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Nursing shortages exist all throughout the modern world. Worse yet, the nurses left, face the possibility of low pay and long hours. Mandatory overtime for example, is a common problem experienced in most countries. This essay focuses on the effects of mandatory overtime on the nursing profession through reviewing current literature. The literature offers ways mandatory overtime have influenced job outlook as well as job satisfaction for nurses and ways that may help reduce the need for it. Personal commentary highlights the effect of the issue first hand and creative solutions on how to counteract it.
Nurses have difficult job duties. They set out to perform multiple job functions daily. Many times, they are overworked and experience continual and consistent stress. This can have and frequently does have a negative impact on the quality of care patients receive. What frequently turns out to be the main culprit in such a…
Bae, S. (2012). Nurse Overtime, Working Conditions, and the Presence of Mandatory Nurse Overtime Regulations. Workplace Health & Safety, 60(5), 205-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/216507991206000504
Bae, S. (2013). Presence of nurse mandatory overtime regulations and nurse and patient outcomes. Nurs Econ, 31(2), 59. http://dx.doi.org/6
Bae, S., Brewer, C., & Kovner, C. (2012). State mandatory overtime regulations and newly licensed nurses' mandatory and voluntary overtime and total work hours. Nursing Outlook, 60(2), 60-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2011.06.006
Djukic, M., Kovner, C., Brewer, C., Fatehi, F., & Greene, W. (2014). Exploring Direct and Indirect Influences of Physical Work Environment on Job Satisfaction for Early-Career Registered Nurses Employed in Hospitals. Res Nurs Health, 37(4), 312-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.21606
Of course, as Medicare beneficiaries increase because of the number of baby boomers, the Medicare program may adjust. However, current hospice figures demonstrate that only about twenty percent of all elderly individuals that die are enrolled in hospice programs.
Implementation and Monitoring
The needs of this new program will require thorough training and once implemented, precise monitoring. "When you approach a problem in the way your work group functions, you're implementing an organizational change. By taking a critical look at your process, and using some theories from organizational design, you can fix the problem -- and change your organization to make quality more likely." (Derby, 1999) The training will be a key because of the potential requirements associated with the Hospice program that may require completely new skill sets for the majority of our staff. The fact is that many of our nurses may not have acquired the necessary skills…
Derby, Esther. (2002). Modeling Organizational Change. Retrieved on February 12, 2005, at http://www.estherderby.com/writings/modeling.htm
Hospice Benefits and Utilization in the Large Employer Market. Ed. Beth Jackson, Teresa Gibson, Joline Staeheli. March 2000. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on February 12, 2005, from http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/daltcp/Reports/empmkt.htm.
Rubenfeld, M. Gaie, & Scheffer, B.K. (1995). Critical Thinking In Nursing. Philadelphia: JB Lippencott.
Social Security Administration. (1993) "Social security programs in the United States." Social Security Bulletin 12/22/1993.
Insurance for Nurses
Most of us probably see the issues of overtime and insurance as being entirely separate from each other. But for nurses, there is a clear connection between the two - one that is becoming clearer all of the time. Nurses have throughout the past decades found themselves working more and more hours, often being forced to take overtime shifts. This has resulted in a decreased quality of life for the nurses themselves and often results in poorer care for patients. One of the roles that nurses have always provided is the kind of extended personal care that patients need and that doctors cannot economically provide. This is being compromised by ever-increasing patient loads and by nurses who themselves are increasingly stressed.
So what has the issue of mandatory overtime to do with insurance? Quite a lot, actually. Nurses are being used more and more often to perform…
Hartnet, Johnette. (1993). Grief in the Workplace: Forty Hours Plus Overtime. Philadelphia: Good Mourning.
A www.ahealthyme.com www.aclu.org www.buildingbetterhealth.com www.calurse.org www.dhmh.sate.md.us www.newstimes.com www.nursingworld.org www.prairielaw.com www.qnv.org.au www.telegram.com www.vhihealthe.com
Yates, Michael. (1994) Longer Hours, Fewer Jobs: Employment and Unemployment in the United States. New York: Monthly Review Press.
A www.telegram.com www.calnurse.org www.qna.org.au www.nursingworld.org (www.mlis.state.md.us).
This makes retention essential, as new nurses must stay with the hospital and become nurse specialists for CMC to continue to maintain its reputation. Nursing education is also essential.
Unfortunately, a stressed and pressured environment that is understaffed can create tension rather than foster cooperation between nurses, particularly old and young nurses. Older nurses may believe that their younger colleagues must 'pay their dues' before they are fully accepted as part of the staff. Younger nurses may find themselves given more onerous tasks and denied learning opportunities, as they assume the 'grunt work' of the nursing staff.
Sadly, no one benefits from such an adversarial culture. Younger nurses leave in greater numbers, out of frustration, further compounding the nursing shortage at CMC. Little hands-on instruction and education means that new graduates lack confidence and autonomy in their decision-making and are more prone to error and relying upon more skilled…
AACN Fact sheet. (2009, September). AACN website. Retrieved April 10, 2010 at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Media/FactSheets/NursingShortage.htm
Addressing the nursing shortage: Background brief. (2010). Kaiser Permanente. Retrieved April
10, 2010 at http://www.kaiseredu.org/topics_im.asp?imID=1&parentID=61&id=138
Buerhaus, Peter I. (2010). Trends in the experiences of hospital-employed registered nurses:
Nursing Proposal -- Evidence-Based
The utilization of call lights particularly in hospital settings has recently been put under study as a function of various aspects of nursing including shortages, rounds and analyses of patient outcomes. The proper scheduling of nursing rounds may be essential to enhance the capability of nurses to tackle common or ordinary patient issues relative to more dire needs that have to be regarded as the primary/main target for the use of call lights by patients. Besides patients' general well-being and safety while hospitalized, nursing employees are also concerned with how satisfied the patients are. On a rather fundamental level, hospital settings that enable patients to experience peace of mind allow them to heal quicker than those that do not; these patients are highly likely to relay less stressful communications to those around them, and have a higher possibility of clearer perspectives that allow them to distinguish…
American Nurses Association (ANA). (2006). Assuring patient safety: The employer's role in promoting healthy nursing work hours for registered nurses in all roles and settings. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofNursing/workplaceNurse
(AACN). The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (2001, March 3). Mandatory Overtime. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.org/WD/Practice/Content/PublicPolicy/mandatoryovertime.pcms?menu=Practie
Bae, S. (2010).Mandatory overtime regulations and nurse overtime. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 11(2), 99-107.
