Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Liberty and Political Liberalism
The political liberalism of the 17th and 18th centuries was far different than the contemporary conceptualization of liberal politics. In the evolution of modern liberalism, liberalism was once conceived as an absence of coercion by a sovereign. "The heart of liberty is the absence of coercion by others; consequently, the liberal state's commitment to protecting liberty is, essentially, the job of ensuring that citizens do not coerce each other without compelling justification." (Gaus 2010). This stood in direct contrast to the concept of the divine right of kings, which presumed that a leader, by virtue of his power, had the ability to do what he willed in relation to his subjects, without justification, and that the subjects had no right of revolt. Classical liberalism, perhaps in reaction to the once-assumed fiat of sovereigns to tax as they willed and to take property away from subjects as…
Carter, Ian. (2010). Positive and negative liberty. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Gaus, Gerald & Courtland, Shane D. (2011). Liberalism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:
Liberty in Times of War
Civil liberties are curtailed during wars. In the recent past during the 9/11 attack American and non-American citizens' civil liberties were infringed. Civil liberties are eroded whenever emergency power is exercised. During war government authorities tend to withhold information. Documents are over-classified and information withheld from the Congress and the general public (Fisher, 2003). After the 9/11 attack President Bush released a memo that limit the disclosure of classified and sensitive law enforcement information. This decision was later reversed on October 5, 2001 (Fisher, 2003). Law enforcement information was later restricted to 8 members of the Congress namely: House Speaker, House Minority Leader, the Senate Majority and Minority Leaders and the chairs and ranking members of the Intelligence Committees. When Bush Administration was about to go into Iraq, Bush declassified satellite photos and released them to the press (Fisher, 2003). The position that the Bush…
Fisher, L. (2001). Zechariah Chafee Jr., Freedom of Speech in War Time. American Constitutional Law, 486-487.
Fisher, L. (December 2, 2001). Bush Can't Rely on the FDR Precedent. L.A. Times, M3.
Fisher, L. (2003). Civil Liberties in Time of War.
Important Quotes about the Incident number of American officials, including important government figures, and the survivors have commented on the U.S.S. Liberty incident during their submission to the official inquiries as well as various publications / books that have appeared in press or on the Internet over the years. For example, Dean usk, the U.S. Secretary of State, commenting on the incident in his memoir observes: "I was never satisfied with the Israeli explanation. Their sustained attack to disable and sink Liberty precluded an assault by accident or some trigger-happy local commander... I didn't believe them then, and I don't believe them to this day. The attack was outrageous." (usk, 1990, p. 338)
Similarly, ichard Helms -- the CIA Director at the time wrote, "...few in Washington could believe that the ship had not been identified as an American naval vessel... I have yet to understand why it was felt…
The Clark Clifford Report." (1967). The Liberty Incident. Retrieved on March 14, 2009 at http://www.thelibertyincident.com/clifford.html
Ennes, James Jr. (1980). Assault on the Liberty. Random House, New York
Gerhard, William D. And Millington, Henry W. (1981). "Attack on a Sigint Collector: the U.S.S. Liberty." National Security Agency / Central Security Service. Retrieved on March 14, 2009 at http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/uss_liberty/attack_sigint.pdf
Helms, Richard. (2003). A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency. Random House, New York
783). Gore sees a parallel between the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II, after the attack upon Pearl Harbor and the treatment of Arab-Americans in the wake of the Bush Administration's fear-mongering and validation of public prejudices against Muslims. (This attitude conveyed from the top also fostered prejudice amongst ordinary citizens: A commonly-cited complaint of some airplane passengers is that too many 'non obvious' suspects are subject to routine frisks, while 'obvious' suspects pass, effective code words for non-Arabs vs. Arabs).
However, there is an essential difference in the curtailment of American liberties after 9/11 and after World War II: its racial and prejudiced nature. During the Cold War, because 'anyone' could theoretically be a communist, all individuals were subject to scrutiny. Thus, no matter how fearful, many ordinary Americans experienced just how onerous and self-defeating the McCarthy witch-hunts were to civil liberties. Additionally, because of the fact that…
Gore, Al. (2004, Winter). The politics of fear. Social Research. 71.4.
A more questionable exception to the Fourth Amendment is the exception of "vessel searches," where, not only is the warrant requirement inapplicable to brief stops of vessels, but also none of the safeguards applicable to stops of automobiles on less than probable cause are necessary to allow the stops of vessels. (Findlaw, 2005) This exception can be seen during 'drunk driving' stops, where all vehicles are stopped and drivers are screened, tested, or simply asked questions to determine if they are intoxicated, for the purpose of community safety.
However, since such searches occur randomly, without probable cause, merely depending on which cars are randomly selected, this exception seems more questionable as a method of evidence gathering. It gives police the incentive to stop more vehicles, without probable cause and even to conduct such vehicle stops in a potentially biased fashion, although they are supposed to be random, simply to catch…
"Valid Searches and Seizures Without Warrants." (2005) Amendment Four. FindLaw. Retrieved 26 Oct 2005 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment04/03.html
This is an example of how American politics and the American legal system have pre-empted any sort of social discussion or values creation, and the values creation came after the law was enacted. This is from a purely non-religious standpoint, as many religious people would argue the opposite. The argument against gay marriage, from the religious perspective, is precisely what Mill was trying to protect society against by making sure other people did not hinder someone else's ability to freely express themselves as long as these expressions did no harm to others. It is difficult to argue against gay marriage as a practice that harms other people in a physical manner, and thusly, Mill would likely conclude that this practice is one born out of the individuals' right to express themselves.
Mill's first principle, that the only legal grounds for preventing someone from doing something is by making sure they…
e are living in a new era, an era of global power and global vulnerability. In response to the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the recognition that we are facing a worldwide network of terrorists whose singular goal is to harm the United States and its interests, we have had to re-evaluate our civil liberties. Has our open society, our open emigration policy, our support of individual freedom and autonomy and privacy, left us uniquely vulnerable? How do we balance liberty with safety? Our current government has made various policy changes that will allow greater invasion of privacy. At the same time, in this period of unrest, troubles within our own society have brought the same issue to the forefront. After repeated episodes where children killed children in high schools, it became commonplace for schools to search lockers and even in some cases to use metal detectors,…
What of Mill's point that individuals should be allowed to act as they wish, as long as they don't make themselves "a nuisance to other people." He says, "To individuality should belong the part of life in which it is chiefly the individual that is interested; to society, the part which chiefly interests society." In these complicated time, the overlap between the two is complex. An individual child may borrow a gun -- and harm society. An individual terrorist may learn how to fly planes in America -- and bring down the World Trade Centers and harm and kill thousands -- as well as cost millions to society. One of the individual rights is the right to live a safe life -- a life where stopping to get gas, one is not gunned down by a sniper; where, attending school, one is not gunned down by a classmate; where, going to work one sunny morning, one is forced to jump from a 100 story window because one is burning to death. I believe Mill would have called this a time for government intervention, much along the lines we are seeing now, because he would view this as an unfortunate time where "barbarians" put us at risk for our very safety -- out of which liberty arises. But I also believe he would argue for a very public discussion, one that has been squelched. Though humans are a mixture of barbarian and angel, of evil and grace, and always will be, there are ways in which societies can adjust to terrible times. And one of those ways is to encourage an open discussion of all issues.
