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Magistrates of Parlement established uniform procedural codes for each of the royal courts and along with this, the importance of judicial responsibilities increased among Parlement members. Regard for legislative, administrative and judicial power became more about loyalty to the crown and interests expressed by the monarch rather than about serving local interests. Through this compliance with centralization of power, the actions of Parlement can be viewed as efforts made to satisfy the principle of royalty being sacred, an attribute of absolute monarchy as outlined by Bishop Bousset. Louis XIV established that another objective in his reform of France's hierarchy was to reform justice in the country, calling for the process of litigation to be streamlined to reduce cost and increase the productivity of Parlement. By assigning judicial powers to the monarch, Louis XIV effectively created a system that was dictated solely by his own decisions - a time and savings…
Louis XIV Absolutism
The Fronde was enabled by a number of government conditions, not the least of which was that created by the ravages of the 30 Years War in which large sets of the population, particularly those engaged in martial affairs, became used to a degree of autonomy and near lawlessness. Furthermore, this sentiment was fueled by an increasing feeling of dissatisfaction in regards to the centralized power which France's government was taking. Doing so significantly added to the power of the monarchy form of government, which decreased the power and authority of the French nobility, many of whom were responsible for the ensuing civil war. In particular, an unpopular tax on the Parlement of Paris in 1648 spurred the beginning of the first Fronde, which was an attempt by the nobility to continue to enjoy the feudal system -- and its benefits -- which it had long endured…
Belk, W. (2000). Louis XIV And Absolutism: A Brief Study With Documents. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Louis XIV's economic and political impact on the lower class with that of William and Mary
European societies in the late seventeenth century were stratified and hierarchical. Society was viewed as being structured into orders, with each social order fulfilling a particular function in society as a whole, and the entire system being understood as a reflection of a divinely-ordered harmony that pervaded the universe.
At the top of this hierarchical system were monarchs such as Louis XIV of France and William III of England. Separated from these crowned heads by an unbridgeable gulf were the lower orders of society -- the urban and rural poor, smallholders, apprentices, laborers.
The lives of these humble people were greatly influenced by the actions of their rulers, in terms of religion, taxation, law, war and peace, and the institutional and visual expression of political authority. This paper examines some of these issues with…
Bluche, Francois, Louis XIV (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990).
Briggs, Robin, Early Modern France 1560-1715 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977).
Burke, Peter, The Fabrication of Louis XIV (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992).
Hill, Christopher, Reformation to Industrial Revolution (London: Penguin, 1983).
9. How did the new psychology influenced the birth of key movements in the arts: expressionism, dada, and surrealism? Surrealism, dada, and expressionism represent three generations of avante garde protest against "rational" modernism and the meaningless, war and violence filled society that it brought about. They were a reaction against modernism and their great grandchild, postmodernism continues this tradition of social protest. The new psychology of individuals such as Freud and Jung laid bare the "rational" bases of estern culture and showed that we were little better than the mindless primitives that we claimed not to be. Surrealism, dada, and expressionism are merely avante guard reactions against the meaninglessness and nihilism of modern society and it illustrates this by accentuating this and bringing it forward. It is meant to offend and bring about revolutionary change in the process via the social consciousness it produces.
10. hy did the airing of…
Carsten, Francis Ludwig. (1961). The New cambridge modern history: the ascendancy of france, 1648-88. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
The king of France was more than just a simple leader, as he claimed that he was entitled to the country's throne through divine right. Louis XIV was able to make laws, to increase or decrease taxes, to administrate the state and justice, and to determine whether or not France would express interest in allying itself with other countries. All influential individuals in France were practically forced to check with Louis before they could sign anything. The French king used the court as Versailles with the purpose of keeping important people in the state close to him and in order to watch their every move. This made it difficult and almost impossible for them to plot against his and influenced peasants in expressing more dedication to the king than to the masters of the estates that they lived on.
Louis's connection with the court at Versailles was particularly important for…
Breck Perkins, James, France under the Regency With a Review of the Administration of Louis XIV (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1920)
Hassall, Arthur, Louis XIV and the Zenith of the French Monarchy (New York G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1895)
"Louis XIV," Retrieved February 29, 2012, from the Chateau de Versailles Website: http://en.chateauversailles.fr/history/court-people/louis-xiv-time/louis-xiv-
"LOUIS XIV and the VERSAILLES PALACE," Retrieved February 29, 2012, from the GPS Faculty Pages Website: http://staff.gps.edu/mines/louis_xiv_and_the_versailles_pal.htm
Beik underlines the fact that collecting a huge amount of data required much more personnel and a far better way of communicating with the city and the village representatives, than Colbert could have ever dreamed of at that time. Nevertheless his achievements in collecting this date are remarkable. Based on these gatherings and his intuition and economic knowledge, Colbert was able to prepare and present to the king reforms destined to improve the macro economic situation as well as to solve some of the deficits that were already adding up as a result of the king's insatiable passion for war. While Colbert was the advocate of reducing taxes and favoring the revenues resulting from manufacturing and trade, the actual royal response comes from the receipts dated from the year Colbert started his collecting data and Madame de Maintenon's time. The king decided when to pay and how much the taille…
William Beik, Louis XIV and Absolutism: A Brief Study with Documents. (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000), 13
William Beik, Louis XIV and Absolutism: A Brief Study with Documents. (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000), 109-110
Ceremonies of King Louis XIV
Marriage Ceremonies and King Louis XIV
Marriage to Marguerite of Savoy
Marguerite was the princess of Savoy; she was stunningly beautiful, with her big shimmering eyes, dark face and fairy like attire. She walked so gracefully that she barely touched the ground. Her reception was the most desired thing of all times, the king, queen and all the others at the court were dying to see her reception. Even before going into sound sleep at night the duchess along with her daughter thought of Marguerite, who according to them would become the future queen of France. To attend the morrow at the princess apartment, the king ordered a suit to be made ready for him.
