Managerial Accounting Essays (Examples)

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Managerial Finance and Accounting

Words: 502 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74543946

Managerial Accounting: Organizations and Expectations

The profession and practice of accounting has become increasingly prominent and increasingly scrutinized over the past decade or so, in the wake of major scandals and upsets in the business world that can be traced in part to nebulous and unethical accounting practices or outright frauds. Because of this increased prominence, accountants today need to be more concerned than ever with not only the standards to which they hold themselves and their work, but also the appearance of these high standards and performance capabilities. This is one of the major benefits, along with many others, of belonging to a professional organization. The authority and austerity that the right professional organization carries provides these abstract as well as concrete benefits to member accountants, from increasing confidence and camaraderie to detailing the actual expectations and requirements of the task of accounting.

The Institute of Management Accountants is…… [Read More]


IMA. (2012). Institute of Management Accountants. Accessed 10 January 2011.
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Accounting Is the Basic Function

Words: 1515 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74934849

Yet, financial statements and managerial accounting reports can be highly effective nonetheless. Sometimes they will merely confirm what the proprietor already knows, but there are inevitably going to be times when they will reveal that the proprietor's assumptions about the nature of the business are false. Moreover, accounting can act as essentially a second opinion. The proprietor may feel one thing is true, but the numbers can reveal something different.

Overall, accounting is an essential component of any business. Sole proprietorships often make less use of accounting, in part because the law does not obligate them to engage in any more than the most rudimentary accounting. However, proprietors should not overlook the value of accounting. Accounting helps to reveal the business' past performance, but can also be used to enact organizational controls today and to help plant for more effective operations in the future. By understanding the firm's cost structure…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marshall, David H.; McManus, Wayne W & Viele, Daniel F. (2008). Accounting - What the Numbers Mean. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, 2008.
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Managerial Analysis Managers Use Various Analysis for

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54710917

Managerial Analysis

Managers use various analysis for various reasons. The comparative analysis compares line items in statements to past statements that detects changes in the accounts, which could indicate problem areas in operations. The ratio analysis detects emerging trends, weaknesses, and strengths of the business. The cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis evaluates cost factor behaviors and shows how profits can be affected by the factors.

The comparison analysis is especially important to keep expenses in check. y comparing line items on the financial statements against previous period statements, changes can be detected and investigated. For example, where labor is one of the highest expenses, if labor is higher for this period with approximately the same sales volume, it shows a sign of wasted labor hours that would need to be investigated. Labor may not be being utilized in ways to prevent waste, which cuts into the profits. Another high area of waste…… [Read More]


Brewer, P.G. (2010). Introduction to Managerial Accounting. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
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Accounting Information a Senior Executive in a

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7128783

Accounting Information

A senior executive in a Fortune 500 firm along with their colleagues on the company's management team are dependent on accurate, timely, and pertinent financial information regarding the health of the organization. Accounting information has aptly been described as "the language of business, which is used in the management, planning, control, and decision- making processes integral to achieving organizational objectives" (Marshall, D. & McManus, W. 1996). In this regard accounting information falls into distinct categories: financial and managerial accounting; yet with considerable overlap in their utilization by management. Explication of these accounting areas provides considerable insight into their utility in providing effective quantitative data for analysis.

Financial and Managerial Accounting

Financial accounting concerns itself with the "preparation and reporting of financial statements for an entity" (Marshall, D. & McManus, W. 1996); while managerial accounting "is concerned with providing information to managers- that is, to those who are inside…… [Read More]

Likewise, managerial accounting also utilizes financial data to reach conclusions as to how the company is operating and what if any corrections are necessary to enhance profitability. In this vein managerial accounting concerns itself with the analysis of costs, budgeting, performance, and capital expenditures. Managerial accounting information is highly detailed and provides a platform from which to judge the company's revenue creation and its cost controls. As examples, an executive management team might take considerable time analyzing activity based-costing; a "system identifying the activity that causes the incurrence of a cost" (Marshall, D. & McManus, W. 1996). This data could lead to a discussion on the company's operating leverage based on their orientation of fixed or variable costs. While both financial and managerial accounting provides detailed data concerning company performance, managerial accounting has a distinctive narrowness to its scope of focus.

Communication of Information

With volumes of financial information generated by a Fortune 500 firm's accounting department, the question becomes how
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Accounting Function for a Chosen

Words: 6160 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22760906

"Management believes that the accounting estimates employed are appropriate and the resulting balances are reasonable; however, due to the inherent uncertainties in making estimates actual results could differ from the original estimates, requiring adjustments to these balances in future periods."

ased on the data retrieved and the projections made, the accounting division will proceed to the development of the consolidated statements for all of GM subsidies and the overall group. There are 24 consolidated statements, as follows: Discounted Operations; Asset Impairment; Investment in Nonconsolidated Affiliates; Marketable Securities; Variable Interest Entities; Finance Receivables and Securitization; Inventories; Equipment on Operating Leases; Income Taxes; Property - Net; Goodwill and Intangible Assets; Other Assets; Accrued Expenses, Other Liabilities and Deferred Income Taxes; Long-Term Debt and Loans Payable; Pensions and Other Postretirement enefits; Commitments and Contingent Matters, Stockholders' Equity; Earnings per Share Attributable to Common Stocks; Derivative Financial Instruments and Risk Management; Fair Value of…… [Read More]


