of a new American international outlook which seeks to create political and economic freedom,…… [Read More]
Justice in Society According to awls and Hampshire
This is paper contrasting the political philosophies of awls and Hampshire according o their views in 'Political liberalism' the Law of Peoples' and 'Justice as Conflict'. 4 sources are given.
Very few alternatives to the prevalent utilitarianism, dominant in most of the Western world, have emerged and made any significant impact. The theories of John awls however have made an important contribution to political philosophy and if not unanimously agreed upon they nevertheless have led to a revival in the academic study of political philosophy. His work has provoked debate amongst economists, legal scholars, political scientists, sociologists, and theologians alike. His Theory of Justice and subsequent additions and modifications to this hypothesis in the form of 'Political liberalism' and 'The Law of Peoples' is a comprehensive and detailed proposal that evolved over decades.
The 'Justice as Conflict' theory put forward by another…… [Read More]
Realism in International Relations
In the study of politics, the subject of international relations inevitably surfaces, mainly because politics do not only deal with national or domestic affairs, but also international concerns and issues. In the field of international relations, there are two prevailing paradigms: realism and liberalism. Although the focus of this discussion would be on realism, it can be best understood by also identifying and distinguishing it from liberalism.
Liberalism as a political paradigm in international relations posits that conflicts between and among states can be resolved through the help of international institutions like the United Nations and World Trade Organization. As a political ideology, liberalism is idealistic in the sense that its proponents believe that conflicts and even wars can be resolved diplomatically, and effectively through an efficient medium (i.e., international institutions). The Modernist Project of the United States during the Cold War period witnessed…… [Read More]
Australia Have a Bill of ights?
Australia is the last remaining Common Law country without a Bill or ights or Human ights Bill. It is important to note that the Australian variant of liberalism differs from the Anglo-American model in two important ways. First, the establishment of Australia as a series of British colonies under authoritarian governors and the absence of any political revolution has meant a lesser stress on the idea of individual rights vs. The state. There has been no one in Australian history to shout 'Give me liberty or give me death', no real pressure to incorporate a Bill of ights into our Constitution (owse, 1978).
Second, these factors combined with the problems of economic development in Australia and the generally inhospitable nature of the land, a staple theme of Australian literature, has meant an absence of any real laissez-faire tradition. 'Socialism' may be abhorred in the…… [Read More]
The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)
Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…… [Read More]
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…… [Read More]
In this way, religion was used in an attempt not only to make the proletariat content with their lives of alienation, exploitation and poverty, but also as a way to actually encourage them to want less and to enjoy their low stations in life as a sign of their future happiness in the religious afterlife. Regardless of Marx's beliefs concerning the Christian faith, or any other religious belief system, his critique of religion was aimed not at religious institutions per se, but at their implementation of religion as a means of subjugation.
It is for this reason that Marx believes the emancipation of humanity will necessarily involve an emancipation from religion. Because religious teachings, as Marx sees them, reinforce the ideals that create and maintain the inequalities of the capitalist system, such teachings must be done away with if the proletariat are to be able to make fully informed and…… [Read More]
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]
This body then has the right and duty, especially if elected to represent to build the laws and enforce the judgment of those laws, as a reflection of the will of the consensus. Locke, having developed a keen sense of a rather radical sense of the rights of the individual and the responsibility of the civil government began his work with the development of what it is that constructs the "natural rights" of man. Locke, therefore begins his Second Treatise on the natural rights of man, as he puts it to illuminate the understanding of the right to rule.
Natural Rights Theory
Locke demonstrates in the beginning of his Second Treatise the idea that the government created by the people can only be so if the people accept that certain rights of nature are true to all men. The development of these rights is not necessary as they are natural…… [Read More]
Marx further included that finally the biased behavior of the working class will end this dictatorship period, and a class less society will establish. He believed that for the formation of this society people need to launch an organized movement against the dictatorship and only a successful revolution would lead to the formation of society of "Communism" (Skoble, 2007).
When we talk about the political philosophy, we can observe that both John Locke and Karl Marx are in favor of the idea that when there is a need of change then an organized revolution is compulsory. People cannot get their rights until they demand for it because it's natural thing that you need to raise your voice in order to get your right otherwise other will keep it as their own possession.
The point of differ come when we talk about the scenario in which both of them forwarded their…… [Read More]
These are not matters of arguments as concerning the holiness of the Christianity. The conservatives could easily agree regardless of their respective schematizations of the redemptive history and holiness. Therefore, this united opposition to the rise of modernism reached the multitudes in the form of multiple famous publications, the Fundamentals (1910-1915) (Babinski, 1995). This publication presented enough moderation for the movement. This allowed people to speak of any firm fundamentalist. The conservatives still belonged to the mainstream church and worked for their reforms from within the church.
Marsden makes clear in his definition the diversity of the conservatives question to the church relationship with the world. He presents different perspectives; these are, the 'premillennial extreme', which condemned the present age and could not fathom the use of the widespread efforts of reform. In their congregation, the premillennialists' interests in evangelism and civic reform simply over rode the pessimism that we…… [Read More]
Locke's Theory Of Punishment
John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.
Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the…… [Read More]
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…… [Read More]
In the course of
this duration, it will be his duty to connect his ideological orientation-
and that of his supporters-to the issues and structures defining the state
Therefore, when we consider such issues as Cold ar policy, for
instance, which was a dominant matter to presidents occupying the office
between orld ar II and the end of the Reagan era, we note that
philosophical distinctions proving a vast chasm between figures such as
Eisenhower and Kennedy, or Carter and Reagan, would nonetheless be bridged
by their collective attention to the issues of Soviet power, global nation-
building and the provision of national security in a time of great
rhetorical conflict. For all occupying presidents during this time, the
obsessive public attention to the issue of the communist threat, the
military demands which required American boots on the soil in a wide array
of theatres and the systemic internal…… [Read More]
6. I disagree with fascism. Fascism promotes the whole of society over the individual, which appears to be a sound policy. However, in reality, fascist societies result in the widespread denial of basic human rights to those who do not fit into the government vision of normalcy.
