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Medieval Art and Its Historical Social and Spiritual Meaning

Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 61543620

Madonna and Child by the Master of St. Cecilia

Madonna and Child (1290-1295) by the Master of St. Cecilia is a tempera and gold leaf on panel depiction of the Mother of God and the Christ Child. Its iconic imagery perfectly represents and reflects the ideals of the medieval world, of Christian Europe as it existed under the guidance of the Roman Catholic Church. The Church during this time served as the social, political and religious example for all the nations and peoples of Europe. This icon by the Master of St. Cecilia depicts the ideal that the Church wished to convey to its followers, whether princes or peasants -- namely, that all mankind should honor and humble himself before the majesty of the Mother of God, whose fiat to the Archangel ensured that the Son of God would be born to redeem mankind and pay the price for his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

J. Paul Getty Museum. "Madonna and Child." Getty, 2016. Web. 16 Apr 2016.
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Cimabue and Giotto a Comparison

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88560749

This, however, is not enough to claim that Cimabue's work is as three-dimensional as Giotto's. Giotto, for example, gives his characters more depth and better realism.

Giotto's Ognissanti Madonna is a tempera on wood, 325 x 204 cm. In size, which makes it slightly smaller than Cimabue's tempera on panel used on the "high altar of Santa Trinita church in Florence" (Kren, Marx "The Madonna in Majesty"), signifying that its primary purpose was devotional, abstract, and didactic. Giotto's Madonna is certainly somewhat less traditionally didactic than Cimabue's. Cimabue, after all, gives a history lesson in his icon, incorporating Old Testament figures into the story of the New Testament Christ, illustrating how the ancient prophets and patriarch pre-figured and served as the foundation for the Christ. Giotto's work, however, is more representational: It strives not to teach so much as to make the subjects come to life in a real way.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kren, Emil; Marx, Daniel. "The Madonna in Majesty." Web Gallery of Art. Web. 1

Sept 2012.

Kren, Emil; Marx, Daniel. "Ognissanti Madonna." Web Gallery of Art. Web. 1 Sept

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Cimabue and Giotto Giovanni Cimabue's

Words: 347 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74080430

They are draped in white with gold frills around their neck and arms. Their long wings are white, red, and yellow. Similar to the saints of Cimabue, we see that the angels have halos surrounding their heads.

The next area we will explore is the mid-ground of both paintings. In Madonna and Child Enthroned with Angels, the mid-ground consists of the Madonna and child. The child resembles a small man.

In Giotto's painting, the mid-ground consists of the Madonna on her throne. Unlike the castle-like structure in Cimabue's painting, this throne looks more like a church.

The last area we will look at is the background of the paintings. In Cimabue, we find a gold and black panel, whereas in Giotto, we are confronted by square like bricks of gold.

oth paintings, in their exquisite detail, are accomplished works of art, and thus deserve their status as masterpieces of the…… [Read More]


Martin, David F., and Lee a. Jacobus. The Humanities Through the Arts. 7th ed. New York:

Lisa Moore, 2008. 67-68.
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Art Both Duccio Di Buoninsegna and Fra

Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18026135


Both Duccio di Buoninsegna and Fra Filippo Lippi paint the Christian Madonna and child scene. Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels" is rendered on wood with tempera and gold leaf. It is rounded at the top, and was the center part of a triptych that was completed in about the year 1440.[footnoteRef:1] Also in tempera and gold leaf on wood is di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child." Candle damage at the bottom of the wood panel suggests that the painting was "used for private devotion."[footnoteRef:2] Buoninsegna's painting was completed in the year 1300, almost one hundred and fifty years prior to Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels." The two depictions of mother Mary and baby Jesus share similar themes, and in both the mother is holding the child. However, the composition of the two paintings is strikingly different and symbolizes their respective religious histories. [1: "Fra…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Duccio di Buoninsegna: Madonna and Child (2004.442)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- .  (September 2010)

"Fra Filippo Lippi: Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels (49.7.9)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- .  (August 2007)

Paoletti, John T. And Radke, Gary M. Art in Renaissance Italy. Laurence King Publishing, 2005.

Tinagli, Paola. Women in Italian Renaissance Art: Gender, Representation, Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997
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Virgin and Child From Byzantium to Renaissance

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98203680


The shift from Byzantine or Medieval art to the early Renaissance is perfectly demonstrated by examining the change in depictions of the Virgin Mary and the baby Jesus, or Madonna and Child, over time. hat we see is a gradual tendency toward realistic depictions of human form, as a way of making religious art less remote and decorative, and more immediately related to actual human experience.

e can begin with the thirteenth-century Byzantine icon of the Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne. The painting is, in some sense, a highly stylized representation of a familiar image. The figures of mother and child do not really seem to exist in real space: for example, the gold leaf that is used for the flat backdrop behind the Madonna and Child is also used (in a decorative but not particularly realistic fashion) to highlight the folds of the Madonna's garments. here…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Soltes, Ori Z. "A World of Art, Lecture 15: Early Renaissance Painting in Central Italy." Online video. YouTube, 28 February 2014. Web. Accessed at
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Hedwig and the Angry Inch

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 86949632

Truth or Dare (1991)

The documentary Truth or Dare chronicles the singer and dancer Madonna's Blonde Ambition tour. Madonna has always used sexual ambiguity to create her personal style and to market herself. She is a savvy businesswoman in the film, despite the simulated masturbation and S&M aesthetic during the show itself. Madonna's exhibitionism is part of her brand image, and on camera she can be seen lying on her dead mother's grave, talking about the one love of her life (Sean Penn), as well as wearing next to nothing. This is highlighted in an argument she has with arren Beatty, who says that if it doesn't happen on camera for Madonna, it might as well not have happened at all.

This is the irony of a behind-the-scenes documentary about a musical performance -- for Madonna, the creation of the performance becomes just as much a 'performance' itself. Yet what…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hedwig and the Angry Inch. Directed by John Cameron Mitchell. 2001.

Truth or Dare. Directed by Alek Keshishian. 1991.
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Music Review I Am in Complete Agreement

Words: 405 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88926807

Music Review

I am in complete agreement with Stephen Thomas Erlewine's review of Madonna's album Like a Prayer. First, Erlewine states that the album is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement." One of the reasons why Like a Prayer is a major artistic statement is that Madonna seems more mature in this album than she did in previous ones. For example, the subject matter of her songs, including the title track, is more deeply personal than it was on albums such as Like a Virgin. Moreover, on Like a Prayer, the "material girl" becomes a woman. In songs like "Promise to Try," she creatively expresses herself to members of her family and is no longer just singing about herself. Like a Prayer is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement" because Madonna is stretching her own boundaries and refining her image. A second reason why…… [Read More]

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Art Compare and Contrast Giuliano

Words: 1730 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68273324

There is also little doubt that viewing the original works is a very different experience to viewing a reproduction. There is as sense of presence and intimacy in viewing the original works that is not evident when viewing a reproduction. There is something tangible and direct that comes across when looking at the original that is lost in viewing reproductions. With the original paining one is allowed to view the actual brush strikes and paint build-up in a way that cannot be achieved with a reproduction.