Mills, John Stuart. On Liberty. Original Book published 1869. Available at Bartleby.Com, Great Books online.
Myerson, George. Mills on Liberty. Hodder & Stoughton (2002).
Liberty, Mills approaches the issue of governmental and societal tyranny. He approaches three basic areas in which liberty in important, in addition to discussing the problem of tyranny which can abridge those liberties. In this work Mill provides a historical look at the ways in which tyranny has been played out, and details its evolution from a tyranny of the despot to a tyranny of the majority. Tyranny arises, he suggests, whenever there is an abridgment of the rights of individuals to make free expression and action, so long as they do not do harm to others. This tyranny has it source in the desire of the majority to see their own inclinations and believes replicated in the world around them, and subsequently in the power which they invest in social structures and governmental authorities. Mills presents a complicated picture of the future of tyranny -- on the one hand…
Mills, John Stuart. "On Liberty http://www.bartleby.com/130/index.html
Indeed, a government is free to decide on the way it rules over a nation, but also the nation is free to enjoy the returns of labor or the aid provided when needed.
Coming back to the original concept of freedom, I feel the need to emphasis the importance of its exact meaning, and on the fact that without it the other forms have no connotation. By this I mean the act of being free, unconstrained by any law-enforcing authority, and the ability to have access to whatever brings on happiness and motivation. Nevertheless, the notion of self-control is imperative in this situation. Of course, every individual is free to express his/her religious beliefs, sexual preferences, political color, and artistic side. He or she basically has the right to express himself or herself as long as the means by which he or she does it do not harm or potentially…
liberty is seldom a win-win situation. Which ethical theory is the best in your opinion for selecting a "winner"? Utilitarianism? Deontology? Other?
The philosophy of utilitarianism is problematic, given the difficulty of determining which group constitutes the 'majority' whose desires should rule over others. It is often said that if the First Amendment (free speech) and the Fourth Amendment (unreasonable searches) were 'put to a vote,' the American public would vote against them, because of its collective dislike of the ability of unpopular groups to articulate their ideas and its anger at seeing guilty people go free. Also, utilitarianism makes no allowance for the rights of minority groups at all, which can intensify the 'losses' of the minority group whose liberties are infringed upon to protect the rights of others.
Deontology's excessive rigidity can result in the curtailment of freedom -- how does one create rules that are universally applicable…
Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
The idea of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is always a fascinating idea of debate when it comes to the subject of unalienable human rights. Sure enough, they are clearly the basis and foundation in which many current governments are built. A person is entitled to his right to live, to continue a worldly and bodily survival as defined. A person is entitled to liberty, to freedom of his own actions; the limitation of one's decision-making process would otherwise render the idea of "humanity" obsolete otherwise. Lastly, a person is entitled to the pursuit of happiness, because in the end, what does humanity crave most in the world? Clearly the finding of that said happiness.
The definitions of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness, however, are a matter of debate between persons to persons, societies…
Fletcher, William A. "INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES." Northwestern University Law Review. 293-306. Northwestern University School of Law, 2010. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Apr. 2011.
Miners, Zach. "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness." U.S. News Digital Weekly 2.16 (2010): 16. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Apr. 2011.
UShistory.org. "Declaration of Independence." The Declaration of Independence. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. .
"And the attorneys on that list are very dedicated to providing pro bono services. They have a life-long commitment to this kind of work."
The people who call are in dire straits, very difficult situations, sad stories," says the program's coordinator, Tatine Darker. "These are people who have been productive members of society for years, then are summarily expelled from the country. We try to find ways to help some of these people out," she says.
The ideas outlined in the article reflect how several groups of attorneys who are dedicated to helping out people who are in desperate need of attorneys as they face deportation, often after years of living in the United States. These minorities are too poor to hire their own attorney, so they need pro bono legal aid to keep families, homes and jobs together.
The article describes how the CLC teamed with past organizations with…
America stands poised for a new social revolution, akin to those taking place in the 1960s. In Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt, Christ Hedges and Joe Sacco reminds readers of why former social revolutions did take place and why the struggle for social justice continues. In their five separate narratives, the authors depict various aspects of American failure: the failure to ensure fairness, honesty, and other basic moral tenets. The foundations of the nation depend on the assurance of Constitutional ideals, which is why the struggle continues. Considering Liberty City, Florida within the framework of Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt draws even closer attention to the core themes Hedges and Sacco unearth. In Liberty City, issues related to race, class, gender, and social power all come under scrutiny. The city lives on the edge, as if in a perpetual race against its own self-destruction.
Liberty City, like many…
With this statement Berlin aims to make the point that those who have freedom have achieved it by exploiting others, and, at the same time, by placing those individuals within certain categories of social and economic degrees of freedom, to which they themselves are not subject.
Despite his high rhetoric which goes on for over 30 pages, Berlin does conclude that he is of the opinion that no matter whether liberty is negative or positive, it is, nonetheless, important, should be available to all, and simply because values are compromised does not mean that they are not eternal or secure. The reader, thus assumes by the end of the commentary that Berlin is indeed of the opinion that liberty is of the utmost importance to a functioning society.
There are various critiques upon Berlin's work. The one to be examined here will be that of oberto Toscano who…
Isaiah Berlin Virtual Library - berlin.wolf.ox.ac.uk
The New York Review of Books - http://www.nybooks.com/contributors/isaiah-berlin/
Philosopher and political thinker Sir Isaiah Berlin - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/24540.stm
Isaiah Berlin on pluralism - http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~vl/notes/berlin.html
Rousseau offers a mix of philosophical notions of liberty with advice and opinions on how to structure a government that promotes equality and liberty, but not excessively so, that the will of the majority or strong overcomes the will or the rights of the minority. as, unlike the founders of America, Rousseau was not concerned with a real, live, specific historical situation he could to some extent afford to be more theoretical in his orientation. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was even more concerned with the philosophical notions of liberty, but he detached them from their functioning in government and instead was concerned about human being's innate liberty to do morally good or evil actions. Kant saw morality as existing not as something that could be constructed at will by human beings, but as something that existed for all time, and to be commensurate with the categorical imperative, people must act…
Declaration of Independence." Independence Hall Association. 4 Jul 1995. 2 Apr 2008. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/index.htm
Kant, Immanuel. "Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals." 1785.
Translated by Steve Thomas. University of Adelaide E-text Collection.
Apr 2008. http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/k/kant/immanuel/k16prm/
eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment
The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…
Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral
Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html
De Tocqueville, A. (1838). Democracy in America. (H. Reeve, Trans.). New York,
NY: George Adlard. (Original work published 1835). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DUAvAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#
Reconciliation of the Liberties
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosopher in the eighteenth century who wrote about topics as varied as religion and politics. He famously worked on a treatise with respect to government that attempted to explain what government should be. His thoughts, called "On the Social Contract," were an attempt to reconcile the liberties of the ancients and the moderns (as they were called being, as yet, modern to Rousseau). His belief was that actual government should be as close to true human nature as is possible. This nature, he said, was such that it wanted no government, but that it needed to be a part of a collective to receive both protection and goods. He related that there were ancient societies which tried to do this, and that the liberty of the moderns was much the same because people did not change. The general nature of man had…
Constant, Benjamin. Political Writings. Trans. Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.