1. 2007 General Motors Annual Report. Page 9. On the Internet at retrieved on February 15, 2009

2. General Motors Mission Statement, 2009, on the internet at Ast retrieved on February 16, 2009

3. Supplier Diversity, Website of General Motors, 2009, on the internet at retrieved on February 16, 2009

4. Management's Discussion and Analysis, Website of General Motors, 2009, on the internet at retrieved on February 16, 2009
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Accounting - FedEx and UPS

Words: 3140 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69265327

Another factor that should be taken into consideration is that of overall strategy. Financial statements are snapshots, and sometimes it can be difficult to discern from looking at a small sample of them the firm's overall direction. Key strategic decisions can have a significant impact on the financial statements for a limited period of time. For example, during the period studied FedEx was having trouble absorbing Kinko's which it had purchased. These difficulties are not fully reflected on the income statements for 2005 and 2006. Instead, they appear as an unusual item (a writedown) in 2008. Likewise, UPS took a $6.1 billion writedown in 2007, which made the financial figures for that year look terrible. There is always strategic context in financial statements. That context is not always readily apparent, but it should be taken into consideration when analyzing the financial statements.

The potential impact of mergers and acquisitions should…… [Read More]

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Accounting A I Using Direct Labour Hours

Words: 1350 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 101465


a) i) Using direct labour hours as the cost driver for the overhead costs, the following table presents the net profit calculation for each line of motorcycle:

Vroom plc

Total Profit


Direct labour









less DL

less Materials

Gross Profit

Less Overhead

Net Profit

Activity-based costing is designed to allocate overhead costs based on the resources that each activity consumes (The Economist, 2009). The key to activity-based costing is that the cost drivers are assigned differently, and in a manner that should better reflect actual resource usage than a cost driver that may be picked almost at random (Investopedia, 2013). Using ABC, the following are the net profit calculations for the three different products at Vroom.

Vroom plc

Total Profit
















Purchase orders




2800000…… [Read More]


The Economist. (2009). Activity-based costing. The Economist. Retrieved November 12, 2013 from 

Investopedia. (2013). Activity-based costing. Investopedia. Retrieved November 12, 2013 from
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Managerial Accountant ACC403 Module 4 Threaded Discussion

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99096624

Managerial Accountant

ACC403 Module 4 Threaded Discussion Managerial Accounting 21st Century The purpose management accounting organization support competitive decision making collecting, processing, communicating information helps management plan, control, evaluate business processes company strategy.

The importance of management accounting within an organization:

Changes and evolution of the managerial accountant's role

The distinctive feature of managerial accountancy is that members of the profession work for one specific company on a consistent basis, versus being employed by a variety of clients. "The role of the management accountant is to perform a series of tasks to ensure their company's financial security, handling essentially all financial matters and thus helping to drive the business's overall management and strategy" (ole of the managerial accountant, 2012, Business Careers). Depending on the seniority of the accountant, these duties may include budgeting, tax advice and policy, managing assets within benefits packages and other forms of strategic planning (ole of…… [Read More]


Accounting. (2012).Wet Feet. Retrieved:

Cooper, Phillip & Dart, Eleanor. (2009). Changes in the managerial accountant's role: Drivers and diversity. The University of Bath School of Business. Working Paper. Retrieved:
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Accounting Process and Financial Statements A Reliable

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62404570

Accounting Process and Financial tatements.

A reliable internal system of accounting is an essential element of a solvent profit or nonprofit business entity. By recording virtually every business activity or endeavor, with regards to the creation of monetary inflows of sales revenue and monetary outflows of expenses resulting from operating activities; an accounting system should provide the financial information needed to evaluate the profitability or effectiveness of past and operations. Along with maintaining data for reporting purposes, an effective accounting system will effectively report the status of asset resources, creditor liabilities, and ownership equities of the business entity. With today's rapid and ever expanding technological developments have lead to increasing operating speeds, convenient data storage capabilities, reliability and significantly reduced costs.

Historically, maintaining an effective accounting system involved extensive manual labor which was described as tedious, aggravating, and time exhaustive. Recording transactions, adding subtracting, summarizing, and checking for errors were…… [Read More]



Smith; Outlines & Highlights for Financial Accounting Basics. AIPI; 3 edition (October 19, 2006).

Stickney, Clyde P., Weil, Roman L.; Financial Accounting: An Introduction to Concepts Methods, and Uses. South-Western College Pub; 10 edition (July 2, 2002).

Maher, Michael W., Stickney, Clyde P., Weil, Roman L.; Managerial Accounting: An Introduction to Concepts, Methods and Uses. South-Western College Pub; 10 edition (March 13, 2007)
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Accounting Systems Their Tradeoffs and Discusses the

Words: 936 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32923663

accounting systems, their tradeoffs, and discusses the differences between countries in their approaches.

