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(Madonna, the master of reinvention) These facts are indicative of her increasing popularity and, more importantly, her influence on culture through her music and videos. Throughout, sexuality has continued to play a dominant role in her art and in the construction of her image. This includes her 1990 film, entitled Truth or Dare or" in ed with Madonna"; as well as her notorious and much-discussed 1992 book entitled Sex, as well as her recent debut direction of the recent film, Filth and Wisdom.
The Sex book is essentially a record of various sexual fantasies, which again attests to the importance of eroticism and sexuality in her artistic oeuvre. Sex was released on October 21, 1992 by Warner ooks and is designed as a sumptuous coffee-table book which explores a range of erotica and sexuality through artistic photographs by Steven Meisel and film frames by Fabien aron. The book was released…
All about Madonna: Madonna Interview. 1 Oct. 2008
This is an insightful early article and includes interviews with Madonna in the 1980's; which sheds light not only on her life prior to fame but on the way that her early life may have influenced her attitude towards music and sexuality.
Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie. Adolescent evaluation of gender role and sexual imagery in television advertisements. 1 Oct. 2008. http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing-advertising/advertising-television-advertising/674984-1.html
16th Century Italian enaissance Art History
This paper is about a painting that is on display at a New York City museum. The painting was done in the 16th century during the Italian enaissance. The artwork has been done by aphael who only worked during that period. The essay is a visual analysis combined with research discussing size, brush stroke, color, craftsmanship as well as history of the painting. It is noteworthy that aphael's real name is affaello Sanzio da Urbino. He was an Italian who excelled at painting and architecture and his artworks were and still are renowned for being perfect and graceful in every way. aphael, Leonardo along with Michelangelo formed a trio of renowned and legendary masters whose works were unsurpassed in their lifetime. This paper discusses The Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints. The saints had been the Young Baptist along with Saints Peter, Lucy, Catherine,…
Brealey. J.M. (1977). The Colonna Altarpiece in the Metropolitan Museum and Problems of the Early Style of Raphael: Appendix. Metropolitan Museum Journal 12, p. 91.
Crowe, J.A. And Cavalcaselle, G.B. (1882). Raphael: His Life and Works. London.
Fahy, E. (1978). Italian Paintings at Fenway Court and Elsewhere. Connoisseur 198, pp. 39 -- 40.
Ferino-Pagden, S. (1981). Raphael's Activity in Perugia as Reflected in a Drawing in the Ashmolean Museum -- Oxford. Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes.
structure of Cimabue's Madonna. Moreover, this paper seeks to prove the following thesis: Fundamentally, the viewer can treat Cimabue's Madonna as a representation of the hierarchy of divinity over humanity.
The image is structured in many respects in a highly traditional format. The Madonna and child occupy center stage of the image's structure. Their centrality is a common thematic element in nearly every single image of the Madonna and child that has ever been created. In this sense, Cimabue's Madonna is somewhat derivative. However, the centrality of the Madonna and child is yet another means of expressing their primacy in the image at large. This helps to remind the viewer that the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus are two of the most important figures from western Catholicism and Christianity which were ever created. By allowing them to occupy the most important place within the frame, Cimabue is reasserting their overall…
Michelangelo created the "Madonna of the tairs" at the age of sixteen, roughly during the year 1490. This marble relief was made during a time of great social, political and artistic upheaval in Italy. Michelangelo was an intensely artistic young man whose inspiration even at this early age knew no bounds. The "Madonna of the tairs" then entailed the transition between the traditional and the new.
The traditional religious theme was common in Michelangelo's work during this time. He however presented his themes in a revolutionary way. His realistic portrayal of bodies for example was evident and acquired from his rigorous study of cadavers for the purpose of familiarizing himself with the human body.
Michelangelo was fairly lucky, as his most productive years were spent during the most important years of the Renaissance, when art enjoyed a privileged position. Regardless of the subject matter or the way in which it…
Art History. "Michelangelo." http://en.easyart.com/arthistory/artist/Michelangelo-3351.html
Brunskill, Joan. "Michelangelo, Renaissance Master of all Time." http://www.southcoasttoday.com/daily/08-96/08-20-96/c04li089.ht
The realism of proportion and position is a hallmark of the Late Renaissance/Baroque period. The sharp contrast between Christ and his surroundings, however, is a distinct and yet subtle influence of de Champaigne's Flemish training. Christ is very clearly and visibly defined, and there is no question that he stands out fro the other elements of the painting, scant as they are, appearing almost to have a three dimensional quality that is lacking elsewhere despite the attention to detail.
Iconography and lighting are very closely related in this piece. Almost the entire scene is cast in deep shadow, but the figure of Christ is bathed in light, and even seems to e radiating it himself. This gives his body the appearance of having a halo entirely surrounding it, emphasizing the divine nature both of the man himself and of the current situation he is in. The despondency apparent on his…
Madonna and Child by the Master of St. Cecilia
Madonna and Child (1290-1295) by the Master of St. Cecilia is a tempera and gold leaf on panel depiction of the Mother of God and the Christ Child. Its iconic imagery perfectly represents and reflects the ideals of the medieval world, of Christian Europe as it existed under the guidance of the Roman Catholic Church. The Church during this time served as the social, political and religious example for all the nations and peoples of Europe. This icon by the Master of St. Cecilia depicts the ideal that the Church wished to convey to its followers, whether princes or peasants -- namely, that all mankind should honor and humble himself before the majesty of the Mother of God, whose fiat to the Archangel ensured that the Son of God would be born to redeem mankind and pay the price for his…
J. Paul Getty Museum. "Madonna and Child." Getty, 2016. Web. 16 Apr 2016.
Both Duccio di Buoninsegna and Fra Filippo Lippi paint the Christian Madonna and child scene. Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels" is rendered on wood with tempera and gold leaf. It is rounded at the top, and was the center part of a triptych that was completed in about the year 1440.[footnoteRef:1] Also in tempera and gold leaf on wood is di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child." Candle damage at the bottom of the wood panel suggests that the painting was "used for private devotion."[footnoteRef:2] Buoninsegna's painting was completed in the year 1300, almost one hundred and fifty years prior to Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels." The two depictions of mother Mary and baby Jesus share similar themes, and in both the mother is holding the child. However, the composition of the two paintings is strikingly different and symbolizes their respective religious histories. [1: "Fra…
"Duccio di Buoninsegna: Madonna and Child (2004.442)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/2004.442 (September 2010)
"Fra Filippo Lippi: Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels (49.7.9)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/49.7.9 (August 2007)
Paoletti, John T. And Radke, Gary M. Art in Renaissance Italy. Laurence King Publishing, 2005.