Habermas, Jurgen. "Three Normative Models of Democracy." in, Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political, Seyla Benhabib (Ed.) Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. pp. 21-30. Print.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. On the Social Contract. Trans. G. DH Cole. Dover, UK: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. Print.
Political Philosophy II: Theories of Freedom
John Stuart Mill's On Liberty is one of the foundational defenses of liberal, democratic government. According to Mill, there are certain core principles "that should regulate how governments and societies, whether democratic or not, can restrict individual liberties."[footnoteRef:1] Mill wrote that regardless of whether a monarch, dictator, or even a democratic majority governed, the only reason to deprive others of their liberties was what he called the harm principle, namely, that "a harm, an action must be injurious or set back important interests of particular people, interests in which they have rights" and "justifies restricting liberty to prevent harm to others."[footnoteRef:2] In defining the harm principle, Mill's intentions were clearly noble in that he wished to prevent the illegitimate use of power by the state to restrict free speech, sexual behavior, or other personal, private choices. However, since Mill wrote, even a number of…
Freedom, Liberty, And Authority
homas Jefferson is attributed as saying "the price for freedom is constant vigilance." Only those who are willing to stake there reputation, their personal well being, their fortunes and their futures on the pursuit and defense of freedom are those who will have a guarantee of remaining free from the tyranny of those who would exchange the freedom for the freedom of minority at the expense of the majority. John Stuart Mills captured this idea 100 years after the original constitutional convention, Declaration of Independence and the Constitution recorded these and other words into the annals of history. Mills accurately captured the reason U.S. citizens are free, and the only means by which the can hope to remain such.
Mills begins in much the same way as Hamilton as he sets the stage for the path, and pursuit of freedom. He identifies that there exists in…
The Declaration of Independence, and constitution were built on the recognition that freedom and responsibility, to ourselves, to our fellow citizens, to our government and from our government to us is the cornerstone of life, and prosperity. Possibly this was part of the understanding of Patrick Henry when he gave his famous speech from St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia in which he demanded "Give me liberty, or give my death." Our founding fathers lived an active faith that permeates every area of their activities. As such, there is no other framework to understand the interaction of faith, life, and political service but as a sacred duty to work for the well being of all men. Even if men did not embrace the same faith as the founding fathers, they committed their lives, property, and sacred honor in the pursuit of freedom, religious, political, cultural, and economic freedom for the entire nation's citizenry. This principle stood fast on our nation through successive attacks for over 150 years. It is not until recent decades that those who oppose freedom, in favor of giving power back to a few, have been able to breech the walls, and begin to tear down the freedoms, rights and responsibilities on which our country was founded.
One very simple principle"
Magazine article by Roger Kimball; New Criterion, Vol. 17, November 1998
One of the fundamental issues taking place in the United States in the present day encompasses the aspect of civil liberties and civil rights for all individuals and groups. A particular aspect in consideration is the lack of fairness and equity for black people in the United States. In the contemporary, there continues to be heated debate and arguments made regarding how the African-American group of people are being treated in the nation. In particular, the issue in this regard encompasses the recent verdict made by a jury ruling that Jeronimo Yanez, a police officer in Minnesota was not guilty for shooting and killing Philando Catile. Imperatively, castile was killed by the police officer during a routine traffic stop while with his girlfriend and child (Miller, 2017).
Observed Political Event
The observed political event is a political rally and speech made by Valerie, Philando Castile's mother subsequent to the verdict…
Mill and U.S. Constitution
None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…
Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.
Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.
Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.
Freedom and Liberty to the Founding Fathers
The founding fathers of the United States of America were a product of the Enlightenment. The "Enlightenment" was the 18th century's attempt to break out of the self-imposed restrictions of society and create something better. (osner 2000, 251-253) Beginning with the writings of John Locke in the mid-1600's, a new idea had begun to take root: that man could, through his reason, create better social structures. In other words, man had the ability to create a more perfect form of government, one more in line with the rights of the people. This idea, by its very nature, is an attempt to transfer authority over society from a select few, to the masses of people. The idea of taking power away from Kings, and other rulers, and creating governmental system that would be created and responsible to the people is what the…
Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print
Rosner, Lisa, and Theibault, John. 2000. A Short History of Europe, 1600-1815. New York: M.E. Sharpe
"Africans in America Narrative: Part 2, The Revolutionary War." PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2narr4.html
As such, it became out of the ordinary that prosperous colonists and individuals had become subject to arbitrary decisions from an authority that was thousands of kilometers away. A sense of injustice had developed to a point to which it even covered the economical motivations: "What are all the Riches and even the Conveniences of Life, compared with that Liberty wherewith God and Nature have set us free"
1. The Works of John Adams, vol. VI, 281. From Terrell, Timothy. iblical Freedom and the American War for Independence. On the Internet at http://www.natreformassn.org/statesman/01/bibfreedm.html#note1.Last retrieved on October 17, 2006
2. rutus. 1774. To the Free and loyal inhabitants of the city and colony of New York. roadside.
The Works of John Adams, vol. VI, 281. From Terrell, Timothy. iblical Freedom and the American War for Independence. On the Internet at http://www.natreformassn.org/statesman/01/bibfreedm.html#note1.Last retrieved on October 17, 2006
rutus. 1774. To the…
1. The Works of John Adams, vol. VI, 281. From Terrell, Timothy. Biblical Freedom and the American War for Independence. On the Internet at http://www.natreformassn.org/statesman/01/bibfreedm.html#note1.Last retrieved on October 17, 2006
2. Brutus. 1774. To the Free and loyal inhabitants of the city and colony of New York. Broadside.
The Works of John Adams, vol. VI, 281. From Terrell, Timothy. Biblical Freedom and the American War for Independence. On the Internet at
Revolutionary Women for Liberty and Freedom
Although they lived in an era defined by the pursuit of personal freedom, as their male counterparts courageously waged a successful revolution against the tyranny of the British monarchy, there were several patriotic women who made their presence felt during the tumultuous time of America's birth. From the poignant letters written by Abagail Adams to her husband John, the diplomat and statesman who worked tirelessly as a Founding Father to help form the foundation of a new union, to the steady hand of companionship provided by Martha Washington to her husband George as he led an undermanned and outgunned army against the most powerful armed forces in the world, women exerted their influence largely from behind the scenes. With the concept of liberty emerging as an ideal worth fighting for, as thousands of Americans bravely laid down their lives to secure liberty for their…
Civil rights can be delineated as the very basic and fundamental rights to be free from unequal treatment, on the basis of particular attributes that are considered important, for instance gender, race, and also disability. The Bill of Rights protects all citizens of the nation against the infringement of their rights and liberties by any entity and even the state, as it is assured in the Constitution. One of the key civil rights discussed and debated in the United States in the present day encompasses the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning community (LGBTQ) (Newton, 2014).