"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,


"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,


"Italian vs. Northern Renaissance." Accessed September 10, 2011.

"Religious Themed Paintings inside Houston's MFA." Accessed September 10, 2011. Art and Architecture

"Renaissance Art and Architecture." Accessed September 10,


"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John," accessed September 10,…… [Read More]


"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,


"Guilliano Bugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,

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Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media

Words: 3434 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69173169

Pornification of Women in Western Media

The Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media

Sexuality is a normal part of life for every male and female. egardless of where he or she lives, or even what age a person is, sex will be a need. It is a known biological fact. However, the Western media has been blamed to play a large role in exacerbating the need. Back in 1811, a novel published by Jane Austin known as Sense and Sensibility mentioned the word chaperon. It was stated that back then a young woman and young man were never left alone. Even if they were left alone, they were left in the presence of a chaperone. (Poisoned by Porn; It's" 2010, 14) why was this the case? The answer to that lies in that sex is a need for every man or woman born into this world. It was back…… [Read More]


8 July, 2009 "Bad boob jobs," The Times of India.

2012, "Christina Aguilera's 'Your Body' Dress Doesn't Leave Much To The Imagination," The Huffington Post.

American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2012) 2011 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report. [report].

Baudrillard, Jean 1979. "Seduction." Translated by Brian Singer. New York: St. Martin's Press
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Renaissance Art Greatest Painter

Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26871084

aphael: Artist of the enaissance

aphael was the son of Giovanni Santi, an educated man that was able to provide his young son with a remarkable life exposed to much art, many artistic geniuses, and the remarkable culture of the Umbrian court. aphael was blessed during his childhood in terms of wealth and culture and would never have to know the life of a struggling artist nor the sense of begging for handouts or working in squalor. However, aphael did suffer great tragedy: his mother died when he was eight years old and his father died three years later when aphael was eleven years old. Thus, as a tender child, aphael was no stranger to tragedy, something that no doubt instilled his life, making an imprint on him as an artist. One thing that aphael's father did before his death that had a profound influence on the child and how…… [Read More]

References (2014). The Triumph of Galatea . Retrieved from 

Finnan, V. (2014). Raphael Biography. Retrieved from (2014). The Ansidei Madonna. Retrieved from (2014). Madonna of the Goldfinch by Raphael. Retrieved from (2014). The Raphael Cartoons: What is a Cartoon? Retrieved from
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Botticelli's Birth of Venus and Duccio's Maesta

Words: 1811 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68586410

Botticelli's Birth Of Venus And Duccio's Maesta

The representation of women in estern art has changed throughout history, and for much of estern history this representation was oriented around the dominant female figure in contemporary society; that is, Mary, mother of Jesus. However, the gradual shift away from a dominantly monotheistic cultural hegemony seen in the Renaissance and eventually the Enlightenment brought with it new (and the case of this study, old) means of representing women beyond the confinements and discourse of the Madonna and Child. By comparing and contrasting Duccio di Buoninsegna's Virgin and Child Enthroned Amidst Angels and Saints (which is the main altarpiece of the artist's Maesta) with Sandro Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, one is able to see how the changing cultural standards which came about during the shift from the conservative, Eastern-influenced Late Gothic art of Duccio to the freer, more naturalistic art of Botticelli's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Botticelli, Sandro. "The Birth of Venus." Google Art Project, c. 1486. Web. 12

Jun 2011. .

Duccio. "Maesta." N.p., 1308-1311. Web. 12 Jun 2011.
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Art Music Literature

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94176966

Baroque Art:


The artistic period known as the enaissance continued without any sharp stylistic changes well into the 17th and 18th centuries; however, the art of this later period is often called Baroque, although there is no single Baroque style or set of stylistic ideals. Yet within the last one hundred years or so, Baroque has taken on the overall designation for the art of the period from circa 1600 to 1750. More recently, scholars have come to understand that Baroque styles were very different from those linked to the enaissance. For example, during the enaissance, art tended to be rather static, but during the Baroque, art became very dynamic and encompassed passion, opulence, a taste for the theatrical and introduced the virtuoso, being an artist that stood out from his contemporaries as a truly gifted genius.

Historically, the Baroque Period entailed many artistic ideals,…… [Read More]


"Caravaggio: 1571-1610." (2005). Internet. Olga's Gallery. Accessed May 16, 2005.

Held, Julius S. (1954). Peter Paul Rubens: 1577-1640. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Payne, Robert. (1969). Caravaggio. London: W.H. Allen.

"Peter Paul Rubens." (2005). Internet. The Artchive. Accessed May 16, 2005. .
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Music Recording Industry Bruce Springsteen

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32611099

Furthermore, Live Nation would have a great advantage in advising and guiding Springsteen regarding his career and recordings. Since the company handles all aspects of the artist's career and has a great chance of benefiting from everything the artist does, it also has a long-term perspective and interest in developing the artist's career.

Springsteen has been widely advised to sign the ten-year deal with Live Nation in order to avoid the difficulties and costs associated with self-marketing. However, this deal is not the most suitable because Springsteen already has a huge and loyal fan base and would therefore have fewer challenges in marketing his album. Secondly, Springsteen will also lose creative control since creative decisions are not left entirely on the artist's hand since the partner has too much at stake. While he stands a chance to receive a lot of money up front in this deal, he will significantly…… [Read More]


Byrne, D. (2008, January 16). David Byrne's Survival Strategies for Emerging Artists -- and Megastars. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from 

"The Current State of the Music Industry." (2010, March 31). DIO: Do It Ourselves. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from
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Renaissance and Early Twentieth Century Art Offer

Words: 420 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73945241

enaissance and early twentieth century art offer an interesting study in comparison because of their distinctive styles. It is the objective of this paper to describe the definitive characteristics of each period through comparing aphael's Alba Madonna to Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory.

enaissance art is reputed for the unified balance achieved between pictorial considerations of measurable space and the effects of light and color on the one hand, and the artist's personal expression on the other (Pioch, 2002). This unity is evident in aphael's Alba Madonna, a painting that represents the artist's unique style of sweetness of expression. The painting is remarkable because of the manner in which aphael has succeeded in addressing a serious subject within a backdrop of a serene countryside. Indeed, it can be said that he was able to do this precisely because of the use of symmetry, namely, the round format that succeeds…… [Read More]


MoMa. (2004). Salvador Dali. The Persistence of memory. Museum of Modern Art.