Bae, S-H. (2013). Presence of nurse mandatory overtime regulations and nurse and patient outcomes. Nursing Economics, 31(2), 59-68. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/806796
Add to this confusion the growing prevalence of telecommuters and the issues of the FLSA become even more complicated. Of course some telecommuting positions fall into the exempt category, and therefore are not subject to overtime pay, however some do. Due to the freedom to engage in 'private pursuits', employers may monitor when a virtual employee logs onto his or her computer and may require that he or she get permission before working overtime (Gabel & Mansfield 2003, 316). Only by fully understanding the FLSA and the legislation that has evolved from its implementation, can Human Resource professionals be certain to obey the regulations and not compromise their organization.
In addition to the monitoring of ever-changing compensation laws, Human Resource professionals must also be well versed in discrimination legislation as well. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, one of them of the most important pieces of discrimination legislation created,…
Affirmative Action. (12 Oct. 2004). Online. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affirmative_action [accessed 15 October 2004].
Crampton, Suzanne M., Hodge, John W., Mishra, Jitendra M. "The FLSA and Overtime Pay." Public Personnel Management 32, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 331-354. Database online. Available from ProQuest database.
DeLeire, Thomas. "The Wage and Employment Effects of the Americans with Disabilities Act." Journal of Human Resources 35, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 693-715. Database online. Available from Business Source Premier database.
EEO Poster. (No date). Online. Available at http://www.dol.gov/esa/regs/compliance/posters/pdf/eeopost.pdf [accessed 11 Oct. 2004].
43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…
Airguide Online (2006). North America. Airline News: Pyramid Media Group, Inc.
Retrieved on December 28, 2008 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOQXQ/is_2006_Oct_2/ai_n27005685?tag=content;col1
Air Safety Week (2008). Controllers declare "staffing emergency" in Atlanta,
Chicago, New York and Southern California. Access Intelligence, LLC: Gale, Cengage
Nursing profession is among the oldest in history. Currently, there is much debate that surrounds the profession because of the need for more trained nurses. In recent years the nursing shortage has become a major problem for the medical profession and has resulted in poor patient care and slower patient recover. The purpose of this discussion is to provide an in depth examination of the nursing profession. We will discuss the current state of the nursing profession, including the causes for the shortage and the solution. We will also explore the status of the nursing profession in Australia. Let us begin our discussion by providing a comprehensive definition of what is means to be a nurse.
Definition of a nurse
According to the American Heritage Dictionary, a nurse is defined as " a person trained to care for the sick or disabled under the supervision of a physician." (American Heritage…
American Heritage Dictionary. (1982) Second Edition.
Bashford, A. (1997). Starch on the collar and sweat on the brow: self sacrifice and the status of work for nurses. Journal of Australian Studies, (52), 67+. Retrieved August 24, 2003, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
There is an increased incidence of worry and concern over malpractice claims which increasingly award patients higher amounts of money for patient's winning cases. Unfortunately this has led to many nurses practicing defensive care rather than preventive and supportive care (Guevara & Mendias, 2002: 350). In some cases this may lead to overly conservative treatment of a patient's condition.
Discrepancies in job titles and assignments as well as responsibilities exist (Guevara & Mendias, 2002). Increasingly management responsibilities are delegated to nurses which increases their administrative burden and the potential for malpractice claims when patients receive care from less experienced staff or unqualified staff because of staffing shortages (Guevara & Mendias, 2002).
Strict reimbursement mechanisms, a decreased staff, health service restraints that are brought upon by economic factors and new organizational structures as well as a changing dynamic in the public have all influenced the nursing field" (Guevara & Mendias, 2002:350).…
Guevara, Edilma B. & Mendias, Elnora P. "A comparative analysis of the changes in nursing practice related to health sector reform in five countries of the Americas." Pan American Journal of Public Health (2002): 12 (5), 350-355. 20, October 2004, from http://www.scielosp.org/pdf/rpsp/v12n5/14093.pdf
Supervising nursing personnel, like supervising in any other profession, demands more these days than simply telling the nurse what needs to be done, expecting it to be done, and saying "Good Job," it the spirit moves you. Especially in nursing, supervisory skills are increasingly important as the profession comes under more and more pressure from several fronts at once: health care organizations looking for ways to save money; fewer students choosing to go into nursing because they've heard the tales of killer hours and their negative lifestyle impact, and; pressures to keep up with expanding technology, often without commensurate upgrading of pay, title or other perks.
This paper will outline the pressures on nursing that mandate improved supervisory tactics and the characteristics of today's nurse population. Finally, it will offer some insight into how best to supervise today's nurses, and some tactics to make it all work.
Pressures on the…
Dunn, Cane, Kathleen M., Gonzales, Joan L., and Steward, Hildegarde P. 1999. "Managing the New Generation." AORN Journal. May.
Engel, Cynthia. 1999. "Health services industry: still a job machine?" Monthly Labor Review, 122, no. 3: 3. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com /.Internet. Accessed 25 January 2004.
Gordon, Suzanne. 2000. Nurse, Interrupted. The American Prospect, 14 February, 26. Database online. Available from Questia,
Basically collective bargaining is when an employer and employees (or their representatives) sit down and negotiate about something pertaining to the workplace. It may be a negotiation over workplace conditions, salaries, time off, or other matters important to employees. Typically when there is a union present in a workplace the union leaders will negotiate with management to improve conditions or to settle other issues that come up, according to Cornell University Law School.
hat are the legal components of collective bargaining?
Collective bargaining is governed by laws in states and at the federal level; the states have statutory laws, and there are federal and state administrative agency regulations and court decisions that govern how collective bargaining takes place. If there are overlapping regulations between states and the federal government, the U.S. Constitution (Article VI) points out that federal law "preempts" state law (www.law.cornell).
As to the legal components,…
Johnson, J.E., Billingsley, M. (2014). Convergence: How Nursing Unions and Magnet
are Advancing Nursing. Nursing Forum, 49(4), 225-235.
Law. Cornell. (2010). Collective bargaining and labor arbitration: an overview. Retrieved October 9, 2015, from http://www.law.cornell.edu .
Payscale.com. (2014). Average Hourly Rate for Union Hospital Employees. Retrieved October 9, 2015, from http://www.payscale.com .
Surely, many are afraid of their jobs, but others simply endure the process. One hundred years ago, working conditions were appalling and workers formed unions to air their grievances and build new labor laws that treated workers fairly. Today, workers simply accept their fate instead of fighting for reform. It makes the reader wonder what the difference is, and why today's workers are "content" with the system.