Describe the observed political event in detail, including the environment and people involved
The event I attended was a political protest that covered the annual gay rights march. In particular, the parade was in search of shedding some light on the gay rights. The individuals that participated in the parade…
As for knowledge, Locke believed that "the best and surest way to get clear and distinct knowledge is through examining and judging ideas by themselves" (Locke, 1997, VI: I).
The Family -- Locke lived in a time in which the family was patriarchal and central to the argument of the opponents to limited government. In early-modern England the family structure was more authoritarian, intolerant, and sexist. Locke's political theory had revolutionary implications that could easily be exported to governments, and as an individualist, it is easy to see why Locke would look upon inequality and mindless subjugation as unproductive and antithetical. In this the natural rights family was radical in the sense that it held that everyone born was capable of actualization. The family was a microcosm of government, and also served as a way to train individuals into their roles and responsibilities within society (Ward, 2010, pp. 136-42).
Baird, F. And Kaufman, W. (2007). Philosophic Classics: From Plato to Derrida.
New York: Prentice Hall.
Locke, J. (2003). Two Treatises of Government. Ed. Ian Shapiro. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Locke, J., R. Woodhouse, ed. (1997). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. New York: Penguin Books.
Luther "On Christian Liberty'" Appeal German Nobility. 1.hat complaints Papacy "Appeal German Nobility'? 2.Outline Luther's position saving power faith works 'On Christian Liberty'? Do's fair? Reading: Shakespeare Richard II 1.
Martin Luther's "Appeal to the German Nobility" was meant to stand as an attack on Rome with regard to the Catholic Church's failure to support reform. He emphasized three walls of the Romanists in the document and discussed about the reasons why it was essential for society to acknowledge the Church's failure to act in accordance with its early principles.
The first idea relates to how there is no difference between the secular and temporal states and that the Book of Revelation actually supports the belief that baptism enables individuals to act as priests. This first issue was meant to provide the masses with information concerning how priests were little more than functionaries.
The second idea denounces the Pope's authority…
Luther, Martin, "On Christian liberty," (Augsburg Fortress, Publishers, 2003)
Shakespeare, William, "Richard II," (Bell, 1786)
Man ho Shot Liberty Valance and the Brilliance of John Ford
John Ford's The Man ho Shot Liberty Valance (1962), a classic western with a few film noir elements included, is elegiac in the sense that its narrative strategy is that of eulogistic remembrance by now-Senator Ransom Stoddard, of horse rancher Tom Doniphan, who once saved Stoddard's life and changed it much for the better, and who was the real man who shot Liberty Valance. According to Robert Horton, "This may be the saddest estern ever made, closer to an elegy than an action movie, and as cleanly beautiful as its central symbol, the cactus rose" ("Editorial Reviews"). Upon Tom Doniphan's death in the small fictional town of Shinbone (state unknown) Ransom and Hallie Stoddard arrive back in town to pay their final respects to Doniphan who sacrificed so much of himself, and so much of his own future happiness,…
Berardinelli, James. "Dances with Wolves: A Film Review." Top 10 of the 90's.
Retrieved May 28, 2005, from: .
Ford, John. (Dir.). The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance. With John Wayne and Vera Miles.
Much is made about freedom and liberty in the United States. Indeed, this stretches all the way back to the founding of this nation. That founding was spurred and motivated in large part by the lack of freedom and representation that the British colonists felt they were receiving with the British crown. Over the years, one of the subtopics that has developed is negative liberty. Generally, negative liberty is the idea that someone has the right to not be bothered or pestered by people or authorities. hile the idea of negative liberty sounds good and should generally be extended to people with no question, there are very specific instances where the concept of negative liberty is abused and should not be extended because it would indeed be wrong.
Negative liberty is a subject that has evolved and changed over the years. The modern manifestation of negative liberty…
Archives.gov. "Constitution of the United States - Official." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, 20 Feb.
2015. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. .
Archives.gov. "Bill of Rights - Official." National Archives and Records Administration.
National Archives and Records Administration, 20 Feb. 2015. Web. 20 Feb.
American Civil Liberties Union
(Friend or Foe)
America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives. America, unlike many of its foreign counterparts has long recognized the benefits of individual rights, freedoms and privileges and has fought to the death to protect them. Currently, America aims to spread these principles of democracy around the globe in an effort to create a better quality of life for all mankind. Even with these lofty and ambitious goals, America, on occasion fails to uphold these principles within its own borders. Too often, America has overlooked the problems prevalent within its own country while criticizing other nations about their own circumstances. Many of these overlooked issues including slavery, discrimination, women's rights and others have left an unfavorable image in American history. In such instances, the American Civil Liberties Union has become the beacon of hope for…
1) " American Civil Liberties Union." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
2) "ACLU History | American Civil Liberties Union." American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
3) "ACLU: Accomplishments." Action Center | American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
4) "American Civil Liberties Union - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011.
Luther feels that it is through Christ that man can attain salvation and not through soul or spiritual deeds alone. By Christ, he was probably referring to one's faith in Lord. He writes: He writes:
One thing, and only one thing, is necessary for Christian life, righteousness, and freedom. That one thing is the most holy Word of God, the gospel of Christ, as Christ says, John 11[:25], "I am the resurrection and the life: he who believes in me, though he die yet shall he live"; and John 8[:36], "So if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed."
Luther maintained that Christian liberty is prescribed in the word of God which is "the gospel of God concerning his Son, who was made flesh, suffered, rose from the dead, and was glorified through the Spirit who sanctifies." Luther felt that one must have immense faith in the…
Lutheran Book of Worship (Minneapolis: Augsburg; Philadelphia: Board of Publication, LCA, 1978)
The Freedom of a Christian (1520), LW 31:344.
Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's "Philosophy of Right," ed. Joseph O'Malley (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1970) 138.
The Bondage of the Will (1525), LW 33:67.
The relationship between liberty and security is a tense one, as retaining or bestowing some liberties will lessen security. This claim, while it holds for some liberties, does not hold for all. Some liberties have a very low relationship with security, and some have no relationship at all. The tension in the relationship between liberties and security is caused by an attempt to strike a balance between the two by compromising one for the other. Both liberties and security have competing interests, which can be sentenced as commensurable values to provide a means of comparison to justify sacrificing one for the other. This allows the gain or loss of either liberty or security to be measured relative to each other to determine either event's advantage. The complication in deciding which to keep, liberty or security, exists due to the varying importance attributed to each concept. Each one's advantage is a…
Allhoff, F. (2018). Liberty and security: A balanced approach. Journal of Law and Public Affair, 3(1), 53-82. Retrieved from https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=jlpa
Davis, L., Pollard, M., Ward, K., Wilson, J., Varda, D., Hansell, L., & Steinberg, P. (2010). Long-term effects of law enforcement\\\\'s post9/11 focus on counter-terrorism and homeland security. U.S. Department of Justice, RAND Corporation.