Next day everything happened against the expectations. Before the court, the king appeared and the manner in which he started to make the announcement seemed to be a reserved and…
Cowart, Georgia J. The Triumph of Pleasure: Louis XIV and the Politics of Spectacle (U of Chicago Press, 2008)
Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006
Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XIV to Napoleon (1715 -- 1799) (2002)
Versailles was more than just a place inhabited by the French royal family and those close to them, as it was a location where art was in the making, with Moliere and Lully being two of the individuals responsible for transforming the palace into the home of French art in the seventeenth century.
Louis, Lully, and Moliere all collaborated in assisting France in experiencing a process of enlightenment, as the country changed most of its policies during the seventeenth century with the purpose of having these three men and the rest of the country's people exploit its ability to host the concept of art. Even though Louis is likely to be condemned for bringing France into a financial impasse because of his excessive spending, most people are likely to agree that art is one of the best things that one can possibly invest in. The Sun King enabled people to…
Calder, Andrew, "Moliere: The Theory and Practice of Comedy,"
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000
Campbell, Peter Robert, "Louis XIV, 1661-1715," Longman, 1993.
Parkin, John and Phillips, John, "Laughter and power," Peter Lang, 2006.
Il y avait une controle tres rationnelle sur la quantite des produits fabriques par la marque LV. Au cause d'un demande qui reste fort, et un fabrication rationnelle, il y a toujours un certain demande pas tout-a-fait supporte par la boite. Donc le prix peux reste eleve, et les marges restent aussi eleve (Market Research, 2007).
Qu'est-ce qui va passer avec LVMH dans l'avenir?
LVMH continue avec sa marche dans l'industrie de la mode dans le monde entier. Il y a des defis, bien sur. Un defi tres important est le contre faconnage des produits. Dans le passe, les contrefacons ont ete fabrique pour la plupart en Italie. La pratique est devenue plus important dans les pays de l'Orient, y inclus la Chine. Il y a une lutte tres importante de toute l'industrie de la France contre la contre faconnage dans ce pays, qui est suivi avec les moyens de…
Weisman, K. (2007, October 8). Perfume industry aims to regain prestige. Internatinoal Herald Tribune, p. n.p.
Who2. (2007). Louis Vuitton History. Retrieved December 2, 2007, from Who2: http://www.who2.com/louisvuitton.html
La Groupe LVMH (Louis Vuitton Moet-Hennessy)
Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte are the most important personalities of French history; their political achievements impressed people of all generations who admitted the fact that unified strong and highly developed modern France is the main result of their activities. Both Louis XIV and Napoleon were politicians of a new type and had very progressive political views which helped them strengthen their country and defeat political opponents. Period of French history since 1643 till 1812 is full of great changes in social, economical, political and cultural aspects of French life and the outcome of this process was unified French nation, strong state ruled by able bureaucracy and French cultural predominance for many centuries.
To begin with we have to remember, that French nation didn't have strong and unified state before Louis XIV: French kings tried fighting for dominant position in the political system but failed as they were directed in…
He is the last resource of the dying; he is the instrument of heavenly mercy. Sire, we supplicate you with clasped hands and bended knees, as the Deity is supplicated! Madame Fouquet has no longer any friends, no longer any support; she weeps in her poor deserted house, abandoned by all those who besieged its door in the hour of prosperity; she has neither credit nor hope left. At least, the unhappy wretch upon whom your anger falls receives from you, however culpable he may be, the daily bread which is moistened by his tears. As much afflicted, more destitute than her husband, Madame Fouquet- she who had the honor to receive your Majesty at her table; Madame Fouquet, the wife of the ancient Superintendent of your Majesty's Finances,- Madame Fouquet has no longer bread."
eality v Fiction
There are many ways in which Dumas stretches the reality of not…
Dumas, Alexandre. The Vicomte de Bragelonne. Ed. David Coward. Oxford: Oxford University, 1998. Questia. 3 Aug. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=22933050 .
Macdonald, Roger. "Behind the Iron Mask." History Today Nov. 2005: 30+. Questia. 3 Aug. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012048049 .
The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.
3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.
The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…
Enlightened Despots." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook11.html
Gilbert, W. "Renaissance and Reformation." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/
Rempel, G. "Mercantilism." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/mercantilism.html
Steingrad, E. "Louis XIV." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?t=start&a=start#2
Second Treatise of Government," by John Locke is a revolutionary philosophical work that directly opposed the idea of absolutism.
Absolutism held that the best form of government was autocratic, and was based on both the belief in the Divine Right of Kings and the theory of natural law, as espoused by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan. In the context of the absolutism of Louis XIV, and the political events surrounding Oliver Cromwell, Locke's "Second Treatise of Government" was clearly a revolutionary work on the structure and purpose of political authority.
One of the greatest debates of the 16th and 17th centuries was over the nature of political authority. The belief in divine right of kings that had once held sway over the estern world was quickly dissolving. In its place was a rapidly emerging idea of individualism that took form with the Renaissance and the French Revolution, and took root in…
Hobbes, T. The Leviathan. Chapters XIII - XXI. Reproduced at: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776, William Uzgalis, Oregon State University. 15 October 2002. http://www.orst.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/hobbes/leviathan-contents.html
Locke, J. The Second Treatise of Civil Government. Chapters 2-8. Reproduced at: The History of Western Philosophy from 1492 to 1776, William Uzgalis, Oregon State University. 15 October 2002. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke2/2nd-contents.html
Smith believed this would lead to inefficiency.
However, unlike Plato, Smith did not believe that the ideal republic should decide from birth what occupation an individual should follow, rather that the individual must freely choose by his or her own will, how to direct his or her energies and labor in the most efficient and self-interested fashion, which would ultimately result in the advancement of the nation as a whole. Plato's social structure, although not based upon birth, was still based upon a monopoly of philosophers dictating the lives of others according to their state-generated power, unlike Smith's more democratic ideals. Smith's analysis more perfectly echoes that of illiam Petty, who stressed how breaking down tasks, like Smith's pin-manufacturing plant, could generate higher levels of efficiency in economic production. Petty also placed a strong emphasis, as did Smith, upon the vital need of a nation to practice free trade.
Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. 1999. 8 Mar 2008. http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html
David Ricardo." The New School. 8 Mar 2008. http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/profiles/ricardo.htm
Economics." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2007. 8 Mar 2008. http://encarta.msn.com.
Mill, John Stuart. Principles of Political Economy. Library of Economics and Liberty.
As the various are works are depicting the two as a perfect match. A good example of this can be seen in the painting the Meeting of Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon. Where, Rubens is showing the two in heaven, looking down on themselves when they were younger riding lions. This is important, because the image of them in heaven is highlighting how they are God's match. While the lions are an illustration, of how they are from the same kind of background. As a result, a sense of mysticism is embraced with: heaven and the lions. While reality is depicted by: showing the two people as they actually appeared in real life. Therefore, the aroque style is illustrated through the use of: mysticism and realism that are connected to one another. ("Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon," 2011)
Artermisia Gentileschi. (n.d.)…
Artermisia Gentileschi. (n.d.) the Art History Archive. Retrieved from: http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/baroque/images/ArtemisiaGentileschi-Woman-Playing-the-Lute-1609-12.jpg
The King's Interior Apartments. (2011). Palace of Versailles. Retrieved from: http://en.chateauversailles.fr/discover-the-estate/the-palace/the-palace/the-kings-interior-apartments
Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon. (2011). Arts Heaven. Retrieved from: http://www.artsheaven.com/peter-paul-rubens-the-meeting-of-marie-de-medici-and-henri-iv-at-lyon.html
The Merode Altarpeice. (n.d.). Home Schools. Retrieved from: http://www.homeschoolonline.co.uk/art/great-works-of-art/the-merode-altarpiece-by-robert-campin.html
It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.
But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…
Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952
Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998
Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations
http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008
The Louvre, an architectural masterpiece, has dominated central Paris since the late 12th century. The original structure was gradually dwarfed as the city grew. The dark fortress of the early days was transformed into the modernized dwelling of Francois I and, later, the sumptuous palace of the Sun King, Louis XIV. My online tour of the Louvre allowed me to take a virtual, self-guided, room-by-room tour of the museum. The web site allows navigation through exhibition rooms and galleries and allows one to contemplate the facades of the museum. The first thing one sees before entering the museum is the garden, a delight during any season of the year. It is the perfect place for a relaxing stroll and it offers a range of activities for visitors.
There are more than ten sections in the museum for different kinds of art from all around the world including…
Nevertheless, "A Musical Party" and other banquet scenes, in its contrasting gloom, gain a sense of depth that other painters do not achieve with similar depictions.
After the end of his apprenticeship in 1619, Tournier became part of a community of French artists in Rome, who perpetuated the Caravaggesque movement. Most influential of Tournier's work during this time was Valentin de Boulogne (Musee des Augustins). Both being French and in Rome, the artists became good friends. While Tournier was not a pupil of Boulogne's, the latter nonetheless influenced him significantly. It is perhaps also as a result of Boulogne's influence that Tournier painted generally upbeat, secular scenes such as "A Musical Party." Not even this artist's jovial influence could destroy the inherent melancholy of Tournier's work. Whereas Boulogne's figures were depicted with an edgy tension, Tournier's were consistently quiet, as mentioned above, almost suspended in time. The two style were…
Artnet. "Artist's Biographies: Nicolas Tournier." 2007. http://www.artnet.com/library/08/0858/T085862.asp
Encyclopaedia Britannica. "French culture in the 17th century." 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-40368/France
Musee des Augustins. "Nicolas Tournier." 2007. http://www.augustins.org/en/exposition/trn/formation/accueil.htm
Polybius: Historian and Politician
The histories written by Polybius are considered to be essential from historiographic perspective as it gives detailed and comprehensive picture and understanding of the Hellenistic world. His work on the rise and fall of the Roman Empire are considered to be one of the most important and significant works in the field of classical history.[footnoteRef:1] The aim of this research is to investigate and study the historical settings in which Polybius had penned down his most famous work, the Histories in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. The analysis would be beneficial in understanding the political and social constraints responsible for influencing his work and furthermore, the opinion of his contemporaries and the reception got from critics when Polybius work was completed. [1: ulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World,…
Bulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World, Berkeley-Los AngelesLondon
Clarke, K. (1999a) Between Geography and History: Hellenistic Reconstructions of the Roman World, Oxford
Clarke, K. (1999b) 'Unusual perspectives in historiography', in C.S. Kraus, ed., The Limits of Historiography: Genre and Narrative in Ancient Historical Texts (Leiden-Boston-Cologne) 249 -- 79
Collatz, C.F., Helms, H. And Schafer, M. (2000) Polybios-Lexikon, Band I, Lieferung I (?-), 2nd edn, Berlin
Le Grand Hautbois
During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being created with a variety of innovations and some other instruments were being newly invented. It was a time of experimentation, as these just introduced instruments had to be tried out for their range, sound and quality. Louis XIV from his childhood on throughout his life was always surrounded by music. He and musicians such as Lully would create ballets and compositions (Palisca 1968). During this time, King Louis XIV also revived and updated Le Grand Hautbois with the new instruments. Although little is written about Le Grand Hautbois, with Whitwell the compiler of the information that is available from writers during that period, this does not negate the importance of this twelve-player band to the French royal court and other European…
Anthony, James. French Baroque Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1974
Bernard, Leon. The Emerging City: Paris in the Age of Louis XIV. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1970
Blunt, Anthony Art and Architecture in France 1500 to 1700. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1980
Buelow, George. History of baroque music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004
life in the enaissance? Do you see different types of style, for example: style that you would definitely connect with Louis XIV and Versailles and other types of style that are very different to Louis XIV's style? You might like to think about prom attire vs. what you wear on an everyday at school for instance, or what you'd wear to an interview vs. what you wear to go over to a friend's to watch TV or a movie.
Life in the enaissance era and the clips are illustrating, how style was a way for the socially elite to express themselves. This occurred with them wearing outfits that highlight the different types of tastes with opulence. A connection occurs through illustrating how Louis the XIV lived and this desire to show off his wealth / power. (Bayard, 2012) ("enaissance," 2005)
There are clearly styles which influenced and are directly associated…
Renaissance. (2005). Encarta. Retrieved from: http://encarta.msn.com
Bayard, E. (2012). The ABCs of Style. New York, NY: Parkstone.