Retrieved Nov. 12, 2004: 

National Gallery of Art. (2004). From the Tour: Raphael. Retrieved Nov. 12, 2004:
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3rd Wave Feminism

Words: 431 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7441408

grrrl -- here me roar! We've come a long way since the bra-burning days of yore. Feminists in the 1960s and 1970s helped break down significant barriers for grrrls, and helped us to reclaim that fun-filled word. However, that "second wave" of feminism is long gone. We're back to struttin' our stuff, high heels, lipstick, and all. Now 20-somethings don't have to demand to be called a "woman" to assert feminine strength; grrrl is just fine. In fact, the term reeks of fun and frolic, of grrrl power. As Angela Mcobbie states in her book Postmodernism and Popular Culture, "far from having to relinquish their femininity to achieve 'equality, these girls have demanded their right to hold onto it intact, even excessively," (166). Welcome to the Third Wave of Feminism, grrrls!

Ironically, it took hairy legs and armpits to achieve this linguistic transformation and ride this third wave. We had…… [Read More]


Garrison, Ednie Kaeh. "U.S. Feminism-Grrrl-Style!" Feminist Studies. Spring 2000. Find Articles. 24 Apr. 2003. .

McRobbie, Angela. Postmodernism and Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.

Straus, Tamara. "A Manifesto for Third Wave Feminism." Alternet. 24 Oct. 2000. Independent Media Institute. 24 Apr. 2003. .
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National Gallery of Art Washington DC Tour

Words: 1154 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35775214

Cultural Tour of the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

Andrew William Mellon, an art collector and investor hailing from Pittsburgh, designed and presented Washington's famed National Gallery of Art to American citizens. Mellon came to the U.S. capital in the year 1921 and took up the post of U.S. "Secretary of the Treasury." He felt the nation ought to have an art gallery just like other major States. Consequently, in the year 1936, he contacted President Roosevelt and offered to contribute his splendid art collection to a new national museum, which he proposed he would construct using his personal funds. Hence, with Congressional and Presidential support, the Washington National Gallery of Art was opened in March of 1937 (National Gallery of Art, 2016).
Tour of the Gallery

I undertook a virtual visit to Washington, DC's National Gallery of Art on September 4, 2016 at approximately 11:30am. The gallery's entryway…… [Read More]

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Juno and the Paycock

Words: 1748 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20757508

Suffering Madonna of Ireland: omen, sentimentality, and mother Ireland

Sean O'Casey's play "Juno and the Paycock" portrays an Ireland where good women and particularly good mothers are the soul and heart of the Irish land, and Irish men are shiftless, murdering, or bad. Army men and unionizing men and worst of all, lawyers, threaten the dignity and the soul of the Boyle family, but only with the integrity of Mrs. Boyle does anything good survive out of the tragedies that ensue over the course of the play.

This deflationary view of men can be seen even if one parses the title of O'Casey's play. The" Juno" of the title is a nickname for the matriarch of the clan, given by her husband to his wife. In contrast, the epithet "paycock" is a dialect rendition of Mrs. Boyle's husband's name, a man who is known as strutting peacock, particularly when he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkinson, Brooks, Ed. The Sean O'Casey Reader. By Sean O'Casey. New York: St. Martin's, 1968.

Gill, Peter. "A New State of Chassis: The Irish Civil War and its background." National Theater. First Published 1989. Last Modified 16 Feb 2005.

O'Casey, Sean. "Juno and the Paycock."

"Sean O'Casey: Biography" The Moonstruck Theater Database. . [1 Mar 2005] Article originally published in Minute History of the Drama. Edited by Alice B. Fort & Herbert S. Kates. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1935.
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Raphael's Career

Words: 1468 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96203114

Art History

aphael's Career

aphael is one of the most renowned artists in modern human history. He is so famous that he is one of a small number of artists that they are only known by one name. His full name is affaello Sanzio da Urbino. His precise birthdate is contended, but it is agreed that he was born sometime in the spring during 1483, as the 15th century, as well as the enaissance era, concluded. His life did not spans four decades, yet his body of work persists around the world nearly five centuries later. aphael, like other enaissance artists and professionals of the period, had proficiency in several skills; he is primarily known as a painter and architect. His life spanned the final stage of the enaissance, known as High enaissance. He came from an artistically inclined family, and suffered the deaths of both of his parents before…… [Read More]


Italian Renaissance Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: . 2012 October 12.

Raphael Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: . 2012 October 12.

Totally History. Raphael Sanzio. 2012, Web, Available from: . 2012 October 12.

Visual Arts Cork. Raphael. 2012, Web, Available from: . 2012 October 12.
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Duccio and Fra Filippo a

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25087078

The rest of the colors appear to be somewhat muted but this may be more an effect of the naturalistic setting and use of light than of time. The tempera medium shows great resiliency through the centuries and the Portrait is in surprisingly good condition.

Total Effect

The total effect of Duccio's Madonna and Child is obviously much different from Fra Filippo's Portrait of oman. The total effect of Duccio's Madonna is one of bold religious feeling. It inspires the viewer to accept the mythology and challenges him to understand his relationship to the God-child and His Mother. The effect certainly inspires religious feelings and thoughts. It is dignified, spiritual, and affirmative.

The total effect of Fra Fillipo's Portrait is one of awe and human respect. The viewer is invited to feast his eyes on the gorgeous dress of the woman. He is asked to admire her jewelry and her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Portrait of Woman with a Man at a Casement, Gallery Label. NY: Metropolitan

Museum of Art, 2011.

Madonna and Child, Gallery Label. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011.

Strutt, E.C. Fra Filippo Lippi. London: George Bell & Sons, 1901. Print.
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Girls by Author Erika Fricke

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89760679

Ficke also seems to conside Dolly's self-awaeness and sense of humo about heself to be impotant elements of he pesona that immunize he fom citicism fo being "supeficial" o "fake" o fo adheing to an image of femininity ceated by males. In that egad, the standad opening line she uses fo he concets to thank he fans fo paying to see he is "It takes a lot of money to look this cheap."

