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Malnutrition / Obesity Due to Low Wages
This paper delves into the direct affects of minimum wages on eating habits of people. People die of starvation and malnutrition but with the advent of genetically modified food and other such technologies the number of people dying due to obesity is also on an increase. In this paper I shall discuss why the poverty stricken people are more prone to obesity as opposed to those who fare well and also briefly discuss the cases of malnutrition mainly in Latin America.
Before we discuss the affects of low wages on malnutrition it is important to truly understand what malnutrition is. Malnutrition is a condition of nutritional deficiency including under-nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies such as deficiency of calories, protein, vitamins, and minerals interacting with infections and other poor health and social conditions. (Elizabeth I. ansom and Leslie K. Elder) Starvation in addition to the…… [Read More]
Malnutrition Education Intervention
Malnutrition Education Intervention for Mercy Medical Center Redding
Malnutrition Education Intervention for Mercy Medical Center Redding
The Mercy Medical Center in Redding, California, a 267-bed non-profit level II trauma center within the Dignity Health healthcare system (Mercy Medical Center Redding, 2013), appears to be unaware of a growing concern about the impact of inpatient malnutrition on health care outcomes. A word search on Mercy's website using the word 'malnutrition' retrieved only one result and this document discusses malnutrition in a patient resource guide ("Search," 2014). The lack of apparent concern about inpatient malnutrition among hospital clinicians and administrators is not atypical of many U.S. hospitals, but a few have begun to take this issue seriously (Vesely, 2014). Close to one-third of all patients admitted to hospitals in the U.S. are estimated to suffer from malnutrition (Vesely, 2014, p. 32), whether due to unexplained weight loss,…… [Read More]
Diet as an Effective Treatment for Malnutrition
People usually associate malnutrition with starvation and famine, which is a common occurrence among famine- and war-ridden countries usually located in the African continent. Most often, malnutrition is perceived as synonymous with hunger or improper food diet and unhealthy eating habits. These perceptions regarding malnutrition are only half-right. While it is true that malnutrition is a result of improper food diet and unhealthy eating habits, malnutrition is a health disorder not only associated with hunger, but also with overeating. Technically defined, malnutrition is a "dietary condition caused by a deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients in the diet" (italicized words provided for by the researcher) (Microsoft Encarta 2002). This definition means that malnutrition is a health disorder that results from either (a) excessive intake of improper food diet or (b) deficient or lack of intake of the proper food diet.…… [Read More]
Tissues that are likely to suffer the most irreversible damage are nervous tissue. Children who are chronically malnourished during development show a number of nervous system defects, including reduced behavioral and social functioning, and increased anxiety, irritability, apathy, and neuromuscular diseases. Further, heart tissue and kidney tissue are also vulnerable, as congenital heart disease and chronic renal failure are associated with malnutrition (Grigsby, 2003). In contrast, subcutaneous tissues can often increase to a near-normal level when adequate calories are introduced.
In conclusion, children are highly vulnerable to lasting cellular and tissue damage as a result of malnutrition or starvation. The risk is highest during early childhood and infancy, and lack of energy, protein and nutrients can interfere with functions of individual cells and tissues by disrupting biochemical, metabolic processes and protein synthesis.
Grigsby, Donna G., MD. 2003. Malnutrition. EMedicine, Last Updated: December 18, 2003.…… [Read More]
Malnutrition and Children in the U.S.
How serious is the effect of undernourishment and malnutrition on children and infants? According to The orld Bank, a child that is undernourished can expect "devastating and enduring" problems in life. Behavioral and cognitive development can be impaired, and whether or not a child is well-nourished in his or her first years can have "a profound effect on his or her health status" (orld Bank). This paper reviews the results of undernourishment and malnourishment on children, and suggests ways to reduce childhood malnutrition and the undernourishment of children in the United States.
American Kids Do Go Hungry
A report broadcast by ABC News reveals that up to 17 million children struggle daily with what is called "food insecurity"; that is, one in four children do not have access to "enough nutritious food to live a healthy life" (Brown, 2011). ABC New got its data…… [Read More]
According to UNCEF, replacement of many nutrients such as protein, potassium, magnesium and zince is essential for recovery from malnutrition (http://www.unicefusa.org/news/news-from-the-field/treating-malnutrition-as.html).The organization mentions ready-to-use therapeutic foods such as F75 and Plumpy'nut. F75 is high in energy, fat, and protein, and provide a large amount of nutrients while Plumpy'nut contains vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, E, and K, and minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, iodine, sodium, and selenium.