Institute of Medicine. (2012). Crisis Standards of Care: A systems framework for catastrophic disaster response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Waugh, W., & Streib, G. (2006). Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Public Administration Review, 131-140. Retrieved from https://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/shulockn/executive
Wise, C. (2006). Organizing for Homeland Security after Katrina: Is adaptive management what\\\\'s missing? Public Administration Review, 66(2), 302 –18.
Civil Liberties vs. Government
The role of government in regulating the behaviors and activities of certain people and/or in certain situations is not generally questioned by most people. On the same note, the right of people to generally live their lives and be left alone is also presumed to be true in many to most cases. However, those two paradigms inevitably collide because they cannot both be true at the same time in all situations. There are situations where government should or must step in just as there are situations where they should leave people alone and let them live how they wish. The million dollar question is where that line precisely exists in certain situations because it can be far from clear what that answer is.
One source that the author of this report focused on was the definition of positive and negative liberty. The latter one, that…
Alexander, J., & Richmond, S.A. (2007). Administrative discretion: Can we move beyond cider house rules? The American Review of Public Administration, 37(1),
51 -- 64. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Carter, I. (2012). Positive and negative liberty. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/liberty-positive-negative/
Stone's treatise on Liberty fascinating particularly since I have been much intrigued by philosophers' depiction of an ideal metropolis (with, therefore, ideal liberty) in general, and with Leibniz's political jurisprudence (and ideal liberty) in particular.
Leibniz, draws on Ulpian's oman code for basis but goes beyond that in extrapolating and arguing that ideal liberty should constitute not only strict Justice but also Charity (i..e national welfare). He then goes on to state that the highest strata of liberty is one where the country is regulated per a City of God. What this, essentially, means is that Justice and Charity should be combined with ethical attributes (that he called Piety).
Comparing this to Mill's definition of liberty presented by Stone I see an interesting correspondence as well as contrast.
Mill states that the government is only justified in restricting behavior that impedes others. Connecting that to contemporary concerns one may argue…
Arnstein, Sherry R. "A Ladder of Citizen Participation," JAIP, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1969, pp. 216-224.
H.George Frederickson, Social Equity and Public Administration: Origins, Developments, and Applications, M.E.Sharpe (chapter 2 & 3)
Deborah Stone, Policy Paradox: The Art of Political decision Making, WW Norton and Co Revised Edition (Chapters 4 & 5)
(Chambers and Wedel, 2005, p. 65-67) the objectives of the CLU are then applied to specific issues, according to the perceived needs of the issue itself and what the historical best practices are for achieving successful change for any given issue. The application of objectives can be very broad to very specific based on historical best practices according to the CLU and other civil rights movements. If for instance a goal is to reduce the infringement of the constitutional rights of a single individual, who was transgressed against, the legal means might be used as a logical objective, while other goals, such as decreasing the utilization of the U.S. sponsorship of torture and/or rights infringement in the rest of the world, the call is to inform the public of the problem and then allow members and individuals in the organization to write congressmen and utilize the press to broaden concern…
ACLU: Death Penalty" (ND) Retrieved, June, 1, 2007 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/general/index.html
ACLU: Success Stories" (ND) Retrieved, June, 1, 2007 at http://action.aclu.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AP_success_feedback_main
Chambers, D.E. & Wedel, K.R. (2005) Social Policy and Social Programs: A Method for the Practical Public Policy Analyst, fourth Ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union
535 U.S. 564 (2004)
On June 29, 2004, the United States Supreme Court held by a five to four margin that in the case of Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union 535 U.S. 564 (2004), a district court judge did not abuse his discretion in issuing a preliminary injunction against enforcement of the Child Online Protection Act, COPA, 47 U.S.C. SEC 231, (OLR 2004). The Court's rationale was that the plaintiffs were likely to prevail at trial on their argument that there were plausible, less restrictive alternatives to the statute, particularly blocking or filtering software (OLR 2004). Two of the justices in the majority also joined in a concurring opinion, finding other constitutional defects in the law and of the four justices who dissented, three asserted that the law was the least restrictive alternative because it regulated a very small amount of lawful speech…
OLR Research Report. August 10, 2004.
Legal Information Institute. 2004.
Ho Chi Minh was highly educated and attended various universities around the world according to the literature from numerous sources including the Eastern Worker's University and Lenin School in Moscow. He was trained in Moscow involving revolutionary tactics (Columbia Encyclopedia 2008).
Minh had a strong desire to make Vietnam an independent country and spent his whole life in pursuit of this dream. In southern China, Minh trained the exiles in techniques involving revolutionary tactics. According to by 1925 he had organized the exiles into the Viet Nam Thanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (Revolutionary Youth League) and the inner group within the Revolutionary League, the Thanh Nien Cong San Doan, or Communist Youth League (CYL) (Wars and Battles 2010 the Revolutionary). Years of oppression and hardship drove the Vietnamese people to join Minh in his ideals. The seemingly ordinary man was highly educated according to all sources referred and…
shifting seas of global social consciousness and worldwide political hierarchy have only recently brought the word 'terrorism' to the quotidian mind of Americans, it has long enjoyed a cemented place in the construct of civilization. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the 24-hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements. Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive. While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…
O'Brien, Sean P. "Foreign Policy Crisis and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun., 1996.) p. 329.
Ibid, p. 330.
Organizational Issues from the Responsibility Project (Liberty Mutual)
The video chosen from the Responsibility Project was "omen in the orld: Erin Ganju." Her story is meaningful for a number of reasons that will be reviewed in this paper. Ganju is the CEO of "Room to Read," an organization that seeks to help educate children (through reading and other skills) in order that today's children can grow up with the power to change the world for the better.
omen in the orld: Erin Ganju -- hat are the Important Issues? Ganju begins her video by explaining how "passionate" her parents were -- when she was just a child -- about sharing information with her regarding different cultures. A sense of "wanderlust" was "instilled" in her, Ganju explains. Importantly, Ganju's parents not only took their daughter to many interesting places, but the family read about each place they visited, encouraging both reading…
Deen, Thalif. (2011). UNESCO reveals huge secondary education gap worldwide. One World
South Asia. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://southasia.oneworld.net.
Foster, Wayne A., and Miller, Merideth. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A
Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing
northern southern soldiers claim fighting "freedom" "liberty." 2 sources ( newspaper, journal, magazine, book legitimate website ). Works utilize source equally documented text listed properly a works cited page.
Passion during the Civil War
The American Civil War occurred between 1861 and 1865 and is largely considered the most destructive conflict in U.S. history, resulting in approximately one million military casualties and an inestimable number of civil victims. Much controversy still surrounds the nature of this conflict, as its determining causes are complex. Contemporary international perception may have placed a progressive, anti-slavery label on the whole affair, yet the basic fact remains that nineteenth century America was an increasingly inhomogeneous country and prone to blatant discrepancy.