If Dolly Paton maintained he caee by emulating the "busty blond with a golden heat" Madonna achieved success though many "einventions and possibilities" of he Madonna pesona. In doing so, the one constant seems to have been that she always had a "desie to push the boundaies" duing he caee. The autho ecounts memoies of he siste tying to dess in the "Mateial Gil 80's-ea, can-can, dance/steet uchin togs" that Madonna populaized in he heyday. Accoding to…… [Read More]

references the 1994 book "Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representations, by feminist theorist Bell Hooks, that "took Madonna to task" in that regard. Whereas Parton has always successfully bridged the culture gap separating her various audiences, Madonna's vogueing originally became popular among gay black and Latino men but remained largely appreciated only in their community rather than inspiring any wider cultural revolution. The author does acknowledge that that Madonna has overcome some of these disappointments. Whereas Parton must succeed as the character she has always represented, Madonna has had the freedom and safety of being able to simply morphs into yet another character, such as Evita Peron. Like a butterfly emerging from a cocoon, Madonna transformed her revolutionary figure, eventually emerging as a single mother and wife of Gary Richie. In her most recent metamorphosis, Madonna became a children's book writer pretending to blend in with British high society, complete with accent. According to Fricke, Madonna's message delivered with each transformation has always been "I'm not going to apologize for who I am. You don't have to like it if you don't want to. I feel like that's something girls need to hear." Whereas Parton has always been loved by the press, Madonna has had to continually "stay ahead of the press."

Ultimately, Fricke leaves no doubt that she admires both artists although for different reasons. She considers both to be special talents who are icons of the 20th century by virtue of their proven success, longevity, continued ability to release popular new albums, capture new audiences and maintain their original fan base. They just do in different styles.
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American Popular Music

Words: 2002 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83782389

American Popular Music (Lady Gaga)

The question of originality in popular music is a vexed one. To choose a convenient and current example, when Justin Bieber sings about his "baby," listeners are not meant to hear any kind of deliberate allusion to the Supremes' "Baby Love" or any other previous songs which include "Baby" as part of their lyrical hook: Bieber's charming faux-naivete cannot be mistaken for anything other than a rhetorical willingness to utilize the regular tropes and language of a standard love song. But with some performers, the matter of originality -- together with the question of influence -- is one that must be addressed. I would like to look, in this context, at the work of Stefani Germanotta, the twenty-four-year-old singer and composer better known by her stage name "Lady Gaga." I would like to examine Lady Gaga's oeuvre with three separate areas of inquiry kept in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brand, Katy. "No Pants." Katy Brand's Big Ass Show, Episode 1 (ITV-2, UK). Airdate 10 September 2009. Accessed on YouTube 13 March 2011 at: 

Germanotta, Stefani ("Lady Gaga"). "Just Dance." The Fame, 2008. CD.

Grigoriadis, Vanessa. "How Lady Gaga Became the World's Biggest Pop Star." New York Magazine, 28 March 2010. Accessed on 13 March 2011 at: 

Koestenbaum, Wayne. Andy Warhol. New York: Viking, 2001. Print.
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Fashion Advertising in the Latest

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38096064

Second, the Madonna Versace ad is well-designed. Madonna's feet are one of the highlights of the photograph. The shoes she wears, which are sandals, breathe whispers of the upcoming warmer seasons. However, the gold and white tones in the ad still reflect the current colder seasons. Madonna is posing laying on a day bed, and her legs are crossed. She appears wrapped up in business of some sort, which again reflects her message as a confident businesswoman. Her eyes look straight into the camera, which is another hint as to Madonna's confident attitude.

Because the ad contains so many consistent messages, it will positively affect consumer behavior. Madonna wears the Versace clothing well; although her celebrity is powerful, it does not necessarily detract from the overall look and appeal of the clothing and accessories made by the designer. Anyone who can afford Versace will be highly likely to heed the…… [Read More]

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Watch Any Tweenager Teenager or Young Adult

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75031751

Watch any tweenager, teenager or young adult watching TV today and he/she will sooner or later turn to MTV or some similar station. MTV has succeeded in catering to the whims of new generations of youths in the 25 years since it launched, and it is continuing to grow. MTV Networks has kicked off 20 new channels in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa this year, alone, pushing its global tally to 112. In addition, with its new parent, MTV Networks is readying for a more visible role with plans to leverage its influential brands in new ways. The cable side, most of which comprises MTV Networks, accounted for about $5.6 billion, or about 70%, of what will become the new Viacom's $8.1 billion of revenue last year.

Not everyone, however, is enthusiastic about the impact of MTV on today's culture. E.Ann Kaplan included. In 1987, she said MTV is…… [Read More]

References Cited

Frith, Simon. Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music. Cambridge, MA:

Harvard UP, 1996.

Goodwin, Andrew. Dancing in the Distraction Factory: Music Television and Popular Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Grossberg, Lawrence. We Gotta Get Out of This Place. New York: Routledge, 1995.
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Renaissance and Rise of Humanism in Painting

Words: 2772 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79582883

Masaccio, Fra Angelico, and Filippino Lippi

The Renaissance was a dynamic time in which religion, artwork, and new styles, thoughts and concepts regarding perspective and expression intertwined and impacted one another. The effect was an explosion of new talent, new advancements in painting, and new horizons achieved. This paper will show how this was achieved by examining three works from three influential Renaissance painters -- Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Filippino Lippi.


Masaccio's The Tribute Money (ca. 1420) is a perfect illustration of the complex formula of Renaissance religious symbolism and naturalistic beauty that characterized the works of art at this time. It tells the narrative story found in Matthew 17:24-27 in which Jesus and His disciples come to Capernaum and are told that they must pay the tribute. Jesus asks Simon Peter whether the children of the king or strangers pay the tribute. Peter answers that strangers pay it.…… [Read More]

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Unfair Comparison of Gothic and Renaissance Art

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8973645

Art History

In his painting Flight into Egypt, Battista Dossi took great care to tell the story of the Holy Family at the very moment the painting shows. He evokes the urgency in the life of the traveling Holy Family as they flee for the life of their child. All that needs to be said in the painting is told with color and precision, movement and depth, and the entirely personal glimpse into the lives of the Holy Family. Battista's work is at once compelling and evocative of the situation.

The work entitled Flight into Egypt is oil on panel by the Ferrarese artist Battista Dossi, (circa 1490 to 1548) who was the younger brother of Dosso Dossi. The brothers were the primary painters in the court of Ferrara under the Alfonso I'd'Este and Ercole II d'Este. Unfortunately, most of the documented work the brothers did for the court was…… [Read More]

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Life of Bees Racial Enlightenment

Words: 1851 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38883005

Though her mother had passed, there would be maternal, familial and nurturing love to be found in the warmth and kindness of those whom she would meet here. ith the Black Madonna photograph as a compass and the pressures of the changing Civil Rights climate as a motor, Lily ultimately had found personal redemption in the implications of both. It is no matter of coincidence that the author so aggressively intertwined the conditions of Lily's confrontation of her own demons concerning the death of her mother with the personal revelations that, on a broad social scale, underscored the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. Indeed, the resolution finds Lily in a place of relative emotional equanimity, having confronted the truth about her mother, having faced the anger of her father and having ultimately settled on her life in the Boatright's community. Accordingly, "August and her community become Lily's new family,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Flanagan, M. (2002). Review: The Secret Life of Bees. About Contemporary Literature. Online at 

HCRHS. (2007). The Secret Life of Bees Weblog. Hunterdon Central Regional High School.