WHO advises that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables contains immune-system boosting mironutrients that can help those suffering from over nourishment to boost their body's natural defenses against infectious diseases (http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/press_releases/pr_20030304.htm)… [Read More]
It could be something else entirely, or a blend of several different reasons.
In other words, first the anthropologist has to educate him or herself about the Mali culture, the mother and child bond and how infants are fed and why. Based on learning these cultural norms (and, assuming that the necessary foods can be obtained), it is necessary to develop a training course that will be understood and, more importantly, accepted by the Mali women. Just as it does not work to only drop off food and assume that it is being eaten properly and by the right individuals, it will not work to just develop training materials and hand them over.
Once again, these materials not only have to be understood, but accepted. If they are seen as an infringement or an indictment of their own values and abilities, they will not be used. There has to be…… [Read More]
Health Sciences 101
The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers.
A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary effects. This essay will provide an overview of APAP, its uses, and safety issues, with an emphasis on the cardiopulmonary system.
Mechanisms of APAP Activity
The analgesic and antipyretic activity of APAP was thought to be similar to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because it was believed to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis2,3. This assumption has not withstood the test of time, for either APAP or other popular OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The main evidence…… [Read More]
Cognitive development is the development of the ability to reason and think. Children who are aged between 5 and 11 years develop the ability to think in concrete ways such as addition, subtraction, order (sorting and alphabets), transforming and so on. These processes are termed as being concrete since they are performed in presence of events and objects being thought about. Cognitive abilities allow children to process the sensory information which they collect.
Metacognition can take various forms such as having knowledge of when and how to use specific strategies for solving problems or learning. It refers to a thinking level which involves having active control over the thinking process used in learning situations. It is divided into three components, namely; metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive regulation and metacognitive experiences. This skill is integral to children's future cognitive development as it involves different types of metacognitive awareness which…… [Read More]
Tese women endured extreme ardsips in order to fulfill teir roles. Tey often ad to live in almost starvation level circumstances, since most of te food ad to be given to te battle ready individuals. Often tey would toil for ours to find food, dig roots, and oter metods to see te fruits of teir labor be provided te figting men. Tey endured te malnutrition as well as miserable living conditions in order to provide sustenance for te group. Many times tey even endured cildbearing under inospitable surroundings (Soto, 44). As nurses, tey ealed te wounded and endured te contamination of dangerous diseases as well as nursed back to ealt many of te fallen men during te Revolution. Many of tem suffered severe infections and diseases as a result of contact wit te sick, many primary records reveal tat anywere from ten to twenty percent of te soldaderas contracted serious…… [Read More]
Income Distribution Gap
The global fiscal crisis will be borne by the millions of people who do not have a share in the benefits that were derived from the global economic expansions that occurred previously. Not only has the gap widened between low wage earners and high wage earners in nations across the globe, the world's income gap distribution has widened. Economists have long concluded that a limited degree of income inequality contributes to worker motivation, promotes innovation, and rewards talent and effort. Nevertheless, when income differences become too great, the dynamics become counter-productive. unaway income inequality is considered to be a destructive force, such that "rising income inequality represents a danger to the social fabric" ("Board of Canada," 2012). The repercussions from excessive income inequalities include children not attending school so they can contribute to household earnings by going to work, increased crime rates, lower life-expectancies, and malnutrition.