Tinagli, Paola. Women in Italian Renaissance Art: Gender, Representation, Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997
The shift from Byzantine or Medieval art to the early Renaissance is perfectly demonstrated by examining the change in depictions of the Virgin Mary and the baby Jesus, or Madonna and Child, over time. hat we see is a gradual tendency toward realistic depictions of human form, as a way of making religious art less remote and decorative, and more immediately related to actual human experience.
e can begin with the thirteenth-century Byzantine icon of the Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne. The painting is, in some sense, a highly stylized representation of a familiar image. The figures of mother and child do not really seem to exist in real space: for example, the gold leaf that is used for the flat backdrop behind the Madonna and Child is also used (in a decorative but not particularly realistic fashion) to highlight the folds of the Madonna's garments. here…
Soltes, Ori Z. "A World of Art, Lecture 15: Early Renaissance Painting in Central Italy." Online video. YouTube, 28 February 2014. Web. Accessed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1IZ5m6rtqWI
Truth or Dare (1991)
The documentary Truth or Dare chronicles the singer and dancer Madonna's Blonde Ambition tour. Madonna has always used sexual ambiguity to create her personal style and to market herself. She is a savvy businesswoman in the film, despite the simulated masturbation and S&M aesthetic during the show itself. Madonna's exhibitionism is part of her brand image, and on camera she can be seen lying on her dead mother's grave, talking about the one love of her life (Sean Penn), as well as wearing next to nothing. This is highlighted in an argument she has with arren Beatty, who says that if it doesn't happen on camera for Madonna, it might as well not have happened at all.
This is the irony of a behind-the-scenes documentary about a musical performance -- for Madonna, the creation of the performance becomes just as much a 'performance' itself. Yet what…
Hedwig and the Angry Inch. Directed by John Cameron Mitchell. 2001.
Truth or Dare. Directed by Alek Keshishian. 1991.
I am in complete agreement with Stephen Thomas Erlewine's review of Madonna's album Like a Prayer. First, Erlewine states that the album is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement." One of the reasons why Like a Prayer is a major artistic statement is that Madonna seems more mature in this album than she did in previous ones. For example, the subject matter of her songs, including the title track, is more deeply personal than it was on albums such as Like a Virgin. Moreover, on Like a Prayer, the "material girl" becomes a woman. In songs like "Promise to Try," she creatively expresses herself to members of her family and is no longer just singing about herself. Like a Prayer is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement" because Madonna is stretching her own boundaries and refining her image. A second reason why…
There is also little doubt that viewing the original works is a very different experience to viewing a reproduction. There is as sense of presence and intimacy in viewing the original works that is not evident when viewing a reproduction. There is something tangible and direct that comes across when looking at the original that is lost in viewing reproductions. With the original paining one is allowed to view the actual brush strikes and paint build-up in a way that cannot be achieved with a reproduction.
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http://peggy-w.hubpages.com/hub/Religious-Themed-Paintings-inside-Houstons-MFAaissance Art and Architecture
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"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John," accessed September 10,…
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Pornification of Women in Western Media
The Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media
Sexuality is a normal part of life for every male and female. egardless of where he or she lives, or even what age a person is, sex will be a need. It is a known biological fact. However, the Western media has been blamed to play a large role in exacerbating the need. Back in 1811, a novel published by Jane Austin known as Sense and Sensibility mentioned the word chaperon. It was stated that back then a young woman and young man were never left alone. Even if they were left alone, they were left in the presence of a chaperone. (Poisoned by Porn; It's" 2010, 14) why was this the case? The answer to that lies in that sex is a need for every man or woman born into this world. It was back…
8 July, 2009 "Bad boob jobs," The Times of India.
2012, "Christina Aguilera's 'Your Body' Dress Doesn't Leave Much To The Imagination," The Huffington Post.
American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2012) 2011 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report. [report].
Baudrillard, Jean 1979. "Seduction." Translated by Brian Singer. New York: St. Martin's Press
aphael: Artist of the enaissance
aphael was the son of Giovanni Santi, an educated man that was able to provide his young son with a remarkable life exposed to much art, many artistic geniuses, and the remarkable culture of the Umbrian court. aphael was blessed during his childhood in terms of wealth and culture and would never have to know the life of a struggling artist nor the sense of begging for handouts or working in squalor. However, aphael did suffer great tragedy: his mother died when he was eight years old and his father died three years later when aphael was eleven years old. Thus, as a tender child, aphael was no stranger to tragedy, something that no doubt instilled his life, making an imprint on him as an artist. One thing that aphael's father did before his death that had a profound influence on the child and how…
Fineartarchives.org. (2014). The Triumph of Galatea . Retrieved from fineartarchives.org: http://fineartarchives.com/raphael-the-triumph-of-galatea/
Finnan, V. (2014). Raphael Biography. Retrieved from italian-renaissance-art.com: http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Raphael-Tapestries.html
Nationalgallery.org.uk. (2014). The Ansidei Madonna. Retrieved from nationalgallery.org.uk: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/raphael-the-ansidei-madonna uffizi.org. (2014). Madonna of the Goldfinch by Raphael. Retrieved from Uffizi.org: http://www.uffizi.org/artworks/madonna-of-the-goldfinch-by-raphael/
Vam.ac.uk. (2014). The Raphael Cartoons: What is a Cartoon? Retrieved from vam.ac.uk: http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/raphael-cartoons-what-is-a-cartoon/
Botticelli's Birth Of Venus And Duccio's Maesta
The representation of women in estern art has changed throughout history, and for much of estern history this representation was oriented around the dominant female figure in contemporary society; that is, Mary, mother of Jesus. However, the gradual shift away from a dominantly monotheistic cultural hegemony seen in the Renaissance and eventually the Enlightenment brought with it new (and the case of this study, old) means of representing women beyond the confinements and discourse of the Madonna and Child. By comparing and contrasting Duccio di Buoninsegna's Virgin and Child Enthroned Amidst Angels and Saints (which is the main altarpiece of the artist's Maesta) with Sandro Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, one is able to see how the changing cultural standards which came about during the shift from the conservative, Eastern-influenced Late Gothic art of Duccio to the freer, more naturalistic art of Botticelli's…
Botticelli, Sandro. "The Birth of Venus."Wikipedia.org. Google Art Project, c. 1486. Web. 12
Jun 2011. .
Duccio. "Maesta." Wikipedia.org. N.p., 1308-1311. Web. 12 Jun 2011.
PETE PAUL UBENS & CAAVAGGIO
The artistic period known as the enaissance continued without any sharp stylistic changes well into the 17th and 18th centuries; however, the art of this later period is often called Baroque, although there is no single Baroque style or set of stylistic ideals. Yet within the last one hundred years or so, Baroque has taken on the overall designation for the art of the period from circa 1600 to 1750. More recently, scholars have come to understand that Baroque styles were very different from those linked to the enaissance. For example, during the enaissance, art tended to be rather static, but during the Baroque, art became very dynamic and encompassed passion, opulence, a taste for the theatrical and introduced the virtuoso, being an artist that stood out from his contemporaries as a truly gifted genius.
Historically, the Baroque Period entailed many artistic ideals,…
"Caravaggio: 1571-1610." (2005). Internet. Olga's Gallery. Accessed May 16, 2005. http:www.abcgallery.com/C/caravaggio/caravaggio.html.
Held, Julius S. (1954). Peter Paul Rubens: 1577-1640. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Payne, Robert. (1969). Caravaggio. London: W.H. Allen.