Horn, J. 2008). 'Secret Life of Bees' is a test case for mainstream appeal. Los Angeles Times. Online at 

Kidd, Sue Monk. (2003). The Secret Life of Bees. Penguin.
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Influance of Renaissance Renaissance in

Words: 1194 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85953861

" Initially, the painters were given the assignment to create sample frescoes which were to be evaluated. On the basis of the evaluation, they were to be employed or not. However, their talent was rapidly acknowledged and they were commissioned to continue the work without any other testing. The individual scenes constitute a whole because they comprise typological references to one another. They present Moses as prefiguring Christ. We must mention, however, that, only after Michelangelo's later work (1508-1512) did the Chapel become famous.

After the Medici's expulsion from Florence, otticelli felt the influence of a Dominican monk called Girolamo Savonarola. In Savonarola's point-of-view, everything that wasn't useful in the life of humans didn't deserve any attention. Therefore, he destroyed many works of art, in his "bonfire of vanities." ecause of this man, Sandro was deeply affected and his interior feelings were also reflected in his work.

As a review,…… [Read More]


Botticelli- Renaissance Master Artist,

Sandro Botticelli, 

Wikipedia Encyclopedia,
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Renaissance and Other

Words: 1277 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28540931

Renaissance Art

The relationship between patronage and art

During Early and High Renaissance of Italy, it was through the vehicle of patronage was the key fashion in which an artist established his artistic identity as well as established himself economically. For instance, in considering Botticelli's "The Birth of Venus," it is important to remember that this vision is not an individualistic picture of a an artist living outside of his society. Rather, the patron who commissioned the Botticelli painting for his country villa was a member of the rich and powerful family of the Medici, and demanded that certain artistic standards and ideals be reflected in the work. (Sandro Bottecelli, ebart, "The Birth of Venus (

The Medici family had a fascination not so much with tale of Venus, but with the Neoplatonic philosophy of beauty this female form had the potential to represent. Venus, it was thought, and all…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bottecelli, Sandro. Webart, "The Birth of Venus" The Madonna with the Book," and "Primavera " And

El Greco. "The Spoliation, Christ Stripped of His Garments. 

Van Eyck, Jan.
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Giotto's Method of Teaching Religious

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8167848

These remarks could be applied equally to anything in Giotto's oeuvre. The total effect of Giotto's work is one of bold religious feeling. It inspires the viewer to accept the mythology and challenges him to understand his relationship to the God both preached by the Church and challenged by heretics. Giotto's works, like Pisano's or Duccio's, certainly inspire religious feelings and thoughts. They are dignified, spiritual, and affirmative. They put into realistic terms the very humanity of the saints, prophets, patriarchs, and the Christ by depicting each as a real human being in a realistic setting. They emphasize the reality of the Faith -- which was being challenged already by men like yclif, and which would undergo its most formidable test yet with the coming Protestant Reformation.

In conclusion, Giotto di Bondone depicted traditional religious subjects but drew the viewer into a more personal relationship with the ideas didactically expressed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.

Kren, Emil; Marx, Daniel. "Legend of St. Francis: 15. Sermon to the Birds." Web

Gallery of Art. Web. 1 Sept 2012.

Shearer, Robert. Famous Men of the Renaissance and Reformation. TN: Greenleaf
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Portraiture Van Eyck Van Der

Words: 2910 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44393206

In this piece van der Weyden depicts the words of blessing from low to high and rightward toward Christ, and the words of damnation are high and move downward toward those that have been damned. The rise and fall of the verbal decisions of the traditional locations of those that have been blessed and those that have been cursed. The artist even went so far as to use color to support the words, which was uncommon at the time; helping to make the distinction in a very visual way.

Acres maintains that although some conclude that a significant amount of modern interpretation of the work of 15th century Netherlandish paintings has been misguided, the most prevalent lesson is a reminder that images' meanings were and are able to "circulate well beyond the purview of contracts and other remnants of early documentation" (p. 109).

Jean Fouquet

According to Pacht in his…… [Read More]


Acres, A. (2000). Rogier van der Weyden's painted texts. Artibus et Historiae, 21(41),


Baldass, L. (1952). Jan van Eyck. London.

Campbell, L. (1998). The fifteenth century Netherlandish schools. London: National
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Bohemia Art While There Are

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 788616

The image of Mary's fingers embedded into the flesh of the child almost appears as sculptured image, thanks to the use of color separation. In addition, the glossy enamel of the panel furthers the illusion of movement within the three-dimensional shape (Marx, "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague").

Still further representations of Bohemian influence of the architecture of Prague can be seen within the Church of Virgin Mary Victorious in Prague. The building, built in 1611 as the Holy Trinity Church, was reworked in 1636 as Mary Victorious. The church is a resounding example of Bohemian art within architecture. Originally based on oman architecture, the structure was renovated to represent a more Bohemian culture ambiance. Introducing a single-nave layout, typical of the Bohemian simplicity, the church brought a sense of anti-reformation. The rebuilding also included a paneling of the frontage of the structure with traditional Bohemian artworks of…… [Read More]


Kren, Emil. "Bohemia." The History of the Style. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003. Prague National Gallery. .

Marx, Dan. "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague." Prague National Gallery. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003. .

Meilach, Dona. "Prague: The City is the Museum." Arts and Activities 129.2 (2001): 55-57.

Official Site for the Czech Republic. "Church of Virgin Mary Victorious." Bohemia and Moravia Baroque Architecture. 2003. Czech Republic. 19 April 2003. Official Site of the Czech Republic.
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Surveys More on Scaling

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80935322

Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers

In this study by Ohanian, a scale used in measuring celebrity endorsers' expertise, trustworthiness as well as attractiveness is developed. Psychometric scale development protocols are followed for testing the data reliability and validity as well. In addition, this study uses two exploratory and confirmatory samples to initiate a 15-item scale measuring the celebrity endorsers' characteristics. This article complies fully with Churchill's recommendations in several fronts as outlined below.

Several sources are researched on to identify words, phrases, and adjectives to use for this research's questionnaire; this results in the development of several adjectives describing personality traits. During the construction of the scale, 182 adjectives are identified of which some were eliminated to about 139 adjectives. Additionally, the 139 descriptors were further trimmed by a group of 38 college students; the researcher believed the words were unfamiliar with respondents, to 104.