All of this work and stress directly relates to American issues in recreation and leisure. Americans are taking fewer vacations. Movie theater attendance is down; more people are watching films in the comfort of their own homes. Fast food is what is on much of the nation's dinner plate, and busy families rush from school to athletic practice to bed just about every day of the week. Where is the fun in recreation and leisure when it becomes a "job" too? Americans are…
De Graaf, J. (ed.). (2003). Take back your time: Fighting overwork and time poverty in America. San Francisco. Berrett- Koehler Publishers.
ecause unions retain the exclusive right to negotiate on behalf of its members, the individual worker may have little recourse to easily address incompetent leadership.
The Disadvantages of Unionized Labor for Healthcare Employers:
The primary disadvantages of unionized labor for healthcare employers correspond to the relative loss of control over issues and workplace elements commonly transferred to workers (through their unions), which accounts for the traditional resistance with which many employers responded to unionization attempts. On the one hand, unionized workforces are able to secure better pay and benefits from employers than would have been available to workers without union representation; likewise, employers must cede control over many aspects of operational and personnel decisions traditionally within administrative control.
On the other hand, particularly in light of the beneficial effect that unionized nursing has had on the quality of patient care and reduction in patient mortality, it is difficult to conceive…
Daft, R. (2005) Management (7th ed.) Mason: Thomson South Western.
Nevins, J., Commager, H. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States.
New York: Pocket Books
Seago, J., Ash, M. (2002)
The use of unlicensed assistive personnel (UAPs) has sent a poor message to nursing professionals. In general, the medical establishment has used UAPs in ways that have disregarded the principles of the nursing practice and that have demeaned the value that nurses provide. Rather than showing a willingness to compensate nurses for years of training and performing a demanding job, health care institutions attempted to replace nurses with UAPs without regard to the welfare of the patient.
The misuse of UAPs rather than the use of UAPs is a having a tremendous negative impact on the nursing profession. Of major concern is the increasing use of UAPs to perform services that should be restricted to licensed professionals. y placing untrained, non-credentialed individuals in a position that affects the patient's health, public protection is being sacrificed for increased profits. UAPs should play a role in providing support services to…
Buchanan, D. Unlicensed Assistive Personnel (UAPs). Retrived March 11, 2003 from Medical/Legal Consultants Web Site: http://www.medical-legal- consultants.com/newsletter/dec99.htm#3
Delegation: Concepts and Decision-Making Process. Retrieved March 11,2003 from NC Board of Nursing Web Site: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:OStnT6ClxFsC:www.ncbon.com/forms/Delegatio n%2520Process%2520and%2520Concepts%2520_final_.pdf+%22Unlicensed+Assistive
DeMoro, D. (2000 March-April) How Hospitals Created a Shortage of Nurses. Retrieved March
Healthcare Practices in Nursing Today
Over the last 50 years, health care systems all over the world have experienced rapid and significant changes. Some of these changes have been the result of innovative developments in medical science and technology that have greatly benefited patients, prolonging and saving the lives of millions. Some of these changes, however, have had the unfortunate result of limiting patient access to prescribed treatment and diminishing the overall quality of care.
Significant challenges are being faced in health care as systems restructure and reinvent themselves in a difficult and often painful effort to make more efficient use of their available resources (ICN, 2001). Since health care is such a labor-intensive industry, the stresses on these systems inexorably trickle down to affect those employed by the system. Nurses, who are the most highly trained caregivers who have ongoing, regular patient contact, stand at the very heart of…
Abramson, S. (1980). Adverse Occurrences in Intensive Care Units. Journal of the American Medical Association 244 (14): 1582-1584.
Ahmadi, M. (1989). Traditional vs. Nontraditional Work Schedules. Industrial Management 31(2), 20-23.
Bennett, M. & Hylton, J. (1990). Modular Nursing: Partners in Professional Practice. Nursing Management 21(3), 20-24.
Beauchamp, T.L. & Childress, J.F. (1994). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Staffing Shortage: Clinical Management Issue
The United Kingdom is facing a serious nursing shortage that seems destined to get much worse before it gets better (othcock, 2000). Clinical managers are finding it increasingly difficult to find qualified, experienced nurses and much interest is being given as to how to hire and retain nurses for hospital facilities.
It is important to understand why a nursing shortage exists. The nursing shortage is basically a product of supply and demand (othcock, 2000). The majority of nurses today are over the age of 30. The average practicing nurse is in his or her mid-40s. These nurses will begin to reach retirement age (65) around 2010, leading the nursing retirement wave, and half of the nurse workforce will be eligible to retire over the next two to three decades. In addition, numbers show that nursing school enrollments have been dropping. In a nutshell, this means…
McKee, Louise. (October 31, 1998). Nurse shortage threatens UK care. BMJ 1998;317:1176.
Rothcock, J. (January/February, 2000). How to Beat the OR Nursing Shortage. Outpatient Surgery Magazine.
BBC News. (September 5, 2001). 'My battle to find nurses'. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1527176.stm .
BBC News. (October 31, 2002). Half of nurses 'consider quitting'. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2375725.stm .
Human esource Standards and Staffing
The times when there was high vacancy rate in both public and private hospitals and clinics across the United State have come and gone, but the shortage of nurses is evidence. However according to 2002 report by the workforce commission of America Hospital Association, nursing shortage is reflects fundamental changes in population demographic. It shows clearly the demands of staffing in nursing professional (Mark W. Stanton, 2010). Therefore, what is staffing? And what are great challenges to staffing and requirement when doing staffing?
Staffing can be defined as the method of determining and providing the acceptable number and mix nursing personnel to produce a desired level of acre to meet the patients demand (Mike. ichard, 2009). It's purposely to provide the nursing unit with an appropriate and an acceptable number of workers in each unit to perform the nursing task as required. The unit requires…
Florence. Nightingale, (2010). International Council of Nurses
Krista Sheehan (2009) Ethical Standards of Nursing Education
Andragogy Nursing Education
North Mountain Medical is a super sniff facility as they specialized in high acuity level patient. The patient structure is respiratory, with staff trained in tracheostomy care and ventilator management. In house hemodialysis, in house physical therapy. This facility has been in operation since 2004. Patients in this facility do not self-diagnose. Patient diagnoses are from Medical doctors and Nurse Practitioners that work on site. Patient in the facility are cared for by interdisciplinary team. Certified nursing assistants that care for patient will normally report a Change in patient’s condition to the nurse. Nurse completes an assessment and report changes immediately to the doctor. In the event of an emergency patients are send to emergency room for further evaluation and treatment. Health is a right in this facility. Yes, most of the patient’s life style has impacted the health of the patient. Noncompliance with medication regimen and diet changes. Patients…
Sammie and Marissa, the issues that they are facing as far as overtime is concerned are problematic. This is because both of them have been dealing with the same challenges. Yet, at opposite ends of spectrum with: Sammie put in an extra 200 hours. This is based on the fact that she is trying to help out as much as possible. While Marissa, is being given overtime without anyone taking into consideration that the she wants to work these hours. This is creating frustrations in both employees. As Marissa, has announced that she is leaving and Sammie feels that management is not hearing her concerns. To deal with these challenges executives must create a strategy that will satisfy both parties. This will be accomplished by looking at: the way the problem can be resolved and how the law can be applied to handle this situation. Once this occurs, it will…
ESA Final Rule. (2011). DOL. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/fairpay/regulations_final.htm
Fair Pay Fact Sheets by Occupation. (2011). DOL. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/fairpay/fact_occupation.htm
McWhinney, W. (1997). Creating Paths of Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
"Wal-Mart: But we do give them a 10% employee discount" reveals a highly quantitative standpoint, by pointing out the facts behind Wal-Mart's management of its human resource. The editor places an increased emphasis on revealing years, amounts, facts and figures and all these are intended to provide a clear image to the reader. Additionally, they are intended to preserve the objectivity of the authors in presenting the situation at the company.