On the other hand, he is also referring to the rigorous formation of a cantata. He saw through the rigorous formation of the cantata an instrument to bring a certain order into individual existence as well, with the Lutheran religion as the middle element (Schrade, 1946).
In reference to the previous subchapter on Lully, we should point out towards the fact that, while for Lully, royal patronage was essential for the characteristics of his creation and, in fact, the direct source of inspiration and ultimate goal, ach used the civic appointment to rise above the actual demands and only use the pretext of needing to compose cantatas for a perspective to go beyond and ensure that his musical vision was reached. In Lully's case, patronage determined musical vision, for we cannot see Lully's music otherwise than in the role of a grandiose propaganda instrument for the French absolute monarchy. In…
1. Schrade, Leo. 1946. Bach: The Conflict between the Sacred and the Secular. Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press
2. Isherwood, Robert. 1973. Music in the Service of the King. Ithaca and London: Cornell U.P.
3. Isherwood, Robert. 1969. The Centralization of Music in the Reign of Louis XIV. French Historical Studies. Society for French Historical Studies
4. Bach's Cantatas: a Brief Orientation. On the Internet at http://www.baroque-music-club.com/cantatas.html .Last retrieved on September 30, 2007
Vignola began his career as an architect in ologna and supported himself by painting and making perspective templates for inlay craftsmen, later traveling to Rome to work and study. His talent and skill was utilized by the papacy, including Pope Julius III and the papal family of the Farnese. He worked with Michelangelo and was deeply influenced by his style.
It is believed that Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara commissioned Vignola to design the Villa Lante in 1566. The first casino was completed immediately, but the second one was not finished until after 1587 when the Cardinal passed away. The two casini differ mainly in the style of frescoes. The first casino uses a riotous highlight of color used to highlight the architecture, while the second casino was done in a more classical style of fresco and plaster sculpture combination.
The gardens of the Villa Lante incorporate water features in "a visual…
Coffin, D.R. 2003. Pirro Ligorio: The Renaissance Artist, Architect, and Antiquarian. Pennsylvania: Penn State Press.
Lees, Frederick. 1997. The Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte. Architectural Record. pp. 413-433.
Pater, Peter. 1976. Renaissance Rome. California: University of California Press.
Rogers, Elizabeth Barlow. 2001. Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History. New York: Harry Abrams, Inc.
While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/ . Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009)
4. Thomas Dereham to James Jurin. 22 June 1722, in Early Letters, Royal Society in London, D.2.12
art form, dance provides the means by which to fuse political and creative power. The body can communicate political ideology, subverting social norms in subtle ways. Dance frequently communicates issues related to race, class, gender, and power. Dance can also be used to either reflect or change values and norms.
For example, ballet was born in the Baroque court of Catherine de Medici, who recognized the potential for dance to symbolize the bringing about of order in a chaotic world ("Baroque Court: Catherine de Medici"). A similar function of dance can be found among the Bedoyo of Java, for whom dance undertook a cosmological as well as a political pertinence: creating or exhibiting order in a world that was otherwise chaotic or unpredictable. Dance reveals the potential for human beings to be disciplined and use their bodies to create order, as opposed to allowing themselves to slip into temptation. In…
"Asante Court: The Asante of Ghana," (n.d.).
"Baroque Court: Catherine de Medici," (n.d.).
"Bedoyo of Java," (n.d.).
"Louis XIV: The Sun King," (n.d.).
Groups for Relationship Issues
Support groups do what their title implies that they do -- they provide emotional, psychological and community support for individuals that are struggling with problems. This paper discusses support groups that exist to help people resolve romantic and other relationship issues that can stand in the way of a normal, peaceful existence. This paper delves into several kinds of support groups that deal with relationship issues, and discusses the potential solutions that different support groups offer to troubled participants.
hat are Support Groups? hat do Support Groups actually do?
Generally speaking, support groups for relationship problems or other issues provide a mechanism that offers some kind of therapy in response to "...the needs of people dealing with stress caused by life transitions, crises, or chronic conditions" (Fagan, et al., 1996). There has been a "proliferation of support groups in recent years," Fagan writes, which is a…
Brown, N.W. (2011). Psychoeducational Groups: Process and Practice. Milton Park, UK:
Taylor & Francis.
Fagan, T., and Warden, P.G. (1996). Historical Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Santa
Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing.
NEC PLURIUS IMPAR (not unequal to many things)
History is written for historians to understand. If Schleiman's Troy had 16 layers to it before finding virgin ground, so is history a layered version written by the State Historian for the Ruler. To be recorded as Official History. ut, like the 20,000 people that may live in a crowd, history, such wise, has 20,000 versions. For each life is sacred. And each existence original.
The historical context of the ten given sources span from Africa to the Americas to China. In the 15th Century, this was right at the end of Umayyid rule, circa 1492 with the fall of Granada in Spain and the Mongol invasion in 1362 in Persia. In between in Europe, was the beginning of the Renaissance (1560). It was the end of the Dark Middle ages of the Occident and the beginning of the Dark Ages of…
Campbell, Sir Robert. Louis XIV. London: Longmans, 1993.
Daniell, Charles Thornton Forester and F.H. Blackburne. The Life and Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. London: C. Kegan Paul and Company, 1881.
Mettan, Roger R. Government and Society in Louis' XIV's France. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1977.
Spence, Jonathan D. Emperor of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopff, 1974.
The city of Versailles has a lengthy and proud history, dating back to its inception in the 17th century. Today the city is internationally renowned for a number of different facets. The most salient one of these is probably the Palace of Versailles, which was formally constructed in the middle of the 17th century and has gone on to inspire a number of other palaces as well as types of government practiced there. Additionally, Versailles was a highly influential city in the political sphere, and has functioned as the de facto capital of the country of France on a number of different occasions. There are several other European cultural designs that were inspired by Versailles and its famous palace, which has come to be renowned throughout estern Civilization.