For the identification of celebrities…… [Read More]


Churchill, G.A. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 64-74.

Lages, C., Lages, C.R., & Lages, L.F. (2005). The RELQUAL Scale: A Measure of Relationship Quality in Export Market Ventures. Lisbon, Portugal.

Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers' Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, Vol.19, No.3, 39-52.

Zheng, B., Hall, M.A., Kidd, K.E., & Levine, D. (2002). Development of a Scale to Measure Patients' Trust in Health Insurers. Health Services Research Vol 37 No.1, 187-202.
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How Michelangelo S Pieta Represents Renaissance Beauty

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48302581

Pieta by Michelangelo

Michelangelo's Pieta is a sculpture that was produced during the enaissance time period in Italy. This was a period of time in which wealth and artistic guilds flourished. Michelangelo was by trade and a talent a sculptor of the utmost precision, as the historian of the time, Giorgio Vasari, has indicated in his Lives of the Artists. Produced in 1498 for a Cardinal in ome, the sculpture is a combination of naturalistic design and classical dimensions/proportions. Thus, the Madonna and the Christ dead in her lap convey real, human characteristics -- yet the overall shape of the sculpture, the positioning of the Madonna's arms, the tilt of her head, the way in which the Christ lies in her lap, the crook of his knees, the drape of his arm, the folds of her robes -- all of this is detail of a most naturalistic devotion to accuracy…… [Read More]


Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. NY: Gallery.

Vasari, G. (2003). The Lives of the Artists. NY: Penguin.
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Objectivity With Reference to the

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51771878

The core of the difference between both the professions is the difference in the intensity of damage which can be expected as the result of the failure of the creation. The failure of the product of the engineer is likely to be diagnosed through the involvement of the third party, which include vendors, and manufacturing unit (Wendy, 2001). The failure of the design after its market launch will result in the reasonable amount of damage; however the failure of the architectural design can result in the numerous fatalities. The involvement of the continuous inspection and monitoring services can nullify the concerns with reference to the society, but ultimately it is the responsibility of the respective professionals to be cautious and responsible during the designing phase which is extremely crucial and critical phase.


Madonna G. Constantine, Derald Wing Sue. Strategies for Building Multicultural Competence in Mental Health and Educational Settings.…… [Read More]


Madonna G. Constantine, Derald Wing Sue. Strategies for Building Multicultural Competence in Mental Health and Educational Settings. 2005. John Wiley and Sons.

Wendy Patton, Mary McMahon. Career Development Programs: Preparation for Lifelong Career Decision Making. 2001. ACER Press.

Robert N. Rapoport. Mid-Career Development: Research Perspectives on a Developmental Community for Senior Administrators. 2003. Routledge.

Alan J. Pickman. Special Challenges in Career Management: Counselor Perspectives. 1997. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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African Beginnings Africa Was the

Words: 8160 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90731928

This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."

This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.

In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…… [Read More]


"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible,"  (accessed September 20, 2010).

BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,  (accessed September 20, 2010).

"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," , (accessed September 20, 2010).
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Feminism Matrilineal History or Girls'

Words: 2088 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20992133

"Lady Gaga in part because she keeps us guessing about who she, as a woman, really is. She has been praised for using her music and videos to raise this question and to confound the usual exploitative answers provided by 'the media'… Gaga's gonzo wigs, her outrageous costumes, and her fondness for dousing herself in what looks like blood, are supposed to complicate what are otherwise conventionally sexualized performances" but this complication does not necessarily lead to a feminist liberation (Bauer 2010).

Still, Gaga has been embraced by a generation of women, some who shun and some who embrace the feminist label. "Lady Gaga idealizes this way of being in the world. But real young women, who, as has been well documented, are pressured to make themselves into boy toys at younger and younger ages, feel torn. They tell themselves a Gaga-esque story about what they're doing. hen they're on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bauer, Joy. "Lady Power." The New York Times. June 20, 2010. June 21, 2010. 

Love, Meredith A. & Brenda M. Helmbrecht. "Teaching the conflicts: (Re)engaging students with feminism in a postfeminist world." Feminist Teacher. 18(1).

Maloney, Malori. Lady Gaga: "I'm not a feminist. I hail men, I love men." Bitch.
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Changing A Look at the

Words: 2304 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96148539

He is one of the few artists that were recognized for his work while he was still living.

One of Michelangelo's most exquisite pieces is Pieta. In this sculpture, we can see how Michelangelo was moving away from the traditional form of sculpting. Creighton Gilbert notes that how Mary and Jesus are depicted in the statue is not typical of Michelangelo's day. Mary is seated with the dead Jesus in her lap and this image "first emerged as an abbreviation of the scene of Christ mourned" (160). Harold Keller maintains that the piece is filled with contrasts, horizontally and vertically. e also have the opposites of the clothed and the naked. The position of Jesus' body is different from most pietas of the day in that it is horizontal, producing a "step-like composition based on the sharp right able between the corpse and the upper body of the Madonna towering…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence. New York: Harper Collins Publications. 2000.

Gilbert, Creighton. History of Renaissance Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1973.

Keller, Harold. The High Renaissance in Italy. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers. 1969.

Lace, William. Michelangelo. San Diego: Lucent Books. 1993.
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Mounument to Ingenuity the Decameron

Words: 5650 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31246268

Per cio che, secondo che egli le mostrava, niun d' era che non-solamente una festa ma molte non-ne fossero, a reverenza delle quali per diverse cagioni mostrava l'uomo e la donna doversi abstenere da cos' fatti congiugnimenti, sopra questi aggiugnendo digiuni e quattro tempora e vigilie d'apostoli e di mille altri santi e venerd' e sabati e la domenica del Signore e la quaresima tutta, e certi punti della luna e altre eccezion molte, avvisandosi forse che cos' feria far si convenisse con le donne nel letto, come egli faceva talvolta piatendo alle civili."

The wife however is not duped by this and soon goes away with another man. The husband eventually dies, and the young widow remains with her lover. The pattern of the tricks in this story repeats itself many times throughout the Decameron: a character who tries to deceive another is eventually deceived in his turn. There…… [Read More]


Auerbach, Erich. "Frate Alberto." In Critical Perspectives on the "Decameron," pp. 69-81. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1976.

Boccaccio, Giovanni. Il Decamerone. 

De Sanctis, Francesco. "Boccaccio's Human Comedy." In Critical Perspectives on the "Decameron," pp. 26-37. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1976.