"Peter Paul Rubens." (2005). Internet. The Artchive. Accessed May 16, 2005. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/rubens.html#images .
Furthermore, Live Nation would have a great advantage in advising and guiding Springsteen regarding his career and recordings. Since the company handles all aspects of the artist's career and has a great chance of benefiting from everything the artist does, it also has a long-term perspective and interest in developing the artist's career.
Springsteen has been widely advised to sign the ten-year deal with Live Nation in order to avoid the difficulties and costs associated with self-marketing. However, this deal is not the most suitable because Springsteen already has a huge and loyal fan base and would therefore have fewer challenges in marketing his album. Secondly, Springsteen will also lose creative control since creative decisions are not left entirely on the artist's hand since the partner has too much at stake. While he stands a chance to receive a lot of money up front in this deal, he will significantly…
Byrne, D. (2008, January 16). David Byrne's Survival Strategies for Emerging Artists -- and Megastars. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://www.wired.com/entertainment/music/magazine/16-01/ff_byrne?currentPage=2
"The Current State of the Music Industry." (2010, March 31). DIO: Do It Ourselves. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://dio333.wordpress.com/2010/03/31/the-current-state-of-the-music-industry/
enaissance and early twentieth century art offer an interesting study in comparison because of their distinctive styles. It is the objective of this paper to describe the definitive characteristics of each period through comparing aphael's Alba Madonna to Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory.
enaissance art is reputed for the unified balance achieved between pictorial considerations of measurable space and the effects of light and color on the one hand, and the artist's personal expression on the other (Pioch, 2002). This unity is evident in aphael's Alba Madonna, a painting that represents the artist's unique style of sweetness of expression. The painting is remarkable because of the manner in which aphael has succeeded in addressing a serious subject within a backdrop of a serene countryside. Indeed, it can be said that he was able to do this precisely because of the use of symmetry, namely, the round format that succeeds…
MoMa. (2004). Salvador Dali. The Persistence of memory. Museum of Modern Art.
Retrieved Nov. 12, 2004: http://www.moma.org/collection/depts/paint_sculpt/blowups/paint_sculpt_016.html
National Gallery of Art. (2004). From the Tour: Raphael. Retrieved Nov. 12, 2004:
grrrl -- here me roar! We've come a long way since the bra-burning days of yore. Feminists in the 1960s and 1970s helped break down significant barriers for grrrls, and helped us to reclaim that fun-filled word. However, that "second wave" of feminism is long gone. We're back to struttin' our stuff, high heels, lipstick, and all. Now 20-somethings don't have to demand to be called a "woman" to assert feminine strength; grrrl is just fine. In fact, the term reeks of fun and frolic, of grrrl power. As Angela Mcobbie states in her book Postmodernism and Popular Culture, "far from having to relinquish their femininity to achieve 'equality, these girls have demanded their right to hold onto it intact, even excessively," (166). Welcome to the Third Wave of Feminism, grrrls!
Ironically, it took hairy legs and armpits to achieve this linguistic transformation and ride this third wave. We had…
Garrison, Ednie Kaeh. "U.S. Feminism-Grrrl-Style!" Feminist Studies. Spring 2000. Find Articles. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0300/1_26/63295343/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22third+wave+feminism%22 .
McRobbie, Angela. Postmodernism and Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.
Straus, Tamara. "A Manifesto for Third Wave Feminism." Alternet. 24 Oct. 2000. Independent Media Institute. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=9986 .
Cultural Tour of the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
Andrew William Mellon, an art collector and investor hailing from Pittsburgh, designed and presented Washington's famed National Gallery of Art to American citizens. Mellon came to the U.S. capital in the year 1921 and took up the post of U.S. "Secretary of the Treasury." He felt the nation ought to have an art gallery just like other major States. Consequently, in the year 1936, he contacted President Roosevelt and offered to contribute his splendid art collection to a new national museum, which he proposed he would construct using his personal funds. Hence, with Congressional and Presidential support, the Washington National Gallery of Art was opened in March of 1937 (National Gallery of Art, 2016).
Tour of the Gallery
I undertook a virtual visit to Washington, DC's National Gallery of Art on September 4, 2016 at approximately 11:30am. The gallery's entryway…
Suffering Madonna of Ireland: omen, sentimentality, and mother Ireland
Sean O'Casey's play "Juno and the Paycock" portrays an Ireland where good women and particularly good mothers are the soul and heart of the Irish land, and Irish men are shiftless, murdering, or bad. Army men and unionizing men and worst of all, lawyers, threaten the dignity and the soul of the Boyle family, but only with the integrity of Mrs. Boyle does anything good survive out of the tragedies that ensue over the course of the play.
This deflationary view of men can be seen even if one parses the title of O'Casey's play. The" Juno" of the title is a nickname for the matriarch of the clan, given by her husband to his wife. In contrast, the epithet "paycock" is a dialect rendition of Mrs. Boyle's husband's name, a man who is known as strutting peacock, particularly when he…
Atkinson, Brooks, Ed. The Sean O'Casey Reader. By Sean O'Casey. New York: St. Martin's, 1968.
Gill, Peter. "A New State of Chassis: The Irish Civil War and its background." National Theater. First Published 1989. Last Modified 16 Feb 2005. http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/parade/abj76/PG/pieces/ocasey/new_state_of_chassis.shtml
O'Casey, Sean. "Juno and the Paycock."
"Sean O'Casey: Biography" The Moonstruck Theater Database. http://www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/clsc100.html . [1 Mar 2005] Article originally published in Minute History of the Drama. Edited by Alice B. Fort & Herbert S. Kates. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1935.
aphael is one of the most renowned artists in modern human history. He is so famous that he is one of a small number of artists that they are only known by one name. His full name is affaello Sanzio da Urbino. His precise birthdate is contended, but it is agreed that he was born sometime in the spring during 1483, as the 15th century, as well as the enaissance era, concluded. His life did not spans four decades, yet his body of work persists around the world nearly five centuries later. aphael, like other enaissance artists and professionals of the period, had proficiency in several skills; he is primarily known as a painter and architect. His life spanned the final stage of the enaissance, known as High enaissance. He came from an artistically inclined family, and suffered the deaths of both of his parents before…
Italian Renaissance Art.com. Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Raphael-Biography.html . 2012 October 12.
Raphael Sanzio.org. Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.raphaelsanzio.org/ . 2012 October 12.
Totally History. Raphael Sanzio. 2012, Web, Available from: http://totallyhistory.com/raphael-sanzio/ . 2012 October 12.
Visual Arts Cork. Raphael. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/old-masters/raphael.htm . 2012 October 12.
The rest of the colors appear to be somewhat muted but this may be more an effect of the naturalistic setting and use of light than of time. The tempera medium shows great resiliency through the centuries and the Portrait is in surprisingly good condition.
The total effect of Duccio's Madonna and Child is obviously much different from Fra Filippo's Portrait of oman. The total effect of Duccio's Madonna is one of bold religious feeling. It inspires the viewer to accept the mythology and challenges him to understand his relationship to the God-child and His Mother. The effect certainly inspires religious feelings and thoughts. It is dignified, spiritual, and affirmative.