Versailles is located approximately 10 and a half miles south of France, and is a decidedly idyllic location. It is approximately…
Phillips, Lee. List of Maps and Views of Washington and the District of Columbia in the Library of Congress. D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1900. Print.
Pincas, Stephane. Versailles: The History of the Gardens and their Sculptures. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1996. Print.
Weil, Ann. The World's Most Amazing Places. New York: Pearson. 2012. Print.
It would seem that the artists and the press of the era both recognized a hot commodity when they saw one, and in this pre-Internet/Cable/Hustler era, beautiful women portrayed in a lascivious fashion would naturally appeal to the prurient interests of the men of the day who might well have been personally fed up with the Victorian morals that controlled and dominated their lives otherwise. In this regard, Pyne (2006) reports that, "hen scandalized critics attacked Rodin's nudes, Camera ork defended the drawings by a strategy of veiling the body with the soul, praising them as 'the perception of the mystery of surfaces.... The adventure of the mind in matter... The divinizing of the sensual and the materializing of the sensuous.' Stieglitz thus used a histlerian gloss of shadows and music to mystify the eroticism of Rodin's 'pagan' figures" (44).
The portrayal of women was even regarded as a…
Banta, Martha. Imaging American Women: Idea and Ideals in Cultural History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.
Clements, Candace. (1992) "The Academy and the Other: Les Graces and Le Genre Galant." Eighteenth-Century Studies 25(4):469-94 in Lathers at 23.
Danto, Arthur C. (1986, December 13). "John Singer Sargent." The Nation 243:679.
Downes, William Howe. John S. Sargent: His Life and Work. Boston: Little, Brown, 1925.
According to Henry a. Millon, the sparkling gaiety of this style "was cultivated by a new age associated with the regency that followed upon the death of Louis XIV and then with the reign of Louis XV," meaning that these two French kings and their opulent lifestyles highly influenced the art that came about during the beginning and middle years of the 18th century in Europe (156).
Essentially, the Rococo is an interior style or, in other words, pertains mostly to the decoration of objects designed for the interior of palaces and royal residencies. As compared to the art of the aroque Era, that of the Rococo style is far removed from religious and national influences. Architecturally, one of the best examples of the Rococo style can be found in the Rococo room of the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain offrand…
Millon, Henry a. Baroque and Rococo Architecture and Art. New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Tapie, Victor L. The Age of Grandeur: Baroque Art and Architecture. New York: Phadeon Books, 1966.
Battle of the Boyne
In the late 1600's, two men were claimants to the English throne, illiam and James (Lenihan). illiam landed at Torbay on November 5, 1688 and marched slowly through the country, gaining followers as he went, while support for King James withered away. James fled to France on December 11, and in January 1689, Parliament declared that James had abdicated, and offered the throne to illiam and Mary. Although the English made an attempt to appoint Mary the sole English monarch, she rejected the proposal. illiam had no intention of being his wife's consort stating that if that was all England could do for him after he had saved the country, then he would go back to the Netherlands. King illiam and Queen Mary were declared joint sovereigns on February 13. To confirm his claim to the throne, illiam promised to obey the Declaration of Rights, which…
Hayes McCoy, G.A. Irish Battles: A Military History of Ireland. 1969.
Kinross, J. The Boyne and Aughrim: The War of the Two Kings. Oxford: Windrush Press, 1997.
Lenihan, P. 1690: Battle of the Boyne. Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus Publishing, 2003.
Mastery Over Nature and the Exotic Animal Trade
Humankind has always had a fascination with nature and specifically animals in nature and even more specifically with conquering the animal or gaining mastery over the animal. The exotic animal has been the focus of great aspiration of humankind to attain mastery over. The reasons for this are varied in nature with some individuals obtaining exotic animals for their own pleasure and as examined in this particular informative study there is desire for obtaining exotic animals so that human beings can experience the animals of nature.
Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide, South Australia
The setting examined in this study is that of the Adelaide Zoo, located Adelaide, South Australia. The work of Kay Anderson entitled "Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontier of Human Geography" reports that in the suburban backyard, people unknowingly "make their more routine interventions in nature by…
Adams, G., Fisher, L., Le Blond, D., Mazur, N., McMahon, C., Peckover, T., Schmiechen, J. And Sharrad, N. 1991, The role of the Adelaide Zoo in conservation, Report prepared for the Royal Zoological Study of South Australia, Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, The University of Adelaide.
Anderson, K (1994) Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontiers of Human Geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. N.S. 20(3) 275-294. Retrieved from: http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/150953/Anderson95_CultureNatureAdelaideZoo_CCRCopyFinal.pdf
Tarpy, C. 1993, 'New zoos -- taking down the bars', National Geographic, July: 2-38.
Thomas, K. 1983, Man and the natural world: changing attitudes in England 1500-1800, Allen Lane, London.
Power Politics and Glory
Example 1: The Great Wall Of China
It is a common phenomenon for an object to be associated with the ruler or the country in question. The Great Wall of China, where not only served as a defense system, but also consolidated the image of China as a mighty power for many years. The Wall -- acted more as a psychological defense mechanism -- giving the image of China as a united nation.
The design and the emergence of the wall was only possible in the then current prevailing Political Condition of the country, when the country needed to defend itself from foreign attacks by the Mongols.
The design of the Wall was used as a medium to inspire fear and an image of a strong state -- depicted by the strong wall itself. Aesthetic consideration was not point or considering factor, as the main point…
Carlisle, Lyndsay. "Walls and their impacts in a worldwide historical Context." Mexico: National Institute Of Ecology, n.d.Web. 27th Aug 2011
Ecotourism & Adventure Specialists . "The Palace at Paleanque National Park." n.d. Web. 28th Aug 2011.
Great Wall of China. n.d. Web. 27th Aug 2011.
Iliana Papadopoulou, Anastasia Veneti. "Committed Art and Propaganda." Annual PSA Conference. Leeds: Political Studies Association, 2005: 1-16.Web. 28th Aug 2011
irth of the First French Republic
The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…
McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,
Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, Inc., 2008.