Aside from the vast integration of facts and quantitative data, the author nevertheless presents the details of Wal-Mart's numerous ethical issues. For instance, the company asks the employees to work longer hours, which are unpaid; the employees will often be given tasks to complete right before the end of the shift, and will have to complete the job during unpaid overtime.
Then, the company is also blamed for discriminating against its employees. The more relevant examples in…
Case study: Wal-Mart: But we do give them a 10% employee discount
In Thompson's version of a bureaupathology, the actions of individuals do not advance society or themselves, but rather the goals and objectives of the bureaucracy itself, which may not even benefit society as a whole. Individual members become subordinates to authority positions that often find themselves overly arrogant, and potentially even corrupt because of the lack of accountability other members of the bureaucracy hold them to.
There are a number of examples which O'Hara gives of failed strategies that clearly resemble Thompson's idea of a bureaupathology. First, in the prologue, O'Hara discusses Hoover's FBI and how it failed to adhere to the very laws it was supposed to protect with arrogance and exaggerated sense of power leading Hoover to take on personal vendettas, secretly spy on American citizens, and negatively influence the process of American politics. Moreover, O'Hara provides another example of the Philadelphia Police Department and its correlation to…
Passion Home Health is a provider of home health care services in Camarillo, CA. The company`s challenge typically revolves around a shortage of care workers given the number of clients. There are two sides to this issue - one is the demand side. That challenge can be addressed in a different ways, but ultimately the goal of management is to have as many clients as possible for the capacity that it has. Thus for this task, the challenge will be on the supply side, for labor. It will be assumed that there will be sufficient demand for whatever the optimal labor configuration is going to be.
Care givers come in a number of different varieties, with different degrees of training. They typically visit the home site of the client. They perform a variety of duties for the client, including sometimes daily chores, for other care givers more of physiotherapy,…
com). Finally, healthcare providers may specifically resist the idea of striking, because of the potential to compromise the care of the individuals in their charge.
If the company elects to resist unionization, what steps should the company follow?
Management should be aware of what they can and cannot do in thwarting union membership. For example, threatening employees with loss of jobs or benefits if they join or vote for a union or engage in protected concerted activity is prohibited by federal law. Managers cannot question employees about their union sympathies or activities. Particularly important is to remember that managers cannot directly promise benefits to employees to discourage their union support. Instead, to resist unionization, the company must recognize legitimate employee grievances, and create a dialogue between representatives of the staff to provide employees with a more attractive employment package, ideally one that matches those negotiated by the unions in other…
The National Labor Relations Board and You." (2008). NLRB. Retrieved 9 Jan 2008 at http://www.nlrb.gov/nlrb/shared_files/brochures/engulp.pdf
Union Pros and Cons." (2007). About.com. Labor Issues. Retrieved 9 Jan 2008 at http://labor.about.com/od/unions/a/unionization_2.htm?p=1
Many advocates of the move feel that lower patient to nurse ratio would lead to additional savings because it would reduce nurse turnover rate, lawsuits, complications and length of stay. Nursing unions in the state of California have asked for a PTN ratio of 3 to 1. The health association however agreed on 5 to 1 which sound more reasonable than the originally proposed 10 to 1. (othberg, 2005)
Patient to nurse ratio when it is too high can definitely adversely affect care. And with baby boomers aging and needing healthcare, we know that number of people looking for healthcare will continue to rise in the coming years. However staff shortage continues to pose a serious problem. And unfortunately, the problem doesn't always lie with cost control. While it is true that most of the problems with staff shortage can be attributed to hospitals cutting down their costs and hence…
Michael Rothberg, 2005. Improving Nurse-to-Patient Staffing Ratios as a Cost-Effective Safety Intervention Med Care 2007;45: 571-578)
Patricia W. Stone, PhD,* Cathy Mooney-Kane,
Nurse Working Conditions and Patient Safety Outcomes.
Any company that is a leader in an industry knows that what they sell had better be both quality and innovative in order to compete within their designated industry. iordan Manufacturing is no different. iordan has long been a company that offers both quality and innovative products in the plastic molding and parts industry. It also has a strong internal structure that works harmoniously with the objectives of the company. Despite iordan's position as a leader in their industry, the company does face some internal challenges, which work against their company objectives. This paper will look at these areas that require improvement, including finance and accounting, training budget, shipping and receiving, human resources, and the new pyramid bottle cap design for The Taylor Group. The paper will utilize the Issue, ule, Analysis and Conclusion (IAC) method in each distinct area.
Finance and Accounting
Issue: One of the chief…
Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility: Technologies: RFID / What is RFID?.