Each of the cost accounting systems discussed in the articles accomplishes some management goals better than other systems, but there are tradeoffs involved with each. Different nations approach their cost accounting systems differently due at least in part to differences within cultures. For instance, GP is more suited to countries where the culture is one of uncertainty avoidance, one of the five dimensions of Hofstede's taxonomy. GP offers the most uncertainty avoidance because there is relatively little ambiguity in the assignment of costs; GP is characterized by narrowly defined cost centers and strict cost center criteria. Cultures such as Germany's are characterized by a management environment that includes highly skilled workers and technical expertise among managers. This is in contrast to the U.S. where workers tend to have more generalist skill sets and managers have been educated…… [Read More]

Krumwiede, Kip & Suessmair, Augustin, (2008). A closer look at German cost accounting methods: a survey of the cost management systems used by companies in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved July 26, 2010, from bxcra.2.a.55

Lockhart, Julie & Taylor, Audrey, (2007). Environmental considerations in product mix decisions using ABC and TOC. Management Accounting Quarterly.

Portz, K. & Lere, J.C. 2010. Cost Center Practices in Germany and the United States: Impact of Country Differences on Managerial Accounting Practices. American Journal of Business. Muncie: Spring, 2010. Vol. 25, Iss. 1; pg. 45.
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Managerial ACCT Mastercard's Budgeting Process

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84321755

It sheds light on why the financial results deviated from expectations and what remedies can be included in the next strategic plan in order to ensure that the company improves performance in the next period.

There are differences among budgeting techniques in different companies and it may well be that some generalizations can be made between the budgeting techniques in different countries. In the Netherlands, for example, budgets are often a compilation of departmental budgets set by lower-level managers (De ith & Dijkman, 2008). Yet within that country, there is considerable divergence among public companies. The same is true for companies in other major estern nations as well -- a wide range of techniques is used in any given sample of companies.

It should be noted that in the U.S., there is a move towards post-budgeting techniques, such as Beyond Budgeting, Activity-Based Costing or the Balanced Scorecard (Becker et al.,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Becker, S., Messner, M. & Schaffer, U. (2010). The evolution of a management accounting idea: The case of beyond budgeting. WHU Otto Beisheim Graduate School of Management.

De With, E. & Dijkman, A. (2008). Budgeting practices of listed companies in the Netherlands. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from
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Managerial vs Financial Accounting

Words: 1854 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29041982


hat drives consumption of costs?

In Activity-Based Costing (ABC), consumption of costs is driven by a company's activities (Investopedia, LLC, n.d.), such as production, administration and sales (Cokins, 2010, p. 9). The company's product consumes activities, whether main or supporting activities, and those activities consume company resources (Cokins, 2010, pp. 9, 11). In that context, a cost driver is something that drives the cost of a company's activity (Investopedia, LLC, n.d.); it is a "factor which generates occurrence of resource (capacity) expenses" (Cokins, 2010, p. 8). For example, a manufacturing business may have an activity of running machinery, which will have cost drivers such as machinery operating hours, labor, maintenance and power consumption (Investopedia, LLC, n.d.). That same manufacturing company may also have the activity of release into production, which will have cost drivers such as the number of products (Cokins, 2010, p. 13). Cost drivers are chosen according…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cokins, G. (2010). Cost drivers. Evolution and benefits. Theoretical and Applied Economics, XVII, 8(549), 7-16.

Hermanson, Edwards, & Ivancevich. (2011). Accounting principles: Managerial Accounting. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from Web site:

Investopedia, LLC. (n.d.). Activity cost drivers. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from Web site:   

Investopedia, LLC. (n.d.). Irrelevant cost. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from Web site:   jseattle. (2014, December 8). What they're saying about Capitol Hill's Starbucks Roastery: $20M price tag, chi-chi Hill, 'a gathering spot for the well-to-do'. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from Web site:
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Accounting Financial Accounting Is an

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2417987

The management accounting leads candidates into finance, risk management and even production management. hile CMA certification is not necessary to pursue a career in management accounting, it is recommended. The IMA claims that certified management accountants earn on average $25,000 more per year than non-certified peers (IMA, 2011).

As with the accounting profession in general, there is increased demand for management accountants. CMAs are in demand because of their ability to contribute to the profitability of businesses, and demand for CMAs is expected to grow in coming years. Because CMA job duties are less structured than those of financial accountants or auditors, CMAs enjoy greater career flexibility.

Both types of accounting positions are poised to enjoy significant growth. There is also a trend in business, particularly since Sarbanes-Oxley, of looking to accounting professionals to lead firms. More CEOs are coming from the accounting stream than ever before, which highlights the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupation outlook handbook 2010-2011: Accountants and auditors. BLS. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from, various pages. (2011). Institute of Management Accountants. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from ima_home.aspx

Taub, S. (2003) Now playing: CFO as CEO. CFO Magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from
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Accounting Credibility the Accountability Failures

Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17956493

(5) Auditors and CPAs should consider several ways that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and SEC implementation rules as a whole impact accountants and work closely with regulators to address these effects. (6) Public accounting firms need to reconsider external auditors' participation with their client's internal audit function and control structure. This reporting on the internal controls can be very useful and add value to the integrity and quality of the financial reporting process. However, management accepts full responsibility for the design and maintenance of the adequate and effective internal control system. (7) Auditors should advise their clients and make recommendations for the appropriate disclosures of financial information. A more timely, relevant, objective, and transparent financial reporting process should improve the quality, integrity, and reliability. (8) it is necessary to use more effective and objective audit procedures and related standards to improve audit efficiency. The role of independent auditors on financial statements…… [Read More]

Journal of Accountancy. 199(2) p. 74-75.