In…… [Read More]
Assessing the ability of these individuals to perform basic tasks in their daily lives can also have much significance (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Many older Americans are able to feed and clothe themselves without apparent problems, but others are not as fortunate (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). If they are unable to do these things correctly without help, their nutritional status will often suffer (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Patients who are older should be assessed for their ability to do these simple tasks, and also for their ability to perform slightly more complex tasks such as fixing their own meals, cleaning their house, and balancing their checkbook (Marshall, Warren, Hand, Xie, & Stumbo, 2002). Sometimes cognitive impairment will lead to a lack of nutrition, and when this is the case, it often shows up in forgetfulness and an inability to perform even…… [Read More]
There is a direct correlation between the lack of clean safe water for drinking and cooking with nutritional problems. The lack of clean drinking water leads to diseases like diarrhea. Nutritional deficiencies are directly related to lack of potable water. This is because a person does not get enough calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals in their body. Undernutrition has been associated with 45 percent of global deaths and nearly 7.4 percent of the world's children are at risk of undernutrition. Malnourished children have weakened immune systems that make them more susceptible to diarrhea when they are exposed to dirty water. The lack of clean water means that individuals will be living in non-sanitized environments and this increases the risk of suffering from diarrhea. People suffering from diarrhea will eat less and they are unable to absorb the nutrients they need from the food they eat, which results in…… [Read More]
Save the Children, 'Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.savethechildren.org/emergencies/africa/
IRC, 'Food for Thought: Malnutrition's Insidious Impact on Children', Accessed May 4th 2008, Available at, http://www.theirc.org/news/food_for_thought_malnutrition-s_insidious_impact_on_children.html
IFPRI, 'Looking Ahead: Long-Term Prospects for Africa's Agricultural Development and Food Security," Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://www.ifpri.org/2020/dp/vp41.asp
UNICEF, 'SUDAN Summary for 2005', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://www.unicef.org/media/files/sudan_summary2005.pdf
UN News, 'New UN Survey Reveals Alarming Malnutrition Rates among Darfur's Children', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25178&Cr=sudan&Cr1
Charles W. Corey, 'United States has spent $1 illion in Feeding the Hungry in Darfur', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://usinfo.state.gov/af/Archive/2006/May/11-849194.html
Save the Children, ' Save the Children in Sudan', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.savethechildren.org/countries/africa/sudan.html
Tash Shifrin, 'Sudan on the Verge of Mass Starvation," Guardian, May 24, 2004
USINFO, 'Success in Measles Control', Accessed May 4th 2008, available at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0307/ijge/success.htm
UNICEF, 'New Southern Sudan Government and UN…… [Read More]
omen in India
Often referred to as the "motherland," the Indian subcontinent boasts millennia-old traditions and culture in which women are symbolically honored and revered. The Hindu pantheon, for instance, consists of a wide range of female deities; motherhood in India is a reverential undertaking. However, beneath this mythological and theoretical facade, women are systematically persecuted in India, denied equal access to the already impoverished health care, educational, and justice systems. Carol Coonrod's report on the status of women in India lists seven major areas of discrimination against women in India: malnutrition, poor health care, lack of education, overwork, being unskilled, blatant mistreatment, and legal powerlessness. However, the problems extend far beyond these categories alone. For example, female infanticide is not uncommon; nor is the practice of satee, either willing or coerced suicide by widows. The message these practices send are clear: women are not as worthy of being born…… [Read More]
he white paper cites several other studies as the basis for the argument, but does not provide a Reference List
Quendler, S. "Link Between Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Academic Achievement." Vienna University, Austria. (August, 2002): 1-2/. Available at http://chp.ilsi.org/NR/rdonlyres/AFE7EC1D-17D0-494C-BC0B-4E0E065627A8/0/linkbetweennutritionachievement.pdf Accessed 23 October 2008.
his study confirmed the connection between poor nutrition and academic performance. It also identified low-income children as being at particular risk of poor nutrition. his study supports the need for programs to improve childhood nutritional status.
Schultz, . "
Productive Benefits of Health: Evidence from Low-Income Countries,"
IZA Discussion Papers 1482, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (2005). Available at http://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp1482.html
Investment behavior and combined income of two people makes it difficult to link better health with economic prosperity. Heterogeneity in the sample also affected the survey results. his study highlights some of the factors that may affect this research study.
homas, D. And Frankenberg, E.…… [Read More]
The Benefits of Membership in the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses (AMSN)
The Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses (AMSN) is one of the largest nursing organizations in the United States, with over 10,000 members (AMSN, 2012). Medical-surgical (MS) nurses practice in a variety of settings, including impatient, outpatient, and the homes of patients. The AMSN exists to help promote the professional development of MS nurses, improve patient care, and through collaboration influence healthcare policy impacting patient care. The mission of AMSN is to strive for excellence in MS nursing, while its vision is to work continuously toward patient care excellence.