Retrieved on 19 April 2011:
Evidenced-Based Practice in Canadian Policing and Crime Prevention
The objective of this work in writing is to examine evidence-based policing and crime prevention practice in Canada and to report on the same. ccording to the Public Safety Canada document entitled "evidence-based Crime Prevention: Scientific Basis, Trends, Results and Implications" policy on crime prevention and practice "should be based on solid scientific knowledge and evidence. Even though support for and recognition of evidence-based crime prevention (EBCP) is growing, much work still remains to put this knowledge into practice. " (Welsh, 2007, p.1) The report states that the evidence-based approach is such that "…typically refers to programs and practices that are proven to be effective through sound research methodology and have produced consistently positive patterns of results." (Welsh, 2007, p.1) EBCP is reported to ensure that "the best available evidence is considered in the decision to develop and implement a program or…
A program is stated to be "in contrast, focused on an effort to change, restrict or crate a routine practice in a crime prevention setting." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002) Programs are stated to overtime change into practices with the original introduction of the program upon which these practices are based long forgotten. Stated to be that which makes the "clearest distinction between programs and practices" are those, which require governmental funding as new programs are required to undergo scientific evaluations in the form of those seeking evidence upon which to base crime prevention programs. There is a trend reported toward 'demanding accountability for public expenditures." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002)
Summary and Conclusion
No longer does the flavor of the month in crime prevention efforts and initiatives work to allay the fears of citizens and law enforcement professionals in addressing crime because crime is an ever growing and evolving phenomena in society. Law enforcement has matured in the United States and due to the heavy workload of law enforcement professionals the methods chosen for prevention of crime must necessarily be effective or 'evidence-based' methods. Canada has implemented evidence-based programs for crime prevention and policing control and it has been clearly demonstrated in this study that evidenced-base practices and programs are those based on scientific research study findings rather than pop theory. The evidence-based programs are those with efficacy in terms of success. The importance of evidence-based programs is within the effectiveness of the programs on the receiving end of government funding. The public and those in positions of accountability have demanded that evidence-based practices be used in today's law enforcement initiative because these programs are effective and cost-efficient through successful reduction of crime. This work has reviewed some of the programs and initiatives used that are evidence-based including school-based programs that are evidence-based as well as family- and community-based programs and place-focused programs.
Forbes Magazine entitled, "In the Pill Box" discusses Walgreen's Drugstore and the challenge that it faces from Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBM). The article begins by informing the reader of the astronomical growth of the Walgreen's company. The author explains that the company's stock has risen by 3,000% in the past 20 years and that the store plans to have over 7,000 stores by 2010. (Lambert) The article also asserts that the same-store sales increased by 9% in fiscal 2003. (Lambert)
The author contends that although the company is extremely success, there is a threat on the horizon. This threat comes in the form of Pharmacy Benefit Managers who show health organizations and employers how to make prescriptions drugs more cost effective. The article explains that PBM's often encourage these organizations to persuade patients to get long-term prescriptions through the mail instead of going to a pharmacy. Mail order pharmaceuticals are…
At the other end of the debate there are consumers who like to order their prescriptions through the mail. Some consumers do this even if it is not mandated by their insurance providers. In many cases consumers just find it more convenient to order prescriptions through the mail. In any case, the PBM's and the drugstores will continue to quarrel over which method is less expensive.
In my own opinion, it seems that Walgreen's should not have the right or ability to blacklist customers because of the decisions that are made by their healthcare providers. In many cases people are in dire need of receiving their medication and may not have time to ride around to different pharmacies just to get a prescription fulfilled. It is apparent to me that all Walgreen's is concerned with is its bottom line and they are willing to sacrifice the health of customers just to prove a point to PBM's. The fact of the matter is that consumers have a right to purchase prescriptions in any way that they see fit. Some people prefer going to a traditional pharmacists, while other prefer for the prescriptions to be brought to their homes. Walgreen's has to be careful not to ignore the needs and desires of consumers in the quest for greater profits.
Lambert, Emily. 2004. "In The Pill Box." Forbes Magazine
Dunlop's Web ules
The topic of industrial relations has been considerably important for both the employers as well as the employees. The topic is generally discussed in terms of relationship between both employer and the employees and moderating factors that govern outcomes of this relationship. John Dunlop was an eminent British economist who published his famous book called 'Industrial elation System' in 1958. In this book, Dunlop presented the theory called systems theory of industrial relations. Briefly, Dunlop's systems theory observed that industrial relation/s is a system composed of four main elements. Thus, industrial relation system is composed of certain actors, ideology that bonds the industrial system, contexts of the relationships, and certain rules that govern and moderate the relationship of governance of these actors. This also implied that an industrial relation system can be having distinct subsystem from economic or societal system in which the employer operates. Thus, four…
Australian Government. (2010). Overview: Fair Work Act 2009. Australian Government: Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations. Accessed 3 Sep 2013, < http://www.rcsa.com.au/documents/Fair_Work/DM2-552754%20-%20Final%20-%20Overview%20of%20the%20FW%20Act%20module.pdf >
Bisom-Rapp, S 2009. 'What We Learn in Troubled Times: Deregulation and Safe Work in the New Economy'. Wayne L. Rev., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1197-1250.
Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations. 2013. 'Fair Work Fact Sheets'. Australian Government. Accessed 3 Sep 2013,
Dunlop, JT 1984. Dispute resolution: Negotiation and consensus building'. Greenwood Publishing Group.
List and explain the five different stakeholders of a company's compensation system
Both federal and state governments have their own regulations, laws and directives that have an influence on compensation schedules. For instance, the federal government has set minimum wage levels and also has legislation on payroll issues. The federal government also has a lot of influence on economic matters. Governments also draft policies that can help them to increase the ease of doing business. While many governments have free-market and non-interference policies, they also have set rules and regulations, with regards to the treatment of workers, occupational safety, social security contributions and hiring practices (Fred-Adegbulugbe, 2010).
Executives / Managers/Owners or Founders
Company executives and managers ought to actively know the link between their employees and their performance, and reward and budget management. The main objective of compensation systems is to enhance employee productivity so as to…
Fred-Adegbulugbe, C. (2010). Minimum wage: Law to compel payment by states, firms underway. Punch Newspaper (July 12):1.
Lazear, E. (2000). Performance Pay and Productivity. American Economic Review. 90(5). pp. 1346-1361.
Markel, K. S. (2010). Discretionary Employee Benefits, Society for Human Resource Management.
Martocchio, J. J. (2008). Employee benefits: A primer for human resource professionals, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Employment Law in Vietnam
Summary of Minimum Statutory Entitlements
Form of Contract
Data Privacy Legislation
The Mandatory Social Security Fund
Summary of Visa Requirements www.mayerbrownjsm.com
This booklet provides general advice only and should not be treated as a substitute for legal advice. While care has been taken to ensure that details are correct, no responsibility can be taken for losses arising from the reliance upon its contents. Should you have any speci? c questions please contact Dao Nguyen on +84 8 822-8860 or email at dao.- -- .
© 2008. Mayer Brown LLP, Mayer Brown International LLP, and/or JSM.
Mayer Brown is a global legal services organisation comprising
legal practices that are separate entities ("Mayer Brown Practices").