Rezaee, Z. (2004) Restoring public trust in the accounting profession by developing anti- fraud education, programs, and auditing Managerial Auditing Journal. 19(1): 134-148

Walker, D.M. (2005) Reclaiming public trust in the wake of recent corporate accountability failures International Journal of Disclosure and Governance 2(3):.. 264-271-279
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Managerial Finance - Johnson &

Words: 3790 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86395992

76), ROE has ranged from 21.6% to 28.3% in recent years, with the 2007 figure being 25.6%. This reflects outperformance of both the industry and the market. The ROA has exhibited similar outperformance of both industry and market. The return on assets for JNJ over the past several years has ranged from 13.1% in 2007 to 17.l% in 2005. The industry five-year average is 8.85% and the market five-year average is 7.50%.

SWOT Analysis


Net Income increased despite decline in revenues

Growth in each business segment

R&D expense growing slower than revenues

2-year upward trend in net income

Upward trend in cash levels

Upward trend in cash flow from operations

Current ratio 46.36% higher than industry

Interest coverage 80.09% higher than industry

Net margin 14.04% higher than industry

Return on Equity 1414.79% higher than industry

Return on Assets 48.02% higher than industry


Decline in revenue this year (1st…… [Read More]

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Accounting Software Inherent in the

Words: 841 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58950861

Further, Oracle also has templates and process definitions for the electronics components market as well. Lastly the financial modules with Oracle can also be used for local government reporting in addition to SOX compliance.

For the small business of $2M their needs are drastically different than the $100M distributor that has offices across multiple geographies. The $2M company for purposes of this example is a manufacturer of air conditioning spare parts and is heavily manufacturing based. Their customer base is primarily throughout the U.S. Their primary need is for an accounting system that can has Accounts eceivable, Accounts Payable, General Ledger, Billing, Inventory Management, distributed order management and sales order management, all core functions of an accounting system (Collins, 2006). In addition this small manufacturer also needs support for Debt Collection, electronic payment processing, online payroll, timesheets and purchase requisition as well. All of these features can be found in…… [Read More]


Susan B. Anders. (2006). Website of the Month: The CPA Journal, 76(11), 70-71.

Phillip G. Armour. (2005). Sarbanes-Oxley and software projects. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 48(6), 15-17.

J Carlton Collins. (2006). Small Business Software Grows Up. Journal of Accountancy, 201(3), 50.

Ivancevich, S., Ivancevich, D., & Elikai, F. (2010). Accounting Software Selection and Satisfaction. The CPA Journal, 80(1), 66-72.
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Accounting a Static Budget Is Defined as

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3774204


A static budget is defined as a budget that is "planned ahead of time based on the owner's best guess about future actual activity." This type of budget is therefore put together for the upcoming time period, and is often based on the data from past time periods, plus or minus different adjustments that management thinks will be necessary. In contrast, a flexible budget is one where the business management can make changes in the midst of an accounting period. Flexible budgeting allows for management to make better decisions on the fly, because the information used in those decisions is kept more up-to-date. Static budgeting relies only on the ability of management to analyze the numbers after the period in order to determine the magnitude and direction of variance, along with the causes of variance. For a flexible budget, management can identify issues with the budget right away, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mueller, D. (2012). Static budget vs. flexible budget. eHow. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from

Bigelow, L. (2012). Static vs. flexible budgets for new businesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from
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Managerial Prerogative

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18881408

Managerial Prerogative Has Gone Too Far?

Whenever an organization is founded and the objectives for its existence have been established, the founders and management of said organization are expected to ensure the continuity, viability, and resilience of the enterprise. This is done via the allocation of needed resources (i.e. capital, human, financial, etc.) and formulation of strategies in order to achieved set and target organizational goals. Once operational, there are other duties, responsibilities, accountabilities, rights and privileges management can and must exercise to achieve continued operational success and efficiency. One of these management principles or concepts is known as managerial prerogative, which "includes the right to organize operations and methods of working, issue detailed instructions on the circumstances in which work is performed, and take in matters relating to working hours in so far as these are not rigidly regulated by collective agreement (Eurofound, 2009)." Often, managerial prerogative is institutionalized…… [Read More]


Bado, J. & Logue, J. (1991). Hard hats and hard decisions: The evolving role in employee-owned firms. Employee Ownership Law and Finance, 4: 1-19. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from 

Ellis, A. (2008). The strain between managerial prerogative and contractual principles in English labour law. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound). (2009, August 14). Limits to the employer's managerial prerogative. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from

Greenfield, K. (2008). Reclaiming corporate law in a new gilded age. Harvard Law & Policy Review. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from
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Accounting Two

Words: 1060 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98871348

Accounting II

ABC Overall risk profile

The ABC Company may face series of risks based on the current industry and economic issues. First, the company is operating in a competitive market environment making the company to face a fierce competition from other companies producing similar products. Thus, the ABC Company may likely to lose some of its customer to competitors if the price per product is too high.

Moreover, the current recession may affect the purchasing power of customer, which may affect the company annual revenue. Moreover, inflation is likely to increase the cost of production. Another risk issue is that the company should satisfy its shareholders by declaring high dividends and failure to satisfy the shareholder may make some shareholders to disinvest their fund from the company, which may make the company to lose the public image. (Daniel, Njikizana, . & Chamboko, 2011).

Current ABC cash flow using Direct…… [Read More]


Bragg, S.M. (2011). The Controller's Function: The Work of the Managerial Accountant, (Fourth Edition) UK. Wiley .