All nursing professionals, whether AMSN members or not, can take advantage of the CMSN certification study aids, attend the annual convention, access the MEDSUG Nursing journal and newsletters, look for a job in the career center, study the MS standards of nursing, and network with other MS nurses (AMSN,…… [Read More]
In our high technological and global economy, we Americans think of malnutrition as a thing of the past. It is almost unheard of for our children to go hungry with a McDonald's on every corner. But that is only in our world. his report is a review of the 2003 report written by Karen Olness in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics called "Effects On Brain Development Leading o Cognitive Impairment: A Worldwide Epidemic." In keeping with the theme of nutrition and iron deficiency, this story points out that the world food shortages and other epidemic situations in developing nations has a direct bearing on the brains of children. For the poor nations of the world things like malnutrition, genetic disease, infectious diseases like meningitis, parasites, and cerebral malaria, in utero drug and alcohol exposure, newborn asphyxia, low birth weight, head injuries, and endocrine disorders to name…… [Read More]
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…… [Read More]
There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…… [Read More]
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…… [Read More]
U.S. has not Signed the U.N. Convention Treaty on the ights of Children
This paper presents a detailed examination of the Treaty on the United Nations Convention on the ights of Children. The writer explores the treaty and the nations that have signed it. The writer than delves into some of the reasons the United States has not signed it. This paper is written from a legal standpoint therefore there are discussions about jurisdictional issues as well as other legal points of interest. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Why the U.S. hasn't signed the U.N. Convention treaty on the ights of the Child
Worldwide globalization efforts are moving forward in almost all aspects of society. There are better communications abilities; more integrated business dealings and nations are beginning to embrace the traditions and cultures of those across the ocean. As the walls of difference come down…… [Read More]
The idea of poverty and hunger in Australia is quite a contentious issue. There is no doubt that there is hunger -- most in Aboriginal communities. However, Australian politicians argue that relative measures of wealth and poverty are meaningless and hide the abject conditions of many Australians. Statistics also show that 13% of Australians live in poverty, 3% of Australia's children. It is not so much that the poor as a class is growing, but rather than becoming poorer in absolute terms and really becoming more numerous (Cenus of Population and Housing Characteristics, 2002). In fact, the 2007 UNICEFF report on child poverty found that Australia had the 14th highest rate of child poverty and hunger (An Overview of Child Well-Being in ich Countries, 2007).
ecommendations -- Clearly, the situation in Australia, much like Europe and the United States, is not one of availability of food, but of distribution and…… [Read More]
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…… [Read More]
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…… [Read More]
John Frewin is a young child who lives with his parents. The 12-year-old is on a sustaining income of his parents. The parents of the child are low-income earners. The amount they receive can only sustain partial needs of the family thus aspects of the poor state of the society. John Frewin was diagnosis of Crohn's disease was at the age of 10 through a critical examination in the health institution. The main objective of this research exercise is to integrate ABCD's of nutritional assessment in the evaluation of Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease or Crohn syndrome refers to a condition involving inflammation of the lining of the digestive system (Ferrara & Saccomano, 2012). This disease affects the intestines as well as rare cases in any place from the mouth to the end of the rectum. The cause of Crohn syndrome is unknown. Despite this aspect, various elements might contribute…… [Read More]
The book Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity makes a clear argument against the existence of "a world hunger crisis." Lappe and Collins support their main thesis that rather than a "global food shortage," we are facing an unequal distribution system. The book discusses the development of our current food production and distribution systems. It supports the idea that there is in reality enough food production to supply everyone on earth with an adequate amount of calories, but that there is much wasted energy in the production, packaging and distribution of food to certain parts of the world. The main thesis of the book is that there is actually no real food shortage, just an unequal distribution to certain parts of the world.