This work is focused on providing an analysis of Southern and Northern perspectives from a justifying point-of-view, in order to form an outline of the opposing sides' motives. Both parties were strongly driven by…
Harrison, R. The Motives and Aims of the Soldiers of the South in the Civil War: Oration Delivered Before the United Confederate Veterans at Their Fourteenth Annual Reunion. Nashville: Order of the United Confederate Veterans. June 14, 1904, Volume 6
Tulloch, H. The debate on the American Civil War Era. New York: Manchester University Press, 1999
NURSING CRITIQUE ON LAW: LIFE, LIERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF PALLIATION: RE-EVALUATING RONALD LINDSAY'S EVALUATION OF THE OREGON DEATH WITH DIGNITY ACT Y DURANTE (2009)
The objective of this study is to critique the work of Durante (2009) entitled "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act." The Death with Dignity Act was enacted by the state of Oregon on October 27, 1997. This act enables patients who are terminally ill to end their lives by use of self-administration of medications that are lethal in nature and that the physician has prescribed to the patient for this express purpose. The work of Durante (2009) examines the claims of Lindsay on this subject and reports that the evaluation of the experience of Oregon with physician-assisted suicide of Ronald Lindsay is "a much needed counterpart to moral speculation." (p. 28) According to…
Durante, C. (2009) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. The American Journal of Bioethics. 9(3): 28-45, 2009.
Death with Dignity Act (2014) Oregon. Gov Public Health. Retrieved from: http://public.health.oregon.gov/ProviderPartnerResources/Evaluationresearch/deathwithdignityact/Pages/index.aspx
Mill's basic principle, assess the legitimacy of laws (a) requiring motorists to wear helmets, (b) preventing people from walking naked in public parks, (c) forbidding people to take drugs like cocaine or heroin, or (d) outlawing skateboarding in certain areas.
Mill's "harm principle" as stated in On Liberty could possibly be a legitimate reason to enforce wearing helmets for motorists, outlaw people from walking naked in parks, outlaw cocaine or heroin usage, and ban skateboarding in certain areas. Yet, as Mill (1859) himself states, "The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others" (p. 21). With that said, one may be able to object to the application of Mill's "harm principle" in so far as it applies to motorists, nudists, drug users, and skateboarders for the simple reason that they are not necessarily…
Kadi, J. (1996). Thinking Class. MA: South End Press.
Mill, J. S. (1859). On Liberty. UK: Oxford University.
For example, the company did create a monthly cash flow chart for the modernization project. However, this flow chart was not regularly re-evaluated over the course of the project on a regular and timely basis, once delays became a problem. There was no talk of scaling back or reformulating the approach, once it became clear that the project was going to be more expensive and take longer than anticipated. Additionally, there was no careful monitoring of the external market environment for opportunities or threats that could affect the future profitability of the project.
The lack of close monitoring was especially detrimental to the company because of the fact that the contracted firm, EIS, was paid at an hourly rate: once delays began to spiral out of control, so did costs. Another poor strategy was evident in their criteria for selecting members of the leadership team. For example, Ian Leadbetter did…
Wideman, Max. (2002, November 14). The Woodworking Case Study. Expert Project
Management. Retrieved May 23, 2010. http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/woody2000/background.htm
Bob Dylan Annotated Bib
Honneth, Axel. "Liberty's Entanglements: Bob Dylan and His Era." Philosophy Social Criticism.
Sage Publications. 36:77. 2010. 777-783. Print.
This article acts as a panegyric to Bob Dylan, describing him as representing "a hardly imaginable synthesis, combining the longings of a social romantic, the pride and arrogance of an individualist outsider, the derision of a satirist and the bitterness of an apocalyptic prophet" (777). Honneth then goes on to describe how Dylan fits each of these roles. He likens Dylan to something greater than a simple songwriter or performer, but like a prophet or great spokesman for a generation. Art, he explains, has the ability to transcend its cultural moment and speak to a greater truth than has heretofore been understood. All artists, he states, have made a contribution to this popular culture. Dylan, however has the ability to include subtle messages of autonomy and freedom, unlike…
Russell, Craig H. Notes. Music Library Association. 50:3. 1994. 929-933. Print.
This article is a review of the book Positively Bob Dylan: a Thirty-Year Discography. Actually, the article deals with the many different texts about Bob Dylan that had appeared on the landscape at that time. Russell points to several different texts and judges their effectiveness by the information that they provide. Of all, he seems to be most fond of Clinton Heylin's book Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades. Most of Heylin's book is based on personal accounts and interviews with the singer/songwriter. This favorable review of Heylin is counterpointed with a negative review of a book by Richard Williams. This book, entitled Dylan: A Man Called Alias, he argues is not as truthful as the Heylin book. On accusation is levied that Williams "adopts some commonly held misconceptions without reexamining the primary evidence" (931). He also describes a third book, Richard Wissolik's Bob Dylan, American Poet and Singer which he defines as the most scholarly of the three texts.
The article is useful in that it illustrates one Dylan scholar's perspective on two potential sources. It gives a third point-of-view in a dialogue between Heylin and Williams. For someone trying to write a researched analytical paper on Bob Dylan, it is helpful to have another opinion about which sources should be relied upon over others. There are so many different sources out there in the world that it is very easy to get overwhelmed and to rely on information that is potentially false. By examining this article, not only do I get Russell's impressions of those other two books, but his own experiences and understanding of Dylan himself. The article goes on to describe some other books and texts that would be helpful for a scholarly paper discussing Bob Dylan. This is a valuable asset for someone searching for viable sources.
advertising strategy and the branding strategy are all integrated with the larger concept of marketing strategy and, on the highest levels, with the company's overall business strategy. The way that a certain brand is advertised depends on what the company decided for that brand, namely what the strategy for it is. It also depends on a variety of marketing-related elements, such as product positioning on the market or the targeted group of consumers. For example, a brand that is #2 on the market and aims to be #1 may have an advertising campaign that targets the leader.
In correlating the advertising strategy with the branding strategy, our company needs to consider several elements. First, this is a new company, as well as a niche company. The first objective of a successful advertising strategy is to relate to the characteristics of the brand and understand how to reach the targeted group…
1. Gustafson, Tara, Chabot, Brian, (2007). Brand Awareness. Cornell Maple Bulletin
2. Lewis, Randall, Rao, Justin, (2013). On the Near Impossibility of Measuring the Returns to Advertising. On the Internet at http://www.justinmrao.com/lewis_rao_nearimpossibility.pdf . Last retrieved on November 27, 2013
3. Brassington, F, Pettitt, S. (2000). Principles of Marketing, 2nd Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited
4. Meidan, A, (1996). Marketing Financial Services. Hampshire and London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Dole and Chiquita - Organic Bananas
Going (Organic) Bananas
When it comes to bananas, Dole has long been at a disadvantage. Dole is association for most Americans with pineapples and with various shady dealings in Hawai'i. If you want to go bananas, you go to Chiquita.
This paper examines the marketing strategy currently employed by Dole Bananas, asking how well this company is doing against others in the banana business as well as asking from what other directions Dole might face competition in the future and how well it is prepared to meet those challenges.
Chiquita is indeed Dole's major competitor at least in terms of banana sales (it is not a significant competitor in terms of pineapples, for example) and the two companies have clearly tried in recent years to differentiate themselves from each other so as to grab a larger share of the market. This is…
Roche, J. (1999). The international banana trade. New York: CRC Press.