The total effect of Fra Fillipo's Portrait is one of awe and human respect. The viewer is invited to feast his eyes on the gorgeous dress of the woman. He is asked to admire her jewelry and her…
Portrait of Woman with a Man at a Casement, Gallery Label. NY: Metropolitan
Museum of Art, 2011.
Madonna and Child, Gallery Label. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011.
Strutt, E.C. Fra Filippo Lippi. London: George Bell & Sons, 1901. Print.
Ficke also seems to conside Dolly's self-awaeness and sense of humo about heself to be impotant elements of he pesona that immunize he fom citicism fo being "supeficial" o "fake" o fo adheing to an image of femininity ceated by males. In that egad, the standad opening line she uses fo he concets to thank he fans fo paying to see he is "It takes a lot of money to look this cheap."
If Dolly Paton maintained he caee by emulating the "busty blond with a golden heat" Madonna achieved success though many "einventions and possibilities" of he Madonna pesona. In doing so, the one constant seems to have been that she always had a "desie to push the boundaies" duing he caee. The autho ecounts memoies of he siste tying to dess in the "Mateial Gil 80's-ea, can-can, dance/steet uchin togs" that Madonna populaized in he heyday. Accoding to…
references the 1994 book "Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representations, by feminist theorist Bell Hooks, that "took Madonna to task" in that regard. Whereas Parton has always successfully bridged the culture gap separating her various audiences, Madonna's vogueing originally became popular among gay black and Latino men but remained largely appreciated only in their community rather than inspiring any wider cultural revolution. The author does acknowledge that that Madonna has overcome some of these disappointments. Whereas Parton must succeed as the character she has always represented, Madonna has had the freedom and safety of being able to simply morphs into yet another character, such as Evita Peron. Like a butterfly emerging from a cocoon, Madonna transformed her revolutionary figure, eventually emerging as a single mother and wife of Gary Richie. In her most recent metamorphosis, Madonna became a children's book writer pretending to blend in with British high society, complete with accent. According to Fricke, Madonna's message delivered with each transformation has always been "I'm not going to apologize for who I am. You don't have to like it if you don't want to. I feel like that's something girls need to hear." Whereas Parton has always been loved by the press, Madonna has had to continually "stay ahead of the press."
Ultimately, Fricke leaves no doubt that she admires both artists although for different reasons. She considers both to be special talents who are icons of the 20th century by virtue of their proven success, longevity, continued ability to release popular new albums, capture new audiences and maintain their original fan base. They just do in different styles.
American Popular Music (Lady Gaga)
The question of originality in popular music is a vexed one. To choose a convenient and current example, when Justin Bieber sings about his "baby," listeners are not meant to hear any kind of deliberate allusion to the Supremes' "Baby Love" or any other previous songs which include "Baby" as part of their lyrical hook: Bieber's charming faux-naivete cannot be mistaken for anything other than a rhetorical willingness to utilize the regular tropes and language of a standard love song. But with some performers, the matter of originality -- together with the question of influence -- is one that must be addressed. I would like to look, in this context, at the work of Stefani Germanotta, the twenty-four-year-old singer and composer better known by her stage name "Lady Gaga." I would like to examine Lady Gaga's oeuvre with three separate areas of inquiry kept in…
Brand, Katy. "No Pants." Katy Brand's Big Ass Show, Episode 1 (ITV-2, UK). Airdate 10 September 2009. Accessed on YouTube 13 March 2011 at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJKGtFNwxs8
Germanotta, Stefani ("Lady Gaga"). "Just Dance." The Fame, 2008. CD.
Grigoriadis, Vanessa. "How Lady Gaga Became the World's Biggest Pop Star." New York Magazine, 28 March 2010. Accessed on 13 March 2011 at: http://nymag.com/arts/popmusic/features/65127/
Koestenbaum, Wayne. Andy Warhol. New York: Viking, 2001. Print.
Second, the Madonna Versace ad is well-designed. Madonna's feet are one of the highlights of the photograph. The shoes she wears, which are sandals, breathe whispers of the upcoming warmer seasons. However, the gold and white tones in the ad still reflect the current colder seasons. Madonna is posing laying on a day bed, and her legs are crossed. She appears wrapped up in business of some sort, which again reflects her message as a confident businesswoman. Her eyes look straight into the camera, which is another hint as to Madonna's confident attitude.
Because the ad contains so many consistent messages, it will positively affect consumer behavior. Madonna wears the Versace clothing well; although her celebrity is powerful, it does not necessarily detract from the overall look and appeal of the clothing and accessories made by the designer. Anyone who can afford Versace will be highly likely to heed the…
Watch any tweenager, teenager or young adult watching TV today and he/she will sooner or later turn to MTV or some similar station. MTV has succeeded in catering to the whims of new generations of youths in the 25 years since it launched, and it is continuing to grow. MTV Networks has kicked off 20 new channels in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa this year, alone, pushing its global tally to 112. In addition, with its new parent, MTV Networks is readying for a more visible role with plans to leverage its influential brands in new ways. The cable side, most of which comprises MTV Networks, accounted for about $5.6 billion, or about 70%, of what will become the new Viacom's $8.1 billion of revenue last year.
Not everyone, however, is enthusiastic about the impact of MTV on today's culture. E.Ann Kaplan included. In 1987, she said MTV is…
Frith, Simon. Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard UP, 1996.
Goodwin, Andrew. Dancing in the Distraction Factory: Music Television and Popular Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.
Grossberg, Lawrence. We Gotta Get Out of This Place. New York: Routledge, 1995.
Masaccio, Fra Angelico, and Filippino Lippi
The Renaissance was a dynamic time in which religion, artwork, and new styles, thoughts and concepts regarding perspective and expression intertwined and impacted one another. The effect was an explosion of new talent, new advancements in painting, and new horizons achieved. This paper will show how this was achieved by examining three works from three influential Renaissance painters -- Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Filippino Lippi.
Masaccio's The Tribute Money (ca. 1420) is a perfect illustration of the complex formula of Renaissance religious symbolism and naturalistic beauty that characterized the works of art at this time. It tells the narrative story found in Matthew 17:24-27 in which Jesus and His disciples come to Capernaum and are told that they must pay the tribute. Jesus asks Simon Peter whether the children of the king or strangers pay the tribute. Peter answers that strangers pay it.…
In his painting Flight into Egypt, Battista Dossi took great care to tell the story of the Holy Family at the very moment the painting shows. He evokes the urgency in the life of the traveling Holy Family as they flee for the life of their child. All that needs to be said in the painting is told with color and precision, movement and depth, and the entirely personal glimpse into the lives of the Holy Family. Battista's work is at once compelling and evocative of the situation.