Lappe and Collins open Chapter four with the idea that in order to meet the nutritional needs of a society, a food production system…… [Read More]
Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Difficulty on Quality of Life in Patients with PEG Tubes vs. Those on NGT Feeding Systems
Stroke can effect neurological functioning and can have an effect on the patient's ability to talk and swallow. This condition can lead to severe malnutrition A decision is often made to feed the patient using a tube feeding method. Many studies have been performed to measure the clinical outcomes of these procedures, but few have focused on the effects of the patient's quality of life after receiving these interventions. This study will measure the effects of having a PEG tube inserted on the patient's quality of life as it relates to their ability to communicate and swallow. Two research questions will be answered: "Does a PEG procedure have an effect on the patient's ability to communicate their wishes and improve there satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards…… [Read More]
The course readings and many other sources show that young women suffering from anorexia are suffering from a skewed body image. In most western societies, the ideal female form is tall and thin, sometimes extremely thin. When young women mature, they begin menstruation, but they also begin to form their curves. They gain fat in their hips and breasts, and sometimes in other areas, too. Many see these curves as feminine, but others see them only as fat, and the goal is to not be fat at any cost. They become obsessed with gaining weight, and will do anything to remain thin and ideal to society. They want to conform and to fit in, and so they turn to anorexia in an attempt to maintain a body image that is really far from ideal. In many cases, they cannot see their own image at all. Even when they lost startling…… [Read More]
Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them
In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus
Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them
Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences
Braungart-ieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger eactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The oles of Temperament, egulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. etrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & amirez-Zea, M. (2009). ole of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Lozoff, B.,…… [Read More]
As sea level are on the rise, many millions will suffer more and more aggressive floods and entire coastal cities and industries will disappear unless significant investment is made in dam systems. Another socio-geographical effect is large fires due to high temperatures and winds that create disasters all over the planet. Also, freshwater systems in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, America, North America, Polar regions "showed an overall net negative impact of climate change on water resources and freshwater ecosystems." (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.2007)
Global warming effects also reach more developed countries with effects not necessarily connected with the food supply or health issues, but climate change. The increase of severe weather phenomena in the last 10 years is quite visible, although no direct match can be made at this point as not enough data has been collected. As an in example of global…… [Read More]
Between 1950 and 1984, the Green evolution began to influence farming. This saw world grain production improve by 250%, even though much of this gain was non-sustainable. These agricultural technologies temporarily increased crop yields, but there are signs as early as 1995 that not only are these technologies reaching their peak of assistance, but they may now be contributing to the decline of arable land e.g. persistence of pesticides leading to soil contamination and decline of area available for farming. Developed nations have been willing to share these technologies with developing nations that have famine crisis, but there are ethical restrictions in regards to thrusting such technologies on lesser developed countries. This is often accredited to an association of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides with a lack of longevity. It is thought that these technological advances might not be as great in those famines which are the result of war. Increased…… [Read More]
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
Selenium…… [Read More]
This is up from 2002 levels that found 22% of Chinese adults were overweight and 7% were considered obese (AFIC, 2008). The incidence of diabetes has increased as well (AFIC, 2008). Chinese lifestyles has changed from a more active daily routine to one that is more sedentary (AFIC, 2008).
It is a common belief among Americans that the traditional Chinese meal is healthier for you than American perennials such as hamburger and French fries. However, this study revealed that this all depends on how the food is prepared and how closely it resembles a standard American diet. This study found that a typical Chinese meal contains high amounts of fat, high amounts of animal protein and is high in caloric content.
As the Chinese diet shifts to a more Westernized intake of protein, as compared to the amount of vegetables and grains, the nutritional content of the meal deteriorates.…… [Read More]
Afterward, the soldiers dismembered her father in front of her. In another case, a woman reported repeated rapes in front of her nine-month-old daughter. When the daughter cried, soldiers beat her with rifles (Bureau of Democracy, 2004).
While there is no question about the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, we must now examine whether that crisis amounts to state terrorism. According to Oliverio (1997), state terrorism is "associated with the issues of control of territory and resources and the construction of political and ideological domination (52). There are two essential elements that terrorism require to term it state terrorism. First, the state must reinforce the use of violence as an effectual, practical, and extenuating factor for managing conflict of ideas. Secondly, this view must be reinforced by a "culturally constructed and socially organized process" (Oliverio, 1997, 53).
Prendergast (2004) classified the situation in Darfur as state terrorism based on these factors.…… [Read More]
The former had been neglected. This was a very serious kind of neglect, she said. She concluded that unless the nitrogen problem was confronted and adequately contained, climate change would not be solved (ohan).
EPA established that exposure to indoor NO below the 53 ppb outdoor standard could lead to respiratory symptoms among children with asthma, especially in a multi-family setting (elanger 2006). This effect continues to be a public health issue because of the number of people exposed to the gas. According to the U.S. Census, more than half of all U.S. households use gas. Their primary source of residential NO is a gas-fueled cooking appliance. This was the summary finding of a study conducted with 1,002 participating families in Connecticut and southwestern Massachusetts from 1997 to 1999. It associated indoor NO with increased respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children. At present, there are no U.S. standards for indoor…… [Read More]
Energy expenditure in anorexia nervosa." (Jan 2005).