Moravia, Alberto. "Boccaccio." In Man as an End: A Defense of Humanism: Literary, Social, and Political Essays, translated by Bernard Wall, pp. 143-55. New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1965.
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Photographer and His Images How

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61377620

In other words, revealing the character by celebrating the human form in a highly stylized and beautiful fashion was critical to Ritts' art. Even his ordinary subjects look like models. In "Vladimir: Hollywood 1980" a man smoking a cigarette with a stocking cap on his head looks almost sensual in his delight at this act, as if he is advertising the brand as well as simply enjoying a smoke.

Ritts' studies of African natives, far away from exposure to the estern media, are lit in ways that recall his Calvin Klein ads and other commercial representations from America like "Dijimon with Octopus." This work shows an African native with braided, octopus-like hair. (Images available from the website text and image catalogue "Herb Ritts on Show," 2000) Ritts suggests that even celebrities have a personal and human side, and even ordinary Americans and Africans have the power to speak to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC News. (27 Dec 2002) "Photographer Herb Ritts dies." Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at 

Dybowska, Kasia. (2002) "Herb Ritts Photography." Trincoll Journal: Current Events. Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at 

Herb Ritts on Show." (15 Feb 2001) Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at
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Nineteen Thirty-Seven and the River Edwidge Danticat

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44797561

Nineteen Thirty-Seven and the River

Edwidge Danticat and Flannery O'Connor both explore the influence of religion in creating a belief system in individuals who have been disconnected from societies' main stream in their shot stories Nineteen Thirty-Seven and The River. Characters in both stories have been abandoned by humanity and strive to regain their identity through God's grace. Danticat uses a poverty stricken Haitian woman, Manman, who has been accused of being a witch and incarcerated, while O'Connor incorporates a very young affluent boy, Bevel, who has been discounted as a human being and forsaken by his parents to frame their stories. Both Manman and Bevel use religion, specifically Christianity, to help them find an identity under hostile conditions.

Danticat's story is set in Haiti, in a society that is dominated by poverty and superstitious beliefs. Manman is hauled out of her home one morning, beaten by her neighbors, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Danticat, Edwidge. "Nineteen Thirty-Seven." Krik-Krak!" New York: Soho Press Inc., 1995.

O'Connor, Flannery. "The River." A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Short Stories. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1955.
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High Renaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists

Words: 2264 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47664445

High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists

The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.

The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…… [Read More]


Leonardo da Vinci." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 40. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. 

Michelangelo Buonarroti." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 43. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004.
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Milton and Shakespeare

Words: 2432 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81577742

Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" with Milton's "Paradise Lost"

Comparison of the two works:

Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and Milton's Paradise Lost are two examples of great works that seemingly have little in common. The differences in subject, approach, language and style contrast greatly but these works also share many common themes. Although Twelfth Night is a romantic comedic work and Paradise Lost is an epic poem that deals with a much heavier subject matter, both present the reader with stories of the consequences when there is a disruption in world order and balance while incorporating elements of disguise and character consequences.

Shakespeare's work is consistent with the witty, bright comedies popular during its time. According to Warren and Wells, these comedies typically included a mixture of dialogue, singing, stage fights, and suspense and the nature of the lighthearted language used was commonplace during the early 1600's (1994). Additionally, critic en Johnson said…… [Read More]


Bloom, H. (ed.) (1987). John Milton's Paradise Lost. New York: Chelsea House Publsihers.

Corns, T. (1998). John Milton: The Prose Works. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Elledge, S. (1993). John Milton's Paradise Lost: An Authoritative Text Backgrounds and Sources of Criticism. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Notkoff, T. (2001). Readings on Twelfth Night. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press
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Changes in the Human Figure in Art

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72473016

Human Figure in Art

The Ognissanti Madonna by Giotto, from around 1310. Tempera on panel. Located at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

Giotto's work is relevant of the transition period between Cimabue's work in the 13th century, with profound yzantine influences, including in the figures, and the Early Renaissance of the 14th century in Italy. Stokstad (2004) notes the influences of Cimabue in this work by Giotto, including in terms of the symmetry of the painting. The Ogissanti Madonna is also relevant for that transition, particularly through the touches of realism that Giotto exercise here, including elements such as the marble throne on which the Madonna sits. The entire painting also surprises through its three-dimension depiction.

The human figure here is severe and serious, dominating the painting. It is very large in comparison to the other figures, perhaps to support its central role in the work (it is also in…… [Read More]


1. Stockstad, Marilyn, (2004). Art History. Prentice Hall.
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Business Theories of Organizational Development and Employee Motivation

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21557103


Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes 39.2% (44 million people) of the country's total population. Mexico's middle class increased 11.4% during between 2000 and 2010" and these consumers are seeking out cellular phones and flat screen TVs in record numbers (Flannery 2013). Unfortunately, an increasingly affluent culture has brought forth one of the problems of industrialized prosperity, namely a rise in obesity. To take advantage of this concern, one possible product to market to the population coping with more sedentary jobs and a taste for highly caloric foods is that of gym memberships. Introducing a chain of low-cost gyms modeled on popular chains such as WOW and Planet Fitness, particularly in cities with high concentrations of white collar office workers would be an ideal way to…… [Read More]


Theory X and Theory Y (2015). Mind Tools. Retrieved from:
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School of Athens Analysis

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18235375

School of Athens is the most well-known of the frescoes painted by Raphael, an Italian Renaissance artist. Painted in two years from 1509-1511, Raphael painted the fresco as a commission where he had to decorate the Stanze di Raffaello rooms in the Apostolic Palace located in the Vatican. The fresco is meant to represent Philosophy and was finished after La Disputa, which represented theology on the opposite side. School of Athens is considered by many to be Raphael's masterpiece, perfectly embodying the essence of the Renaissance. (Cole and Gealt 53)

Depicting a branch of knowledge that was one of four frescoes, School of Athens has the label overhead of 'Causarum Cognitio' meaning 'Seek Knowledge of Causes' and emphasizes Aristotle's focus on wisdom and discovering the causes of things. This is why Plato and Aristotle are shown as the main and central figures within the scene. Apart from Aristotle and Plato,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, Bruce and Adelheid M Gealt. Art of The Western World. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991. Print.

Hall, Marcia B. Raphael's "School of Athens." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Print.

Janson, H. W and Anthony F Janson. History of Art. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2003. Print.
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Art Had Been Taken to

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 18259227

Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.

One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.

The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Prager, Frank D. Scaglia, Gustina. (2004). "Brunelleschi." Courier Dover Publications. (2005).

2. "Niccolo Machiavelli." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Web site: 

3. "MICHELANGELO Buonarroti." Retrieved July 07, 2009, from the Web Gallery of Art Web site: 

4. "Renaissance: (1400-1600)." Retrieved July 7, 2009, from the World Wide Arts Resources Web site: .
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Hard Rock Cafe Hotels and Casinos

Words: 2730 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2164355

Not surprising to see concerts by Dave Matthews, Green Day, and other top groups since Live Nation recently purchased Ticket Master.