A www.chiquita.com www.dole.com www.headlinewatch.com www.europe.cnn.com www.mindfully.org www.yale.edu
Limiting te Spread of Radical and
Online ate speec or retoric tat calls for violence against anoter organization or te government itself.
Sources of information about operational tecniques, suc as ow to create bombs, develop poisons or to carry out effective violent attacks.
Wenever te subject of terrorism comes up, te question of ow to balance law-abiding Americans' rigts to individual freedom wit te need for public safety inevitably must be addressed. In 2010, in Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project, te U.S. Supreme Court found tat even "peaceful speec in te U.S. can be criminalized if it is 'coordinated' to support a foreign terrorist organization named by Congress" (Feldman 2010). Te material in question did not meet te standard of Brandenburg v. Oio, "wic eld tat advocacy of violence can be made criminal only if it is directed to incite imminent lawless action and is also likely to produce suc…
M4D2: Lone Wolves vs. The Pack: Who Poses a Greater Threat?
Lone wolf terrorists tend to have less formal organizational capabilities and training than organized terrorists. Events which caused mass causalities like the 9/11 bombings require more careful planning and coordination that one individual (particularly a mentally unhinged individual) is likely to be capable of; also, organized terrorists have financial resources that lone wolf terrorists do not possess, either from selling money through the drug trade, wealthy radical backers, or other means. Thus it would seem that lone wolves are less likely to precipitate actions with mass causalities. However, they can still be quite deadly as in the case of "Nidal Malik Hasan in the United States, who killed many of his fellow soldiers after opening fire at a military base" (Thompson 2013). The problem with lone wolf terrorists is that their motives may be so shadowy and their logic so twisted it is difficult to anticipate their actions or predict where they will strike. Or, in the case of Hasan, they may be a case of an insider whose disaffection with the organization gradually spills over
Patrick Henry's speech to in March of 1775 is one of the best-known speeches in American history, and captured the emotions being experienced by many people involved in the American evolution. Henry differed from many of the other leaders of the evolution in that he had not gained prominence and respect prior to the revolutionary period. Henry began life as somewhat of a ne'er do well, eventually choosing the practice of law. He eventually became a prominent member of the evolution, where he was considered a liberal firebrand and a powerful orator. Henry was an influential leader in the radical opposition to the British government, but only accepted the new federal government after the passage of the Bill of ights, for which he was in great measure responsible (A&E 2013, p.1). This was due to his commitment to individual liberty, which is evident in his most famous speech. He…
A&E Networks. 2013. Patrick Henry. Biography.com. Online. Available from Internet,
Henry, Patrick. 1775. Give me liberty or give me death. Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg.
On-line. Available from Internet,
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/politics/giveme.cfm , accessed November 14, 2013.
For him, it is also important to know that liberty, while dependent on the individual's decision alone, should also take into account the consequences that will come out upon the accomplishment of an action. That is, it is vital that the individual think of the 'bigger picture': will the action benefit the common good, or will it benefit my personal interests only? Positive liberty, hence, becomes more vital when it goes beyond thinking and speaking, and the individual engages in doing a particular activity, knowing that s/he has the freedom to do so. Mill posits on this issue, "The liberty of the individual must be thus far limited; he must not make himself a nuisance to other people...It is desirable, in short, that in things which do not primarily concern others, individuality should assert itself. Where, not the person's own character, but the traditions or customs of other people are…
Every act happens at some time and in some place, and in like manner every act that we do either does or may affect both ourselves and others."
till others try to rebuff these objections, clarifying self-regarding acts and other-regarding acts.
J.C. Rees is at the helm of the counter-movement of interpretations, arguing that there is a distinguishable difference between actions that affect others and those that affect others' interests; he purports that it is the protection of other's interests to which Mill meant for liberty's limitation. Rees constructs a relativistic, conservative interpretation of liberty, in which the emphasis is placed on distinguishing interests from 'arbitrary wishes, fleeting fancies, and capricious demands." In his protection of the "permanent interests of man as a progressive being," Mill demands that the limitations of liberty extend to the interference of the protection of another citizen's own right to liberty.
The freedom of choice…
Stephens, Fitzjames. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. R.J. White, Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967. p. 28.
Rees, John C. "A Re-reading of Mill on Liberty." Political Studies. Vol. 8. (1960), also Ibid, "Was Mill for Liberty?" Political Studies. Vol. 14. (1966) and "The Thesis of the 'Two Mills.'" Political Studies. Vol. 25. (1977)
Rees in Radcliff, Peter. Limits of Liberty. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1966. p, 101.
Balance between Emergency Powers, Abuse of Law by the State and Civil Liberties of People within and Beyond the U.S.
ithin the United States of America especially after the terrorists' attack of 9/11, there seems to be a delicate balance between emergency powers, abuse of law by the authorities and the citizens' liberty. There appears to be significant connection between increase of liberty and insecurity (Gearty 1). However the question here is what security means, in some instances, security could be national threats such as terror attacks or internal forces threatening the political establishments, those that advance particular ideological ends such as those witnessed in Most North African such as Libya and Arabian countries such as Yemen. Nonetheless, in instances of such threats, civil liberties suffer and it becomes a challenge reconciling it with national security. There are many aspects of liberal democracy such as freedom of expression, association and…
A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department  UKHL 56 .
Feingold, Russell. "On Opposing the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 14 April 2002. 8 December 2012 .
Gearty, Conor. Terror. London: Faber & Faber, 1991.
Greenhouse, Linda. "A Nation Challanged: The Supreme Court." The New York Times 29 September 2001.
Mills on Liberty
John Stuart Mill's on Liberty
To whom does Mill's principle of liberty apply? To whom does it NOT apply? Mill justifies the liberty principle according to "the permanent interests of man as a progressive being" (On Liberty, p. 4). What are the strengths and weaknesses of this argument?
Liberty should apply to everyone with a few exceptions. First, liberty should only be granted to the extent in which this liberty does not harm another's liberty. This is known as the harm principle. People should be granted liberty however the right to liberty must stop when it hinders on someone else's well-being. The same principle can also be applied to help others prevent self-harm. For example, children and "backwards" people are unable to prevent self-harm to themselves when granted too much liberty. Therefore, Mill's believes that in such examples despotism is appropriate so long as the ruler is…
Ethics and the Law
It is morally acceptable for the law to require people to do things for their own self-development?
"Political theory is a branch of moral philosophy, which starts from the discovery, or application, of moral notions in the sphere of political relations." This statement, indicated in the literary work, "Two concepts of Liberty," summarizes my personal views on law and self-development. I believe it is morally acceptable to require people to do things for their own self development. Aspects such as making children attend school, requiring high schools to offer basic curriculum courses, or requiring systemically viable institutions to be certified, I believe, all are morally acceptable laws. Although society overall benefits from the self-development of its own constituents, the world benefits as a more educated population continues to drive economic prosperity (Berlin, 2000).