Nutrition Research Newsletter. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968079
Murphy, Megan. (4 Feb 2007). "The struggle against anorexia: Former UNC swimmer battles the disease." Greeley Tribune. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.greeleytrib.com/article/20070204/NES/102030156
Paccagnella, Agostino, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Mauri%2C+Alessandra%22" Mauri, Alessandra, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Baruffi%2C+Carla%22" Baruffi, Carla, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Berto%2C+Rita%22" Berto, Rita, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Et+al%22" Et al (May / Jun 2006). "Application Criteria of Enteral Nutrition in Patients ith Anorexia Nervosa: Correlation Between Clinical and Psychological Data in a "Lifesaving" Treatment.
JPEN: Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3762/is_200605/ai_n16350972/pg_3
Trebay, G. (6 Feb 2007). "Looking Beyond the Runway for Answers on Underweight
Models." The New York Times. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/06/fashion/shows/06DIARY.html?ref=shows… [Read More]
Bell, Carolyn Shaw. (1995). hat is Poverty? The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 54(2) 161-173.
Shaw takes the position that the very definition of "poverty level" -- defined in 1965 by Mollie Orshanksy, an economist with the Social Security department -- was originally used "as the percentage of income necessary to buy a nutritious diet" (Bell, 1995, p. 1). Bell goes on later in the article to refer to Orshanksy as "a brilliant economist" whose work set the stage for the government's system of determining the poverty level There were two alternative methods of measuring the poverty level following Orshanksy's attempt -- one was very flexible and variable, asking people to give what they think was the poverty income level juxtaposed with "official statistics" and the second was comparing poverty levels to "current median income" (Bell, p. 1).
hy have a poverty level category in the U.S. Department of…… [Read More]
Health Care Past, Current, And Future
The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.
Past Health Care Services -- Early America
Health care in colonial…… [Read More]
There are several kinds of scenarios. However, in this paper, we limit our discussion to the decision-driven and vision-driven scenarios as proposed in the work of Courtney (2003). We however extend this discussion to involve the three levels of performance as proposed by ummler and Brache (1995).
The argument of course is based on the general consensus that the vision-driven scenarios are best suited for issues occurring at the organizational level while the decision-driven scenarios are best suited for decision and process level issues.
The concepts of scenarios and scenario planning
Several definitions exist of the terms scenarios and scenario planning. According to Porter (1985) "A scenario is an internally consistent view of what the future might turn out to be -- not a forecast, but one possible future outcome" (p.63) while Schwartz, (1991, p. 45) noted that a scenario is a tool used for the ordering of one's perceptions…… [Read More]
Economic sanctions are an important tool of U.S. foreign policy. They are used for a variety of reasons and often have substantial repercussions for countries on the receiving ends. Sanctions are used as a way to stop objectionable actions of foreign governments such as: to stop military adventures, arms proliferation, support of terrorism and drug trafficking, and human rights abuses among others. (Department of the Treasury website, 2002) "In conjunction with diplomacy and other measures, sanctions seek to demonstrate U.S. resolve and express outrage, change the behavior of the target country, and deter other countries from resorting to similar actions in the future." (Carter, 1988)
"Sanctions provide a middle road response between diplomacy and military action." (Day, 1992) Ineffective sanctions have led to U.S. military intervention in Panama, Haiti, Somalia, and Iraq, just to name a few places, and the consequences have been quite harsh. Not to mention…… [Read More]
Further, Diamond's argument that agriculture inherently provides less nutrition is less valid today, when a greater variety of food choices are available. hile he is correct in noting that there are global disparities in health in today's agricultural society, he also fails to note that this issue could be relatively easily remedied through better food distribution.
Essentially, the disparities in nutrition boil down to issues of political will and wealth, and these issues are not necessarily explained by the growth of agriculture, as Diamond suggests. It could just as easily be argued that the creation of the wheel (which allows for the movement of the military) or of gunpowder (which allows for the suppression of people and societies) is the root cause of such fundamental inequalities between societies.