French associate their country with a geometrical shape.
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and Eastern France
The South (also known as the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and eastern France
The south (the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.
History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com .
American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England
The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.
While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.
Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…
1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970
3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.
4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Love Letter
This paper examines the piece The Love Letter, created in 1770 by Jean -- Honore Fragonard. The painting consists of oil on canvas and is 32 3/4 x 26 3/8 in. (83.2 x 67 cm) and originates in France. The painting was originally part of a series of decorative panels which were commissioned by Madame du Barry, one of the loves of Louis XV, for her house which was located at Louveciennes. However, once the panels were finished, she rejected them as being unsuitable for her tastes. This painting was executed before the entire series as a pitch to acquire her commission. The Love Letter in many ways is characteristic of Fragonard's style as a whole: it has warm and muted coloring with a strong eroticism which is present, though somewhat hidden. Fragonard is one who made an entire career from portraying the…
Artble.com. (2013). Jean-Honore Fragonard. Retrieved from Artble.com: http://www.artble.com/artists/jean-honore_fragonard#style_and_technique
Du.ac.in. (2013). Rococo. Retrieved from Du.ac.in: http://www.du.ac.in/fileadmin/DU/Academics/course_material/euroart/hyperlinks%202/Rococo%20features.htm
In 1682, the Quakers purchased East New Jersey. Penn then sought to extend the Quaker region. The King granted Penn a land charter, the area that is currently known as Pennsylvania, and that charter made Penn a sovereign ruler and the world's largest private landowner. Penn named the region Sylvania, but Charles II changed that to Pennsylvania, to honor Penn's father. (See Jacobson, pp. 43-55).
Pennsylvania was a very interesting colony. First, it guaranteed absolute religious freedom to its inhabitants. Second, it guaranteed the traditional rights of Englishmen. It guaranteed free elections, trial by jury, and freedom from unjust imprisonment. All of these guarantees were contained in Pennsylvania's first constitution, which was written by Penn. Penn also set about establishing a government much like the modern American government, which divided the legislature into two houses, and limited the power of the sovereign. Penn also introduced the idea of constitutional amendments,…
Association of Friends for the Diffusion of Religious and Useful Knowledge. A Memoir of William Penn. Philadelphia: Association of Friends for the Diffusion of Religious and Useful Knowledge, 1858.
Beckman, Gail McKnight. The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania in the Time of William
Penn. New York: Vantage Press, 1976.
Hughes, Mary. The Life of William Penn. Philadelphia: Carey Lea & Carey, 1828.
" This he maintained was the highest honor he could claim. " (Seroff, 1956, 113)
Some of the melodies that Claude Achille Debussy created for example the C'est l'Extase' -- based on the ninths and series of common chords has continuous modulations which are embedded with a lot of changing tones and may have been symbolic of a breeze and the sounds of small voices. Like wise the use of rhythmic characteristics and melody in 'Spleen' is like Chabrier the 'L'Ombre des Arbres' which modulates differently. This was at that time a very daring attempt in music during the 1880's. The performance of La Damoiselle Elue' by the Societe Nationale, was conducted by Gabriel Marie competed by the works of Paul Dukas - Overture to 'Polyeucte', Raymond onheur, 'Iris', and many by Paul Fournier; Ernest Chausson 'Poeme de l'Amour et de la Mer', Pierre de reville 'Medeia', Henri Duparc 'Phidyle'.…
Bruhn, Siglind. Images and Ideas in Modern French Piano Music: The Extra-Musical
Subtext in Piano Works Ravel, Debussy, and Messiaen. Pendragon Press: Stuyvesant, NY, 1997.
Cortot, Alfred. French Piano Music. Oxford University Press:
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…
Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html .
Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .
Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.
Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site: http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/.
Charles came to the throne as a Protestant after decades of sectarian war in England. However, the financially-strapped nation could not support Charles' lavish lifestyle, and the more vigorously powerful Parliament would not give Charles the allowance he desired. Thus "Charles, unable to secure money from an increasingly hostile Parliament, signed a series of secret agreements with Louis XIV, by which he received large French subsidies in return for a pro-French policy, although he feigned sympathy with the anti-French movement at home" ("Charles II," Infoplease, 2009). But despite the spendthrift nature of Charles, he was wildly popular amongst the English populace: In 1681 the king dissolved Parliament to block the Exclusion Act, which would have prohibited him from allowing his Catholic brother James II to succeed him as heir. "Thenceforth Charles ruled as an absolute monarch, without a Parliament" ("Charles II," Infoplease, 2009).
The Catholic Monarchs: AD 1469-1481.…
The Catholic Monarchs: AD 1469-1481. The History of Spain. History World.
June 2, 2009.
"Charles II, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland: Restoration and Reign." The Columbia
Thus, the ideas of mercantilism contributed directly to colonialism and a host of colonial wars and conflicts. No mercantilist state was averse to expanding into the markets of any other nation. ather the goal was to contain as much of the production and trade within one's own borders. War was a natural consequence of each nation attempting to control as much of a finite supply of wealth as it possibly could. The nation that most successfully exploited these policies became naturally the most powerful. Spain with its huge resources of gold and silver failed in the control and production of other resources. France failed to maintain control over the territories necessary for production. Holland lacked sufficient native resources to establish effective control over enough territories to fully ground a mercantilist empire. Great Britain succeeded because it followed the mercantilist credo and was able to take control over each stage of…
(1999). 4: Colonies, Enterprises, and Wealth: The Economies of Europe and the Wider World in the Seventeenth Century. In Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History, Cameron, E. (Ed.) (pp. 137-170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ekelund, R.B., & Tollison, R.D. (1997). Politicized Economies: Monarchy, Monopoly, and Mercantilism. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
Inikori, J.E. & Engerman, S.L. (Eds.). (1992). The Atlantic Slave Trade Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Magnusson, L. (1994). Mercantilism: The Shaping of an Economic Language. New York: Routledge.
ather, the vines and clusters f grapes on the tree give the piece its true softness and roundness. This is mirrored by the effect of the figures' hair. Both faun and children all possess curling flowing ringlets that seem to hang as loosely as do the grapes, emphasizing a sense of liberty in the work.