Few would argue over the merits of self-development and its obvious advantages. However…
Now, "more perfect," "justice," "common," "general welfare," "blessings of liberty," and the limits of "liberty" themselves, are all moral concepts. In addition the interpretation of "domestic tranquility" with respect to attempting to better determine individual rights, social order, preventing crime, and capturing and prosecuting criminals is yet another moral term. In these instances, many of the major moral purposes of the Constitution are to help us be law-abiding so that we are an evolving country, rather than merely a stoic and obedient nation. I therefore believe, it would be remiss, and wrong, to make laws or to try to interpret laws in court without any regard to their moral meaning, moral significance, or moral consequences insofar as these impact justice, liberty, general welfare, the common defense, and domestic tranquility.
1) Berlin, I. (1958) "Two Concepts of Liberty." In Isaiah Berlin (1969) Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2) Oakes, J. (1996), What's Wrong with "Negative Liberty." Law & Social Inquiry, 21: 79 -- 82. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.1996.tb00010.x
I do not feel that the state should be allowed to draft marriage terms that do not adequately protect the liberty and equality of each spouse. I believe that cultures of the world are slowing moving towards a global culture that embraces liberty and equality through globalization and advances of information technologies. In fact, this point seems evident in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 16 of this document states (the United Nations, N.d.):
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection…
Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. (N.d.). The Right to Marry. Retrieved from Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/righttomarry.htm
The United Nations. (N.d.). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from the United Nations: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
Younus, F. (2013, January 28). Why Ban Cousin Marriages? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/faheem-younus/why-ban-cousin-marriages_b_2567162.html
forum #4: Civil liberties/Civil rights
One recent famous 't-shirt' case involving the civil liberties of a defendant was Guiles v. Marineau, in which a middle-schooler who wore a t-shirt openly critical of President George Bush was suspended from school for being disruptive. Zachary Guiles "was later allowed back in school, but he was told that he couldn't wear the T-shirt unless he taped over certain pictures on the T-shirt -- pictures of a martini glass, lines of cocaine, straws, and razor blades. The pictures were references to substance abuse problems President Bush is said to have had as a younger man. These problems were also described in words on the T-shirt" ("Student Free Speech Rights: Guiles v. Marineau: Issues). Although the Supreme Court ultimately declined to hear the case, the Second Circuit judges where the case was decided "determined that for speech that isn't vulgar…Schools may not regulate such student…
Elliott, Justin. "Remember when the Patriot Act was all about library records." Pro-Publica.
17 Jun 2013. 27 Apr 2014. http://www.propublica.org/article/remember-when-the-patriot-act-debate-was-about-library-records
"Student Free Speech Rights: Guiles v. Marineau: Issues." ACLU. 27 Apr 2014.
Earlier in this paper it was revealed that a small unit within the Security Service was originally doing the work; but soon the espionage unit had grown to more than 1,400. On page 848 Major Vernon Kell began -- what later became an out-of-control behemoth organization -- with just "a room, a desk and a filing cabinet"; when Kell asked for a clerk to assist him, the bureaucracy was surprised that "…such extravagance was necessary" (Hiley, 848).
This juxtaposition is by way of explaining how, as the fear of the Germans expanded, and as the list of suspected spies grew enormously huge, and paranoia became so powerful that peace groups and labor groups came under suspicion, civil liberties were shoved aside. On page 853 Hiley notes that prior to October 1911, in order to open a letter that was passing through the Royal Mails, a warrant had to be signed…
Hiley, Nicholas. (1985). The Failure of British Counter-Espionage against Germany, 1907-
1914. The Historical Journal, 28(4), 835-862.
Hiley, Nicholas. (1986). Counter-Espionage and Security in Great Britain during the First
World War. The English Historical Review, 101(400), 635-670.
slavery imagery of Patrick Henry's 1775
"Give me liberty or give me death" speech
In his famous 1775 "Give me liberty or give me death" speech, Patrick Henry uttered the words: "for my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate." These words, although stirring, seem profoundly ironic to modern ears given that Virginia was a slave-owning state, dominated by plantations. However, there was a reason that Patrick so vehemently stressed the concept of enslavement in his speech, a reason that is implied in the words "no man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism."[footnoteRef:1] The concept of releasing one's self from the control of a sovereign was a profoundly frightening one to many in an era where a king's divine right to rule…
Henry, Patrick. "Give me liberty or give me death speech." Colonial Williamsburg, 1775.
http://www.history.org/almanack/life/politics/giveme.cfm [14 Apr 2014]
Tuckness, Alex. "Locke's Political Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(Winter 2012 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
They now work together in what has become an ideological battle against the U.S. In this vicious battle against the terror outfits, our people have been robbed of their cherished freedom, which has always been the cornerstone of our constitution.
As history has time and again illustrated, 'power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. This can be extended to the patriot act, which has given absolute power to the law enforcers at the cost of the freedom and privacy of its citizens. Ethnic profiling and 'speculation without any accountability' have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The much-touted 'preventive paradigm' of which the patriot act is an important tool has resulted in much wrongdoing. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is enough proof of the strategic misadventure of a failed intelligence system backed by emergency terror…
1) David Weigel, (Nov 2005), 'When Patriots Dissent: Surprise: Standing up to the Patriot act can be good Politics', Reason, 37(6), pp. 32-38.
2) Ken Olsen, (2007), 'Patriot Act's Wide Net', Nation, p. 8, 2007, September 24
3) Cole D & Lobel J, (2007) ' Why are we Losing the War on Terror', Nation, 285, 11-18.
4) Dalgaard -- Nielsen A (2004),'Civic Liberties and Counter Terrorism: A European Point-of-View', Center for Transatlantic Relations, 2004
Perhaps she realized her husband did not really love her. or, she may have realized that her married her simply to convert her, and she chafed at giving up her own culture and roots. Probably, she followed him willfully as his wife (and as a woman's duty), but she could have found that marriage without love is not nearly as satisfying as a loving relationship, and she may have been disappointed and disillusioned, something that clearly shows in her proud features. Whatever the painting explores, it shows a rigid and seemingly unhappy woman, and this seems to mirror many women's lives at the time. They were subservient to men, and even more, they played little role in most of society, and so, they were not masters of their own fates or well being. They could not own property, they could not vote, they could not hold office, and most of…
Bjelajac, David. American Art, a Cultural History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Peterson Education, 2003.
Mill agrees that the mischief a person does to himself can affect others, and he finds that it is right to bring to bear moral disapprobation,
henever there is a definite damage, the case moves out of the province of liberty and into that of morality or law. ith reference to that which is merely contingent, however, society can afford to bear the inconvenience (Magid 799-800).
Mill in his work on Liberty proposed a simple principle for determining whether society has a right to limit individual freedom, a principle based on utilitarian concepts and applicable to the individual in his or her dealings with society. that principle can be stated as follows:
The only thing of ultimate value is the happiness of individuals, and individuals can best achieve their happiness in a civilized society when they are left free to pursue their own interest with their own talents as these…
Carlyle, Thomas. Past and Present. The Gutenberg Project (27 Sept 2004). July 16, 2007. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13534 .
Himmelfarb, Gertrude. On Liberty and Liberalism. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1974.
Kelly, J.M.A Short History of Western Legal Theory. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1992.
Magid, Henry M. "John Stuart Mill." In History of Political Philosophy, Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey (eds.), 798-802. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.