The work entitled Flight into Egypt is oil on panel by the Ferrarese artist Battista Dossi, (circa 1490 to 1548) who was the younger brother of Dosso Dossi. The brothers were the primary painters in the court of Ferrara under the Alfonso I'd'Este and Ercole II d'Este. Unfortunately, most of the documented work the brothers did for the court was…
Though her mother had passed, there would be maternal, familial and nurturing love to be found in the warmth and kindness of those whom she would meet here. ith the Black Madonna photograph as a compass and the pressures of the changing Civil Rights climate as a motor, Lily ultimately had found personal redemption in the implications of both. It is no matter of coincidence that the author so aggressively intertwined the conditions of Lily's confrontation of her own demons concerning the death of her mother with the personal revelations that, on a broad social scale, underscored the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. Indeed, the resolution finds Lily in a place of relative emotional equanimity, having confronted the truth about her mother, having faced the anger of her father and having ultimately settled on her life in the Boatright's community. Accordingly, "August and her community become Lily's new family,…
Flanagan, M. (2002). Review: The Secret Life of Bees. About Contemporary Literature. Online at http://contemporarylit.about.com/cs/currentreviews/fr/secretLifeOfBee.htm
HCRHS. (2007). The Secret Life of Bees Weblog. Hunterdon Central Regional High School.
Horn, J. 2008). 'Secret Life of Bees' is a test case for mainstream appeal. Los Angeles Times. Online at http://articles.latimes.com/2008/oct/16/entertainment/et-word16
Kidd, Sue Monk. (2003). The Secret Life of Bees. Penguin.
" Initially, the painters were given the assignment to create sample frescoes which were to be evaluated. On the basis of the evaluation, they were to be employed or not. However, their talent was rapidly acknowledged and they were commissioned to continue the work without any other testing. The individual scenes constitute a whole because they comprise typological references to one another. They present Moses as prefiguring Christ. We must mention, however, that, only after Michelangelo's later work (1508-1512) did the Chapel become famous.
After the Medici's expulsion from Florence, otticelli felt the influence of a Dominican monk called Girolamo Savonarola. In Savonarola's point-of-view, everything that wasn't useful in the life of humans didn't deserve any attention. Therefore, he destroyed many works of art, in his "bonfire of vanities." ecause of this man, Sandro was deeply affected and his interior feelings were also reflected in his work.
As a review,…
Botticelli- Renaissance Master Artist, http://www.myrrhine.net/botticelli/biography.html
Sandro Botticelli, http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/botticelli.html
Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance
The relationship between patronage and art
During Early and High Renaissance of Italy, it was through the vehicle of patronage was the key fashion in which an artist established his artistic identity as well as established himself economically. For instance, in considering Botticelli's "The Birth of Venus," it is important to remember that this vision is not an individualistic picture of a an artist living outside of his society. Rather, the patron who commissioned the Botticelli painting for his country villa was a member of the rich and powerful family of the Medici, and demanded that certain artistic standards and ideals be reflected in the work. (Sandro Bottecelli, ebart, "The Birth of Venus (http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/botticelli/venus/)
The Medici family had a fascination not so much with tale of Venus, but with the Neoplatonic philosophy of beauty this female form had the potential to represent. Venus, it was thought, and all…
Bottecelli, Sandro. Webart, "The Birth of Venus" The Madonna with the Book," and "Primavera
http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/botticelli/venus/and " http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/b/botticel/madonna/index.html. And gallery.euroweb.hu/html/b/botticel/allegory/index.html
El Greco. "The Spoliation, Christ Stripped of His Garments. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/greco/
Van Eyck, Jan.
In this piece van der Weyden depicts the words of blessing from low to high and rightward toward Christ, and the words of damnation are high and move downward toward those that have been damned. The rise and fall of the verbal decisions of the traditional locations of those that have been blessed and those that have been cursed. The artist even went so far as to use color to support the words, which was uncommon at the time; helping to make the distinction in a very visual way.
Acres maintains that although some conclude that a significant amount of modern interpretation of the work of 15th century Netherlandish paintings has been misguided, the most prevalent lesson is a reminder that images' meanings were and are able to "circulate well beyond the purview of contracts and other remnants of early documentation" (p. 109).
According to Pacht in his…
Acres, A. (2000). Rogier van der Weyden's painted texts. Artibus et Historiae, 21(41),
Baldass, L. (1952). Jan van Eyck. London.
Campbell, L. (1998). The fifteenth century Netherlandish schools. London: National
The image of Mary's fingers embedded into the flesh of the child almost appears as sculptured image, thanks to the use of color separation. In addition, the glossy enamel of the panel furthers the illusion of movement within the three-dimensional shape (Marx, "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague").
Still further representations of Bohemian influence of the architecture of Prague can be seen within the Church of Virgin Mary Victorious in Prague. The building, built in 1611 as the Holy Trinity Church, was reworked in 1636 as Mary Victorious. The church is a resounding example of Bohemian art within architecture. Originally based on oman architecture, the structure was renovated to represent a more Bohemian culture ambiance. Introducing a single-nave layout, typical of the Bohemian simplicity, the church brought a sense of anti-reformation. The rebuilding also included a paneling of the frontage of the structure with traditional Bohemian artworks of…
Kren, Emil. "Bohemia." The History of the Style. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003. Prague National Gallery. http://www.wga.hu/tours/gothic/history.html#bohemia .
Marx, Dan. "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague." Prague National Gallery. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003. http://www.wga.hu/html/m/master/xunk_bo/madvitus.html .
Meilach, Dona. "Prague: The City is the Museum." Arts and Activities 129.2 (2001): 55-57.
Official Site for the Czech Republic. "Church of Virgin Mary Victorious." Bohemia and Moravia Baroque Architecture. 2003. Czech Republic. 19 April 2003. Official Site of the Czech Republic. http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/BaroqueArchitecture/BohemiaMoraviaBaroqueArchitecture/BohemiaMoraviaBaroqueArchitecture.htm.
Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers
In this study by Ohanian, a scale used in measuring celebrity endorsers' expertise, trustworthiness as well as attractiveness is developed. Psychometric scale development protocols are followed for testing the data reliability and validity as well. In addition, this study uses two exploratory and confirmatory samples to initiate a 15-item scale measuring the celebrity endorsers' characteristics. This article complies fully with Churchill's recommendations in several fronts as outlined below.
Several sources are researched on to identify words, phrases, and adjectives to use for this research's questionnaire; this results in the development of several adjectives describing personality traits. During the construction of the scale, 182 adjectives are identified of which some were eliminated to about 139 adjectives. Additionally, the 139 descriptors were further trimmed by a group of 38 college students; the researcher believed the words were unfamiliar with respondents, to 104.
For the identification of celebrities…
Churchill, G.A. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 64-74.
Lages, C., Lages, C.R., & Lages, L.F. (2005). The RELQUAL Scale: A Measure of Relationship Quality in Export Market Ventures. Lisbon, Portugal.
Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers' Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, Vol.19, No.3, 39-52.
Zheng, B., Hall, M.A., Kidd, K.E., & Levine, D. (2002). Development of a Scale to Measure Patients' Trust in Health Insurers. Health Services Research Vol 37 No.1, 187-202.