Daniel, B.M. Njikizana, C.T. & Chamboko, R. (2011). Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards.UK. Wiley.
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Managerial Analysis R& D Activities Fall Into Four

Words: 806 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70426115

Managerial Analysis

&D activities fall into four pools with the following annual costs.

Market analysis $1,050,000

Product design 2,350,000

Product development 3,600,000

Prototype testing 1,400,000


Activities Cost Drivers Estimated Drivers

Market analysis Hours of analysis 15,000 hours

Product design Number of designs 2,500 designs

Product development Number of products 90 products

Prototype testing Number of tests 500 tests

(a) Compute the activity-based overhead rate for each activity cost pool

Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead / basis

= 1,050,000 / 15,000

= $70 per hour (Market Analysis)

Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead/basis

= 2,350,000 / 2,500

= $940 per design (Product Design Number)

Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead/basis

= 3,600,000 /

=$40,000 per product (Product development number)

Activity-based overhead rate = total budget overhead/basis

= 1,400,000 / 500

= $2,800 per test (Number of tests)

(b) How much cost charged to an in-house manufacturing…… [Read More]


Lutilsky, I., & Dragija, M. (2012). Activity-Based Costing As A Means To Full Costing

Possibilities And Constraints For European Universities. Management: Journal Of

Contemporary Management Issues, 17(1), 33-57.

Ittner, C.D., Lanen, W.N., & Larcker, D.F. (2002). The Association between Activity-
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Managerial Decision Making Finance Department Always Plays

Words: 3200 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4320773

Managerial Decision Making

Finance department always plays a dominating role in the long run productivity in an organization and hence the reasons why the organizations strive try to strengthen this strategic function (Andrew, 2009). Organizations primary objective is to increase the level of surplus by taking effective strategies and mitigating the expenses.

There are numerous challenges which the organizations face during its day-to-day operations but to combat with those challenges are the actual bravery of the organization (Andrew, 2009). During the operations, an organization faces number of challenges like financial challenge, capital challenges, economical challenges, and political challenges (Bish, 2005). Appropriate strategies and tactics are more than necessary to cope up with these challenges comprehensively (Brown & Kate, 2001). For this piece of work, we have to perform the risk analysis of a chosen company. While doing this assignment, one has to consider it as an expert consultant in multinational…… [Read More]


Andrew, G (2009), Operation Management, Saga Publications

Bish, E, (2005) Managing Flexible Capacity in a Make-to-Order Environment Management Science, Prentice Hall Publications

Brown, S & Kate, B (2001), Operation Management: Policies and Procedures, Pearson Group Publications

Bettley, A & David, M (2005), A Strategic Approach to Operation Management, McGraw Hill Publications
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Accounting Ratios the Financial Statements

Words: 2089 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78170223

An unaware analyst may think the second company to be better but in reality its low encouraging level is due to the fact that it is unable to secure additional funding. The companies may possess different capital structures and to attempt comparison of performance when one is all equity financed and another is a geared company may not suffice for a good analysis. The chosen application of government incentives to several companies may also twist the inter-company evaluation. There may be the possibility of providing a company with the tax holiday while the other within the same line of business not, and evaluation of such two enterprises may be misleading. (Session 15: Limitation of atio Analysis)

As a matter of principle, the accounting strategies are required to be applied persistently. Changes are required to be emphasized and the influence of variations from an original policy revealed. This is applicable when…… [Read More]


Accounting and decision making - Ratio analysis. Retrieved from Accessed on 22 April, 2005

Basic Financial Statement Analysis: Objective 3: Explain the limitations of ratio analysis. Retrieved from Accessed on 22 April, 2005

Cars, Andreas. 2002. The Dynamic Current Ratio. 3 September. Retrieved from  Accessed on 22 April, 2005

Covers Information from Accounting 200 and 201. Retrieved from Accessed on 22 April, 2005
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Accounting Information and Insights Into

Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51336267

The second question is the cost per unit to produce a given product or deliver specific service. Just as the total cost of revenues for a business, this figure will also provide a business owner with insights into how their business is operating, from the supply chain through pricing and distribution of gross margin assumptions (Hall, 2010). The cost per unit to produce is also a good measure of how well the efficiency of a given company is running at. Often a business owner will evaluate these from the standpoint over the long-term, looking for trends in hwo their business is operating at an efficiency level that makes the entire company profitable. For services business, the cost per service event or services deliver (as a plumber making a house call) needs to have a minimum charge level as costs are allocated across all forecasted calls in a given month. This…… [Read More]


Hall, M. (2010). Accounting information and managerial work. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 35(3), 301.

Jansen, E.P. (2011). The effect of leadership style on the information receivers reaction to management accounting change. Management Accounting Research, 22(2), 105.
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Managerial Economics and Strategic Analysis

Words: 1553 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55858676

Managerial Economics

The company that I am going to write about is Apple, Inc., which designs and markets personal electronics devices, software and accessories. Apple is known for its strategic control systems, both in terms of behavior control and information control. Chapter 9 notes that there are two different approaches to informational control, the traditional approach and the contemporary approach. The traditional approach compares performance against standards while the contemporary approach requires continuous monitoring of the internal and external environments and then adjustments to strategy where needed (Chapter 9). Chenhall (2003) notes that firms often weigh the environment, the industry, the technology and the size and structure of the firm when considering which strategic control systems they want to implement. In the case of Apple, these factors have led it to an informational control system that can reasonably be classified as contemporary. The company's industry is characterized by short product…… [Read More]


Chenhall, R. (2003). Management control systems design within its organizational context: Findings from contingency-based research and directions for the future. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 28 (2003) 127-168

Gewald, H. & Helbig, K. (2006). A governance model for managing outsourcing partnerships: A view from practice. Systems Sciences Vol. 8 (2006) 194.