The Mayer Brown Practices are: Mayer Brown LLP, a limited liability partnership established in the United States; Mayer Brown International
LLP, a limited liability…
Managing People -- Wal-Mart
Summary of the Company and Facts
Wal-Mart is among many multi-national retail businesses that are well-known. It runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouses all over the world though it's an American multinational retailer corporation. It is also the biggest private employer in the world, to employ such a big number of workers can be very challenging and hence the employee relationship with the management requires thorough evaluation. With corporations such as Wal-Mart always chasing to grow higher and getting better returns come with the temptations to go really wrong in many ways. Wal-Mart does a lot right; it has expanded its productivity by being more efficient and leaner when compared to many companies. Shoppers accrue a lot of benefits from the expansion of Wal-Mart. Like all this retail businesses the employees in Wal-Mart are given low wages, they work on part-time conditions…
Ludensky, A. (2008).Wal-mart's Labor problem. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://campusprogress.org/articles/wal-marts_labor_problem
Cherry, K. (2009).Hierarchy of needs. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Unlimited marketing. (2012). Walmart Workers For Change.Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://www.walmartworkersforchange.org/2012/08/walmart-works-to-empower-women/
DE-DE Group LLC (2012). Wal-Mart Workers on Strike. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from https://www.thunderclap.it/projects/653-walmart-workers-on-strike
The first consideration is that employees may be reluctant to reveal their innermost feelings about the company for fear that they will be punished for their responses. For this reason, it is imperative that employees are assured of absolute anonymity. This will also encourage honest answers and be the most likely to result in discovering the root causes of the problem. Employees will be able to respond anonymously by dropping their folded responses into a box by human resources.
Those that feel good about their job may be more eager to respond to a survey than those that are unhappy. A voluntary response would be more likely to result in a biased sample population. It is important that the sample is representative of the entire plant, rather than a small, select group. Therefore, employees will be told that the survey is mandatory. Although, there will be no real way to…
Gibson, S. (2004). Social Learning (Cognitive) Theory and Implications for Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 6 (2): 193-210.
Manta Company Intelligence.(2008)Cardington Yutaka Technologies, Inc. (CYT). Retrieved May 28, 2008 at http://www.manta.com/comsite5/bin/manta_tt_page.pl?page=uecp_help_sidebar&mf=coms2/dnbcompany_cc305sq
Zimmerman, M. (2007). Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic value. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 28, 2008 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/value-intrinsic-extrinsic
Strategy & Decision Making
Wal-Mart has become a global corporation. The company's primary vision focuses on a more global presence and promotion of the organization's ethical culture across global stakeholders. The company's concept of a vision statement focusing on a culture of ethics is vital in globalization. The company has embraced diversity and culture in their global operations thus leading to a competitive advantage and good reputation. By promoting a culture of ethics, Sam Walton has assisted stakeholders and customers to make informed decisions thus doing the right thing (Griffin, 2012).
Wal-Mart's mission statement focuses on quality customer service, striving for excellence and respect for individuals. Therefore, based on their core beliefs and values, the mission of the company emphasizes on the provision of daily low prices and exceptional services to customers. The company has managed to uphold their business for long because the top executives and managers work…
Griffin, R.W. (2012). Fundamentals of management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2009). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western
Husted, B., & Allen, D.B. (2011). Corporate social strategy: Stakeholder engagement and competitive advantage. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
" (Allen 2008) This means that nursing educators are also a key stakeholder.
Other stakeholders include healthcare facility administrators, corporate trustees and public office holders, who will often have entangled or competing interests relating to the profitability of operations and the political expediency of policy orientation. This will also be true of the various professional advocacy groups, nursing associations and lobby groups that will vie for influence in the discussion on any legislation relating to the nursing shortage.
A primary policy objective is to endorse any legislation that would aggressively enforce better recruitment of nursing students, better training of existing nurses, improvements in working conditions for nurses and mandated nurse-to-patient ratios. These objectives are underscored by evidence of the opportunities to save lives facilitated by mandated ratios. According to the text by Health Services Research (HSR) (2010), "key findings of the study reportedly include that 10-13% 'fewer surgical…
Allan, L. (2008). The nursing shortage continues as faculty shortage grows. Nursing Economics, 26(1), 35-40.
Berkowitz, B. (2012). The Policy Process. .
Cullen, E.; Ranji, U. & Salganicoff, A. (2010). Addressing the Nursing Shortage. Kaiseredu.org.
GovTrack. (2010). S. 1031: National Nursing Shortage Reform and Patient Advocacy Act. govTrack.us.
Leadership and Management
In the medical field, the recent topic of debate relates to Nurse Staffing atios where many argue that governments need to intervene in setting minimum staffing laws. Currently, the only state that has enacted a law is California and nurse unions in other states are fighting for the implementation of the same in their workplaces. However, most of the attempts made by other states to implement California's strategy have failed since hospitals fail to participate (Schultz, 2013). The argument of many hospitals is that the laws do not give them the opportunity or ability to make decisions regarding staffing and at the same time be a financial burden (Schultz, 2013, par. 3). As seen from many nursing unions, hospitals have abused the system to the point of employing few nurses and yet the patients are ever increasing. Inappropriate staffing ratios influence the safety of patients, the satisfaction…
Aiken L., Clarke S., Sloane D., Sochalski J., Silber, J. (2002). Hospital Nurse Staffing and Patient Mortality, Nurse Burnout, and Job Dissatisfaction. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288: 1987-1993.
AONE. Mandated staffing ratios. Retrieved from http://www.aone.org/resources/leadership%20tools/staffingratios.shtml
Curtis, E., Vries, J. & Sheerin, F. (2011). Developing Leadership in Nursing: Exploring Core factors. British Journal of Nursing, 20(5): 306-309.
Hughes, R., Ginnett, R. & Curphy, G. (2006). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of Experience, (5th Eds.). McGraw-Hill, Boston.
The United States would be better off shifting its labor policies and practices towards those extant in Europe. Some practices that would seem to decrease worker output may in the long run lead to increased productivity. For example, longer vacation times, mandatory paid vacation time, restrictions on overtime, and shorter work weeks would reduce burnout and stress significantly. Similarly, labor laws should empower workers to a greater degree to offer more job satisfaction. orkers who are secure in their jobs are more likely to view their careers as long-term investments in their personal success and performance and are therefore more likely to perform better in the long run. America generally creates its economic and social policies for short-term gains rather than long-term objectives. The results may look good on paper but in reality, Americans suffer from a range of health and quality of life problems that are not as common…
Cette, Gilbert. "Are Productivity Levels Higher in Some European Countries than in the United States?" IDEAS. Retrieved April 16, 2009 from http://ideas.repec.org/a/sls/ipmsls/v10y20054.html
The Conference Board. "European Union Shows Productivity Gains, But U.S. Continues To Lead." Retrieved April 17, 2009 from http://www.conference-board.org/UTILITIES/pressDetail.cfm?press_ID=2560
The Economist Intelligence Unit. "The Economist Intelligence Unit's Quality of Life Index." 2005. Retrieved April 17, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.PDF
Given the recent 'credit crunch' and the difficulty in obtaining student loans at reasonable rates for many students, the effectiveness of this recruiting technique is likely to increase.