Pieta by Michelangelo
Michelangelo's Pieta is a sculpture that was produced during the enaissance time period in Italy. This was a period of time in which wealth and artistic guilds flourished. Michelangelo was by trade and a talent a sculptor of the utmost precision, as the historian of the time, Giorgio Vasari, has indicated in his Lives of the Artists. Produced in 1498 for a Cardinal in ome, the sculpture is a combination of naturalistic design and classical dimensions/proportions. Thus, the Madonna and the Christ dead in her lap convey real, human characteristics -- yet the overall shape of the sculpture, the positioning of the Madonna's arms, the tilt of her head, the way in which the Christ lies in her lap, the crook of his knees, the drape of his arm, the folds of her robes -- all of this is detail of a most naturalistic devotion to accuracy…
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. NY: Gallery.
Vasari, G. (2003). The Lives of the Artists. NY: Penguin.
The core of the difference between both the professions is the difference in the intensity of damage which can be expected as the result of the failure of the creation. The failure of the product of the engineer is likely to be diagnosed through the involvement of the third party, which include vendors, and manufacturing unit (Wendy, 2001). The failure of the design after its market launch will result in the reasonable amount of damage; however the failure of the architectural design can result in the numerous fatalities. The involvement of the continuous inspection and monitoring services can nullify the concerns with reference to the society, but ultimately it is the responsibility of the respective professionals to be cautious and responsible during the designing phase which is extremely crucial and critical phase.
Madonna G. Constantine, Derald Wing Sue. Strategies for Building Multicultural Competence in Mental Health and Educational Settings.…
Madonna G. Constantine, Derald Wing Sue. Strategies for Building Multicultural Competence in Mental Health and Educational Settings. 2005. John Wiley and Sons.
Wendy Patton, Mary McMahon. Career Development Programs: Preparation for Lifelong Career Decision Making. 2001. ACER Press.
Robert N. Rapoport. Mid-Career Development: Research Perspectives on a Developmental Community for Senior Administrators. 2003. Routledge.
Alan J. Pickman. Special Challenges in Career Management: Counselor Perspectives. 1997. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…
"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible," http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html (accessed September 20, 2010).
BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).
"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
"Lady Gaga in part because she keeps us guessing about who she, as a woman, really is. She has been praised for using her music and videos to raise this question and to confound the usual exploitative answers provided by 'the media'… Gaga's gonzo wigs, her outrageous costumes, and her fondness for dousing herself in what looks like blood, are supposed to complicate what are otherwise conventionally sexualized performances" but this complication does not necessarily lead to a feminist liberation (Bauer 2010).
Still, Gaga has been embraced by a generation of women, some who shun and some who embrace the feminist label. "Lady Gaga idealizes this way of being in the world. But real young women, who, as has been well documented, are pressured to make themselves into boy toys at younger and younger ages, feel torn. They tell themselves a Gaga-esque story about what they're doing. hen they're on…
Bauer, Joy. "Lady Power." The New York Times. June 20, 2010. June 21, 2010.
Love, Meredith A. & Brenda M. Helmbrecht. "Teaching the conflicts: (Re)engaging students with feminism in a postfeminist world." Feminist Teacher. 18(1).
Maloney, Malori. Lady Gaga: "I'm not a feminist. I hail men, I love men." Bitch.
He is one of the few artists that were recognized for his work while he was still living.
One of Michelangelo's most exquisite pieces is Pieta. In this sculpture, we can see how Michelangelo was moving away from the traditional form of sculpting. Creighton Gilbert notes that how Mary and Jesus are depicted in the statue is not typical of Michelangelo's day. Mary is seated with the dead Jesus in her lap and this image "first emerged as an abbreviation of the scene of Christ mourned" (160). Harold Keller maintains that the piece is filled with contrasts, horizontally and vertically. e also have the opposites of the clothed and the naked. The position of Jesus' body is different from most pietas of the day in that it is horizontal, producing a "step-like composition based on the sharp right able between the corpse and the upper body of the Madonna towering…
Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence. New York: Harper Collins Publications. 2000.
Gilbert, Creighton. History of Renaissance Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1973.
Keller, Harold. The High Renaissance in Italy. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers. 1969.
Lace, William. Michelangelo. San Diego: Lucent Books. 1993.
Per cio che, secondo che egli le mostrava, niun d' era che non-solamente una festa ma molte non-ne fossero, a reverenza delle quali per diverse cagioni mostrava l'uomo e la donna doversi abstenere da cos' fatti congiugnimenti, sopra questi aggiugnendo digiuni e quattro tempora e vigilie d'apostoli e di mille altri santi e venerd' e sabati e la domenica del Signore e la quaresima tutta, e certi punti della luna e altre eccezion molte, avvisandosi forse che cos' feria far si convenisse con le donne nel letto, come egli faceva talvolta piatendo alle civili."
The wife however is not duped by this and soon goes away with another man. The husband eventually dies, and the young widow remains with her lover. The pattern of the tricks in this story repeats itself many times throughout the Decameron: a character who tries to deceive another is eventually deceived in his turn. There…
Auerbach, Erich. "Frate Alberto." In Critical Perspectives on the "Decameron," pp. 69-81. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1976.
Boccaccio, Giovanni. Il Decamerone. http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/decameron/itDecShowText.php?myID=nov0303&expand=day03
De Sanctis, Francesco. "Boccaccio's Human Comedy." In Critical Perspectives on the "Decameron," pp. 26-37. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1976.
Moravia, Alberto. "Boccaccio." In Man as an End: A Defense of Humanism: Literary, Social, and Political Essays, translated by Bernard Wall, pp. 143-55. New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1965.
In other words, revealing the character by celebrating the human form in a highly stylized and beautiful fashion was critical to Ritts' art. Even his ordinary subjects look like models. In "Vladimir: Hollywood 1980" a man smoking a cigarette with a stocking cap on his head looks almost sensual in his delight at this act, as if he is advertising the brand as well as simply enjoying a smoke.
Ritts' studies of African natives, far away from exposure to the estern media, are lit in ways that recall his Calvin Klein ads and other commercial representations from America like "Dijimon with Octopus." This work shows an African native with braided, octopus-like hair. (Images available from the website text and image catalogue "Herb Ritts on Show," 2000) Ritts suggests that even celebrities have a personal and human side, and even ordinary Americans and Africans have the power to speak to the…
BBC News. (27 Dec 2002) "Photographer Herb Ritts dies." Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/showbiz/2608665.stm
Dybowska, Kasia. (2002) "Herb Ritts Photography." Trincoll Journal: Current Events. Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.trincoll.edu/zines/tj/tj11.14.96/articles/cover.html
Herb Ritts on Show." (15 Feb 2001) Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.designboom.com/portrait/hr.html
Nineteen Thirty-Seven and the River
Edwidge Danticat and Flannery O'Connor both explore the influence of religion in creating a belief system in individuals who have been disconnected from societies' main stream in their shot stories Nineteen Thirty-Seven and The River. Characters in both stories have been abandoned by humanity and strive to regain their identity through God's grace. Danticat uses a poverty stricken Haitian woman, Manman, who has been accused of being a witch and incarcerated, while O'Connor incorporates a very young affluent boy, Bevel, who has been discounted as a human being and forsaken by his parents to frame their stories. Both Manman and Bevel use religion, specifically Christianity, to help them find an identity under hostile conditions.