7. I disagree with communism as an ideology, because its focus on collective ownership of resources ignores one of the basic truths about human nature: greed. Communist systems place far too much power in the hands of those who control the resources, and that power has been abused in every single communist government that has ever been established.
8. Conservativism is one of the ideologies I agree with the least. I disagree with it because one of its driving principles is an entirely free market. Conservatives believe that "Economic freedom is essentially about ensuring human rights. Strengthening and expanding it guarantees an individual's…… [Read More]
Yet, in certain regions of the world (i.e. The Middle East) religion has become a part of the national identity for many states by: combining its principals into government policy. Over the course of time, this has led to increased amounts of tension between the West and these nations. This is important, because it is showing me how the West's ideas have failed to address their intended objectives.
n response to these issues, Pasha feels that slam is embracing similar ideas of Western philosophy to include: tolerance, following the rule of law, respect for the ideas of others and helping to support the community. However, many of these ideas have been high jacked by extremists who are imposing their own stricter version of rules that is based on: hate and following stringent moral guidelines. As a result, Pasha believes that Western ideas have helped to fuel more radical ideologies. The…… [Read More]
The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).
Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…… [Read More]
hen a president of the United States begins incorporating religious rhetoric into his speeches, alarm bells must sound. hen that same president allocates taxpayer monies to religious groups, then citizens should be experiencing widespread panic.
Bush's No Child Left Behind Act is no less frightening than the faith-based initiative. Hiding behind good intentions, the No Child Left Behind Act fails to take into account a major factor: reality. Jim Donlevy notes, "It simply is not reasonable to continue to identify thousands of failing schools throughout the United States and then to see through to completion the sanctions written into the Act." The Act includes provisions for annual testing for schools, with progress requirements in core subjects such as English, math and science. "The idea is to be sure that all students are learning at higher standards," (Donlevy). However, the Act demands too much too soon. Forcing some schools to shut…… [Read More]
This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.
While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…… [Read More]
Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain
Private Property in 16th Century Spain
Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]
When Herbert Hoover became president in 1929, the foundations of economic stability were already beginning to crumble. The demand for mass produced items had peaked, and new areas of spending that would recover the downturn were leveling off. Investors were not hurrying to build new areas of growth since market creation was troublesome. Hoover, or the Great Engineer as he called himself, had many plans for large studies of social trends and corresponding services for child welfare, housing, recreation, education and public health. In fact, he came into office pledging "a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage" and "a final triumph over poverty." In his view, the marriage of private enterprise with science and technology would end poverty and welcome in a new humane social order. However, it did not take long before Hoover found that his attention would be diverted toward much more…… [Read More]
International relations studies is the specialization that focuses on the study of foreign affairs and the global events significantly influence the trend of the states that are within the international system. These systems are categorized as governments, countries, organizations and even people who are the main agents of relations and interchange between people within varying geographical locations (WITS University, 2014). There are pertinent issues that are involved in the study of international relations such as war, disease, democracy, poverty, diplomacy, globalization, economics and trade. The significance of continued study of international relations are numerous and important to any organization and governments. From the study of international reactions between two entities in the past, it is possible to predict the future and the significance and possible repercussions of some international decisions that a government or a president or even the organizations may take. International studies a reason geared towards having a…… [Read More]
Although economic, political, and social structures had been changing for at least a century prior, the Industrial Revolution did have a tremendous and far-reaching impact on reconfiguring socioeconomic classes. Industrial capitalism shifted the centers of economic power to the private sector, and economic systems became far more decentralized than ever before due to the emergence of market capitalism. The new economic regime necessitated new political institutions, which in turn transformed social structures. Nineteenth century social formations included a leisure class known as the bourgeoisie and the working class, known as the proletariat, while the new political ideologies that supported capitalism included liberalism and socialism.
Prior to the Enlightenment, European social, economic and political institutions were dependent on Church authority (Burke, n.d.). The French Revolution was a harbinger of the new social and political institutions like liberalism and socialism. Monarchic rule was a thing of the past; once the seeds of…… [Read More]
Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.
One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…… [Read More]
The article also appears to support the use of a free market and competitive capitalism which are both elements of the private school system reviewed. Both of these elements are important to all-girl schools, as they are run as businesses and must attract ample numbers of students to remain profitable. For example the article discusses the marketing techniques of the school in attracting pupils, who may be considered as clients. The paradigm is considered to be the neo-capitalist approach as opposed to the liberalism paradigm, as the nature of schools means that there is some governmental control exerted over the business to ensure it meets legislation and standards.
The article is well written overall, for instance the structure is laid out to describe a personal story, but with external examples used to provide explanations. The provision of examples may have been improved, however. The use of one school…… [Read More]
The article does however support the view that although the businesses should be able to profit from people not redeeming their gift cards, there should be measures in place to ensure that businesses are not allowed to abuse the system. This is in contrast to liberalism, the other paradigm which focuses on the business perspective, as there is no model proposed to monitor the capitalism. The article instead appears to be fully in favor of capitalism, as there is no negative view given as to the benefits which companies may gain from the situation.
The article is well-written overall. The article accurately reports the findings of the study which are the focus of the article. The study provides empirical evidence for the observations which are detailed in the article. There are not only the statistics reported in the article, but also a thorough explanation of what the results…… [Read More]