In conclusion, Diamond's argument that domestication is the biggest mistake in the history of humankind is overly simplistic, and potentially incorrect. It…… [Read More]
nutrition as a method of disease prevention, and several organizational endeavors to educate the public about the benefits of proper nutrition including the national initiative Healthy People 2010. Proper nutrition is a critical aspect of an individual's health and well being. Numerous statistics suggest that proper nutrition can improve the quality of life and life expectancy for people living in modern society. Despite this a lack of adequate information and access to nutritional resources may exist for certain populations. The focus of this research is an exploration of health initiatives and the benefits of proper nutrition for populations throughout the United States.
Proper nutrition is an essential component to one's overall health and well being. Proper nutrition can not only improve one's life expectancy, but can also help eliminate or reduce the risk for disease and lead to an overall improved quality of life. Trends suggest that more and more…… [Read More]
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…… [Read More]
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality -- Ethics and Development
The problem of "development" (or, perhaps "progress" and "advancement" also fits in this context) is that while many millions of citizens of the world have been blessed by dramatic progress (technological, industrial, and communications) over the past few decades, many millions are being left behind. Indeed, while millions are living better, living more comfortable lives, countless millions are not benefiting in the least from this social and economic development. In fact, the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots" is said to be widening, and this is a cause for great concern.
Millions of African children are AIDS and HIV victims, simply because they were born to mothers who suffered from AIDS and HIV; millions of other African people are suffering malnutrition, starvation, and live in hopelessness and dread. Millions of people in Third World countries do not have clean reliable drinking water or…… [Read More]
This marketing plan details Itcorp's business model. It addresses the company's mission, policies, strategies and objectives to achieve profitability. Itcorp's integrated software and hardware solutions for healthcare providers are described at length, as well as objectives for the long-term.
Itcorp plans to begin operations starting in January 2006. One thing that is unique about Itcorp is how it got its start. In 1988, two partners, Max Renfield and C.L. Rotwang, decided to start Jetson's, a business offering IT solutions to companies in the small to medium size range; in those days, the market was segmented mainly according to size. In the early 1990s, many of the companies Jetson's had been serving had grown to the point that the company's IT solutions were no longer adequate and so the company had to expand its product line to continue to serve these customers (and prevent them from switching…… [Read More]
Fate of the Earth
Unfortunately, even if someone could wave a magic wand that causes all of the nuclear weapons on earth to disappear, many believe that due to the depletion of natural resources, the earth would still be in danger of catastrophe, and humankind in danger of extinction.
Jonathan Schell's book "Fate of the Earth" is an alarming portrait of the nuclear power in the world. Since the end of orld ar II, nuclear arms have kept the world's population in a state of constant concern that "something" could happen, whether by design or accident. As tensions continue to build throughout the Middle East, particularly between India and Pakistan, and more recently the nuclear potential of North Korea and China, the nuclear arms race may have subsided between the United States and Russia however, it is still alive and thriving around the globe. As Schell writes, "These bombs were…… [Read More]
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…… [Read More]
AES Vision Social esponsibility |
AES's vision social responsibility
Social responsibility is one of the corporate values at AES (others being fun, fairness and integrity). The founders of the company oger Sant and Dennis W. Bakke were intent on providing clean, safe and reliable electricity even if it meant that profits were sacrificed. It was identified that AES contributed towards global warming by emitting CO2 from fossil fueled plants and thus steps were taken to mitigate this impact by investment in control technology and funding projects such as those of planting trees.
However in recent times AES has been forced to reconsider its strategy for social responsibility. With the expansion of the business in developing countries in the 1990's the company found out that although global warming is an important issues there are issues of far greater significance that require immediate attention such as provision of quality education, hunger, poverty,…… [Read More]
As such, the question that those who oppose GMOs should be asking themselves is whether people should be left to starve to death basing on the fear of unknown long-term implications of GMOs or not.
Dunwell, Jim. "Novel food products from genetically modified crop plants: methods and future prospects." International Journal of Food Science & Technology 33, no. 3 (1998): 205-213.
Forman, Lillian. Genetically Modified Foods. New York, NY: ABDO, 2009.
Insel, Paul, and Elaine Turner. Discovering Nutrition. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009.
Kennedy, George. "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs 1, no. 5 (2008): 1-26.