Danticat's story is set in Haiti, in a society that is dominated by poverty and superstitious beliefs. Manman is hauled out of her home one morning, beaten by her neighbors, and…
Danticat, Edwidge. "Nineteen Thirty-Seven." Krik-Krak!" New York: Soho Press Inc., 1995.
O'Connor, Flannery. "The River." A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Short Stories. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1955.
High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists
The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.
The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…
Leonardo da Vinci." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 40. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
Michelangelo Buonarroti." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 43. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004.
Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" with Milton's "Paradise Lost"
Comparison of the two works:
Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and Milton's Paradise Lost are two examples of great works that seemingly have little in common. The differences in subject, approach, language and style contrast greatly but these works also share many common themes. Although Twelfth Night is a romantic comedic work and Paradise Lost is an epic poem that deals with a much heavier subject matter, both present the reader with stories of the consequences when there is a disruption in world order and balance while incorporating elements of disguise and character consequences.
Shakespeare's work is consistent with the witty, bright comedies popular during its time. According to Warren and Wells, these comedies typically included a mixture of dialogue, singing, stage fights, and suspense and the nature of the lighthearted language used was commonplace during the early 1600's (1994). Additionally, critic en Johnson said…
Bloom, H. (ed.) (1987). John Milton's Paradise Lost. New York: Chelsea House Publsihers.
Corns, T. (1998). John Milton: The Prose Works. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Elledge, S. (1993). John Milton's Paradise Lost: An Authoritative Text Backgrounds and Sources of Criticism. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Notkoff, T. (2001). Readings on Twelfth Night. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press
Human Figure in Art
The Ognissanti Madonna by Giotto, from around 1310. Tempera on panel. Located at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
Giotto's work is relevant of the transition period between Cimabue's work in the 13th century, with profound yzantine influences, including in the figures, and the Early Renaissance of the 14th century in Italy. Stokstad (2004) notes the influences of Cimabue in this work by Giotto, including in terms of the symmetry of the painting. The Ogissanti Madonna is also relevant for that transition, particularly through the touches of realism that Giotto exercise here, including elements such as the marble throne on which the Madonna sits. The entire painting also surprises through its three-dimension depiction.
The human figure here is severe and serious, dominating the painting. It is very large in comparison to the other figures, perhaps to support its central role in the work (it is also in…
1. Stockstad, Marilyn, (2004). Art History. Prentice Hall.
Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes 39.2% (44 million people) of the country's total population. Mexico's middle class increased 11.4% during between 2000 and 2010" and these consumers are seeking out cellular phones and flat screen TVs in record numbers (Flannery 2013). Unfortunately, an increasingly affluent culture has brought forth one of the problems of industrialized prosperity, namely a rise in obesity. To take advantage of this concern, one possible product to market to the population coping with more sedentary jobs and a taste for highly caloric foods is that of gym memberships. Introducing a chain of low-cost gyms modeled on popular chains such as WOW and Planet Fitness, particularly in cities with high concentrations of white collar office workers would be an ideal way to…
Theory X and Theory Y (2015). Mind Tools. Retrieved from:
School of Athens is the most well-known of the frescoes painted by Raphael, an Italian Renaissance artist. Painted in two years from 1509-1511, Raphael painted the fresco as a commission where he had to decorate the Stanze di Raffaello rooms in the Apostolic Palace located in the Vatican. The fresco is meant to represent Philosophy and was finished after La Disputa, which represented theology on the opposite side. School of Athens is considered by many to be Raphael's masterpiece, perfectly embodying the essence of the Renaissance. (Cole and Gealt 53)
Depicting a branch of knowledge that was one of four frescoes, School of Athens has the label overhead of 'Causarum Cognitio' meaning 'Seek Knowledge of Causes' and emphasizes Aristotle's focus on wisdom and discovering the causes of things. This is why Plato and Aristotle are shown as the main and central figures within the scene. Apart from Aristotle and Plato,…
Cole, Bruce and Adelheid M Gealt. Art of The Western World. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991. Print.
Hall, Marcia B. Raphael's "School of Athens." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Print.
Janson, H. W and Anthony F Janson. History of Art. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2003. Print.
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…
1. Prager, Frank D. Scaglia, Gustina. (2004). "Brunelleschi." Courier Dover Publications. (2005).
2. "Niccolo Machiavelli." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/machiavelli/
3. "MICHELANGELO Buonarroti." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Web Gallery of Art Web site: http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/m/michelan/biograph.html
4. "Renaissance: (1400-1600)." Retrieved July 7, 2009, from the World Wide Arts Resources Web site: http://wwar.com/masters/movements/renaissance.html .
Not surprising to see concerts by Dave Matthews, Green Day, and other top groups since Live Nation recently purchased Ticket Master.
A recent article in the LA Times reports that 48% of consumers are "eating out less often now than they did six months ago" (Hallock, 2009). John Self, a professor at Cal Poly Pomona in Los Angeles County, who has published a study of why restaurants fail, estimates that about 1,100 restaurants open in L.A. County annually; and among those, 24% close the first year and within three years 50% of those 1,100 have closed. But given the sluggish economy, Self asserts that up to 50% of new restaurants may be expected close in the first year, double the number that close in good economic times.
Data are not available as to how the recession has affected HRC, or Planet Hollywood, Johnny Rocket's or other theme-centered restaurants, but it…
Brand Strategy. (2008). Hard Rock: Not only rock 'n' roll. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.brandstrategy.co.uk .
Funding Universe. (2000). Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. Company History. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www.fundinguniverse.com .
Hallock, Betty. (2009). Recession takes big bite out of L.A. restaurant business. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.latimes.com .
Hard Rock. (2009). Corporate / History. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.hardrock.com .
She has a vivid imagination doubled by a deep understanding of the human nature and thus her stories are acting like parables. The story telling is similar to some point to that of Boccacio's Decameron. People will find a something in common with their own experiences and learn something out of them without feeling punished or admonished or even pointed at. One of the lessons Kidd is teaching here through Lily's adventures is that of racism, viewed both from the white and black perspectives.
Spirituality is omnipresent in the book, from the way Lily thinks of her mother as her guardian angel to the new religion she discovers in the Boatwright household, half Christian half self-made. The two worlds she lives in are separated by the same trace and that is where the master work of Kidd is revealed. A simple phrase is revealing more than an extended study on…
Kidd, Sue Monk. The Secret Life of Bees. Penguin, 2002
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
The crowds Christina draws are not all twelve-year-old girls; because the artist has earned numerous critical accolades fans come in droves to see one of the most well-respected musicians in the United States. After winning a slew of Grammy awards, Christina also captured the attention of other well-respected and well-known artists in the music industry. Most notably, Christina Aguilera toured with Justin Timberlake, Pink, Mya, and Lil' Kim. She has also performed onstage with artists as prestigious as Madonna. The recognition Christina Aguilera has earned for herself make her one of the most attractive performers in the industry, but the artist is also an incredible human being.