The sense of softness and liberty bestowed upon the piece by the line and texture is oddly juxtaposed with the impressions created by other elements of Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children. Most obviously, the piece is composed in a way that makes the faun's posture seem unnaturally contorted, as if the scene has moved beyond teasing and into torment. The extreme angle of the head and neck, especially with the backwards-arcing back, evince more of a struggle to get away than the softer elements of the sculpture suggest. The same is true of the…
Delbeke, M., Levy, E., and Ostrow, S. Bernini's Biographies. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index. "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/eusts/ho_1976.92.htm
Montagu, J. Roman Baroque Sculpture. Hong Kong: Yale University Press, 1989.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index, "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art.
This body then has the right and duty, especially if elected to represent to build the laws and enforce the judgment of those laws, as a reflection of the will of the consensus. Locke, having developed a keen sense of a rather radical sense of the rights of the individual and the responsibility of the civil government began his work with the development of what it is that constructs the "natural rights" of man. Locke, therefore begins his Second Treatise on the natural rights of man, as he puts it to illuminate the understanding of the right to rule.
Natural Rights Theory
Locke demonstrates in the beginning of his Second Treatise the idea that the government created by the people can only be so if the people accept that certain rights of nature are true to all men. The development of these rights is not necessary as they are natural…
Arneil, Barbara. John Locke and America: The Defence of English Colonialism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Brown, Gillian. The Consent of the Governed: The Lockean Legacy in Early American Culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press. 2001.
Dunn, John. The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the 'Two Treatises of Government' London: Cambridge
Univ. Press, 2006.
The industrialist 19th-century Europeans frequently put this to the difference between private and state-sponsored religion. In 1837, an Austrian visitor to the United States observed:
In America, every clergyman may be said to do business on his own account, and under his own firm. He alone is responsible for any deficiency in the discharge of his office, as he is alone entitled to all the credit due to his exertions. He always acts as principal, and is therefore more anxious, and will make greater efforts to obtain popularity, than one who serves for wages (Powell 1967).
This should be no surprise to those who have seen populations stick to their religions despite sanctions from the state, such as in Poland. At the time of the fall of the erlin Wall, Polish participation in Catholic ceremonies was quite high; after independence and the establishment of an official relationship with the state,…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Bazillon, R.J. The Zollverein 1834-1870. Historical Report, Leiden: Leiden University, 2007.
Clout, H.C. "An Historical Geography of Europe 1800-1914." Geographical Review, 1987: 115-117.
Diderot, J. Encyclopedie. Paris: Andre le Breton, 1743.
constructing responses titles I listing. In response make show reference entry. (01) Discuss
One of the most powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era was the dissemination of information and the propagation of reading material due to Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1450 A.D. The movement that would prove to have the most impact upon society as a whole, however, was the imperialist movement that many credit to have originated with Columbus' journeys to the Americas, the first of which was in 1492. The imperialist movement would allow the appetite for power and conquering to expand beyond Europe and eventually encapsulate the entire globe. This movement is directly responsible for today's globalization, and the previous (and perhaps current) colonization and tyranny of many non-European nations. Another major movement during this time period was the beginning of the Protestant eformation, which began around 1517…
Benjamin J. Kaplan (2007), Divided by Faith. Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.
Bentley, J., Ziegler, H., Streets, H. (2006). Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History. New York: McGraw Hill
Equiano, O. Life On Board. International Slavery Museum. Retrieved from http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/ism/slavery/middle_passage/olaudah_equiano.aspx
The Applied History Research Group, 1998. The Ottoman Empire. Retrieved from http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/empires/ottoman/
This brings about a certain superiority from all Islamic people, here including the Algerian one. On the other side, the current Algerian government is a laical one, which does not limit the individual creed of the Algerians.
This superior air that may characterize Islamic culture in general may sometimes be considered a weakness if we sustain the idea that underestimating your opponent or your partner may be one of the mistakes that leaders sometimes make and that most often brings their downfall.
riefly referring back to the World ank, we may consider that there are several sub-cultures within this organization. However, in my opinion, this is less an existence of organizational sub-cultures, but more of individual or national cultures that come together and interact within the World ank. I am referring here, for examples, to the officials and civil servants working for the organization, and to the lobby groups that…
1. The World Bank website. On the Internet at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,pagePK:43912~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html
The World Bank website. On the Internet at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,pagePK:43912~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html
Spain is rich in tradition and culture, but it is important to note that this diversity is the product of centuries of war and conflict. From her early beginnings, Spain has been a rift of conflicting religious and political ideas, and those characteristics are present in every aspect of Spanish life today. Historically, the path from religious persecution to independence has been a journal of religious and political differences. Those political differences have lead to a varied and unique political system, which combines monarchy with a democratic government. Finally, the culture of Spain is an obvious representation of the religious history and conflicting cultures, displayed by the Carnival festivals and the wide variety of cultural traditions, such as bullfighting and the Flamenco. These combinations of cultures combine to effectively form one of the most diverse cultures in the world today.
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. etrieved…
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from U.S. Department of State. Web site: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2878.htm .
Caruana, J. (2005). Political Structure. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from Economist.com. Web site: http://www.economist.com/countries/Spain/profile.cfm?folder =Profile%2DPolitical%20Structure' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Kant and Rousseau
Reducing Conflicts Between States
The Theories of the Great Philosophers Rousseau and Kant
The great philosophers of the 18th century were the first of their kind to fully encapsulate what it meant to be an ethnocentric state, rather than a simple nation or territory, and also were the first philosophers able to address the question of war between states as not merely individual struggles for dominance, but rather persistent frictions present in the system of states themselves. The formal idea of statehood came of age in the Peace of estphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Year's ar, and affirmed the domination of the central government of each state as the supreme power of the land, rather than any religious or social power. At this time, every state was essentially a dictatorship, and the world was divided into fiefdoms. The peace reached at estphalia created the conditions…
Ferraro, V. (n.d.). The ruth c. lawson professor of international politics. Retrieved from http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Jones, R. (2008). www.philosopher.org.uk. Retrieved from http://www.philosopher.org.uk/rom.htm .