Nottingham, Stephen. Eat your genes: how genetically modified food is entering our diet. 2nd updated ed. London: Zed Books Ltd., 2003
George Kennedy "Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs." Integration of Insect-esistant Genetically Modified…… [Read More]
However, for adult criminality, the influence of the genetic factors inherent within the individual's makeup takes on greater significance than the environment. Certain genes may be switched on or off by developmental processes (Wright, Tibbetts, & Daigle 2008: 172). Certain genes also seem to be more strongly influential in predicting criminal behavior in some environments than others. Thus, understanding criminality requires an understanding of genetic factors, not simply epigenetic factors (Wright, Tibbetts, & Daigle 2008: 173). It has been shown in animal experiments that with the 'correct' environmental influences, the brain structures of animals with the same genetic predispositions can become entirely different, morphologically speaking (Wright, Tibbetts, & Daigle 2008: 175).
Neither the model of the 'blank slate' at birth nor the idea of someone inevitably destined for a life of crime is really correct, the literature suggests. The strong association between negative environments and also having relatives who engaged…… [Read More]
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…… [Read More]
Cryptosporidium Case Study
Cryptosporidium is reported as a "coccidian protozoan parasite" and one that has received a great deal of attention over the past two decades as a "clinically important human pathogen." (Hannahs, nd, p.1) The discovery of Cryptosporidium is reported as associated with E.E. Tyzzer who described a "cell-associated organism in the gastric mucosa of mice" in 1907 as reported in the work of Keusch et al. (1995). (Hannahs, nd, p.1) Cryptosporidium was believed for several decades to be a "rare, opportunistic animal pathogen." (Hannahs, nd, p.1)
The first case of human cryptosporidiosis occurred in a three-year-old girl in rural Tennessee in 1976 suffering from severe gastroenteritis for two weeks and reported in the work of Flanigan and Soave (1993). Cryptosporidium parvum was discovered through use of an electronic microscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa. Cryptosporidium parvus was associated with AIDS cases in the 1980s and this resulted in…… [Read More]
Initial Patient Analysis
Discomfort in lower back.
Patient is a 78-year-old woman presented as disheveled, with bug bites throughout her body, and exuding a foul odor. Cognitively, she orients only to her name with a BMI of 30 and a minimal understanding of the English language. She is able to nod "yes" or "no" to questions, but calls the nurse "Mother." She is unsteady on her feet, and has a fine "pill-rolling "tremor in her left hand. He legs are quite cool to the touch, hairless, and toe capillary refill is greater than 2 seconds.
Past Medical History
Unknown, but patient appears to be in distress both physically and psychologically.
Poor, disheveled, may not be receiving adequate care or living in an environment with enough food or warmth. BMI of 30 is technically obese, which also may indicate the patient is not…… [Read More]
xenophobic sensibilities distort our worldview, informing us of an unrealistic portrait of the global village. A community six billion strong, the earth is comprised of symbiotic and codependent relationships. However disparate, incohesive, and chaotic human society may be, a common genetic code demands a great degree of interaction. However our minds would like to compartmentalize us, isolating region from region, race from race, we humans are fundamentally similar to one another. Why, then do we so sorely lack compassion? 59% of the world's wealth is controlled by a tiny number of people, all from the United States. Is this an ideal world? Almost three-quarters of the world's population are illiterate; only 1% is college educated and the same amount own computers. Half the globe suffers from some form of malnutrition. These unfortunate realities belie the very concept of a global village, for how can any of us accept this as…… [Read More]
Relapse prevention therapy breaks down the chemical dependency recovery process into specific tasks and skills, which patients must learn in order to recover; it also shows patients how to recognize when they are beginning to relapse, and how to change before they start using alcohol or drugs again (Gorski and Kelley, 2003).
In order to understand the process of relapse prevention, we will first look at the phenomena of chemical dependence, and its associated behaviors, and the phenomena of relapse, in order to be able to then look at the various ways of tackling these behaviors to induce relapse prevention in the patients.
What is Chemical Dependency/Chemical Addiction?
Chemical dependency is a disease caused by the use of alcohol and/or drugs, causing changes in a person's body, mind, and behavior: as a result of the disease of chemical dependency, people are unable to control the use of alcohol and/or drugs,…… [Read More]
Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left
One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled…… [Read More]