Aguilera's fame has not destroyed her spirit, proven by the way she has balanced her sexuality with her singing and her fortune with philanthropy. Her Web site describes her primary concern as the fight against AIDS. Christina Aguilera has devoted performance time and…
Christina Aguilera: Biography." The Christina Aguilera Official Website. Retrieved April 11, 2008 at http://www.christinaaguilera.com
Some have speculated that the work may have been commissioned by one of those families, and that the work was stored in a private residence, as opposed to being on display (the Birth, No date).
In its historical context, Birth of Venus is important because it gives us a glimpse into the Italian psychology at the time. The painting shows that even as the church tried to exert total influence in Italy, the people had not completely forgotten their old traditions and still thought fondly about the days of Rome. Because so many pagan-themed paintings were destroyed by the Catholic church, Birth of Venus also allows us to consider the other great works of pagan art from the 15th century that we will never get to see.
Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli is an important work in the study of art. This late-15th century painting reflects the struggle…
Art archive: Venus (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mythology/images/venus_art_archive.html.
The Birth of Venus: Spring (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Sandro/44venusprintemps_english.html .
Botticelli (2002). Retrieved March 28, 2007, at http://www.loggia.com/art/renaissance/botticelli02.htm.
Botticelli, Sandro, real name Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi (No date). Retrieved March 27, 2007, at http://www.latifm.com/artists/Botticelli_Sandro.html .
In contrast, Venus and Cupid seem weightless. Even though Venus' form is by far the largest body mass in West's composition, she seems light at the same time. Part of the reason why Venus seems airy in spite of her mass is because her body is illuminated brightly. The source of light is unclear, and could either be from within the walls or from within her. Ironically the light does not come from the heavens, even though Venus points upward.
Venus is larger and more substantial than Cupid and yet her body is endowed with profound illumination. However, Cupid is inherently airy because of his wings, which match the golden hue of his hair and of Venus' bracelet. His flesh is identical in color, texture, and illumination to Venus', implying their connection as the god and goddess of love.
Venus and Cupid" contains no straight lines except for one tree…
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…
Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.
Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992
Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.
Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
This demand has been articulated not only Jewish individuals, but all families as well.
The voluntary simplicity movement, asking families to return to traditional ways of living, eating, and organizing their life around community and faith is emblematic of Hasidic Judaism. Also, life in Hasidic Judaism is governed by the religious clock of the Shabbat and of prayer and temple-going rather than corporate ladder-climbing, a relief for members of Generations X, Y, and beyond, who have become burnt out at an early age, from the demands posed by modern life. The increased interest in Middle Eastern religions, spawned by the resurgence of conflict in the area, could very well drive many people to greater curiosity about this way of life.
Other factors that might spur a resurgence of interest in Hasidism amongst American Jews are the sense of persecution felt by Israelis, given the rise of Islamic radicalism in the…
Further, while the rapists themselves have been identified as anger rapists, rapists with inferiority complexes, rapists with the Madonna-Prostitute Complex, sadistic rapists, and abusive rapists, there are certainly perpetrators whose personalities and crimes indicate either a combination of these traits, or entirely different traits.
In all cases, however, rapists appear to be motivated by anger, a need for control, and a complete disregard for the life of the female. It is through understanding some basic tendencies that researchers can eventually determine a course of action to combat these horrific crimes, and women can find ways to protect themselves against these acts. It is only by attempting to understand the motives and minds of rapists that society will prevail.
Bancroft, Lundy. Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. New York: Berkley/Penguin, 2002.
Catalano, Shannan M. "Criminal Victimization, 2003." National Crime Victimization Survey. NCJ 205455.…
Bancroft, Lundy. Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. New York: Berkley/Penguin, 2002.
Catalano, Shannan M. "Criminal Victimization, 2003." National Crime Victimization Survey. NCJ 205455. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Justice, 2004.
Groth, A. Nicholas. Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.
Langevin, Ron. Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983.
Boccaccio's Decameron Day Four Story Two begins on an ironic note. Among the plague-shy aristocrats who are Boccaccio's assembled storytellers, the King has specifically requested a sentimental love tragedy to suit his mood, and requests it directly from Pampinea. But as Boccaccio tells us, Pampinea is in no mood to oblige the King straightforwardly here: "she decided, without straying from his theme, to tell a humorous story. She began in this way: The man who is wicked and thought to be good / Can do no wrong, for no one believes that he would." There are two things worth noting at the outset then: that to some extent the comedy in this tale may represent a sentimental and sad love-story misdirected into the low stuff of comedy (due to the King's request and Pampinea's refusal to grant it, which invites us to question whether in some way the story does…
Giuliano Bugiardini and Roger Van Der yden
There can be little doubt that Art as a medium has been used to influence the viewpoints of any time; as a medium Art has been used as propaganda, to induce a certain ideology in people, and to even educate the masses, since Art doesn't limit itself by any barrier of language. It is free for all to see and be inspired from, depending only on how they connect with the piece itself!
Biblical Art has been one of the most popular themes, whose origin can be traced to the end of the second century (Farber n.d.), and which remained a prominent theme in the work of many artists up till the end of Renaissance, a period when man became the center of the universe rather than God! But how can such a change in the thinking of the Renaissance Period make any…
Farber, Dr. Allen. Early Christian Art - An Introduction (Part 2). n.d. http://smarthistory.org/early-christian-art-in-the-2nd-and-3rd-centuries.html (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).
General Characteristics of Renaissance. n.d. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/ren.html (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).
Glover, Michael. Great Works: The Deposition (1436), Roger van der Weyden. August 28, 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/great-works/great-works-the-deposition-1436-rogier-van-der-weyden-1777980.html (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).
Smith, Keith Martin-. On the Future of Art and Art Criticism: Beyond Post-Modernism in the 21st Century. n.d. http://www.integralworld.net/martin-smith2.html (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).
Described as "one of the leading surrealists" by the world renowned Tate gallery in London, which houses much of his work, Max Ernst remains one of the world's most important and influential artists. He and his colleagues founded one of modern art's earliest but most significant movements called Dada, which was a reaction against formal traditions in art and a celebration of avant-garde creativity.
Ernst is perhaps best known for his legacy of paintings, but Ernst also created a vast body of sculpture and prints, and also wrote surrealist books. Max Ernst is important not only because of his prowess on the canvas, but also because his work reflects the modern psyche, disturbed by human mental and spiritual evolution and curious about what motivates and drives people. Sexuality, death, and desire are common themes in the work of Ernst and his fellow surrealists.
Ernst worked during a time in…
Alley, Ronald. Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.204
Ernst, Max. A Week of Kindness or the Seven Deadly Elements.
Hopkins, David. "The Robing of the Bride: Max Ernst's Response to Duchamp." Chapter 3 in Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: The Bride Shared. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation (SRGF). Max Ernst. Retrieved online: http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artists/bios/1213