Satariano, A. (2013). Apple CEO adjusts bonus in shift to performance rewards. Bloomberg. Retrieved September 27, 2013 from
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Accounting and Finance Comparison of Selected Financial

Words: 1024 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80991135

Accounting and Finance

Comparison of Selected Financial Performance Data for WalMart and Target

WalMart and Target compete in very similar markets, competing in the supermarket segment of the retail industry, with some diversified interests. To assess the performance of these two firms, their results for the financial years ending January 2012 and 2013 may be examined and compared. This paper will look at the performance in terms of revenues, cost of goods, accounts receivable and payable and inventory management.


The performance of a firm often starts with an assessment of the revenue that is generated and the way in which this changes over time. The revenues for both WalMart and Target are shown in table 1.

Table 1; evenue for WalMart and Target 2012-2013







evenues ($ millions)





Change in revenues from previous year

The levels of revenues demonstrate that…… [Read More]


Target, (2013), 10k, retrieved 

WalMart, (2013), 10k, retrieved
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Managerial Impact on Small Businesses

Words: 16627 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31333118

This is because this thesis has some limitations that should be observed when taking into consideration the importance of the thesis and its assistance. This thesis has concentrated on a subject that has been an extremely large and leading one, that is, the managerial impact on small businesses and the underlying reasons being reluctance shown by small business managers to make use of information technology and Internet. Undoubtedly, this characterizes an extremely difficult assignment for research in spite of the more precise interests that the thesis might have. This wide-ranging and difficult subject has been analyzed from a somewhat limited experimental perception. The choice of the single thesis design obviously draws out numerous limitations in so far as the simplification of the outcome of the thesis is involved. Consequently, the thesis setting can simply be termed as a sort of direct framework of the past and present trends in the…… [Read More]


Armistead, Colin and Kiely, J. (eds) (1997) Effective Organizations: New Directions and Perspectives, London, Cassell.

Cash, J., Eccles, R.G., Hohria, N. And Nolan, R.L. (1994) Building the Information Age Organization, Burr Ridge, Ill., Richard Irwin.

Clement, Bernard et al. (2001) Cyber-Security Issues. The ITPS Report, Seville, vol. 57, 2-8.

Cockfield, Lord (1995) Network Europe and the Information Society, London, Federal Trust.
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Accounting -- Economics Accounting and

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32534655

Leaders can also increase self-leadership by withdrawing from the team leading function and by motivating each team member (perhaps privately) of the expectation and hope that each will develop leadership skills to his or her full potential. Finally, leaders can increase leadership among their followers by gradually increasing leadership responsibilities at appropriate opportunities.

Question 2b: How might an understanding of knowledge-based trust explain the reluctance of a person to change jobs?

People differ substantially in the degree to which they seek novel experiences or changes from established routines. People considered of self-described as thrill seekers, differ neurologically from people who prefer the safety and security of routines (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2001). Naturally, anyone who prefers stable routines over changes or novel experiences is likely to be much less comfortable changing jobs than a person who relish excitement and change.

Apart from differences in personality and preference, skill-specific competence increases sharply…… [Read More]


Ross, a. (2002) No Collar: The Humane Workplace and Its Hidden Costs.

Basic Books

Greenstein, F.I., Lerner, M. ed (1971) a Sourcebook for the Study of Personality and Politics. Markham Publishing Company Chicago

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2001) Psychology and Life 16th ed. Allyn & Bacon
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Accounting Profession Towards a More

Words: 3151 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57289159

However, when a shock happens that changes that pattern, the information is no longer relevant. In periods of turmoil, only the most up-to-date information is relevant. The usefulness of the information wanes quickly as the behavior of the company becomes more erratic. After a period of erratic behavior and change, the company may be forced to make internal changes that affect the way they do business. They may make changes that affect their inventory management, sales cycle, stock levels, supply chain, distribution network or other fundamental business functions. New patterns may emerge and the old information no longer applies.

The term "relevancy" can have many different meanings depending on what is happening with the company. A new accounting regime may need to be instituted when a change takes place. Looking at the most recent historical information is one way to determine the relevancy of the accounting information. The analyst needs…… [Read More]


Cadwalader, Wickersham, & Tact LLP. 1999. Application of the Safe Harbor for Forward-

Looking Statements. Findlaw. Accessed April 23, 2009


Giroux, G. (n.d.). American Big Business and Cost Accounting. In a Short History of Accounting and Business. Accessed April 23, 2009
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Accounting for Decision-Making

Words: 2947 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40031651

Accounting for Decision Making

Shelter Partnership's Case Study

Purposes of Cost Information

The intended purpose of cost information is to provide a basis for determining the expenses and revenues associated with a particular activity (or cost object). Generally, cost and income is measured in order to determine net income or profit margins. However, as Shelter Partnerships is a non-profit, the cost information forms a basis for the allocation of resources and to assist with decisions about scaling. The cost information of Shelter Partnerships can also be used to address any cycles in the stream of donations and contributions that can impact the overall ability of the non-profit to meet its mission. In addition, since Shelter Partnership regularly applies for grant funding, it is essential that their accounting system be readily interpretable to grant reviewing bodies. Fund development cannot be sustained for long in an environment that is only loosely accountable…… [Read More]

References section.