A recent article in the LA Times reports that 48% of consumers are "eating out less often now than they did six months ago" (Hallock, 2009). John Self, a professor at Cal Poly Pomona in Los Angeles County, who has published a study of why restaurants fail, estimates that about 1,100 restaurants open in L.A. County annually; and among those, 24% close the first year and within three years 50% of those 1,100 have closed. But given the sluggish economy, Self asserts that up to 50% of new restaurants may be expected close in the first year, double the number that close in good economic times.

Data are not available as to how the recession has affected HRC, or Planet Hollywood, Johnny Rocket's or other theme-centered restaurants, but it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brand Strategy. (2008). Hard Rock: Not only rock 'n' roll. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from .

Funding Universe. (2000). Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. Company History. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from .

Hallock, Betty. (2009). Recession takes big bite out of L.A. restaurant business. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from .

Hard Rock. (2009). Corporate / History. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from .
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Sue Monk Kidd's Novel the

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15426130

She has a vivid imagination doubled by a deep understanding of the human nature and thus her stories are acting like parables. The story telling is similar to some point to that of Boccacio's Decameron. People will find a something in common with their own experiences and learn something out of them without feeling punished or admonished or even pointed at. One of the lessons Kidd is teaching here through Lily's adventures is that of racism, viewed both from the white and black perspectives.

Spirituality is omnipresent in the book, from the way Lily thinks of her mother as her guardian angel to the new religion she discovers in the Boatwright household, half Christian half self-made. The two worlds she lives in are separated by the same trace and that is where the master work of Kidd is revealed. A simple phrase is revealing more than an extended study on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kidd, Sue Monk. The Secret Life of Bees. Penguin, 2002
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Misunderstood Role of Women in

Words: 6335 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 10368160

A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.

The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…… [Read More]


AI. (1999).

Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at

Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at 

BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at .
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Music From What a Girl

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86360339

The crowds Christina draws are not all twelve-year-old girls; because the artist has earned numerous critical accolades fans come in droves to see one of the most well-respected musicians in the United States. After winning a slew of Grammy awards, Christina also captured the attention of other well-respected and well-known artists in the music industry. Most notably, Christina Aguilera toured with Justin Timberlake, Pink, Mya, and Lil' Kim. She has also performed onstage with artists as prestigious as Madonna. The recognition Christina Aguilera has earned for herself make her one of the most attractive performers in the industry, but the artist is also an incredible human being.

Aguilera's fame has not destroyed her spirit, proven by the way she has balanced her sexuality with her singing and her fortune with philanthropy. Her Web site describes her primary concern as the fight against AIDS. Christina Aguilera has devoted performance time and…… [Read More]


Christina Aguilera: Biography." The Christina Aguilera Official Website. Retrieved April 11, 2008 at
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Birth of Venus by Sandro

Words: 1945 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94445286

Some have speculated that the work may have been commissioned by one of those families, and that the work was stored in a private residence, as opposed to being on display (the Birth, No date).

In its historical context, Birth of Venus is important because it gives us a glimpse into the Italian psychology at the time. The painting shows that even as the church tried to exert total influence in Italy, the people had not completely forgotten their old traditions and still thought fondly about the days of Rome. Because so many pagan-themed paintings were destroyed by the Catholic church, Birth of Venus also allows us to consider the other great works of pagan art from the 15th century that we will never get to see.


Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli is an important work in the study of art. This late-15th century painting reflects the struggle…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Art archive: Venus (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at

The Birth of Venus: Spring (No date). Retrieved March 29, 2007, at .

Botticelli (2002). Retrieved March 28, 2007, at

Botticelli, Sandro, real name Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi (No date). Retrieved March 27, 2007, at .
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Venus and Cupid Benjamin West

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23554349

In contrast, Venus and Cupid seem weightless. Even though Venus' form is by far the largest body mass in West's composition, she seems light at the same time. Part of the reason why Venus seems airy in spite of her mass is because her body is illuminated brightly. The source of light is unclear, and could either be from within the walls or from within her. Ironically the light does not come from the heavens, even though Venus points upward.

Venus is larger and more substantial than Cupid and yet her body is endowed with profound illumination. However, Cupid is inherently airy because of his wings, which match the golden hue of his hair and of Venus' bracelet. His flesh is identical in color, texture, and illumination to Venus', implying their connection as the god and goddess of love.

Venus and Cupid" contains no straight lines except for one tree…… [Read More]

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Art the Renaissance Heralded in

Words: 2995 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58827633

French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.

Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]


Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.

Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992

Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.

Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
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Speculating in Detail -- the

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62356375

This demand has been articulated not only Jewish individuals, but all families as well.

The voluntary simplicity movement, asking families to return to traditional ways of living, eating, and organizing their life around community and faith is emblematic of Hasidic Judaism. Also, life in Hasidic Judaism is governed by the religious clock of the Shabbat and of prayer and temple-going rather than corporate ladder-climbing, a relief for members of Generations X, Y, and beyond, who have become burnt out at an early age, from the demands posed by modern life. The increased interest in Middle Eastern religions, spawned by the resurgence of conflict in the area, could very well drive many people to greater curiosity about this way of life.

Other factors that might spur a resurgence of interest in Hasidism amongst American Jews are the sense of persecution felt by Israelis, given the rise of Islamic radicalism in the…… [Read More]

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Rapists Between 2002 and 2003

Words: 1716 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30142556

Further, while the rapists themselves have been identified as anger rapists, rapists with inferiority complexes, rapists with the Madonna-Prostitute Complex, sadistic rapists, and abusive rapists, there are certainly perpetrators whose personalities and crimes indicate either a combination of these traits, or entirely different traits.

In all cases, however, rapists appear to be motivated by anger, a need for control, and a complete disregard for the life of the female. It is through understanding some basic tendencies that researchers can eventually determine a course of action to combat these horrific crimes, and women can find ways to protect themselves against these acts. It is only by attempting to understand the motives and minds of rapists that society will prevail.


Bancroft, Lundy. Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. New York: Berkley/Penguin, 2002.

Catalano, Shannan M. "Criminal Victimization, 2003." National Crime Victimization Survey. NCJ 205455.…… [Read More]


Bancroft, Lundy. Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. New York: Berkley/Penguin, 2002.

Catalano, Shannan M. "Criminal Victimization, 2003." National Crime Victimization Survey. NCJ 205455. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Justice, 2004.

Groth, A. Nicholas. Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.

Langevin, Ron. Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983.