Another, corollary strategy is tuition support for nurses employed at an organization. Even if demand for nurses is high now, nurses may also be more interested in certification pay and tuition support for additional education, to give themselves added assurance of staying employed in the future and also to explore new subfields of nursing they find interesting. If an organization needs nurses in a specific subspecialty, providing tuition assistance for education to current staff rather than recruiting new staff is an option, and many increase organizational loyalty and retention.
Recruitment method 3: Provide financial incentives
ith the changing role of nurses, nurses are asked to perform more duties than ever before. This results in nurses working longer hours and taking on new…
Healthcare recruiting strategies that work - and others that don't! (14 May 2002). MedZilla. Retrieved 24 Sept 2008 at http://www.medzilla.com/press51402.html
egardless of how one defines productivity, it is clear that one cannot be productive at work if one is not at work.
Of course, not all professional development is geared at reducing the impact of work-related stressors, but the reality is that that successful professional development should help relieve stress. In fact, professional development is considered a key element of establishing a healthy nursing work environment. According to the Florida Center for Nursing, professional development is one of the twelve essential elements of a healthy work environment. (Florida Center for Nursing, 2006). Obviously, a company's human resources department determines its policies regarding continuing education, including whether a company will offer in-office opportunities for continuing education, whether a company will pay for professional development, and whether nurses will be given time off in order to pursue continuing education. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of human resources…
Allen, M., Allison, M., and Stevens, S. (2006, April). Mapping the literature of nursing education. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 94(2 Suppl), E122-E127. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from Pub Med Central database.
Bowman, M. (1986). Nursing management and education. Dover: Croom Helm.
Ellis, J.R., and Hartley, C.L. (2004). Nursing in today's world: trends, issues, and management, 8ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabre, J. (2005). Smart Nursing. New York: Sheridan Press.
Other polices that are in use in organizations include five day work week, flextime, family leave, and employee assistance programs and turn over intention. The policies include the government-mandated Family and Medical Leave Act which stipulates that an employee is provided with 12 weeks of unpaid leave of absence for family or personal needs, and discretionary policies offered by the organization voluntarily.
Family leave policies allow employees to be away from their workplace for a varying period of time because of family responsibilities. However some specific polices for time away from work for maternity, paternity or adoptions are at the discretion of the employer in different organization. Family leave policies differ between organizations or employers. Female employees are however entitled to have a minimum of 10-week maternity leave in case of pregnancy.
1.2.2. hat are the aims and objectives of the policies?
The need for family friendly policies is to…
Alicia A. & Bryanne L. 2002, Family-Friendly Policies and Organizational Justice, The Pennsylvania State University
Community Business, 2004, Family Friendly Policies in Banking Industry and Turn over Intentions, Stylus Publishers, Hong Kong
Glover, S.L. & Crooker, K.J., 2006, Who Appreciates Family-Responsive Human Resource Policies: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies on The Organizational Attachment of Parents and Non-Parents. Personnel Psychology, vol48, Issue 2, DOI: 10.111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01757.x
Glover & Crooker, 2006; Working Life, Diversity and Intersectionality: A Critical Review and Research Agenda, London
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
Letter Against Unionization
Dear Mr. Hines
Thank you for our recent discussion regarding the American Professionals Union's attempt to organize our nursing staff. The nurses have made their many grievances known and I have listened intently to their rationale about unionizing. With the widespread shortage of nurses, many hospitals have given way to unionization. This is not a new trend. It is a popular way for nurses to resolve challenges and negotiate salaries. The American Nurses Association first endorsed collective bargaining in the later 19040s and at the time, viewed it as the road to improving both wages and working conditions (Carrell & Heavrin, 2007). Today, nurses' attention has shifted from wages, benefits, and work conditions, to also include patient issues. ecent strikes in California, Minnesota and Pennsylvania have focused on nurse to patient ratios in particular, after extensive research revealed a direct correlation between minimum nurse to patient ratios…
Carrell, M.R., & Heavrin, C. (2007). Labor relations and collective bargaining: Cases, practice, and law (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Harrison, M. (2012). Nurses Need the Right to Strike to Protect Patients. Nursing Standard, 26(34), 33.
Gillen, S. (2012). Under deconstruction -- employers chip away at Agenda for Change. Nursing Standard, 26(34), 12-13.
Sherwood, C. (2012) Untruths. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://www.stopunions.com .
Develop a financial strategy for using global nursing strategies to increase fiscal responsibility. Include the positive and negative financial impact of bringing foreign healthcare providers into a financial organization. Examples such as physicians, nurses, and therapist should be evaluated and assessed for financial viability.
Healthcare institutions may be faced with fiscal constraints at some point in their growth process therefore necessitating austerity measures and sound business practices that will help minimize costs and enhance operational and financial efficiency inside the hospitals (Dong, 2015). Many questions arise as to how the financial management culture in healthcare institutions can influence care quality. This research paper attempts to identify the global nursing strategies that would increase financial responsibility in healthcare institutions as well as the financial impact that hiring foreign healthcare providers into the financial organization has.
According to Dong (2015) there is a significant statistical relationship between the financial performance of a…
corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…
Christianson, S. (n.d.). Prisons: history. Retrieved online: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1786/Prisons-History.html
"History of American Corrections," (n.d.). In Corrections: A Text/Reader. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26034_1.pdf
"History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," (n.d). Retrieved online: http://www.preceden.com/timelines/23091-history-and-development-of-corrections-1700-present
Mackenzie, D.L. (2001). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
In a controlled market, the monopoly company will be capable of running the business without paying any attention to the affected parties (customers, employees, suppliers). Americans themselves have initiated a movement against the colossal power of Wal-Mart, suggesting that it should change its business conduct. "The truth is that Wal-Mart has let America down by lowering wages, forcing good paying American jobs overseas, and cutting costs with total disregard for the values that have made this nation great. Wal-Mart has needlessly exploited illegal immigrants, faces the largest gender discrimination lawsuit in history, forced workers to work in an unsafe environment, and -- incredibly -- broken child labor laws. America's largest employer must reflect America's values. ut, Wal-Mart will never change on its own. Lee Scott, Wal-Mart's CEO, mistakenly thinks he only answers to a few wealthy shareholders who own Wal-Mart stock. Lee Scott is wrong. Wal-Mart and Lee Scott must…
International Operations," Wal-Mart website, 14th Nov 2006, http://walmartstores.com/GlobalWMStoresWeb/navigate.do?catg=369
Mander, Kai and Boston, Alex. "Wal-Mart Worldwide, The Making of a Global Retailer," The Ecologist vol.25, no.6, Nov/Dec 1995
Fishman, Charles. "The Wal-Mart You Don't Know," Fast Company website, Dec 2003, 14th Nov 2006, http://www.fastcompany.com/online/77/walmart.html
Why Wal-Mart Must Change," Wake-Up Wal-Mart website, http://www.wakeupwalmart.com/change/
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
As a general rule, "sufficient work needs to be done to enable a cost estimate to be prepared that is accurate to within -30 to +50%. Similarly sufficient work needs to be done to establish the benefits of the system to enough accuracy to convince management to give approval to proceed to the next phase."(Tek Soft, 1997)
It is important at this stage to firmly identify the benefits of the system, and to develop benefit realization plans. A time table must be established, and a budget that must be adhered to. These elements must be written down and communicated to management. These plans should also identify exactly how the proposed benefits will be realized, for example, what changes will be made to existing processes in currently existing systems to achieve the intended benefits. Ideally, this will give management confidence that the investment is going to be worthwhile.