Munkler, H. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.opendemocracy.net/faith-iraqwarphiloshophy/article_1921.jsp
Rousseau, J.J. (1917). A lasting peace through the federation of europe and the state of war. London, England: Constable and Co. Retrieved from http://oll.libertyfund.org
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…
Jiu-Hwa Upshur (2012) World History Wadsworth; comprehensive, compact 5th edition)
John M. Cohen (1969) The Four Voyages, Penguin: UK
Charles Perrault was responsible for collecting and adapting many of the fairy tales best known to contemporary audiences, and his collection of Stories or Fairy Tales from Past Times with Morals, also known as Mother Goose Tales, offers a unique insight into both the evolution of fairy tales in general and the socio-political context of Perrault's own writing. In particular, Perrault's use of domesticated and wild animals in certain tales shed light on the gender and class conflicts that under-gird both the stories themselves and Perrault's own historical context. By performing a close reading of Perrault's "Little Red Riding Hood," "Puss in Boots," and "Donkeyskin," one can see how Perrault uses domestic and wild animals in order to reinforce notions of gender that idealized male autonomy and proactivity while condemning female exploration, in addition to simultaneously supporting the preexisting class structure that impoverished the majority while rewarding the nobility;…
Ashliman, D.L.. "Charles Perrault's Mother Goose Tales." University of Pittsburg. Web. 3 Dec
Ahmed, K. Al. "Charles Perrault's "Le Petit Poucet" and its Possible Arabic Influences."
Bookbird 48.1 (2010): 31-41.
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…
BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]
The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.
Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.
French literature? (Pick as many as you think are correct)
Songs sung by traveling minstrels (troubadours) and entertainers and jesters (jongleurs)
Oral histories evoking the exploits of saints and kings
Long verse poems telling the stories of heroes like Charlemagne, knights and ladies and their confrontations with giants, monsters, and the supernatural world
The Renaissance - pick out which of the following elements characterize the changes and innovations of the Renaissance era in France - the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
An interest and celebration of the arts and thinking of ancient Greece and Rome
An attraction to humanism - a view of the world where individual choices direct one's actions more so than religious conviction
Royal support for music, architecture, and art
The bubonic plague
The Hundred Years War
Which of the following were important Renaissance writers?…
Battle at Dunkirk
It was the year of 1940 and during the spring of 1940 the Germans made advances into the Somme. It was during this year that the British retreated to Dunkirk. In Britain, the Battle of Britain happened between July and October and the Blitz on London initiated in September. In the House of Commons Neville Chamberlain had failed in getting the vote of confidence. There was a formation of a coalition government. Labor leaders protested of being servile to Chamberlain. He made his resignation and Winston Churchill was the next prime minister.
As much as 300, 0000 French and British troops were closed upon and they were pushed into a space of seven mile confinement surrounding the French port by oncoming Germans. Trapped along the beach with their back to the sea and facing the Germans, the combined powers did not have the ammunition or the air…
1. Fuller, J.F.C. The Second World War: A Strategical and Tactical History (Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1948) 25-45
2. Sumler, David. "A History of Europe in the Twentieth Century (The Dorsey Press, 1973) p234.
3. Hart, B.H. Liddell "History of the Second World War" (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1970) pp74-5, 77, 80-3.
4. Hart, B.H. Liddell. "The Other Side of the Hill." (William Morrow & Co, 1948) pp. 32-51
Dolor Sit Amet
After a day of nearly warlike conditions in the French capital, a massive crowd of Revolutionaries took to arms and toppled the symbol of French monarchy. The Bastille -- a medieval era tower building that was used as a prison -- was set ablaze all day yesterday. The number of people in the Revolutionary mob is estimated to be around 1000; the numbers of casualties have yet to be determined. What does this mean for London? Is a revolution of our own brewing?
Continued on Here comes the sun!
American Tariff Act: Will it work?
Could this be the new French flag?
Houses for Sale!
With a revolution brewing in France, what are the possible outcomes of the strife? Could France emerge unscathed, or will the nation crumble? Analysts say that if France had a new flag, it would look like this one. The red…
Museums in Paris
The Louvre Museum can be categorized as one of the world's largest and most magnificent museums. It also marks a monument and an attractive sightseeing location for tourists from all over the world. Standing near the River Seine and stretching over 60,000 meters square, this museum has its own unique history.
The museum was a transformation from the Louvre Palace, built as a fortress for King Louis XIV. He considered the Palace too small for his needs and then went on to making the Palace of Versailles. He left behind this beautifully structured monument to become the museum of beautiful art. The Louvre Museum was initiated in 1793 with initially just 537 paintings. Many of these were the confiscated church paintings and the others were donations from the prestigious and powerful people of the time. Slowly and gradually, the collection of the museum started increasing under Napoleon…
Danilov, Victor J. Museum careers and training: A professional guide. Greenwood Press, 194.
Dean, David. Museum Exhibition: Theory and Practice. Routledge, 1996.
Friedlander, Max J. Early Netherlands Painting: From Van Eyck to Bruegel. Phaidon Publishers, 1956.
Greenhill, Eileen Hooper. Museum, Media, Message. Routledge, 1995.
arts consistently contribute to socio-political change. As a uniquely personal and corporeal art form, dance can directly contribute to socio-political change by combining the best features of theater with those of more abstract art forms like music. The body can be used to convey torture, anguish, pain, and death. Choreography enables the acting out of complex battles fought between multiple players, helping the audience to envision multiple possible outcomes. Dance sometimes makes a statement about current affairs in succinct, immediate, and palpable ways.
This week's content highlights the ability for dance to become a vehicle for social change. Though not typically associated with politics, dance has traditionally served as a political medium and continues to do so. We have witnessed the political function of dance in multiple cultures and historical epochs. Dance has been used as a tool by the political elite to establish or reinforce social norms and codes…
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…
Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.
3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education
Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.
From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.
In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."
uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…
Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.
Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.
Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.