Prestige Telephone Company (2004) [Course Notes ] AIM 4343 Retrieved


Question 3.
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Managerial Econ the Breakeven Point

Words: 450 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62370460

orkers tend to be a fixed cost, and a company facing permanently reduced demand should reduce its fixed costs, which probably means cutting the number of workers. However, a recession is not a permanent reduction in demand so the response has to be a bit more intelligent, knowing that eventually the business cycle will recover and the company will need to hire back workers when demand picks up again.

However, for some companies lowering the number of workers removes talent from the company that cannot easily be replaced when the economic situation improves. Some companies, like FedEx, prefer to avoid laying off permanent employees because the costs associated with hiring and training new employees are higher than if the hours of all existing permanent employees are reduced.

Thus, the answer comes down to the nature of the business, the nature of the employees who would be removed and the other…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2013). Breakeven point. Accounting Retrieved April 9, 2013 from
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Accounting Budgeting the Traditional Role of Budgeting

Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36277238



The traditional role of budgeting combines the need for planning and the development of a framework which can be used for control. This is achieved through the gathering of figures for the expected or desired revenue generation and the expected or desired outgoings associated with the generation of that revenue (de Waal et al., 2011). Two major forms of budget exist for commercial organizations; capital budgeting and operating budgets, the former deals with large long-term projects and investment, whereas operating budgets deal with the everyday operations of the firm or department (Horngren et al., 2010). It is usual for budgets to be prepared in advance of the period in which they will be applied, gathering the relevant information in order to create a budget. The most effective and potentially accurate budgets are those which have accurate input information, which often means consulting with relevant managers involved in the…… [Read More]


Chenhall, Robert H; Brownell, Peter, (1988), The effect of participative budgeting on job satisfaction and performance: Role ambiguity as an intervening variable, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 13(3), 225-233

Horngren, Charles T; Sundem, Gary L; Stratton, William O; Burgstahler, Dave, Schatzberg, Jeff O, (2010), Introduction to Management Accounting, Prentice Hall

Howell, R. A, (2004, July), Turn Your Budgeting Process Upside Down, Harvard Business Review, accessed at

de Waal, Andre; Hermkens-Janssen, Miriam; van de Ven, Arco, (2011), The evolutionary adoption framework: explaining the budgeting paradox, Emerald 7.
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Managerial Hubris of Farrow Bank

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17552421

Managerial Hubris: Case Study of Farrow Bank

Instances of leaders and managers portraying overconfidence as far as their managerial behavior is concerned are not rare. This excessive overconfidence is referred to as managerial hubris (Brown, 2006). The individual overwhelmingly believes they cannot wrong. In most part, this behavior emanates from a sustained period of success, which makes the individual unrealistically perceive themselves as somewhat prone to error. Hubristic behavior can be costly to an organization, sometimes even leading to downfall (Hollow, 2014). This was particularly true for Farrow Bank, a booming bank in the early 20th century. The bank collapsed in 1920, with managerial hubris on the part of its founder and CEO, Thomas Farrow, being the major contributing factor. Focusing on the failure, this case study explores the implications of managerial hubris on organizational success. The case study particularly pays attention to four issues: how corporate culture, leadership, power,…… [Read More]


Brown, R. (2006). CEO overconfidence, CEO dominance and corporate acquisitions. Retrieved 20 October 2016 from: finance/Portals/0/docs/2007/Raynabrownmanchester.pdf

Hollow, M. (2014). The 1920 Farrow's bank failure: a case of managerial hubris? Journal of Management History, 20(2), 164-178.
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Accounting CVP Analysis for Snap

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56411415

It is known that the membership fee is $26. Using this, the variable cost per member can be calculated, as shown in table 2.

evenue per member (a)


Fixed costs per member (b)


Variable cost (a-b)


If the membership fee is $26 per member, the membership fee, less the fixed cost (at the break even point) will give the variable cost per member.

The information in tables 1 and 2 can be used to assess the number of membership the Snap Fitness will need to sell each month if they wish to make a profit of $10,000 per month. As seen above, it is the contribution per unit that will initially pay for the fixed costs and then the profit. To calculate the sales needed for a predetermined profit level, the required profit should be added to the fixed costs. That total may then be divided by…… [Read More]


Horngren, Charles T; Foster, George; Datar, Srikant M; Rajan, Madhav, (2008), Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis, Prentice Hall

Kinney, Michael R; Raiborn, Cecily a, (2012), Cost Accounting: Foundations and Evolutions, South-Western College Pub

Assuming no other fixed costs
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Public Accounting Corporate Accounting and

Words: 3822 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3509043

This role is in response to clients' demands for a single trustworthy individual or firm to meet all of their financial needs. However, accountants are restricted from providing these services to clients whose financial statements they also prepare." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2009)