Usually, considerable face-to-face…
The Concept Phase." (2005) Government: Business. Retrieved 19 Jan 2005. http://oit.mo.gov/business%20solutions/Word%202000/2Initiating.DOC
Concept"(2005) Kansas State Business School Website. Retrieved 19 Jan 2005. http://da.state.ks.us/kito/Rel23/1overvie.doc
Tek Soft (9 Mar 1997) "Project Management Plans." Retrieved 19 Jan 2005. http://members.iinet.net.au/~ianw/pmp.html
What is project management methodology?" (2005) PM Optimized. Retrieved 19 Jan 2005. http://www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/IT/PMM/OPTIMIZED/PM1.2%20Overview%20Concept.pdf
Toyota Beginning and Emergence
The Market for the Company
The Major Partners and Suppliers
Toyota Supply Chain
Dedicated Transport Service
The Green Supply Chain
Freight Flow of Toyota
The Transport Improvement Plan
Dedicated Transport Service
Integration of services
Division of Duties at the Plant Level for Better Accountability
Mapping logistics flows
The Future of the Transport Improvement Plan
Production by region
Sales by region
Toyota is the biggest single producer and the second biggest producer of cars in the world, after General Motors.
The Toyota Motor Corporation was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda. It is headquartered in Toyota city in Japan with regional offices and factories all around the globe. The company primarily manufactures automobiles but also has business interests in robotics, financial services and biotechnology. It employs a huge number of people and is among the top…
Antony, J., Caine, P., & Escamilla, J. (2003). Lean Sigma [production and supply chain management]. Manufacturing Engineer, 82(2), 40-42. doi:10.1049/me:20030203
Automotivelogisticsmagazine.com,. (2015). Automotive Logistics - Toyota's total supply chain vision. Retrieved 25 February 2015, from http://www.automotivelogisticsmagazine.com/interview/total-supply-chain-vision
Chambers, K. (2008). Toyota. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
DALLERY, Y., & LIBEROPOULOS, G. (2000). Extended kanban control system: combining kanban and base stock. IIE Transactions, 32(4), 369-386. doi:10.1080/07408170008963914
Public agencies concerned with safety are presently facing crises of leadership. Many experienced and skilled personnel in several communities are encouraged to flock away from their departments due to incentives for early retirement provided. Moreover, several leaders in the police departments are also fast nearing the age for retirement. Consequently, there is a looming shortfall of leaders within the department. It is estimated that from the year 2020 the bulk of those in leadership positions in the United States of America (USA) will be a cadre of generation millennial. Chief Dwayne Orrick, in an article appearing in the Police Chief Magazine, was quoted as saying that across the country, many police departments are experiencing high rates of staff turnover which leads to problems of staffing level maintenance. This requires many agencies of law enforcement to work harder to develop and maintain their cadre of future leaders. Research indicates…
Deadman, D. (2003). Developing the Potential Future Leaders of The Birmingham Fire Department. Michigan.
HR Policy and Planning Division: Public Service Secretariat. (2008). Succession Planning and Management Guide. Newfoundland and Labrador: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Michelson, R. (2006, June 6). Preparing Future Leaders for Tomorrow: Succession Planning for Police Leadership. International Association of Chiefs of Police, 73(6).
Muray, P.S. (2006). Preparing for the Future- Succession Planning for the Hudson New Hampshire Fire Department. Hudson.
Thinking Critically, Making Decisions, Solving Problems
The critical-thinking process can be used by answering 4 questions related to practical experiences. They are:
the underlying assumptions, interpretation of evidence, evaluation of arguments and the possible alternative perspectives.
LO 2: response
Creativity can be fostered by preparing, incubation, insight and verification.
LO 3: response
Decision-making and problem-solving skills can be improved by defining the problem, gathering of information, analyzing of the information, developing solutions, making a decision, implementation and evaluations of the solution.
Ref: page 11 and 112
LO 4: response
The major difference between individual and collective decision making process is the possibility of the exchange of ideas in the latter through brain storming sessions.
LO 5: response
For a leader, the stumbling blocks to making decisions and problem solving are the personality traits of the leaders, the experience, lack of adaptability and ideas…
The basic steps to ordering the tasks involved a time and project line that allows for steps to be ordered in a logical manner so that the work flows from one project to another in the least amount of time possible (efficiency). For instance, prior to constructing, one must make a list of materials needed, purchase those materials, and then logically plan the next steps. One cannot install new lighting, for instance, prior to removing old wiring and repairing electrical boxes. In the same vein, one must have power and lights in order to remove old products prior to installation of new items. The best way to create the WBS is to first make a list of human resources, financial resources, and then the desired outcome. A spreadsheet or other table can then be used to easily make a chart that can be ordered and reordered so that processes…
ethical issue concerned an otherwise reliable employee displaying signs of troublesome behavior, as well as unethical financial and personal practices. This included drunkenness, fighting during off-base time, financial indiscretion relating to workplace funds, and a number of occasions of tardiness.
The persons involved included Staff Sergeant (SSgt) Pat Jones, newly appointed at Davis Monthan Air Force Base, Tucson, Arizona, and I, Technical Sergeant Smith. Our relationship was that of supervisor and subordinate: I was SSgt Jones's supervisor, and also became a friend to him as our working relationship progressed. He impressed me with his enthusiasm and the excellence of his work ethic.
In terms of power and authority, I have a position of power relative SSgt Jones, as I am his supervisor. I therefore have considerable authority over him, as I am responsible for helping him maintain his work ethic and supervise his behavior at all times. I am also…