1. Public Accounting

The work entitled: "The Reality of the CPA's Role" states that modern CPAs work "behind the scenes as trusted advisors in nearly all significant business decisions. Successful accountants display the ability to think strategically and creatively and to be problem solvers and business advisors." (Douglass, 2006) Douglass states that the views of the CPA are widely varied "...whether from the viewpoint of the investing public or from the perspective of the companies that engage CPAs to audit their financial statements or perform other functions. In fact, many people not involved in the business management or accounting profession may perceive CPAs…… [Read More]


Douglass, Kevin (2006) the Reality of the CPA's Role New Jersey CPA Magazine, April 2006. Accounting and Auditing. Online available at:

Erard, Brian (1992) Taxation with Representation: An Analysis of the Role of Tax Practitioners in Tax Compliance. Journal of Public Economics 52 (1993) 163-107. North-Holland. Online available at:

Financial accounting for Local and State School Systems (2005) Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Online available at: 

Garrison, Ray H. And Noreen, Eric W. (2009) What is Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting. Accounting Management. Online available t:
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Financial Accounting in Module 2 the 35 000

Words: 496 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38863315

Financial Accounting

In Module 2, the $35,000 worth of goods was never purchased, so that figure is irrelevant. Now with Module 3, we begin with a balance sheet that does not balance. To this, several changes are to be made. The company raised an additional $225,000, which balances because Common Stock increases by that amount, and the company receives that much Cash. The dividends represent a decline in cash of that amount, and a decline in Retained Earnings. The asset is covered by $400,000 in the land less $50,000 in cash, and the other $350,000 goes to Notes Payable. The result is as follows:

The first major adjustment that needs to be made, based on Module 2, is that the company needs to add back the $35,500 worth of inventory. This should never have been removed. The second adjustment is that the profit would have been higher, by $35,500 because…… [Read More]

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Management Accounting the Purpose of

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91616829

The two basics to keep in mind is that managerial accounting should be used early and often and not just internal stakeholders should be heeded and listened to (, 2013).


In conclusion, Thai Airlines would benefit greatly from an entrenched and well-managed managerial accounting framework. It should supplement and complement both the financial accounting mechanisms of Thai Airlines as well as general process management, general product management, marketing, other accounting matters and general business decision making for Thai Airlines. Part and parcel of all of that is integrating stakeholder's expectations and conversely managing the expectations and perceptions of those same stakeholders is also vital on a number of levels. However, if all of the above is managed and managed well, then the outcomes for firms like Thai Airlines that use managerial accounting effectively will tend to be very good.


Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies…… [Read More]


Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies Cheat Sheet - for Dummies . How-to Help and Videos - for Dummies. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from (2013, May 12). Financial vs. Managerial Accounting. Home Page. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from 

Singha Beer International. (2013, May 14). Singha Beer International. Singha Beer International. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from (2013, May 12). Accounting - Introduction to Stakeholders. tutor2u | Economics | Business Studies | Politics | Sociology | History | Law | Marketing | Accounting | Business Strategy. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from
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Management Accounting This Memorandum Serves

Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37556552

The use of managerial accounting to keep profit margins where they need to be and make sure that individual product offerings are not a net drain on the company is not the only thing that Thai Airlines can and must do to keep a competitive edge and to protect themselves from things like corporate malfeasance and terrorists attacks, but it is certainly a major thing that should be take into account and otherwise dealt with in a timely and complete nature. It will not be easy for Thai Airlines to keep their competitive edge largely because other firms will be doing the exact same calculations and measurements. However, not doing so would be ceding progress and adeptness to their competitors. As such, not doing managerial accounting should be a non-starter for Thai Airlines.

eferences (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial…… [Read More]

References (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting Introduction | Accounting Explained. Accounting Explained | Financial and Managerial Accounting Notes. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from 

CEIBS. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Decision-makers_CEIBS. China Europe International Business School. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from 

CSUN. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting. California State University, Northridge. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from 

McGraw-Hill. (2013, May 12). The Work of Management and the Need for Managerial Accounting Information. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from
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ERP Systems for Accounting ERP Refers to

Words: 1855 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31171839

EP systems for accounting

EP refers to enterprise resource planning which is a software package that supports all of a business's operations and day-to-day accounting processes. The EP system of accounting provides an integrated system for an entire business organization by relating and coordinating the basic organizational functions such as financial planning, marketing of goods and services and human resource management. Many business organizations in the world today, both for profit and non-profit adopt the use of EP due to its ability to integrate and coordinate information from all departments, operations and processes. EP is a sophisticated system that ensures accuracy and accountability in processing and organizing business functions within an organization. This system generally can manage a business by allowing inventory control, material purchasing, accounting, marketing and distribution.

The EP system consists of several enterprise software packages acquired based on specific needs, requirements and technical capabilities of a particular…… [Read More]


Monk, E.F., & Wagner, J.B. 2009.Enterprise Resource Planning. 3rd edition. New York: Cengage Learning.

Meer, K.H. 2005. Best Practices in ERP Software Applications: Accounting, Supply Chain Planning, Procurement and Inventory. Printed in the United States of America: iUniverse publications.

Grabski, S, Leech, S & Sangster, A. 2009. Management Accounting in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems. Printed in the United States of America: CIMA Publishing

Sawyers, R, Jenkins, J.G. & Jackson. S. 2009. Managerial Accounting: A Focus on Ethical Decision Making. Printed in Canada: Cengage Learning.